keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Bacterial pathogenesis

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220360/substitutions-of-prp-n-terminal-histidine-residues-modulate-scrapie-disease-pathogenesis-and-incubation-time-in-transgenic-mice
#1
Sabina Eigenbrod, Petra Frick, Uwe Bertsch, Gerda Mitteregger-Kretzschmar, Janina Mielke, Marko Maringer, Niklas Piening, Alexander Hepp, Nathalie Daude, Otto Windl, Johannes Levin, Armin Giese, Vignesh Sakthivelu, Jörg Tatzelt, Hans Kretzschmar, David Westaway
Prion diseases have been linked to impaired copper homeostasis and copper induced-oxidative damage to the brain. Divalent metal ions, such as Cu2+ and Zn2+, bind to cellular prion protein (PrPC) at octapeptide repeat (OR) and non-OR sites within the N-terminal half of the protein but information on the impact of such binding on conversion to the misfolded isoform often derives from studies using either OR and non-OR peptides or bacterially-expressed recombinant PrP. Here we created new transgenic mouse lines expressing PrP with disrupted copper binding sites within all four histidine-containing OR's (sites 1-4, H60G, H68G, H76G, H84G, "TetraH>G" allele) or at site 5 (composed of residues His-95 and His-110; "H95G" allele) and monitored the formation of misfolded PrP in vivo...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219122/towards-the-use-of-breath-for-detecting-mycobacterial-infection-a-case-study-in-a-murine-model
#2
Flavio Antonio Franchina, Theodore Robert Mellors, Minara Aliyeva, Jeffrey Wagner, Nirav Daphtary, Lennart Lundblad, Sarah M Fortune, Eric J Rubin, Jane E Hill
In the present research, the potential of breath analysis by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC×GC-MS) was investigated for the discrimination between healthy and infected mice. A pilot study employing a total of 16 animals was used to develop a method for breath analysis in a murine model for studying MTBC (Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex) using the M. bovis BCG (Bacillus Calmette-Guérin). Breath was collected in Tedlar bags and concentrated onto thermal desorption tubes for the subsequent analysis by GC×GC-MS...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214770/disruption-of-the-gut-ecosystem-by-antibiotics
#3
REVIEW
Mi Young Yoon, Sang Sun Yoon
The intestinal microbiota is a complex ecosystem consisting of various microorganisms that expands human genetic repertoire and therefore affects human health and disease. The metabolic processes and signal transduction pathways of the host and intestinal microorganisms are intimately linked, and abnormal progression of each process leads to changes in the intestinal environment. Alterations in microbial communities lead to changes in functional structures based on the metabolites produced in the gut, and these environmental changes result in various bacterial infections and chronic enteric inflammatory diseases...
January 2018: Yonsei Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212588/comparisons-of-vaginal-flora-patterns-among-sexual-behaviour-groups-of-women-implications-for-the-pathogenesis-of-bacterial-vaginosis
#4
Kristin M Olson, Louis J Boohaker, Jane R Schwebke, Stella Aslibekyan, Christina A Muzny
Background: Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the most common cause of vaginal discharge. The objective was to compare the prevalence of BV by Nugent score among African-American women who have sex with women (WSW) and women who have sex with women and men (WSWM) compared with an age-matched group of women who have sex with men (WSM). Secondary objectives were to correlate low versus high Nugent scores with vaginal symptoms among women with BV and to correlate BV diagnosis with sexual practices. Methods: A secondary analysis of clinical and laboratory data from African-American WSW (n=73) and WSWM (n=68) participating in the Women's Sexual Health Project (August 2011-October 2013) and a 3:1 age-matched group of African-American WSM participating in the Longitudinal Study of Vaginal Flora (August 1999-February 2002) at a sexually transmissible infection clinic (n=423) was performed...
