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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108847/airway-mucus-inflammation-and-remodeling-emerging-links-in-the-pathogenesis-of-chronic-lung-diseases
#1
REVIEW
Zhe Zhou-Suckow, Julia Duerr, Matthias Hagner, Raman Agrawal, Marcus A Mall
Airway mucus obstruction is a hallmark of many chronic lung diseases including rare genetic disorders such as cystic fibrosis (CF) and primary ciliary dyskinesia, as well as common lung diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which have emerged as a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. However, the role of excess airway mucus in the in vivo pathogenesis of these diseases remains poorly understood. The generation of mice with airway-specific overexpression of epithelial Na(+) channels (ENaC), exhibiting airway surface dehydration (mucus hyperconcentration), impaired mucociliary clearance (MCC) and mucus plugging, led to a model of muco-obstructive lung disease that shares key features of CF and COPD...
January 20, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108375/the-role-of-pattern-recognition-receptors-in-lung-sarcoidosis
#2
Esmaeil Mortaz, Ian M Adcock, Atefhe Abedini, Arda Kiani, Mehdi Kazempour-Dizaji, Masoud Movassaghi, Johan Garssen
Sarcoidosis is a granulomatous disorder of unknown etiology. Infection, genetic factors, autoimmunity and an aberrant innate immune system have been explored as potential causes of sarcoidosis. The etiology of sarcoidosis remains unknown, and it is thought that it might be caused by an infectious agent in a genetically predisposed, susceptible host. Inflammation results from recognition of evolutionarily conserved structures of pathogens (Pathogen-associated molecular patterns, PAMPs) and/or from reaction to tissue damage associated patterns (DAMPs) through recognition by a limited number of germ line-encoded pattern recognition receptors (PRRs)...
January 17, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104979/neutropenic-enterocolitis
#3
REVIEW
Fabio G Rodrigues, Giovanna Dasilva, Steven D Wexner
Neutropenic colitis is a severe condition usually affecting immunocompromised patients. Its exact pathogenesis is not completely understood. The main elements in disease onset appear to be intestinal mucosal injury together with neutropenia and the weakened immune system of the afflicted patients. These initial conditions lead to intestinal edema, engorged vessels, and a disrupted mucosal surface, which becomes more vulnerable to bacterial intramural invasion. Chemotherapeutic agents can cause direct mucosal injury (mucositis) or can predispose to distension and necrosis, thereby altering intestinal motility...
January 7, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103306/a-superoxide-dismutase-capable-of-functioning-with-iron-or-manganese-promotes-the-resistance-of-staphylococcus-aureus-to-calprotectin-and-nutritional-immunity
#4
Yuritzi M Garcia, Anna Barwinska-Sendra, Emma Tarrant, Eric P Skaar, Kevin J Waldron, Thomas E Kehl-Fie
Staphylococcus aureus is a devastating mammalian pathogen for which the development of new therapeutic approaches is urgently needed due to the prevalence of antibiotic resistance. During infection pathogens must overcome the dual threats of host-imposed manganese starvation, termed nutritional immunity, and the oxidative burst of immune cells. These defenses function synergistically, as host-imposed manganese starvation reduces activity of the manganese-dependent enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD). S. aureus expresses two SODs, denoted SodA and SodM...
January 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102028/the-involvement-of-msmk-in-pathogenesis-of-the-streptococcus-suis-serotype-2
#5
Mei-Fang Tan, Wan-Quan Liu, Chun-Yan Zhang, Ting Gao, Lin-Lin Zheng, De-Xin Qiu, Lu Li, Rui Zhou
Streptococcus suis serotype 2 (SS2) is an important swine and human pathogen that causes global economic and public health problems. Virulent S. suis strains successfully maintain high bacterial concentrations in host blood and rapidly adapt to challenging environments within hosts. Successful survival in hosts is a major factor influencing the pathogenesis of SS2. We have previously identified that SS2 colonization in mouse brain is possibly affected by the ATPase, MsmK of carbohydrate ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters because of carbohydrate utilization...
