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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351397/acute-small-intestinal-inflammation-results-in-persistent-lymphatic-alterations
#1
Sonia Rehal, Matthew Stephens, Simon Roizes, Shan Liao, Pierre-Yves von der Weid
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has a complex pathophysiology with limited treatments. Structural and functional changes in the intestinal lymphatic system have been associated with the disease, with increased risk of IBD occurrence linked to a history of acute intestinal injury. To examine the potential role of the lymphatic system in inflammation recurrence, we evaluated morphological and functional changes in mouse mucosal and mesenteric lymphatic vessels, and within the mesenteric lymph nodes during acute ileitis caused by a 7-day treatment with dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)...
December 14, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349833/a-systematic-assessment-of-key-design-and-performance-characteristics-of-drug-exposure-registries-requested-by-the-u-s-food-and-drug-administration
#2
Yanling Zhao, Ellen Pinnow, Jacqueline M Major
PURPOSE: The purpose of the study is to evaluate contributions to postmarket safety assessments and identify potential factors for enhancing implementation and utilization of registries in regulatory decision-making. METHODS: Registry documents (e.g., protocols, reports) submitted to the FDA were identified up to January 2016 through an extensive, systematic review of internal records and resources. We characterized nonpregnancy drug exposure registries based on prespecified design elements, performance, and regulatory impact...
January 19, 2018: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348134/cerebral-mitochondrial-microangiopathy-leads-to-leukoencephalopathy-in-mitochondrial-neurogastrointestinal-encephalopathy
#3
L L Gramegna, A Pisano, C Testa, D N Manners, R D'Angelo, E Boschetti, F Giancola, L Pironi, L Caporali, M Capristo, M L Valentino, G Plazzi, C Casali, M T Dotti, G Cenacchi, M Hirano, C Giordano, P Parchi, R Rinaldi, R De Giorgio, R Lodi, V Carelli, C Tonon
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalopathy is a rare disorder due to recessive mutations in the thymidine phosphorylase gene, encoding thymidine phosphorylase protein required for mitochondrial DNA replication. Clinical manifestations include gastrointestinal dysmotility and diffuse asymptomatic leukoencephalopathy. This study aimed to elucidate the mechanisms underlying brain leukoencephalopathy in patients with mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalopathy by correlating multimodal neuroradiologic features to postmortem pathology...
January 18, 2018: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343286/diagnosis-and-management-of-transthyretin-familial-amyloid-polyneuropathy-in-japan-red-flag-symptom-clusters-and-treatment-algorithm
#4
REVIEW
Yoshiki Sekijima, Mitsuharu Ueda, Haruki Koike, Sonoko Misawa, Tomonori Ishii, Yukio Ando
Hereditary ATTR (ATTRm) amyloidosis (also called transthyretin-type familial amyloid polyneuropathy [ATTR-FAP]) is an autosomal-dominant, adult-onset, rare systemic disorder predominantly characterized by irreversible, progressive, and persistent peripheral nerve damage. TTR gene mutations (e.g. replacement of valine with methionine at position 30 [Val30Met (p.Val50Met)]) lead to destabilization and dissociation of TTR tetramers into variant TTR monomers, which form amyloid fibrils that deposit in peripheral nerves and various organs, giving rise to peripheral and autonomic neuropathy and several non-disease specific symptoms...
January 17, 2018: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341898/induction-of-alpha-synuclein-pathology-in-the-enteric-nervous-system-of-the-rat-and-non-human-primate-results-in-gastrointestinal-dysmotility-and-transient-cns-pathology
#5
Fredric P Manfredsson, Kelvin C Luk, Matthew J Benskey, Aysegul Guezer, Joanna Garcia, Nathan C Kuhn, Ivette M Sandoval, Joseph R Patterson, Alana O'Mara, Reid Yonkers, Jeffrey H Kordower
Alpha-Synuclein (α-syn) is by far the most highly vetted pathogenic and therapeutic target in Parkinson's disease. Aggregated α-syn is present in sporadic Parkinson's disease, both in the central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system (PNS). The enteric division of the PNS is of particular interest because 1) gastric dysfunction is a key clinical manifestation of Parkinson's disease, and 2) Lewy pathology in myenteric and submucosal neurons of the enteric nervous system (ENS) has been referred to as stage zero in the Braak pathological staging of Parkinson's disease...