December 7, 2017: Sexual Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211955/biochemical-and-spectroscopic-observation-of-mn-ii-sequestration-from-bacterial-mn-ii-transport-machinery-by-calprotectin
#5
Rose C Hadley, Derek M Gagnon, Megan Brunjes Brophy, Yu Gu, Toshiki G Nakashige, R David Britt, Elizabeth M Nolan
Human calprotectin (CP, S100A8/S100A9 oligomer) is a metal-sequestering host-defense protein that prevents bacterial acquisition of Mn(II). In this work, we investigate Mn(II) competition between CP and two solute-binding proteins that Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae, Gram-positive bacterial pathogens of significant clinical concern, use to obtain Mn(II) when infecting a host. Biochemical and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopic analyses demonstrate that CP outcompetes staphylococcal MntC and streptococcal PsaA for Mn(II)...
December 6, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211710/moving-beyond-microbiome-wide-associations-to-causal-microbe-identification
#6
Neeraj K Surana, Dennis L Kasper
Microbiome-wide association studies have established that numerous diseases are associated with changes in the microbiota. These studies typically generate a long list of commensals implicated as biomarkers of disease, with no clear relevance to disease pathogenesis. If the field is to move beyond correlations and begin to address causation, an effective system is needed for refining this catalogue of differentially abundant microbes and to allow subsequent mechanistic studies. Here we demonstrate that triangulation of microbe-phenotype relationships is an effective method for reducing the noise inherent in microbiota studies and enabling identification of causal microbes...
December 6, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205766/the-bile-salt-sodium-taurocholate-induces-campylobacter-jejuni-outer-membrane-vesicle-production-and-increases-omv-associated-proteolytic-activity
#7
Abdi Elmi, Amber Dorey, Eleanor Watson, Heena Jagatia, Neil F Inglis, Ozan Gundogdu, Mona Bajaj-Elliott, Brendan W Wren, David G E Smith, Nick Dorrell
Campylobacter jejuni, the leading cause of bacterial acute gastroenteritis worldwide, secretes an arsenal of virulence-associated proteins within outer membrane vesicles (OMVs). C. jejuni OMVs contain three serine proteases (HtrA, Cj0511 and Cj1365c) which cleave the intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) tight and adherens junction proteins occludin and E-cadherin, promoting enhanced C. jejuni adhesion to and invasion of IECs. C. jejuni OMVs also induce IECs innate immune responses. The bile salt sodium taurocholate (ST) is sensed as a host signal to co-ordinate the activation of virulence-associated genes in the enteric pathogen Vibrio cholerae...
December 4, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205604/the-role-of-water-in-plant-microbe-interactions
#8
Kyaw Aung, Yanjuan Jiang, Sheng Yang He
Plants are associated with various microorganisms throughout their life, including commensal, symbiotic and pathogenic microorganisms. Pathogens are genetically adapted to aggressively colonize and proliferate in host plants to cause disease. However, disease outbreaks occur only under permissive environmental conditions. The interplay between host, pathogen and environment is famously known as the "disease triangle". Among the environmental factors, rainfall events, which often create a period of high atmospheric humidity, have repetitively been shown to promote disease outbreaks in plants, suggesting that water availability is crucial for pathogenesis...
December 5, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204747/neutrophil-evasion-strategies-by-streptococcus-pneumoniae-and-staphylococcus-aureus
#9
REVIEW
Megan L Lewis, Bas G J Surewaard
Humans are well equipped to defend themselves against bacteria. The innate immune system employs diverse mechanisms to recognize, control and initiate a response that can destroy millions of different microbes. Microbes that evade the sophisticated innate immune system are able to escape detection and could become pathogens. The pathogens Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus are particularly successful due to the development of a wide variety of virulence strategies for bacterial pathogenesis and they invest significant efforts towards mechanisms that allow for neutrophil evasion...
