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Bacterial pathogenesis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432400/-the-intestinal-microbiome-and-metabolic-diseases-from-obesity-to-diabetes-and-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis
#1
S C Bischoff
BACKGROUND: The intestinal microbiome consists of about 10 million genes, many of which encode digestive enzymes. This explains why animal and human experiments revealed that the intestinal microbiome adapts to food intake and optimizes energy harvest from food. This function is considered beneficial in states of lack of food, but following overnutrition, it might support the development of obesity. OBJECTIVES: The relevance of the intestinal microbiome for the pathogenesis of obesity and associated metabolic diseases such as fatty liver disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus and for the clinical management of such diseases shall be discussed...
April 21, 2017: Der Internist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431495/iron-regulated-small-rna-expression-as-neisseria-gonorrhoeae-fa-1090-transitions-into-stationary-phase-growth
#2
Lydgia A Jackson, Michael Day, Jennie Allen, Edgar Scott, David W Dyer
BACKGROUND: For most pathogens, iron (Fe) homeostasis is crucial for maintenance within the host and the ability to cause disease. The primary transcriptional regulator that controls intracellular Fe levels is the Fur (ferric uptake regulator) protein, which exerts its action on transcription by binding to a promoter-proximal sequence termed the Fur box. Fur-regulated transcriptional responses are often fine-tuned at the post-transcriptional level through the action of small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs)...
April 21, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429823/changes-in-the-gut-microbiome-of-the-chinese-mitten-crab-eriocheir-sinensis-in-response-to-white-spot-syndrome-virus-wssv-infection
#3
Z F Ding, M J Cao, X S Zhu, G H Xu, R L Wang
Intestinal microorganisms play important roles in maintaining host health, but their functions in aquatic animal hosts have yet to be fully elucidated. The Chinese mitten crab, Eriocheir sinensis, is one such example. We attempted to identify the shift of gut microbiota that occurred in response to infection of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), an emerging viral pathogen in the crab aquaculture industry. The microbiota may exert some control over aspects of the viral pathogenesis. We investigated the changes in composition and structure of the crab gut microbiome during various WSSV infection stages of 6 h post-infection (hpi) and 48 hpi, using a 16S rRNA approach on the MiSeq Illumina sequencing platform...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Fish Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429478/the-nexus-between-periodontics-and-oral-pathology
#4
REVIEW
Alison M Rich, Benedict Seo, Venkata Parachuru, Haizal M Hussaini
A wide variety of lesions may arise from the oral mucosa, fibrous connective tissue, bone and cementum of the periodontium. The commonest pathology occurs as a result of bacterial infection and is very well known to dentists and periodontists, but rarer conditions present as gingival pathology. The pathogenesis of these conditions ranges from genetic to traumatic to immunological to neoplastic, and includes benign, malignant and metastatic lesions. This paper outlines some of these conditions and describes how the periodontist and oral pathologist can work together using a framework, and how with careful consideration of the clinical features and the use of appropriate special tests, including obtaining an adequate tissue specimen, a timely and accurate diagnosis can be obtained...
June 2017: Periodontology 2000
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427552/integrating-the-microbiota-of-the-respiratory-tract-with-the-unified-airway-model
#5
REVIEW
Alissa S Hanshew, Marie E Jetté, Sarah P Rosen, Susan L Thibeault
The unified airway model has developed from indications that the upper and lower respiratory tracts share key elements of pathogenesis. These shared traits likely extend to similar niche characteristics that support bacterial communities, and as such, we suspect that similar microbes exist on upper and lower respiratory tract epithelium. Over the past decade and a half there have been significant improvements in microbiological identification and analysis due to the development of new molecular technologies, including next-generation sequencing...
May 2017: Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427452/modeling-environmental-risk-factors-of-autism-in-mice-induces-ibd-related-gut-microbial-dysbiosis-and-hyperserotonemia
#6
Joon Seo Lim, Mi Young Lim, Yongbin Choi, GwangPyo Ko
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a range of neurodevelopmental conditions that are sharply increasing in prevalence worldwide. Intriguingly, ASD is often accompanied by an array of systemic aberrations including (1) increased serotonin, (2) various modes of gastrointestinal disorders, and (3) inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), albeit the underlying cause for such comorbidities remains uncertain. Also, accumulating number of studies report that the gut microbial composition is significantly altered in children with ASD or patients with IBD...
