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Bacterial pathogenesis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456242/bacterial-pathogenesis-channelling-the-host-epigenome
#1
Andrea Du Toit
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 19, 2018: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454354/cerebrospinal-fluid-level-of-nogo-receptor-1-antagonist-lateral-olfactory-tract-usher-substance-lotus-correlates-inversely-with-the-extent-of-neuroinflammation
#2
Keita Takahashi, Hideyuki Takeuchi, Yuji Kurihara, Hiroshi Doi, Misako Kunii, Kenichi Tanaka, Haruko Nakamura, Ryoko Fukai, Atsuko Tomita-Katsumoto, Mikiko Tada, Yuichi Higashiyama, Hideto Joki, Shigeru Koyano, Kohtaro Takei, Fumiaki Tanaka
BACKGROUND: Although inflammation in the central nervous system is responsible for multiple neurological diseases, the lack of appropriate biomarkers makes it difficult to evaluate inflammatory activities in these diseases. Therefore, a new biomarker reflecting neuroinflammation is required for accurate diagnosis, appropriate therapy, and comprehension of pathogenesis of these neurological disorders. We previously reported that the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentration of lateral olfactory tract usher substance (LOTUS), which promotes axonal growth as a Nogo receptor 1 antagonist, negatively correlates with disease activity in multiple sclerosis, suggesting that variation in LOTUS reflects the inflammatory activities and is a useful biomarker to evaluate the disease activity...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453279/il-12-il-18-cosignaling-in-human-macrophages-and-lung-epithelial-cells-activates-cathelicidin-and-autophagy-inhibiting-intracellular-mycobacterial-growth
#3
Rui Yang, Enzhuo Yang, Ling Shen, Robert L Modlin, Hongbo Shen, Zheng W Chen
The ability of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to block host antimicrobial responses in infected cells provides a key mechanism for disease pathogenesis. The immune system has evolved to overcome this blockade to restrict the infection, but it is not clear whether two key innate cytokines (IL-12/IL-18) involved in host defense can enhance antimycobacterial mechanisms. In this study, we demonstrated that the combination of IL-12 and IL-18 triggered an antimicrobial response against mycobacteria in infected macrophages (THP-1 and human primary monocyte-derived macrophages) and pulmonary epithelial A549 cells...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452952/phasevarions-of-bacterial-pathogens-methylomics-sheds-new-light-on-old-enemies
#4
REVIEW
John M Atack, Aimee Tan, Lauren O Bakaletz, Michael P Jennings, Kate L Seib
A wide variety of bacterial pathogens express phase-variable DNA methyltransferases that control expression of multiple genes via epigenetic mechanisms. These randomly switching regulons - phasevarions - regulate genes involved in pathogenesis, host adaptation, and antibiotic resistance. Individual phase-variable genes can be identified in silico as they contain easily recognized features such as simple sequence repeats (SSRs) or inverted repeats (IRs) that mediate the random switching of expression. Conversely, phasevarion-controlled genes do not contain any easily identifiable features...
February 13, 2018: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452293/genetic-diversity-and-functional-analysis-of-oipa-gene-in-association-with-other-virulence-factors-among-helicobacter-pylori-isolates-from-iranian-patients-with-different-gastric-diseases
#5
Nastaran Farzi, Abbas Yadegar, Hamid Asadzadeh Aghdaei, Yoshio Yamaoka, Mohammad Reza Zali
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is one of the most genetically diverse bacterial pathogens that persistently colonizes the human gastric epithelium. This remarkable genomic plasticity may act as a driving force for successful adaptation and persistence of the bacteria in the harsh gastric environment. Outer inflammatory protein A (OipA) encoded by oipA gene (HP0638/hopH) is a member of the outer membrane proteins (OMPs) of H. pylori involved in induction of IL-8 secretion and is associated with development of peptic ulcer and gastric cancer...
February 13, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449651/beyond-streptococcus-mutans-clinical-implications-of-the-evolving-dental-caries-aetiological-paradigms-and-its-associated-microbiome
#6
N Philip, B Suneja, L Walsh
Aetiological concepts of dental caries have evolved over the years from being considered as a disease initiated by nonspecific microorganisms, to being regarded as an 'infectious' disease caused by specific bacteria, to the current paradigms that emphasise a 'mixed bacterial-ecological approach' as being responsible for lesion initiation and pathogenesis. These aetiological paradigms are not just intellectual concepts but have important implications on how clinicians manage this age-old disease in the twenty-first century...