December 5, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202802/histopathology-microbiology-and-the-inflammatory-process-associated-with-sarcoptes-scabiei-infection-in-the-iberian-ibex-capra-pyrenaica
#10
José Espinosa, Arián Ráez-Bravo, Jorge R López-Olvera, Jesús M Pérez, Santiago Lavín, Asta Tvarijonaviciute, Francisco J Cano-Manuel, Paulino Fandos, Ramón C Soriguer, José Enrique Granados, Diego Romero, Roser Velarde
BACKGROUND: Sarcoptic mange has been identified as the most significant infectious disease affecting the Iberian ibex (Capra pyrenaica). Despite several studies on the effects of mange on ibex, the pathological and clinical picture derived from sarcoptic mange infestation is still poorly understood. To further knowledge of sarcoptic mange pathology, samples from ibex were evaluated from histological, microbiological and serological perspectives. METHODS: Samples of skin, non-dermal tissues and blood were collected from 54 ibex (25 experimentally infected, 15 naturally infected and 14 healthy)...
December 4, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202045/adaptation-in-a-fibronectin-binding-autolysin-of-staphylococcus-saprophyticus
#11
Tatum D Mortimer, Douglas S Annis, Mary B O'Neill, Lindsey L Bohr, Tracy M Smith, Hendrik N Poinar, Deane F Mosher, Caitlin S Pepperell
Human-pathogenic bacteria are found in a variety of niches, including free-living, zoonotic, and microbiome environments. Identifying bacterial adaptations that enable invasive disease is an important means of gaining insight into the molecular basis of pathogenesis and understanding pathogen emergence. Staphylococcus saprophyticus, a leading cause of urinary tract infections, can be found in the environment, food, animals, and the human microbiome. We identified a selective sweep in the gene encoding the Aas adhesin, a key virulence factor that binds host fibronectin...
November 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201595/microbes-tickling-your-tummy-the-importance-of-the-gut-brain-axis-in-parkinson-s-disease
#12
REVIEW
Paula Perez-Pardo, Mitch Hartog, Johan Garssen, Aletta D Kraneveld
Purpose of Review: Patients suffering from Parkinson's disease (PD) are known to experience gastrointestinal dysfunction that might precede the onset of motor symptoms by several years. Evidence suggests an important role of the gut-brain axis in PD pathogenesis. These interactions might be essentially influenced by the gut microbiota. Here, we review recent findings supporting that changes in the gut microbiota composition might be a trigger for inflammation contributing to neurodegeneration in PD...
2017: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201151/complete-genome-sequences-of-clostridium-perfringens-del1-strain-isolated-from-chickens-affected-by-necrotic-enteritis
#13
Charles Li, Xianghe Yan, Hyun S Lillehoj
Background: Clostridium perfringens is ubiquitous in nature. It is a normal inhabitant in the intestinal tract of animals and humans. As the primary etiological agent of gas gangrene, necrosis and bacteremia, C. perfringens causes food poisoning, necrotic enteritis (NE), and even death. Epidemiology research has indicated that the increasing incidence of NE in poultry is associated with the withdrawal of in-feed antibiotic growth promoters in poultry production in response to government regulations...
2017: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198088/-efficacy-of-ivig-treatment-in-bronchiectasis-associated-with-igg-subclass-deficiency
#14
REVIEW
Yael Shostak, Mordechai R Kramer
Bronchiectasis is characterized by an abnormal dilatation of the bronchi leading to a chronic inflammatory process, airway blockage and impaired clearance of secretions. The damage to the airways is usually progressive and is the result of several pathogenic processes. In the past, healing of infections (especially pulmonary tuberculosis) was the main cause of airway dilatation and progression of chronic inflammation. Today, congenital illnesses, anatomical defects and immune deficiency play an important role in the pathogenesis of bronchiectasis formation...
November 2017: Harefuah
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196767/the-influence-of-age-and-sex-on-ocular-surface-microbiota-in-healthy-adults
#15
Xiaofeng Wen, Li Miao, Yuhua Deng, Paul W Bible, Xiao Hu, Yanli Zou, Yu Liu, Shixin Guo, Juanran Liang, Tingting Chen, Guang-Hua Peng, Wei Chen, Lingyi Liang, Lai Wei
Purpose: A growing body of evidence suggests that the microbiome of the ocular surface confers potent immunoregulatory functions and has a key role in the physiologic maintenance of healthy eyes and in the pathogenesis of ocular diseases. Although the microbiome is known to be affected by age and sex, the influence of these factors on ocular surface microbiota in healthy adults remains largely unknown. Methods: Ocular surface microbiome samples were obtained from the inferior bulbar conjunctiva of 48 young and 42 old adults at Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center...