April 20, 2017: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425948/characterization-of-n-acyl-homoserine-lactones-in-vibrio-tasmaniensis-lgp32-by-a-biosensor-based-uhplc-hrms-ms-method
#7
Léa Girard, Élodie Blanchet, Laurent Intertaglia, Julia Baudart, Didier Stien, Marcelino Suzuki, Philippe Lebaron, Raphaël Lami
Since the discovery of quorum sensing (QS) in the 1970s, many studies have demonstrated that Vibrio species coordinate activities such as biofilm formation, virulence, pathogenesis, and bioluminescence, through a large group of molecules called N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs). However, despite the extensive knowledge on the involved molecules and the biological processes controlled by QS in a few selected Vibrio strains, less is known about the overall diversity of AHLs produced by a broader range of environmental strains...
April 20, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424943/intestinal-alkaline-phosphatase-attenuates-alcohol-induced-hepatosteatosis-in-mice
#8
Sulaiman R Hamarneh, Byeong-Moo Kim, Kanakaraju Kaliannan, Sara A Morrison, Tyler J Tantillo, Qingsong Tao, Mussa M Rafat Mohamed, Juan M Ramirez, Aaron Karas, Wei Liu, Dong Hu, Abeba Teshager, Sarah Shireen Gul, Konstantinos P Economopoulos, Atul K Bhan, Madhu S Malo, Michael Y Choi, Richard A Hodin
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Bacterially derived factors from the gut play a major role in the activation of inflammatory pathways in the liver and in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease. The intestinal brush-border enzyme intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) detoxifies a variety of bacterial pro-inflammatory factors and also functions to preserve gut barrier function. The aim of this study was to investigate whether oral IAP supplementation could protect against alcohol-induced liver disease...
April 19, 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422565/ascorbic-acid-deficiency-in-patients-with-lichen-planus
#9
Ilinca Nicolae, Cristina Iulia Mitran, Madalina Irina Mitran, Corina Daniela Ene, Mircea Tampa, Simona Roxana Georgescu
OBJECTIVES: Recent studies have highlighted the role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of lichen planus (LP). In the present study the interest of the authors is focused on the investigation of ascorbic acid status in patients with LP and identification of parameters that might influence the level of this vitamin. MATERIAL AND METHOD: We analyzed the level of urinary ascorbic acid (reflectometric method) in 77 patients with LP (cutaneous LP (CLP) - 49 cases, oral LP (OLP) - 28 cases) and 50 control subjects...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Immunoassay & Immunochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421168/contribution-of-the-a-baumannii-a1s_0114-gene-to-the-interaction-with-eukaryotic-cells-and-virulence
#10
Soraya Rumbo-Feal, Astrid Pérez, Theresa A Ramelot, Laura Álvarez-Fraga, Juan A Vallejo, Alejandro Beceiro, Emily J Ohneck, Brock A Arivett, María Merino, Steven E Fiester, Michael A Kennedy, Luis A Actis, Germán Bou, Margarita Poza
Genetic and functional studies showed that some components of the Acinetobacter baumannii ATCC 17978 A1S_0112-A1S_0119 gene cluster are critical for biofilm biogenesis and surface motility. Recently, our group has shown that the A1S_0114 gene was involved in biofilm formation, a process related with pathogenesis. Confirming our previous results, microscopy images revealed that the ATCC 17978 Δ0114 derivative lacking this gene was unable to form a mature biofilm structure. Therefore, other bacterial phenotypes were analyzed to determine the role of this gene in the pathogenicity of A...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421166/in-vivo-and-in-vitro-interactions-between-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-and-staphylococcus-spp