January 13, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341860/risk-management-of-free-radicals-involved-in-air-travel-syndromes-by-antioxidants
#6
Jeum-Nam Kim, Byung-Mu Lee
Frequent air travelers and airplane pilots may develop various types of illnesses. The environmental risk factors associated with air travel syndromes (ATS) or air travel-related adverse health outcomes raised concerns and need to be assessed in the context of risk management and public health. Accordingly, the aim of the present review was to determine ATS, risk factors, and mechanisms underlying ATS using scientific data and information obtained from Medline, Toxline, and regulatory agencies. Additional information was also extracted from websites of organizations, such as the International Air Transport Association (IATA), International Association for Medical Assistance to Travelers (IAMAT), and International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO)...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part B, Critical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340149/acute-kidney-injury-due-to-multiple-hymenoptera-stings-a-clinicopathological-study
#7
Sanjay Vikrant, Anupam Parashar
Background: Acute kidney injury (AKI) after multiple Hymenoptera stings is well known but still a rare phenomenon. Methods: We conducted a retrospective study of the clinicopathological spectrum of AKI due to multiple Hymenoptera stings over 13 years (July 2003-June 2016). Results: A total of 35 patients were diagnosed with AKI due to multiple Hymenoptera stings. The mean age of the patients was 44.7 ± 17.4 years and the majority (60%) were men...
August 2017: Clinical Kidney Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332637/pilot-rct-of-an-integrative-group-therapy-for-patients-with-refractory-irritable-bowel-syndrome-isrctn02977330
#8
S Berens, E Stroe-Kunold, F Kraus, J Tesarz, A Gauss, B Niesler, W Herzog, R Schaefert
OBJECTIVE: Different forms of psychotherapeutic treatments have been proven effective in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), but disorder-oriented and integrative concepts are still rare. Therefore, we implemented and evaluated an integrative group therapeutic concept within an interdisciplinary tertiary care clinic for functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs). AIMS: present our integrative group concept, assess feasibility issues, and evaluate efficacy. METHODS: A pilot-RCT with a randomized controlled wait-listed group design was conducted...
February 2018: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329748/oral-bifidobacterium-longum-expressing-glp-2-improves-nutrient-assimilation-and-nutritional-homeostasis-in-mice
#9
Qian Zhang, Mengge Liu, Shiyu Li, Zhenrui Xu, Jiajia Wang, Yuzhe Wang, Zhengbin Fei, Wenhua Huang, Hanxiao Sun
Bifidobacterium has been developed for the oral delivery of peptides and has the added beneficial effect on our bodies through its probiotic properties. Here, we utilize Bifidobacterium as a delivery system to orally deliver Glucagon like peptide-2 (GLP-2). We constructed vector derived from pET-31b(+) to construct a Bifidobacterium longum expressing GLP-2. We then determined the bioactivity of recombinant Bifidobacterium in Caco-2 cells. Finally, we quantified newly synthesized ApoB48 and chylomicron production in mice infused with exogenous GLP-2 or Bifidobacterium expressing GLP-2...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Microbiological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327435/impact-of-dietary-induced-precocious-gut-maturation-on-cecal-microbiota-and-its-relation-to-the-blood-brain-barrier-during-the-postnatal-period-in-rats
#10
N Marungruang, E Arévalo Sureda, A Lefrançoise, B Weström, M Nyman, O Prykhodko, F Fåk Hållenius
BACKGROUND: Precocious maturation of the gastrointestinal barrier (GIB) in newborn mammals can be induced by dietary provocation, but how this affects the gut microbiota and the gut-brain axis remains unknown. The objective of this study was to investigate effects of induced GIB maturation on gut microbiota composition and blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability. METHODS: Suckling rats were studied at 72 h after gavage with phytohemagglutinin (PHA) or microbial protease (PT) to induce maturation of GIB...