February 16, 2018: British Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448936/chitinase-3-like-1-is-a-biomarker-of-acute-kidney-injury-and-mortality-in-paediatric-severe-malaria
#7
Andrea L Conroy, Michael T Hawkes, Robyn Elphinstone, Robert O Opoka, Sophie Namasopo, Christopher Miller, Chandy C John, Kevin C Kain
BACKGROUND: Chitinase-3-like 1 (CHI3L1) is a glycoprotein elevated in paediatric severe malaria, and an emerging urinary biomarker of acute kidney injury (AKI). Based on the hypothesis that elevated CHI3L1 levels in malaria are associated with disease severity, the relationship between plasma CHI3L1 levels, AKI and mortality was investigated in Ugandan children enrolled in a clinical trial evaluating inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) as an adjunctive therapy for severe malaria. METHODS: Plasma CHI3L1 levels were measured daily for 4 days in children admitted to hospital with severe malaria and at day 14 follow up...
February 15, 2018: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447690/autophagy-suicide-prevention-hotline-for-the-gut-epithelium
#8
Mayara Grizotte-Lake, Shipra Vaishnava
Autophagy is genetically associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD); however, its role remains unclear in disease pathogenesis. Three recent studies reveal a novel cytoprotective role of autophagy during viral, bacterial, and protozoan-triggered IBD (Burger et al., 2018; Matsuzawa-Ishimoto et al., 2017; Pott et al., 2018).
February 14, 2018: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447068/microbial-culturomics-broadens-human-vaginal-flora-diversity-genome-sequence-and-description-of-prevotella-lascolaii-sp-nov-isolated-from-a-patient-with-bacterial-vaginosis
#9
Khoudia Diop, Awa Diop, Anthony Levasseur, Oleg Mediannikov, Catherine Robert, Nicholas Armstrong, Carine Couderc, Florence Bretelle, Didier Raoult, Pierre-Edouard Fournier, Florence Fenollar
Microbial culturomics is a new subfield of postgenomic medicine and omics biotechnology application that has broadened our awareness on bacterial diversity of the human microbiome, including the human vaginal flora bacterial diversity. Using culturomics, a new obligate anaerobic Gram-stain-negative rod-shaped bacterium designated strain khD1 T was isolated in the vagina of a patient with bacterial vaginosis and characterized using taxonogenomics. The most abundant cellular fatty acids were C 15:0 anteiso (36%), C 16:0 (19%), and C 15:0 iso (10%)...
February 15, 2018: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443819/chronic-osteomyelitis-with-staphylococcus-aureus-deformation-in-submicron-canaliculi-of-osteocytes-a-case-report
#10
Karen L de Mesy Bentley, Ashlee MacDonald, Edward M Schwarz, Irvin Oh
CASE: A patient presenting with an infected diabetic foot ulcer and Staphylococcus aureus chronic osteomyelitis was studied to validate the clinical importance of bacterial colonization of osteocytic-canalicular networks, as we recently reported in a mouse model. We utilized transmission electron microscopy to describe the deformation of S. aureus, from round cocci to rod-shaped bacteria, in the submicron osteocytic-canalicular networks of amputated bone tissue. CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, this is the first evidence of S...
February 14, 2018: JBJS Case Connector
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443761/haemolytic-uremic-syndrome-due-to-infection-with-adenovirus-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#11
Victoria Birlutiu, Rares Mircea Birlutiu
RATIONALE: Haemolytic-uremic syndrome is a rare but serious complication of bacterial and viral infections, which is characterized by the triad of: acute renal failure, microangiopathic haemolytic anemia and thrombocytopenia, sometimes severe, requiring peritoneal dialysis. In Europe, hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) in paediatric pathology is primarily caused by Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157, followed by O26. Beside these etiologies, there are other bacterial and viral infections, and also noninfectious ones that have been associated to lead to HUS as well: in the progression of neoplasia, medication-related, post-transplantation, during pregnancy or associated with the antiphospholipid syndrome, systemic lupus erythematosus or family causes with autosomal dominant or recessive inheritance...
February 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441822/role-and-regulation-of-the-orphan-apha-protein-of-quorum-sensing-in-pathogenic-vibrios
#12
Renfei Lu, George Osei-Adjei, Xinxiang Huang, Yiquan Zhang
Quorum sensing (QS), a cell-to-cell communication process, is widely distributed in the bacterial kingdom. Bacteria use QS to control gene expression in response to cell density by detecting the signal molecules called autoinducers. AphA protein is the master QS regulator of vibrios operating at low cell density. It regulates the expression of a variety of genes, especially those encoding virulence factors, flagella/motility and biofilm formation. The role and regulation of AphA in vibrios, especially in human pathogenic vibrios, are summarized in this review...