January 19, 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098913/diets-link-metabolic-syndrome-and-colorectal-cancer-development-review
#6
Jirakrit Saetang, Surasak Sangkhathat
Diets have been believed to be an important factor in the development of metabolic syndrome and colorectal cancer (CRC). In recent years, many studies have shown an intimate relationship between mucosal immunity, metabolism and diets, which has led to a greater understanding of the pathophysiology of metabolic syndrome and CRC development. Although the precise effects of diets on oncogenesis have not been compl-etely elucidated, microbiota changes and inflammation are believed to be important factors that influence the development of CRC...
January 18, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096401/ornithine-decarboxylase-regulates-m1-macrophage-activation-and-mucosal-inflammation-via-histone-modifications
#7
Dana M Hardbower, Mohammad Asim, Paula B Luis, Kshipra Singh, Daniel P Barry, Chunying Yang, Meredith A Steeves, John L Cleveland, Claus Schneider, M Blanca Piazuelo, Alain P Gobert, Keith T Wilson
Macrophage activation is a critical step in host responses during bacterial infections. Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), the rate-limiting enzyme in polyamine metabolism, has been well studied in epithelial cells and is known to have essential roles in many different cellular functions. However, its role in regulating macrophage function during bacterial infections is not well characterized. We demonstrate that macrophage-derived ODC is a critical regulator of M1 macrophage activation during both Helicobacter pylori and Citrobacter rodentium infection...
January 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096329/tissue-dual-rna-seq-allows-fast-discovery-of-infection-specific-functions-and-riboregulators-shaping-host-pathogen-transcriptomes
#8
Aaron M Nuss, Michael Beckstette, Maria Pimenova, Carina Schmühl, Wiebke Opitz, Fabio Pisano, Ann Kathrin Heroven, Petra Dersch
Pathogenic bacteria need to rapidly adjust their virulence and fitness program to prevent eradication by the host. So far, underlying adaptation processes that drive pathogenesis have mostly been studied in vitro, neglecting the true complexity of host-induced stimuli acting on the invading pathogen. In this study, we developed an unbiased experimental approach that allows simultaneous monitoring of genome-wide infection-linked transcriptional alterations of the host and colonizing extracellular pathogens. Using this tool for Yersinia pseudotuberculosis-infected lymphatic tissues, we revealed numerous alterations of host transcripts associated with inflammatory and acute-phase responses, coagulative activities, and transition metal ion sequestration, highlighting that the immune response is dominated by infiltrating neutrophils and elicits a mixed TH17/TH1 response...
January 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095898/differences-in-rantes-and-il-6-levels-among-chronic-rhinosinusitis-patients-with-predominant-gram-negative-and-gram-positive-infection
#9
Almoaidbellah Rammal, Marc Tewfik, Simon Rousseau
BACKGROUND: Bacteria are suspected players in the pathogenesis of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS), yet their exact role is not understood. We investigated the effect of planktonic and biofilm of staphylococcus aureus (SA) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) on the mucosa of CRS patients with gram-positive and gram-negative infections by measuring the levels of IL-6 and RANTES, a chemokine with activity on eosinophils and T lymphocytes. METHODS: Ethmoid mucosa of six CRS patients with gram-positive bacteria on culture and five with gram-negative bacteria were compared to ethmoid mucosa of 8 control patients...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093234/the-1910hk-rr-two-component-system-is-essential-for-the-virulence-of-streptococcus-suis-serotype-2
#10
Fangyan Yuan, Chen Tan, Zewen Liu, Keli Yang, Danna Zhou, Wei Liu, Zhengying Duan, Rui Guo, Huanchun Chen, Yongxiang Tian, Weicheng Bei
Streptococcus suis serotype 2 is a major zoonotic pathogen, and the two-component system plays an important role in bacterial pathogenesis. The present study targeted the 1910HK/RR two-component system of S. suis 2. A 1910HK/RR deletion mutant (Δ1910HK/RR) and the corresponding complementation strain (CΔ1910HK/RR) were constructed in S. suis 2 strain 05ZYH33. 1910HK/RR deletion had no effect on S. suis 2 growth, but significantly inhibited the adherence and invasion of S. suis 2 to HEp-2 cells. Analysis of the role of 1910HK/RR in murine and pig infection models demonstrated that 1910HK/RR played a distinct role in the virulence of S...