January 12, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318638/voltage-gated-sodium-channels-nav-igating-the-field-to-determine-their-contribution-to-visceral-nociception
#11
Andelain Erickson, Annemie Deiteren, Andrea M Harrington, Sonia Garcia-Caraballo, Joel Castro, Ashlee Caldwell, Luke Grundy, Stuart M Brierley
Chronic visceral pain, altered motility and bladder dysfunction are common, yet poorly managed symptoms of functional and inflammatory disorders of the gastrointestinal and urinary tracts. Recently, numerous human channelopathies of the voltage-gated sodium (NaV ) channel family have been identified, which induce either painful neuropathies, an insensitivity to pain, or alterations in smooth muscle function. The identification of these disorders, in addition to the recent utilisation of genetically modified NaV mice and specific NaV channel modulators, has shed new light on how NaV channels contribute to the function of neuronal and non-neuronal tissues within the gastrointestinal tract and bladder...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314441/alterations-in-the-gut-barrier-and-involvement-of-toll-like-receptor-4-in-murine-postoperative-ileus
#12
S-S Lin, R-Q Zhang, L Shen, X-J Xu, K Li, A-V Bazhin, J Fichna, Y-Y Li
BACKGROUND: The changes in the gut barrier (GB) and associated mechanisms in postoperative ileus (POI) are still unclear. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is involved in inflammation, which may cause GB dysfunction and POI. Here, the roles of the GB in POI in relation to TLR4-dependent signaling pathways were explored. METHODS: POI was induced by small bowel manipulation in wild-type (WT) and TLR4-knockout (TLR4-/-) mice. Twenty-four hours after manipulation, indices of gastrointestinal (GI) transit, GB structure and function, inflammation, and related signaling pathways were analyzed...
January 4, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305058/altered-gastrointestinal-motility-in-an-animal-model-of-lesch-nyhan-disease
#13
Maria G Zizzo, Monica Frinchi, Domenico Nuzzo, Hyder A Jinnah, Giuseppa Mudò, Daniele F Condorelli, Francesco Caciagli, Renata Ciccarelli, Patrizia Di Iorio, Flavia Mulè, Natale Belluardo, Rosa Serio
Mutations in the HGPRT1 gene, which encodes hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGprt), housekeeping enzyme responsible for recycling purines, lead to Lesch-Nyhan disease (LND). Clinical expression of LND indicates that HGprt deficiency has adverse effects on gastrointestinal motility. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate intestinal motility in HGprt knockout mice (HGprt¯). Spontaneous and neurally evoked mechanical activity was recorded in vitro as changes in isometric tension in circular muscle strips of distal colon...
December 20, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304535/circulating-angiogenic-mediators-in-patients-with-moderate-and-severe-von-willebrand-disease-a-multicentre-cross-sectional-study
#14
Dafna J Groeneveld, Yvonne V Sanders, Jelle Adelmeijer, Evelien P Mauser-Bunschoten, Johanna G van der Bom, Marjon H Cnossen, Karin Fijnvandraat, Britta A P Laros-van Gorkom, Karina Meijer, Ton Lisman, Jeroen Eikenboom, Frank W G Leebeek
Inhibition of von Willebrand factor (VWF) expression in endothelial cells results in enhanced, possible dysfunctional angiogenesis, consistent with observations of severe gastrointestinal bleedings caused by vascular malformations in patients with von Willebrand disease (VWD). VWF is stored in endothelial Weibel-Palade bodies (WPB) with several other mediators of angiogenesis, like angiopoietin-2, osteoprotegerin and galectin-3. Increased release of angiopoietin-2 has been observed in medium of endothelial cells lacking VWF, but data on circulating levels of angiogenic factors in patients with VWD are lacking...