#11
REVIEW
An Hotterbeekx, Samir Kumar-Singh, Herman Goossens, Surbhi Malhotra-Kumar
The significance of polymicrobial infections is increasingly being recognized especially in a biofilm context wherein multiple bacterial species-including both potential pathogens and members of the commensal flora-communicate, cooperate, and compete with each other. Two important bacterial pathogens that have developed a complex network of evasion, counter-inhibition, and subjugation in their battle for space and nutrients are Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Their strain- and environment-specific interactions, for instance in the cystic fibrosis lung or in wound infections, show severe competition that is generally linked to worse patient outcomes...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419165/soaking-suggests-alternative-facts-only-co-crystallization-discloses-major-ligand-induced-interface-rearrangements-of-a-homodimeric-trna-binding-protein-indicating-a-novel-mode-of-inhibition
#12
Frederik Rainer Ehrmann, Johann Stojko, Alexander Metz, François Debaene, Luzi Jakob Barandun, Andreas Heine, François Diederich, Sarah Cianférani, Klaus Reuter, Gerhard Klebe
For the efficient pathogenesis of Shigella, the causative agent of bacillary dysentery, full functionality of tRNA-guanine transglycosylase (TGT) is mandatory. TGT performs post-transcriptional modifications of tRNAs in the anticodon loop taking impact on virulence development. This suggests TGT as a putative target for selective anti-shigellosis drug therapy. Since bacterial TGT is only functional as homodimer, its activity can be inhibited either by blocking its active site or by preventing dimerization. Recently, we discovered that in some crystal structures obtained by soaking the full conformational adaptation most likely induced in solution upon ligand binding is not displayed...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411218/the-conjugative-relaxase-trwc-promotes-integration-of-foreign-dna-in-the-human-genome
#13
Coral González-Prieto, Richard Gabriel, Christoph Dehio, Manfred Schmidt, Matxalen Llosa
Bacterial conjugation is a mechanism of horizontal DNA transfer. The relaxase TrwC of the conjugative plasmid R388 cleaves one strand of the transferred DNA at the oriT, covalently attaches to it and leads the ssDNA into the recipient cell. In addition, TrwC catalyzes site-specific integration of the transferred DNA into its target sequence present in the genome of the recipient bacterium. Here, we report the analysis of the efficiency and specificity of the integrase activity of TrwC in human cells, using the Type IV Secretion System of the human pathogen Bartonella henselae to introduce relaxase-DNA complexes...
April 14, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409190/methyl-accepting-chemotaxis-proteins-a-core-sensing-element-in-prokaryotes-and-archaea
#14
REVIEW
Abu Iftiaf Md Salah Ud-Din, Anna Roujeinikova
Chemotaxis is the directed motility by means of which microbes sense chemical cues and relocate towards more favorable environments. Methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins (MCPs) are the most common receptors in bacteria and archaea. They are arranged as trimers of dimers that, in turn, form hexagonal arrays in the cytoplasmic membrane or in the cytoplasm. Several different classes of MCPs have been identified according to their ligand binding region and membrane topology. MCPs have been further classified based on the length and sequence conservation of their cytoplasmic domains...
