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Bacterial pathogenesis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046006/-skin-and-soft-tissue-infections-due-to-corynebacterium-ulcerans-case-reports
#1
Christian Jenssen, Ilona Schwede, Volker Neumann, Cristine Pietsch, Werner Handrick
History and clinical findings We report on three patients suffering from skin and soft tissue infections of the legs due to toxigenic Corynebacterium ulcerans strains. In all three patients, there was a predisposition due to chronic diseases. Three patients had domestic animals (cat, dog) in their households. Investigations and diagnosis A mixed bacterial flora including Corynebacterium ulcerans was found in wound swab samples. Diphtheric toxin was produced by the Corynebacterium ulcerans strains in all three cases...
October 2017: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045498/novel-drug-targets-in-cell-wall-biosynthesis-exploited-by-gene-disruption-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#2
Ayssar A Elamin, Susanne Steinicke, Wulf Oehlmann, Yvonne Braun, Hanaa Wanas, Eduard A Shuralev, Carmen Huck, Marko Maringer, Manfred Rohde, Mahavir Singh
For clinicians, Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a nightmare pathogen that is one of the top three causes of opportunistic human infections. Therapy of P. aeruginosa infections is complicated due to its natural high intrinsic resistance to antibiotics. Active efflux and decreased uptake of drugs due to cell wall/membrane permeability appear to be important issues in the acquired antibiotic tolerance mechanisms. Bacterial cell wall biosynthesis enzymes have been shown to be essential for pathogenicity of Gram-negative bacteria...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044211/identification-of-novel-mazef-pemik-family-toxin-antitoxin-loci-and-their-distribution-in-the-staphylococcus-genus
#3
Michal Bukowski, Karolina Hyz, Monika Janczak, Marcin Hydzik, Grzegorz Dubin, Benedykt Wladyka
The versatile roles of toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems in bacterial physiology and pathogenesis have been investigated for more than three decades. Diverse TA loci in Bacteria and Archaea have been identified in genome-wide studies. The advent of massive parallel sequencing has substantially expanded the number of known bacterial genomic sequences over the last 5 years. In staphylococci, this has translated into an impressive increase from a few tens to a several thousands of available genomes, which has allowed us for the re-evalution of prior conclusions...
October 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044082/rickettsial-retinitis-direct-bacterial-infection-or-an-immune-mediated-response
#4
Rohan Chawla, Gadkar Amit Pundlik, Rama Chaudhry, Chandan Thakur
Infectious retinitis postfebrile illness is known to be caused by chikungunya, dengue, West Nile virus, Bartonella, Lyme's disease, Rift Valley fever, rickettsia, Herpes viruses etc. Rickettsia is Gram-negative bacteria transmitted by arthropods vectors. Ocular involvement is common including conjunctivitis, keratitis, anterior uveitis, panuveitis, retinitis, retinal vascular changes, and optic nerve involvement. Retinitis lesions in rickettsia can occur because of an immunological response to the bacteria or because of direct invasion and proliferation of bacteria in the inner retina...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043347/zinc-ing-it-out-zinc-homeostasis-mechanisms-and-their-impact-on-the-pathogenesis-of-human-pathogen-group-a-streptococcus
#5
REVIEW
Nishanth Makthal, Muthiah Kumaraswami
Group A Streptococccus (GAS) is a major human pathogen that causes significant morbidity and mortality. Zinc is an essential trace element required for GAS growth, however, zinc can be toxic at excess concentrations. The bacterial strategies to maintain zinc sufficiency without incurring zinc toxicity play a crucial role in host-GAS interactions and have a significant impact on GAS pathogenesis. The host deploys nutritional immune mechanisms to retard GAS growth by causing either zinc deprivation or zinc poisoning...