December 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194776/endosymbiosis-and-its-significance-in-dermatology
#16
REVIEW
Katarzyna Kubiak, Hanna Sielawa, Wenchieh Chen, Ewa Dzika
Proposed at the beginning of the 20th to explain the origin of eukaryotic organelles from prokaryotes, endosymbiosis is now medically defined by various interaction patterns between microorganisms and their residing hosts, best exemplified by the bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia identified in arthropods and filarial nematodes, which can influence normal development, reproduction, survival, and transmission of the hosts. Based on the transmission modes, vertical or horizontal, and the function of the endosymbionts, the host-symbiont dependence can be divided into primary or secondary...
December 1, 2017: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193868/xanthomonas-axonopodis-pv-punicae-employs-xopleffector-to-suppresspomegranate-immunity
#17
Madhvi Soni, Kalyan K Mondal
Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. punicae (Xap) causing bacterial blight is an important pathogen that incurs significant losses to the exportability of pomegranate. Xap employs Xop TTSS-effector via type three secretion system to suppress pomegranate immunity. Here, we investigate the role of XopL during blight pathogenesis. We found that XopL is essential for its in planta growth and full virulence. Leaves inoculated with Xap ΔxopL produced restricted water-soaked lesions compared to that inoculated with Xap wild...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193310/bacterial-modulators-of-bone-remodeling-in-the-periodontal-pocket
#18
REVIEW
Brian Henderson, Frank Kaiser
The signaling network involved in the pathogenesis of periodontal disease is not yet fully understood. This review aims to describe possible mechanisms through which the bacterial modulators may be linked directly or indirectly to the process of alveolar bone loss in periodontitis. From the late 1970s to present, new paradigm shifts have been developed regarding our understanding of pathological bone remodeling in periodontal disease. Upcoming evidence suggests that in periodontal disease the local immune response is exacerbated and involves the existence of signaling pathways that have been shown to modulate bone-cell function leading to alveolar bone loss...
November 30, 2017: Periodontology 2000
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190745/colonization-with-escherichia-coli-ec-25-protects-neonatal-rats-from-necrotizing-enterocolitis
#19
Debi M Thomas, Brandon Bell, Stephanie Papillon, Patrick Delaplain, Joanna Lim, Jamie Golden, Jordan Bowling, Jin Wang, Larry Wang, Anatoly V Grishin, Henri R Ford
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in premature infants; yet its pathogenesis remains poorly understood. To evaluate the role of intestinal bacteria in protection against NEC, we assessed the ability of naturally occurring intestinal colonizer E. coli EC25 to influence composition of intestinal microbiota and NEC pathology in the neonatal rat model. Experimental NEC was induced in neonatal rats by formula feeding/hypoxia, and graded histologically. Bacterial populations were characterized by plating on blood agar, scoring colony classes, and identifying each class by sequencing 16S rDNA...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190678/type-i-interferon-signaling-restrains-il-10r-colonic-macrophages-and-dendritic-cells-and-leads-to-more-severe-salmonella-colitis
#20
Kailyn L Stefan, Avner Fink, Neeraj K Surana, Dennis L Kasper, Suryasarathi Dasgupta
Type I interferons (IFNα, IFNβ) are key regulators of innate and adaptive immunity, modulating the severity of both viral and bacterial infections. While type I IFN signaling leads to improved outcomes in viral infections, its role in bacterial infections is more contextual and depends on the specific pathogen and route of infection. Given the limited evidence on whether type I IFN signaling affects enteric bacterial pathogens, we investigated the role of this signaling pathway in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S...
2017: PloS One
keyword
keyword
11888
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"