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Bacterial pathogenesis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637338/complex-interactions-between-potentially-pathogenic-opportunistic-and-resident-bacteria-emerge-during-infection-on-a-reef-building-coral
#1
Sarah A Gignoux-Wolfsohn, Felicia M Aronson, Steven V Vollmer
Increased bacterial diversity on diseased corals can obscure disease etiology and complicate our understanding of pathogenesis. To untangle microbes that may cause white band disease signs from microbes responding to disease, we inoculated healthy Acropora cervicornis corals with an infectious dose from visibly diseased corals. We sampled these dosed corals and healthy controls over time for sequencing of the bacterial 16S region. Endozoicomonas were associated with healthy fragments from 4/10 colonies, dominating microbiomes before dosing and decreasing over time only in corals that displayed disease signs, suggesting a role in disease resistance...
June 15, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635589/regulation-of-escherichia-coli-pathogenesis-by-alternative-sigma-factor-n
#2
James T Riordan, Avishek Mitra
σ(N) (also σ(54)) is an alternative sigma factor subunit of the RNA polymerase complex that regulates the expression of genes from many different ontological groups. It is broadly conserved in the Eubacteria with major roles in nitrogen metabolism, membrane biogenesis, and motility. σ(N) is encoded as the first gene of a five-gene operon including rpoN (σ(N)), ptsN, hpf, rapZ, and npr that has been genetically retained among species of Escherichia, Shigella, and Salmonella. In an increasing number of bacteria, σ(N) has been implicated in the control of genes essential to pathogenic behavior, including those involved in adherence, secretion, immune subversion, biofilm formation, toxin production, and resistance to both antimicrobials and biological stressors...
June 2017: EcoSal Plus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630070/regulation-of-type-iii-secretion-of-translocon-and-effector-proteins-by-the-esab-esal-esam-complex-in-edwardsiella-tarda
#3
Lu Yi Liu, Pin Nie, Hong Bing Yu, Hai Xia Xie
The type III secretion system (T3SS) plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of many Gram-negative bacteria, including Edwardsiella tarda, an important fish pathogen. Within the E. tarda T3SS, there are three proteins (EsaB/EsaL/EsaM) that are homologous to proteins present in many other bacteria, including SpiC/SsaL/SsaM in Salmonella, SepD/SepL/CesL in EPEC and EHEC, and YscB/YopN/SycN in Yersinia EsaL was found to interact with both EsaB and EsaM within the bacterial cell, as revealed by a co-immunoprecipitation assay...
June 19, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629758/implications-of-the-gut-microbiota-in-vulnerability-to-the-social-avoidance-effects-of-chronic-social-defeat-in-male-mice
#4
Joanna Kasia Szyszkowicz, Alex Wong, Hymie Anisman, Zul Merali, Marie-Claude Audet
Appreciable evidence suggests that perturbations within the gut microbiome and the immune system may play a key role in the pathogenesis of depression stemming from earlier stressful experiences. In the present investigation we examined whether microbial changes in cecum contents were associated with social avoidance behaviors, a feature of depression, and pro-inflammatory variations among socially stressed mice. Male C57BL/6 mice experienced social defeat or a control condition once a day for 10 consecutive days...
June 16, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629726/th2-related-immune-responses-by-the-brucella-abortus-cellular-antigens-malate-dehydrogenase-elongation-factor-and-arginase
#5
Young Bin Im, Soojin Shim, Woo Bin Park, Suk Kim, Han Sang Yoo
Brucellosis is an important zoonotic disease caused by Brucella species. The disease is difficult to control due to the intracellular survival of the bacterium and the lack of precise understanding of pathogenesis. Despite of continuous researches on the pathogenesis of Brucella spp. infection, there is still question on the pathogenesis, especially earlier immune response in the bacterial infection. Malate dehydrogenase (MDH), elongation factor (Tsf), and arginase (RocF), which showed serological reactivity, were purified after gene cloning, and their immune modulating activities were then analyzed in a murine model...