October 18, 2017: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042497/a-single-dual-function-enzyme-controls-the-production-of-inflammatory-nod-agonist-peptidoglycan-fragments-by-neisseria-gonorrhoeae
#6
Jonathan D Lenz, Kathleen T Hackett, Joseph P Dillard
Neisseria gonorrhoeae gonococcus (GC) is a Gram-negative betaproteobacterium and causative agent of the sexually transmitted infection gonorrhea. During growth, GC releases lipooligosaccharide (LOS) and peptidoglycan (PG) fragments, which contribute significantly to the inflammatory damage observed during human infection. In ascending infection of human Fallopian tubes, inflammation leads to increased risk of ectopic pregnancy, pelvic inflammatory disease, and sterility. Of the PG fragments released by GC, most are disaccharide peptide monomers, and of those, 80% have tripeptide stems despite the observation that tetrapeptide stems make up 80% of the assembled cell wall...
October 17, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042304/xanthine-oxidase-activity-affects-pro-oxidative-and-pro-inflammatory-profiles-in-spleen-of-silver-catfish-experimentally-infected-with-aeromonas-caviae
#7
Carine F Souza, Camila Marina Verdi, Matheus D Baldissera, Pedro Henrique Doleski, Bruno S Vizzotto, Roberto C V Santos, Bernardo Baldisserotto
Several pieces of evidence have linked the involvement of xanthine oxidase (XO), a source of uric acid and reactive oxygen species (ROS), to pro-oxidative and pro-inflammatory effects observed during bacterial fish diseases. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate whether upregulation of splenic XO activity contributes to disease pathogenesis of Aeromonas caviae infection, as well as whether it may be considered a pathway involved in ROS and nitric oxide (NO) production. XO activity increased in the spleen of infected animals, as did the splenic levels of uric acid, ROS and metabolites of nitric oxide (NOx), compared to the uninfected control group...
October 14, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042016/bacteria-causing-pyometra-in-bitch-and-queen-induce-neutrophil-extracellular-traps
#8
M R Rebordão, G Alexandre-Pires, M Carreira, L Adriano, C Carneiro, T Nunes, L Mateus, G Ferreira-Dias
Neutrophils are capable of releasing their DNA in response to infectious agents to form neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) to destroy pathogens. Even though pyometra in queens and bitches is a common disease, its pathogenesis is not fully understood. The aim of this study was to assess the presence of NETs in the endometrium of queens and bitches suffering from pyometra. Pyometra and normal uteri were obtained after ovariohysterectomy from adult queens and bitches in diestrus. Uterine contents were evaluated for bacterial isolation and identification and for NETs presence...
October 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040213/importance-of-the-complement-alternative-pathway-in-serum-chemotactic-activity-during-sepsis
#9
Ganqiong Xu, Yan Feng, Dan Li, Qichang Zhou, Wei Chao, Lin Zou
Serum chemotactic activity is important in regulating neutrophil migration. The ability of neutrophils to migrate to infectious site is crucial for host effective pathogen control, but unregulated neutrophil activation can also cause tissue damage. During bacterial sepsis, the complement alternative pathway (AP) is massively activated in blood and tissues and reportedly contributes to sepsis pathogenesis. Complement factor B (FB) is an essential component of the AP activation. However, the impact of FB/AP activation on blood chemotactic activity during bacterial infection is unclear...