February 14, 2018: Future Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441052/harnessing-the-mtor-pathway-for-tuberculosis-treatment
#13
REVIEW
Pooja Singh, Selvakumar Subbian
Tuberculosis (TB) remains as one of the leading killer infectious diseases of humans. At present, the standard therapeutic regimen to treat TB comprised of multiple antibiotics administered for a minimum of six months. Although these drugs are useful in controlling TB burden globally, they have not eliminated the disease. In addition, the lengthy duration of treatment with multiple drugs contributes to patient non-compliance that can result in the development of drug resistant strains (MDR and XDR) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the causative agent of TB...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440782/neutrophil-priming-implications-in-periodontal-disease
#14
REVIEW
Rucha Shah, Raison Thomas, Dhoom Singh Mehta
Periodontal disease is a well-regulated response to bacterial infection directed by the inflammatory cells of the host immune system. The host response to injury or insult is implicated to be a vital feature of the majority of periodontal diseases. The excessive activation of neutrophils plays a role in the pathogenesis in diseases such as acute respiratory distress syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, and periodontitis by contributing to inflammatory tissue injury. In the recent times, there has been a shift of paradigm from a hypo- to hyper-responsive/primed model of neutrophil dysfunction in periodontal etiopathogenesis...
May 2017: Journal of Indian Society of Periodontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434385/antibiotics-in-development-for-the-treatment-of-resistant-bacterial-disease
#15
Ryan Kidd, Scot Walker
Many bacterial infections can be treated with the use of antibiotics. These medications continue to reduce morbidity and mortality; unfortunately, their use has brought about drug-resistant pathogens that produce difficult-to-treat infections, which require more extreme treatments. New antibiotics are needed to combat this ever-evolving resistance pathogenesis.
February 2018: Hospital Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432367/the-possible-relationship-between-campylobacter-spp-arcobacter-spp-and-patients-with-ulcerative-colitis
#16
Mustafa Akar, Fuat Aydin, Mustafa A Yurci, Seçil Abay, İhsan Ateş, Kemal Deniz
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The role of bacterial infection in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis (UC) is under investigation. This study aims to (i) determine the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. and Arcobacter spp. in patients with UC, (ii) identify the antibiotic susceptibility of isolated agents, and (iii) investigate the role of these microorganisms in the pathogenesis and/or activation of UC. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eighty patients with UC and 40 healthy individuals were included in the study...
February 9, 2018: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430011/neisseria-gonorrhoeae-host-adaptation-and-pathogenesis
#17
REVIEW
Sarah Jane Quillin, H Steven Seifert
The host-adapted human pathogen Neisseria gonorrhoeae is the causative agent of gonorrhoea. Consistent with its proposed evolution from an ancestral commensal bacterium, N. gonorrhoeae has retained features that are common in commensals, but it has also developed unique features that are crucial to its pathogenesis. The continued worldwide incidence of gonorrhoeal infection, coupled with the rising resistance to antimicrobials and the difficulties in controlling the disease in developing countries, highlights the need to better understand the molecular basis of N...
February 12, 2018: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428557/a-complete-structural-characterization-of-the-desferrioxamine-e-biosynthetic-pathway-from-the-fire-blight-pathogen-erwinia-amylovora
#18
Marco Salomone-Stagni, Joseph D Bartho, Ivan Polsinelli, Dom Bellini, Martin A Walsh, Nicola Demitri, Stefano Benini
The Gram-negative bacterium Erwinia amylovora is the etiological agent of fire blight, a devastating disease which affects Rosaceae such as apple, pear and quince. The siderophore desferrioxamine E plays an important role in bacterial pathogenesis by scavenging iron from the host. DfoJ, DfoA and DfoC are the enzymes responsible for desferrioxamine production starting from lysine. We have determined the crystal structures of each enzyme in the desferrioxamine E pathway and demonstrate that the biosynthesis involves the concerted action of DfoJ, followed by DfoA and lastly DfoC...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427501/infections-complicating-cirrhosis
#19
REVIEW
Salvatore Piano, Alessandra Brocca, Sara Mareso, Paolo Angeli
Patients with cirrhosis have a high risk of bacterial infections. Bacterial infections induce systemic inflammation that may lead to organ failure and acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) resulting in a high risk of short term mortality. The early diagnosis and treatment of bacterial infections is essential to improve the patient's prognosis. However, in recent years, the spread of multidrug resistant (MDR) bacterial infections has reduced the efficacy of commonly used antibiotics such as third generation cephalosporins...
February 2018: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424663/a-large-scale-mutational-analysis-of-two-component-signaling-systems-of-lonsdalea-quercina-revealed-that-kdpd-kdpe-regulates-bacterial-virulence-against-host-poplar-trees
#20
Ruo-Lan Yang, Chao-Ying Deng, Jin-Wei Wei, Wei He, Ai-Ning Li, Wei Qian
Poplar, which is a dominant species in plant communities distributed in the northern hemisphere, is commonly used as a model plant in forestry studies. Poplar production can be inhibited by infections caused by bacteria, including Lonsdalea quercina subsp. populi, which is a Gram-negative bacterium responsible for bark canker disease. However, the molecular basis of the pathogenesis remains uncharacterized. In this study, we annotated the two-component signal transduction systems (TCSs) encoded by the L. quercina subsp...
February 9, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
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