January 13, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092156/inhibition-of-cronobacter-sakazakii-adhesion-to-caco-2-cells-by-commercial-dairy-powders-and-raw-buttermilk
#11
Daniel Ripollés, Saidou Harouna, José Antonio Parrón, Irene Arenales, Miguel Calvo, María Dolores Pérez, Lourdes Sánchez
Cronobacter sakazakii is a foodborne pathogen that has been associated with severe infections mainly in neonates. The binding of this bacterium to host cell surfaces represents the first step in the pathogenesis of disease. An ELISA-based assay has been developed using a polyclonal antiserum against C. sakazakii to determine its adhesion to Caco-2 cells. The antiserum used recognised many of the outer membrane proteins of C. sakazakii. A positive correlation was found between the absorbance values obtained by ELISA and the number of bacteria adhered to cells determined by plate counting...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091882/identification-of-some-main-streptococcus-iniae-associated-proteins-relationship
#12
Fatima El Aamri, José Ángel Guillén, Daniel Padilla, Félix Acosta, Fernando Real
The surface-associated proteins play a key role in bacterial physiology and pathogenesis, and are the major targets in the development of new vaccines. These proteins contribute to the adaptation of bacteria to different hosts and environments. To study differences at the genomic level, we first sequenced the whole genome of Streptococcus iniae from fish (IUSA-1 strain) and compared it to Streptococcus iniae from human (9117 strain), revealing a high similitude between both strains. To gain further insights into host- and environment-specific differences, we then studied proteins in silico and by High Performance Liquid Chromatography...
January 14, 2017: Veterinary Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089178/hatchery-workers-igg-antibody-profiles-to-airborne-bacteria
#13
Paul Brauner, Silvana Gromöller, Yvonne Pfeifer, Gottfried Wilharm, Udo Jäckel
Occupational exposure to high concentrations of airborne bacteria in poultry production is related to an increased risk of respiratory disorders. However, etiology and in particular microorganisms' potential role in pathogenesis still needs to be elucidated. Thus, detection of specific antibodies against occupational microbial antigens may lead to identification of potentially harmful species. For the purpose of IgG titer determination, indirect immunofluorescence on various bacterial isolates from duck hatchery air was combined with image-based quantification of fluorescence intensity...
December 26, 2016: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088924/microbiology-of-otitis-media-in-indigenous-australian-children-review
#14
J Jervis-Bardy, A S Carney, R Duguid, A J Leach
OBJECTIVES: To review research addressing the polymicrobial aetiology of otitis media in Indigenous Australian children in order to identify research gaps and inform best practice in effective prevention strategies and therapeutic interventions. METHODS: Literature review. RESULTS: Studies of aspirated middle-ear fluid represented a minor component of the literature reviewed. Most studies relied upon specimens from middle-ear discharge or the nasopharynx...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Laryngology and Otology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087946/invasion-of-host-cells-and-tissues-by-uropathogenic-bacteria
#15
Adam J Lewis, Amanda C Richards, Matthew A Mulvey
Within the mammalian urinary tract uropathogenic bacteria face many challenges, including the shearing flow of urine, numerous antibacterial molecules, the bactericidal effects of phagocytes, and a scarcity of nutrients. These problems may be circumvented in part by the ability of uropathogenic Escherichia coli and several other uropathogens to invade the epithelial cells that line the urinary tract. By entering host cells, uropathogens can gain access to additional nutrients and protection from both host defenses and antibiotic treatments...
December 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087925/host-responses-to-urinary-tract-infections-and-emerging-therapeutics-sensation-and-pain-within-the-urinary-tract
#16
Lori A Birder, David J Klumpp
Urinary tract infection (UTI) pathogenesis is understood increasingly at the level of the uropathogens and the cellular and molecular mediators of host inflammatory responses. However, little is known about the mediators of symptoms during UTI and what distinguishes symptomatic events from asymptomatic bacteriuria. Here, we review bladder physiology and sensory pathways in the context of an emerging literature from murine models dissecting the host and pathogen factors mediating pain responses during UTI. The bladder urothelium is considered a mediator of sensory responses and appears to play a role in UTI pain responses...