October 16, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038256/thiol-starvation-induces-redox-mediated-dysregulation-of-escherichia-coli-biofilm-components
#10
David A Hufnagel, Janet E Price, Rachel E Stephenson, Jesse Kelley, Matthew F Benoit, Matthew R Chapman
A hallmark of bacterial biofilms is the production of an extracellular matrix (ECM) that encases and protects the community from environmental stressors. Biofilm formation is an integral portion of the uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) lifecycle. Approximately 2% of UPEC are cysteine auxotrophs. Here, we investigated how cysteine homeostasis impacted UPEC UTI89 strain biofilm formation and, specifically, the production of the ECM components curli and cellulose. Cysteine auxotrophs produced less cellulose and slightly more curli compared to wildtype (WT) strains, and cysteine auxotrophs formed smooth, non-rugose colonies...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038125/modulators-of-enterococcus-faecalis-cell-envelope-integrity-and-antimicrobial-resistance-influence-stable-colonization-of-the-mammalian-gastrointestinal-tract
#11
Ismael L Banla, Sushma Kommineni, Michael Hayward, Marinelle Rodrigues, Kelli L Palmer, Nita H Salzman, Christopher J Kristich
The Gram-positive bacterium Enterococcus faecalis is both a colonizer of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and an agent of serious nosocomial infections. Although typically required for pathogenesis, GIT colonization by E. faecalis is poorly understood. E. faecalis tolerates high concentrations of GIT antimicrobials like cholate and lysozyme, leading us to hypothesize that resistance to intestinal antimicrobials is essential for long-term GIT colonization. Analyses of E. faecalis mutants exhibiting defects in antimicrobial resistance revealed that IreK, a determinant of envelope integrity and antimicrobial resistance, is required for long-term GIT colonization...
October 16, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038053/flagellar-motility-extracellular-proteases-and-vibrio-cholerae-detachment-from-abiotic-and-biotic-surfaces
#12
Loree Mewborn, Jorge A Benitez, Anisia J Silva
Vibrio cholerae of serogroups O1 and O139, the causative agent of Asiatic cholera, continues to be a major global health threat. This pathogen utilizes substratum-specific pili to attach to distinct surfaces in the aquatic environment and the human small intestine and detaches when conditions become unfavorable. Both attachment and detachment are critical to bacterial environmental survival, pathogenesis and disease transmission. However, the factors that promote detachment are less understood. In this study, we examine the role of flagellar motility and hemagglutinin/protease (HapA) in vibrio detachment from a non-degradable abiotic surface and from the suckling mouse intestine...
October 13, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038052/serine-threonine-protein-kinase-ppka-contributes-to-the-adaptation-and-virulence-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#13
Jianyi Pan, Zhenzhong Zha, Pengfei Zhang, Ran Chen, Chen Ye, Ting Ye
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a leading cause of nosocomial infections worldwide and has become a serious public health threat, which is attributed to a large extent to its extraordinary environmental adaptability and diverse virulence factors that result in infection and progression of pathogenesis. The eukaryote-type serine/threonine (Ser/Thr) protein kinases, known for playing major regulatory roles in eukaryotes, have been demonstrated to play a central role in regulating various bacterial cellular processes via catalyzing protein phosphorylation...
October 13, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038024/structural-insights-of-a-self-assembling-9-residue-peptide-from-the-c-terminal-tail-of-the-sars-corona-virus-e-protein-in-dpc-and-sds-micelles-a-combined-high-and-low-resolution-spectroscopic-study
#14
Anirban Ghosh, Dipita Bhattacharyya, Anirban Bhunia
In recent years, several studies based on the interaction of self-assembling short peptides derived from Viroporins with model membranes, have improved our understanding of the molecular mechanism of Corona virus (CoV) infection under physiological conditions. In this study, we have characterized the mechanism of membrane interaction of a short, 9-residue peptide TK9 (T(55)VYVYSRVK(63)) that had been derived from the carboxyl terminal of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) Corona virus (SARS CoV) Envelope (E) protein...
October 13, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034439/low-grade-small-intestinal-bacterial-overgrowth-is-common-in-patients-with-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-on-quantitative-jejunal-aspirate-culture
#15
Uday C Ghoshal, Chalamalasetty Sreenivasa Baba, Ujjala Ghoshal, George Alexander, Asha Misra, Vivek A Saraswat, Gourdas Choudhuri
BACKGROUND: Though pathogenesis of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is unclear, association with small intestinal bacterial overgrowth [SIBO] and fecal dysbiosis is suggested. We evaluated SIBO in NASH using quantitative jejunal aspirate culture (conventional criteria: ≥ 10(5) colony forming unit (CFU)/mL and newer cutoff ≥ 10(3) CFU/mL) and glucose hydrogen breath test. METHODS: Thirty-eight patients with NASH (age 37.5 years, range 20-54, 9, 24% female), diagnosed by ultrasonography, alanine aminotransferase >1...