June 16, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629722/the-manganese-efflux-system-mnte-contributes-to-the-virulence-of-streptococcus-suis-serotype-2
#6
Jiali Xu, Chengkun Zheng, Manman Cao, Ting Zeng, Xigong Zhao, Guolin Shi, Huanchun Chen, Weicheng Bei
Manganese is an essential micronutrient to bacteria and plays an important role in bacterial physiology. However, an excess of manganese is extremely deleterious to the cell. The manganese efflux system is used to control intracellular manganese levels by some bacteria. In this study, we have identified a cation efflux family protein (MntE) that functions as a manganese export system in Streptococcus suis serotype 2. To investigate the role of mntE in S. suis 2, a mntE deletion mutant (ΔmntE) and the corresponding complementation strain (CΔmntE) were constructed...
June 16, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629124/microbial-diseases-of-bivalve-mollusks-infections-immunology-and-antimicrobial-defense
#7
REVIEW
Carla Zannella, Francesco Mosca, Francesca Mariani, Gianluigi Franci, Veronica Folliero, Marilena Galdiero, Pietro Giorgio Tiscar, Massimiliano Galdiero
A variety of bivalve mollusks (phylum Mollusca, class Bivalvia) constitute a prominent commodity in fisheries and aquacultures, but are also crucial in order to preserve our ecosystem's complexity and function. Bivalve mollusks, such as clams, mussels, oysters and scallops, are relevant bred species, and their global farming maintains a high incremental annual growth rate, representing a considerable proportion of the overall fishery activities. Bivalve mollusks are filter feeders; therefore by filtering a great quantity of water, they may bioaccumulate in their tissues a high number of microorganisms that can be considered infectious for humans and higher vertebrates...
June 17, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624685/bacillus-subtilis-affects-mirnas-and-flavanoids-production-in-agrobacterium-tobacco-interaction
#8
Fahimeh Nazari, Naser Safaie, Bahram Mohammad Soltani, Masoud Shams-Bakhsh, Mohsen Sharifi
Agrobacterium tumefaciens is a very destructive plant pathogen. Selection of effective biological agents against this pathogen depends on more insight into molecular plant defence responses during the biocontrol agent-pathogen interaction. Auxin as a phytohormone is a key contributor in pathogenesis and plant defence and accumulation of auxin transport carriers are accompanied by increasing in flavonoid and miRNAs concentrations during plant interactions with bacteria. The aim of this research was molecular analysis of Bacillus subtilis (ATCC21332) biocontrol effect against A...
June 10, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622438/gbf1-differentially-regulates-cat2-and-pad4-transcription-to-promote-pathogen-defense-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#9
Mrunmay Kumar Giri, Nidhi Singh, Zeeshan Zahoor Banday, Vijayata Singh, Hathi Ram, Deepjyoti Singh, Sudip Chattopadhyay, Ashis Kumar Nandi
G-BOX BINDING FACTOR 1 (GBF1) influences light-regulated seedling development in Arabidopsis, and inhibits CATALASE 2 (CAT2) expression during senescence. CAT2 functions as a scavenger of hydrogen peroxide. Role of GBF1 in defense response is not known. We report here that GBF1 positively influences defense against virulent and avirulent strains of Pseudomonas syringae. The gbf1 mutants are susceptible, whereas GBF1 over-expresser transgenic plants are resistant to bacterial pathogens. GBF1 negatively regulates pathogen-induced CAT2 expression and thereby positively regulates hypersensitive response...