April 13, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409125/colibactin-contributes-to-the-hypervirulence-of-pks-k1-cc23-klebsiella-pneumoniae-in-mouse-meningitis-infections
#15
Min-Chi Lu, Ying-Tsong Chen, Ming-Ko Chiang, Yao-Chen Wang, Pei-Yi Hsiao, Yi-Jhen Huang, Ching-Ting Lin, Ching-Chang Cheng, Chih-Lung Liang, Yi-Chyi Lai
Klebsiella pneumoniae is the most common pathogen of community-acquired meningitis in Taiwan. However, the lack of a physiologically relevant meningitis model for K. pneumoniae has impeded research into its pathogenesis mechanism. Based on the core genome MLST analyses, the hypervirulent K1 K. pneumoniae strains, which are etiologically implicated in adult meningitis, mostly belong to a single clonal complex, CC23. Some K1 CC23 K. pneumoniae strains carry a gene cluster responsible for colibactin production...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408748/the-microbiome-of-the-lung-and-its-extracellular-vesicles-in-nonsmokers-healthy-smokers-and-copd-patients
#16
Hyun Jung Kim, You-Sun Kim, Kang-Hyun Kim, Jun-Pyo Choi, Yoon-Keun Kim, Sunmi Yun, Lokesh Sharma, Charles S Dela Cruz, Jae Seung Lee, Yeon-Mok Oh, Sang-Do Lee, Sei Won Lee
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic inflammatory disease, and bacterial infection plays a role in its pathogenesis. Bacteria secrete nanometer-sized extracellular vesicles (EVs), which may induce more immune dysfunction and inflammation than the bacteria themselves. We hypothesized that the microbiome of lung EVs might have distinct characteristics depending on the presence of COPD and smoking status. We analyzed and compared the microbiomes of 13 nonsmokers with normal spirometry, 13 smokers with normal spirometry (healthy smokers) and 13 patients with COPD by using 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing of surgical lung tissue and lung EVs...
April 14, 2017: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407840/-advances-in-research-on-childhood-neutropenia
#17
Jian-Hua Feng, Yan Qian
Neutrophils, an important type of human immune cells, are involved in host defense against infections. Neutropenia refers to a group of diseases manifesting as a reduction in the absolute value of mature neutrophils and is often accompanied by an increased risk of bacterial infection. According to etiology and pathogenesis, neutropenia is classified into congenital and acquired neutropenia. This article reviews the current research status and advances in the etiology of neutropenia in children. A deep understanding of the etiology of neutropenia helps to improve the diagnosis and treatment of this disease...
April 2017: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405140/diet-and-microbiota-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease-the-gut-in-disharmony
#18
REVIEW
Davy C M Rapozo, Claudio Bernardazzi, Heitor Siffert Pereira de Souza
Bacterial colonization of the gut shapes both the local and the systemic immune response and is implicated in the modulation of immunity in both healthy and disease states. Recently, quantitative and qualitative changes in the composition of the gut microbiota have been detected in Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, reinforcing the hypothesis of dysbiosis as a relevant mechanism underlying inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) pathogenesis. Humans and microbes have co-existed and co-evolved for a long time in a mutually beneficial symbiotic association essential for maintaining homeostasis...
March 28, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402019/epigallocatechin-gallate-inhibits-streptococcus-pneumoniae-virulence-by-simultaneously-targeting-pneumolysin-and-sortase%C3%A2-a
#19
Meng Song, Zihao Teng, Meng Li, Xiaodi Niu, Jianfeng Wang, Xuming Deng
Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus), the causative agent of several human diseases, possesses numerous virulence factors associated with pneumococcal infection and pathogenesis. Pneumolysin (PLY), an important virulence factor, is a member of the cholesterol-dependent cytolysin family and has cytolytic activity. Sortase A (SrtA), another crucial pneumococcal virulence determinate, contributes greatly to the anchoring of many virulence-associated surface proteins to the cell wall. In this study, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a natural compound with little known antipneumococcal activity, was shown to directly inhibit PLY-mediated haemolysis and cytolysis by blocking the oligomerization of PLY and simultaneously reduce the peptidase activity of SrtA...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401933/bcl-xl-mediates-ripk3-dependent-necrosis-in-m-tuberculosis-infected-macrophages
#20
X Zhao, N Khan, H Gan, F Tzelepis, T Nishimura, S-Y Park, M Divangahi, H G Remold
Virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) triggers necrosis in host Mϕ, which is essential for successful pathogenesis in tuberculosis. Here we demonstrate that necrosis of Mtb-infected Mϕ is dependent on the action of the cytosolic Receptor Interacting Protein Kinase 3 (RIPK3) and the mitochondrial Bcl-2 family member protein B-cell lymphoma-extra large (Bcl-xL). RIPK3-deficient Mϕ are able to better control bacterial growth in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, cytosolic RIPK3 translocates to the mitochondria where it promotes necrosis and blocks caspase 8-activation and apoptosis via Bcl-xL...
April 12, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
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