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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924920/age-dependent-alpha-synuclein-accumulation-and-phosphorylation-in-the-enteric-nervous-system-in-a-transgenic-mouse-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#1
Chong-Bin Zhong, Qian-Qian Chen, Caroline Haikal, Wen Li, Alexander Svanbergsson, Meike Diepenbroek, Jia-Yi Li
The enteric nervous system (ENS) controls the function of the gastrointestinal tract and has been implicated in various diseases, including Parkinson's disease (PD). PD is a neurodegenerative disease with Lewy bodies (LBs) and Lewy neurites (LNs) as the main pathological features. In addition to the typical motor symptoms in PD, attention has been drawn to non-motor symptoms, such as constipation, implying dysfunction of the ENS. In the present study, we characterized the age-dependent morphological alterations and aggregation of α-synuclein (α-syn), the primary protein component in LBs and LNs, in the ENS in an α-syn transgenic mouse model...
September 18, 2017: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923633/changes-in-dna-methylation-of-glucocorticoid-induced-tumor-necrosis-factor-receptor-and-its-ligand-in-liver-transplantation
#2
W Wang, G Ji, Y Chen, J Wang, J Sun, G Tang, Z Xie, H Zhao, G Liu, S Tan, G Chen, H Xue
Liver transplantation (LT) is the criterion standard of care in patients with end-stage liver disease and those with tumors of hepatic origin in the setting of liver dysfunction. Chronic immune rejection of the liver transplant can lead to bad prognosis for patients. Glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor (GITR) play a key role in dominant immunologic self-tolerance maintained by CD25+/CD4+ regulatory T cells. Here, we investigated the DNA methylation variations of GITR and GITR ligand (GITRL) using pyrosequencing by analyzing blood DNA samples of patients after LT...
October 2017: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923049/roflumilast-reverses-cftr-mediated-ion-transport-dysfunction-in-cigarette-smoke-exposed-mice
#3
S Vamsee Raju, Lawrence Rasmussen, Peter A Sloane, Li Ping Tang, Emily Falk Libby, Steven M Rowe
BACKGROUND: Dysfunction in cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) can be elicited by cigarette smoke and is observed in patients with chronic bronchitis. We have previously demonstrated in human airway epithelial cell monolayers that roflumilast, a clinically approved phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitor that reduces the risk of exacerbations in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients with chronic bronchitis and a history of exacerbations, activates CFTR-dependent chloride secretion via a cAMP-mediated pathway, partially restores the detrimental effects of cigarette smoke on CFTR-mediated ion transport, and increases CFTR-dependent gastrointestinal fluid secretion in isolated murine intestine segments...
September 18, 2017: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919918/retraction-gastrointestinal-dysfunction-in-idiopathic-parkinsonism-a-narrative-review
#4
(no author information available yet)
[This retracts the article on p. 126 in vol. 21, PMID: 28331512.].
2017: Journal of Research in Medical Sciences: the Official Journal of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917228/parenteral-nutrition-combined-with-enteral-feeding-improves-the-outcome-of-cancer-patients
#5
Pei-Chun Chao, Cheau-Feng Lin, Hui-Ju Chuang
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: This study investigated whether total parenteral nutrition combined with enteral nutrition is associated with improved biochemical and clinical outcomes in cancer patients with gastrointestinal dysfunction. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: From January to December 2014, the clinical data of 68 patients in a cancer ward were retrospectively collected, and these patients were classified into two groups according to nutrition delivery, through parenteral nutrition, combined with enteral nutrition more (group A) or less (group B) than 250 kcal/day...
2017: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916678/gucy2c-signaling-opposes-the-acute-radiation-induced-gi-syndrome
#6
Peng Li, Evan Wuthrick, Jeff A Rappaport, Crystal Kraft, Jieru E Lin, Glen Marszalowicz, Adam E Snook, Tingting Zhan, Terry M Hyslop, Scott A Waldman
High doses of ionizing radiation induce acute damage to epithelial cells of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, mediating toxicities restricting the therapeutic efficacy of radiation in cancer and morbidity and mortality in nuclear disasters. No approved prophylaxis or therapy exists for these toxicities, in part reflecting an incomplete understanding of mechanisms contributing to the acute radiation-induced GI syndrome (RIGS). Guanylate cyclase C (GUCY2C) and its hormones guanylin and uroguanylin have recently emerged as one paracrine axis defending intestinal mucosal integrity against mutational, chemical, and inflammatory injury...