October 16, 2017: Indian Journal of Gastroenterology: Official Journal of the Indian Society of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034326/bacterial-lipopolysaccharide-destabilizes-influenza-viruses
#16
Christopher Bandoro, Jonathan A Runstadler
Depending on the specific viral pathogen, commensal bacteria can promote or reduce the severity of viral infection and disease progression in their hosts. Influenza A virus (IAV) has a broad host range, comprises many subtypes, and utilizes different routes of transmission, including the fecal-oral route in wild birds. It has been previously demonstrated that commensal bacteria can interact with the host's immune system to protect against IAV pathogenesis. However, it is unclear whether bacteria and their products may be interacting directly with IAV to impact virion stability...
September 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034217/evolution-of-salmonella-host-cell-interactions-through-a-dynamic-bacterial-genome
#17
REVIEW
Bushra Ilyas, Caressa N Tsai, Brian K Coombes
Salmonella Typhimurium has a broad arsenal of genes that are tightly regulated and coordinated to facilitate adaptation to the various host environments it colonizes. The genome of Salmonella Typhimurium has undergone multiple gene acquisition events and has accrued changes in non-coding DNA that have undergone selection by regulatory evolution. Together, at least 17 horizontally acquired pathogenicity islands (SPIs), prophage-associated genes, and changes in core genome regulation contribute to the virulence program of Salmonella...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034105/changes-of-the-intestinal-microbiome-host-homeostasis-in-hiv-infected-individuals-a-focus-on-the-bacterial-gut-microbiome
#18
REVIEW
Ana Beatriz Dein Terra Mota Ribeiro, Markus M Heimesaat, Stefan Bereswill
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections cause severe CD4+ T cell depletion leading to chronic inflammation and immune activation, impaired barrier function, and microbial translocation. Even under effective antiretroviral therapy, these processes persist, leading to gut microbiome dysbiosis and disturbance of microbiome-host homeostasis. This systematic review aims at analyzing how gut microbiome and host immune system influence each other during HIV pathogenesis. An online search applying the PubMed database was conducted...
September 2017: European Journal of Microbiology & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032547/genome-wide-mutagenesis-in-borrelia-burgdorferi
#19
Tao Lin, Lihui Gao
Signature-tagged mutagenesis (STM) is a functional genomics approach to identify bacterial virulence determinants and virulence factors by simultaneously screening multiple mutants in a single host animal, and has been utilized extensively for the study of bacterial pathogenesis, host-pathogen interactions, and spirochete and tick biology. The signature-tagged transposon mutagenesis has been developed to investigate virulence determinants and pathogenesis of Borrelia burgdorferi. Mutants in genes important in virulence are identified by negative selection in which the mutants fail to colonize or disseminate in the animal host and tick vector...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032183/peroxiredoxin-1-of-macrophage-is-critical-for-mycobacterial-infection-and-is-controlled-by-early-secretory-antigenic-target-protein-through-the-activation-of-p38-mapk
#20
Shivraj M Yabaji, Alok K Mishra, Aditi Chatterjee, Rikesh K Dubey, Kanchan Srivastava, Kishore K Srivastava
Early secretory antigenic target protein (ESAT-6) is an important virulent factor which plays a crucial role in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) pathogenesis. Here, we demonstrate the role of ESAT-6 in phagocytosis and intracellular survival of mycobacteria through a mechanism mediated by regulation of a host protein; Peroxiredoxin-1 (Prdx-1). Prdx-1 is an anti-apoptotic and stress response protein which protects cells from damage by ROS and H2O2 stresses. The J774 A.1 cells infected with MTB or over-expressing ESAT-6 through eukaryotic promoter vector showed elevated expression of Prdx-1...
October 12, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
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