June 16, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622385/effect-of-acute-predation-with-bacteriophage-on-intermicrobial-aggression-by-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#10
Patrick R Secor, Gabriele Sass, Hasan Nazik, David A Stevens
In persons with structural lung disease, particularly those with cystic fibrosis (CF), chronic airway infections cause progressive loss of lung function. CF airways can be colonized by a variety of microorganisms; the most frequently encountered bacterial and fungal pathogens are Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Aspergillus fumigatus, respectively. Co-infection with P. aeruginosa and A. fumigatus often results in a more rapid loss of lung function, indicating that interactions between these pathogens affect infection pathogenesis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622090/assembly-and-function-of-the-bacillus-anthracis-s-layer
#11
Dominique Missiakas, Olaf Schneewind
Bacillus anthracis, the anthrax agent, is a member of the Bacillus cereus sensu lato group, which includes invasive pathogens of mammals or insects as well as nonpathogenic environmental strains. The genes for anthrax pathogenesis are located on two large virulence plasmids. Similar virulence plasmids have been acquired by other B. cereus strains and enable the pathogenesis of anthrax-like diseases. Among the virulence factors of B. anthracis is the S-layer-associated protein BslA, which endows bacilli with invasive attributes for mammalian hosts...
June 16, 2017: Annual Review of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621333/francisella-requires-dynamic-type-vi-secretion-system-and-clpb-to-deliver-effectors-for-phagosomal-escape
#12
Maj Brodmann, Roland F Dreier, Petr Broz, Marek Basler
Francisella tularensis is an intracellular pathogen that causes the fatal zoonotic disease tularaemia. Critical for its pathogenesis is the ability of the phagocytosed bacteria to escape into the cell cytosol. For this, the bacteria use a non-canonical type VI secretion system (T6SS) encoded on the Francisella pathogenicity island (FPI). Here we show that in F. novicida T6SS assembly initiates at the bacterial poles both in vitro and within infected macrophages. T6SS dynamics and function depends on the general purpose ClpB unfoldase, which specifically colocalizes with contracted sheaths and is required for their disassembly...
June 16, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620210/a-bacterial-acetyltransferase-triggers-immunity-in-arabidopsis-thaliana-independent-of-hypersensitive-response
#13
Jay Jayaraman, Sera Choi, Maxim Prokchorchik, Du Seok Choi, Amandine Spiandore, Erik H Rikkerink, Matthew D Templeton, Cécile Segonzac, Kee Hoon Sohn
Type-III secreted effectors (T3Es) play critical roles during bacterial pathogenesis in plants. Plant recognition of certain T3Es can trigger defence, often accompanied by macroscopic cell death, termed the hypersensitive response (HR). Economically important species of kiwifruit are susceptible to Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (Psa), the causal agent of kiwifruit bacterial canker. Although Psa is non-pathogenic in Arabidopsis thaliana, we observed that a T3E, HopZ5 that is unique to a global outbreak clade of Psa, triggers HR and defence in Arabidopsis accession Ct-1...
June 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619168/comparison-of-asian-porcine-high-fever-disease-isolates-of-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-to-united-states-isolates-for-their-ability-to-cause-disease-and-secondary-bacterial-infection-in-swine
#14
Susan L Brockmeier, Crystal L Loving, Mitchel V Palmer, Allyn Spear, Tracy L Nicholson, Kay S Faaberg, Kelly M Lager
Epidemiologic data from Asian outbreaks of highly-pathogenic (HP) porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) suggest that disease severity was associated with both the virulence of the PRRSV isolates and secondary bacterial infections. Previous reports have indicated that U.S. isolates of PRRSV predispose to secondary bacterial infections as well, but the severity of disease that occurred in Asia in pigs infected with these HP-PRRSV strains has not been reported in the U.S. The objectives of this research were to compare the pathogenesis of Asian and U...
May 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619135/in-vitro-adherence-and-invasion-of-primary-chicken-oviduct-epithelial-cells-by-gallibacterium-anatis
#15
Xiu-Ping Zhang, Cai-Jing Lu, Yong-Tao Li, Xia Yang, Xin-Wei Wang, Hong-Tao Chang, Hong-Ying Liu, Lu Chen, Jun Zhao, Chuan-Qing Wang, Yung-Fu Chang
Gallibacterium anatis (G. anatis) has been suggested to have a causal role in salpingitis and peritonitis in egg-laying chickens, leading to decreased egg production and increased mortality worldwide. Adherence and invasion of epithelial cells are thought to play a role in the pathogenesis of G. anatis infection. The purpose of this article was to study adherence and invasion of G. anatis using two G. anatis strains of different virulence (Yu-PDS-RZ-1-SLG strain, highly virulent and F149(T) strain, non-virulent) via infection of the primary chicken oviduct epithelial cells (PCOECs)...