September 15, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915214/non-hemodynamic-effects-of-catecholamines
#7
Clair Hartmann, Peter Radermacher, Martin Wepler, Benedikt Nußbaum
Circulatory shock is defined as an imbalance between tissue oxygen supply and demand, and mostly results from a loss of blood volume, cardiac pump failure, and/or reduction of vasomotor tone. The clinical hallmarks of circulatory shock are arterial hypotension and lactate acidosis. Since the degree and duration of hypotension are major determinants of outcome, vasopressor administration represents a cornerstone therapy to treat these patients. Current guidelines recommend the use of catecholamines as the drug of first choice...
October 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913607/diabetes-and-the-esophagus
#8
REVIEW
Roberto Monreal-Robles, José M Remes-Troche
Chronic hyperglycemia is a well-known cause of gastrointestinal motility disorders extending from the esophagus to the anorectum. Even though little attention has been paid to esophageal disorders in the context of DM, its prevalence is higher compared to gastroparesis. Heartburn, as a typical symptom of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), is the most prevalent symptom and has been found in 25 to 41% of patients with DM. Furthermore, DM has recently been established as possible independent factor for the development of Barrett's esophagus...
September 15, 2017: Current Treatment Options in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912900/open-label-trial-of-the-efficacy-and-safety-profile-of-rikkunshito-used-for-the-treatment-of-gastrointestinal-symptoms-in-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease-a-pilot-study
#9
Koji Yakabi, Naomi Yamaguchi, Shino Ono, Norihito Yoshida, Eriko Hosomi, Kenjiro Hayashi, Mitsuko Ochiai, Kosuke Maezawa, Kyoichi Nomura
BACKGROUND: Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) usually experience distress related not only to motor dysfunction, but also to nonmotor symptoms, including gastrointestinal dysfunction. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety profile of a traditional Japanese medicine, rikkunshito (RKT), used for the treatment of gastrointestinal symptoms, associated with anorexia and dyspepsia, in patients with PD. METHODS: Patients were randomly assigned to either Group A (4-week treatment period with 7...
2017: Current Therapeutic Research, Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912019/a-nigro-vagal-pathway-controls-gastric-motility-and-is-affected-in-a-rat-model-of-parkinsonism
#10
Laura Anselmi, Luca Toti, Cecilia Bove, Jessica Hampton, R Alberto Travagli
BACKGROUND & AIMS: In most patients with Parkinson's disease, gastrointestinal (GI) dysfunctions, such as gastroparesis and constipation, are prodromal to the cardinal motor symptoms of the disease. Sporadic Parkinson's disease has been proposed to develop following ingestion of neurotoxicants that affect the brain-gut axis via the vagus nerve, and then travel to higher centers compromising the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc), and, later, the cerebral cortex. We aimed to identify the pathway that connects the brainstem vagal nuclei and the SNpc, and to determine whether this pathway is compromised in a rat model of Parkinsonism...
September 11, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906161/heat-stress-modulated-gastrointestinal-barrier-dysfunction-role-of-tight-junctions-and-heat-shock-proteins
#11
Avinash Gupta, Nishant Ranjan Chauhan, Daipayan Chowdhury, Ajeet Singh, Ramesh Chand Meena, Amitabha Chakrabarti, Shashi Bala Singh
Increased environmental temperature exerts a visible impact on an individual's physiology. At the onset of heat stress, there is an increase in core body temperature which triggers peripheral vasodilation and sweating in an effort to dissipate the elevated body heat. The increase in peripheral circulation however reduces blood flow to the internal organs which are thus adversely affected. In particular, the gastrointestinal (GI) tract gets adversely affected during hyperthermia resulting in loosening of the tight junctions (TJs) that finally leads to higher intestinal permeability...
September 14, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904566/is-vitamin-d-deficiency-implicated-in-autonomic-dysfunction
#12
REVIEW
Rozina Wadhwania
Dysautonomia, dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system, presents with heterogeneous clinical features from an imbalanced regulation of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems. Low Vitamin D levels can explain the heterogeneous clinical features of migraine headaches, cardiac and gastrointestinal dysfunction, and oxidative stress evident in dysautonomia patients. The role of Vitamin D in modulating pain sensitivity has been recently established. However, there is a lack of research and understanding regarding the association between Vitamin D deficiency and autonomic dysfunction...
April 2017: Journal of Pediatric Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899670/definition-pathogenesis-and-management-of-that-cursed-dyspepsia
#13
REVIEW
Pramoda Koduru, Malcolm Irani, Eamonn M M Quigley
Dyspepsia is an umbrella term used to encompass a number of symptoms thought to originate from the upper gastrointestinal tract. These symptoms are relatively non-specific; not surprisingly, therefore, a myriad of conditions may present with any one or a combination of these symptoms. Therein lies the clinician's first challenge: detecting the minority who may have a potentially life-threatening disorder, such as gastric cancer, from a population whose symptoms are, for the most part, considered functional in origin...