October 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087531/salivary-gluten-degradation-and-oral-microbial-profiles-in-health-and-celiac-disease
#17
Na Tian, Lina Faller, Daniel A Leffler, Ciaran P Kelly, Joshua Hansen, Jos A Bosch, Guoxian Wei, Bruce J Paster, Detlef Schuppan, Eva J Helmerhorst
: Celiac disease (CD) is a chronic immune-mediated enteropathy induced by dietary gluten in genetically predisposed individuals. Saliva harbors the second highest bacterial load of the GI tract after the colon. Moreover, saliva contains gluten-degrading enzymes produced by oral bacteria that may modify gluten processing in the intestine and susceptibility to celiac disease (CD). AIM: To investigate salivary enzymatic activities and oral microbial profiles in healthy subjects vs patients with classical and refractory CD...
January 13, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076786/porphyromonas-gingivalis-promotes-unrestrained-type-i-interferon-production-by-dysregulating-tam-signaling-via-myd88-degradation
#18
Gabriel Mizraji, Maria Nassar, Hadas Segev, Hafiz Sharawi, Luba Eli-Berchoer, Tal Capucha, Tsipora Nir, Yaara Tabib, Avraham Maimon, Shira Dishon, Lior Shapira, Gabriel Nussbaum, Asaf Wilensky, Avi-Hai Hovav
Whereas type I interferons (IFNs-I) were proposed to be elevated in human periodontitis, their role in the disease remains elusive. Using a bacterial-induced model of murine periodontitis, we revealed a prolonged elevation in IFN-I expression. This was due to the downregulation of TAM signaling, a major negative regulator of IFN-I. Further examination revealed that the expression of certain TAM components was reduced as a result of prolonged degradation of MYD88 by the infection. As a result of such prolonged IFN-I production, innate immunological functions of the gingiva were disrupted, and CD4(+) T cells were constitutively primed by dendritic cells, leading to elevated RANKL expression and, subsequently, alveolar bone loss (ABL)...
January 10, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076744/modern-management-of-acne
#19
Alan J Cooper, Victoria Rebecca Harris
Acne is a chronic inflammatory disease of the pilosebaceous unit resulting from androgen-induced increased sebum production; altered keratinisation; bacterial colonisation of hair follicles on the face, neck, chest and back by Propionibacterium acnes; and an inflammatory response in the skin. The exact way these processes interact and the order in which they occur in the pathogenesis of acne are still unclear. Scarring that occurs from acne, particularly severe acne, can persist a lifetime and have long lasting psychosocial effects...
January 16, 2017: Medical Journal of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074024/whole-genome-sequencing-of-invasion-resistant-cells-identifies-laminin-%C3%AE-2-as-a-host-factor-for-bacterial-invasion
#20
Xander M van Wijk, Simon Döhrmann, Björn M Hallström, Shangzhong Li, Bjørn G Voldborg, Brandon X Meng, Karen K McKee, Toin H van Kuppevelt, Peter D Yurchenco, Bernhard O Palsson, Nathan E Lewis, Victor Nizet, Jeffrey D Esko
: To understand the role of glycosaminoglycans in bacterial cellular invasion, xylosyltransferase-deficient mutants of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells were created using clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) and CRISPR-associated gene 9 (CRISPR-cas9) gene targeting. When these mutants were compared to the pgsA745 cell line, a CHO xylosyltransferase mutant generated previously using chemical mutagenesis, an unexpected result was obtained. Bacterial invasion of pgsA745 cells by group B Streptococcus (GBS), group A Streptococcus, and Staphylococcus aureus was markedly reduced compared to the invasion of wild-type cells, but newly generated CRISPR-cas9 mutants were only resistant to GBS...
January 10, 2017: MBio
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