May 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617678/single-variant-bottleneck-in-the-early-dynamics-of-h-influenzae-bacteremia-in-neonatal-rats-questions-the-theory-of-independent-action
#16
Xinxian Shao, Bruce Levin, Ilya Nemenman
There is an abundance of information about the genetic basis, physiological and molecular mechanisms of bacterial pathogenesis. In contrast, relatively little is known about population dynamic processes, by which bacteria colonize hosts and invade tissues and cells and thereby cause disease. In an article published in 1978, Moxon and Murphy presented evidence that, when inoculated intranasally with a mixture streptomycin sensitive and resistant (Sm (S) and Sm (R) ) and otherwise isogenic strains of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), neonatal rats develop a bacteremic infection that often is dominated by only one strain, Sm (S) or Sm (R) ...
June 15, 2017: Physical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617616/the-role-of-nrf2-in-the-regulation-of-periodontal-health-and-disease
#17
A V Chiu, M Al Saigh, C A McCulloch, M Glogauer
Immune-related disease tolerance is an important defense strategy that facilitates the maintenance of health in organs and tissues that are commonly colonized by bacteria. Immune tolerance to dysbiotic, tooth-borne biofilms is a poorly understood yet clinically relevant concept in the immunopathological mechanisms that are involved in the pathogenesis of periodontitis, particularly those related to neutrophil and macrophage responses. In periodontal health, neutrophils and macrophages respond to the formation of pathogenic bacterial biofilms by the production of bactericidal reactive oxygen species (ROS)...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616365/streptococcus-pneumoniae-otitis-media-pathogenesis-and-how-it-informs-our-understanding-of-vaccine-strategies
#18
REVIEW
Caroline Bergenfelz, Anders P Hakansson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This study aimed to review the literature regarding the mechanisms of transition from asymptomatic colonization to induction of otitis media and how the insight into the pathogenesis of otitis media has the potential to help design future otitis media-directed vaccines. RECENT FINDINGS: Respiratory viruses have long been shown to predispose individuals to bacterial respiratory infections, such as otitis media. Recent information suggests that Streptococcus pneumoniae, which colonize the nasopharynx asymptomatically, can sense potentially "threatening" changes in the nasopharyngeal environment caused by virus infection by upregulating specific sets of genes involved in biofilm release, dissemination from the nasopharynx to other sites, and protection against the host immune system...
2017: Current Otorhinolaryngology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615935/serum-inflammatory-biomarkers-and-clinical-outcomes-of-copd-exacerbation-caused-by-different-pathogens
#19
Theerasuk Kawamatawong, Apitch Apiwattanaporn, Warisara Siricharoonwong
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: COPD exacerbation is characterized by worsening of symptoms, warranting change in treatment. Systemic and airway inflammation play roles in the pathogenesis of COPD exacerbation. We hypothesized whether increased serum inflammatory biomarkers are associated with the clinical outcomes of COPD exacerbation caused by different infectious pathogens. METHODS: COPD patients with exacerbation were recruited from a hospital emergency department during 2014-2015...
2017: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611764/interplay-of-pathogen-induced-defense-responses-and-symbiotic-establishment-in-medicago-truncatula
#20
Tao Chen, Liujian Duan, Bo Zhou, Haixiang Yu, Hui Zhu, Yangrong Cao, Zhongming Zhang
Suppression of host innate immunity appears to be required for the establishment of symbiosis between rhizobia and host plants. In this study, we established a system that included a host plant, a bacterial pathogen and a symbiotic rhizobium to study the role of innate immunity during symbiotic interactions. A pathogenic bacterium, Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato strain DC3000 (Pst DC3000), was shown to cause chlorosis in Medicago truncatula A17. Sinorhizobium meliloti strain Sm2011 (Sm2011) and Pst DC3000 strain alone induced similar defense responses in M...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
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