January 2018: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303209/point-of-care-gastrointestinal-and-urinary-tract-sonography-in-daily-evaluation-of-gastrointestinal-dysfunction-in-critically-ill-patients-guts-protocol
#15
Angel Augusto Perez-Calatayud, Raul Carrillo-Esper, Eduardo Daniel Anica-Malagon, Jesus Carlos Briones-Garduño, Emilio Arch-Tirado, Robert Wise, Manu L N G Malbrain
PURPOSE: There is currently a lack of universally accepted criteria for gastrointestinal (GI) failure or dysfunction in critical care. Also, the clinical assessment of intestinal function is notoriously difficult and thus often goes unrecognized, contributing to poor outcomes. A recent grading system has been proposed to define acute gastrointestinal injury (AGI) in conjunction with other organ function scores (e.g., SOFA). Ultrasonography has become widely accepted as a diagnostic tool for GI problems and pathology...
January 5, 2018: Anaesthesiology Intensive Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302711/oral-nigella-sativa-oil-and-thymoquinone-administration-ameliorates-the-effect-of-long-term-cisplatin-treatment-on-the-enzymes-of-carbohydrate-metabolism-brush-border-membrane-and-antioxidant-defense-in-rat-intestine
#16
Faaiza Shahid, Zeba Farooqui, Aijaz Ahmed Khan, Farah Khan
We have previously shown that oral administration of Nigella sativa oil (NSO) ameliorates the deleterious gastrointestinal effects of cisplatin (CP), administered as a single dose. Since a typical clinical CP dosing regimen involves multiple cycles of CP administration in lower doses, in the present study we investigate the protective efficacy of NSO and its major bioactive constituent, thymoquinone (TQ), against multiple-dose CP treatment-induced deleterious biochemical and histological changes in rat intestine...
January 4, 2018: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298943/modified-barium-swallow-for-evaluation-of-dysphagia
#17
Rebecca Peterson
Deglutition, or the act of swallowing, allows food and fluids to move through the upper gastrointestinal tract. Difficulty swallowing, known as dysphagia, causes a host of complications for patients. Fluoroscopic evaluation of dysphagia enables appropriate diagnosis and treatment. This evaluation commonly is accomplished with a swallowing dysfunction study, also known as a modified barium swallow procedure.
January 2018: Radiologic Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297596/neuropathology-of-autonomic-dysfunction-in-synucleinopathies
#18
REVIEW
Elizabeth A Coon, Jeremy K Cutsforth-Gregory, Eduardo E Benarroch
The synucleinopathies-Parkinson's disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, multiple system atrophy, and pure autonomic failure-result from distinct patterns of abnormal α-synuclein aggregation throughout the nervous system. Autonomic dysfunction in these disorders results from variable involvement of the central and peripheral autonomic networks. The major pathologic hallmark of Parkinson's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies is Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites; of multiple system atrophy, oligodendroglial cytoplasmic inclusions; and of pure autonomic failure, peripheral neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions...
January 3, 2018: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296567/carthami-flos-regulates-gastrointestinal-motility-functions
#19
Iksung Kim, Jinsoo Bae, Byung Joo Kim
Background: Gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms are common in the general population. This investigation studied the effects of Carthami flos (CF), a natural product, on GI motility. Methods: We checked the intestinal transit rates (ITRs) or gastric emptying in normal and in GI-motility-dysfunction (GMD) mice in vivo. The GMD mice were made by acetic acid or streptozotocin. Results: Both ITRs and gastric emptying were increased by CF (0.0025-0...
December 2017: Integrative Medicine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278701/gentiopicroside-ameliorates-bleomycin-induced-pulmonary-fibrosis-in-mice-via-inhibiting-inflammatory-and-fibrotic-process
#20
Cheng Chen, Yong-Yan Wang, Ying-Xia Wang, Meng-Qun Cheng, Jian-Bing Yin, Xuan Zhang, Zhi-Peng Hong
Pulmonary fibrosis (PF) is a chronic and ultimately fatal interstitial lung disease of various causes. The advent of nintedanib and pirfenidone provides treatment options for PF patients for the first time. However, the adverse effects of the two drugs such as gastrointestinal disorders and hepatic dysfunction often lead to treatment discontinuation. Gentiopicroside (GPS) is a natural secoiridoid glycoside from gentian species of medicinal plants, and has a variety of pharmacological activities, including hepatoprotective and cholagogic, anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, and smooth muscle relaxing activities...
December 23, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
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