September 9, 2017: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898571/risk-factors-of-post-ercp-pancreatitis-in-biliary-type-sphincter-of-oddi-dysfunction-in-japanese-patients
#14
Hiroyuki Miyatani, Satohiro Matsumoto, Hirosato Mashima
OBJECTIVES: Suspected sphincter of Oddi dysfunction (SOD) is a well-known risk factor for post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) pancreatitis (PEP). The indication of ERCP for suspected SOD patients was very low in Japan compared to other countries. Therefore, the risk of PEP may be different in Japanese SOD patients. The objective of this study was to evaluate the risk of PEP in suspected biliary type SOD in Japan. METHODS: From December 1996 to January 2017, 72 patients were suspected to have biliary type SOD by questionnaire, liver function tests, hepatobiliary scintigraphy, abdominal ultrasonography, upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, endoscopic ultrasonography, and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891262/more-than-constipation-bowel-symptoms-in-parkinson-s-disease-and-their-connection-to-gut-microbiota
#15
T H Mertsalmi, V T E Aho, P A B Pereira, L Paulin, E Pekkonen, P Auvinen, F Scheperjans
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The majority of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients suffer from gastrointestinal symptoms of which constipation is considered the most prominent. Recently, in addition to constipation, a diagnosis of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) was also found to be associated with increased PD risk. Gut microbiota alterations have been reported in IBS and recently also in PD. IBS-like bowel symptoms in PD and their possible connection to other non-motor symptoms and faecal microbiota were assessed...
September 11, 2017: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888746/-toxicity-and-quality-of-life-comparison-of-iodine-125%C3%A2-brachytherapy-and-stereotactic-radiotherapy-for-prostate-cancers
#16
K Gnep, T Lizée, B Campillo-Gimenez, G Delpon, S Droupy, L Perrier, R de Crevoisier
Quality of life is a major issue for good prognostic prostate cancer, for which brachytherapy is one of the reference treatments. Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy (SBRT) is a recent alternative however not yet validated as a standard treatment. This review of the literature reports and compares the toxicities and the quality of life, either after exclusive brachytherapy with iodine 125 or after SBRT. The comparison is made with the limitations of the absence of randomized trial comparing the two treatment techniques...
September 6, 2017: Cancer Radiothérapie: Journal de la Société Française de Radiothérapie Oncologique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883252/switching-therapy-from-intravenous-landiolol-to-transdermal-bisoprolol-in-a-patient-with-thyroid-storm-complicated-by-decompensated-heart-failure-and-gastrointestinal-dysfunction
#17
Shigeo Godo, Yu Kawazoe, Hiroshi Ozaki, Motoo Fujita, Daisuke Kudo, Ryosuke Nomura, Hiroaki Shimokawa, Shigeki Kushimoto
Thyroid storm is a life-threatening disorder that remains a therapeutic challenge. Although β-blockers are the mainstay for treatment, their use can be challenging in cases complicated by rapid atrial fibrillation and decompensated heart failure. We present a case of thyroid storm-associated atrial fibrillation and decompensated heart failure complicated by gastrointestinal dysfunction secondary to diffuse peritonitis that was successfully managed by a switching therapy, in which the continuous intravenous administration of landiolol was changed to bisoprolol via transdermal patch, in the acute phase treatment...
September 6, 2017: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882124/phenotypic-expressions-of-hereditary-transthyretin-ala97ser-related-amyloidosis-attr-in-taiwanese
#18
Hui-Ching Hsu, Ming-Feng Liao, Jung-Lung Hsu, Ai-Lun Lo, Hung-Chou Kuo, Rong-Kuo Lyu, Victor Chien-Chia Wu, Chih-Wei Wang, Long-Sun Ro
BACKGROUND: The disease course and early signs specific to ATTR Ala97Ser, the most common endemic mutation in Taiwan, have not been well described. Since new medications can slow down the rate of disease progression, the early diagnosis of this heterogeneous and fatal disease becomes critical. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the characteristics of genetically confirmed ATTR Ala97Ser patients at a tertiary referral medical center. RESULTS: Eight patients from 7 different families were enrolled (61...
September 7, 2017: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871499/a-prospective-evaluation-of-ileocecal-valve-dysfunction-and-intestinal-motility-derangements-in-small-intestinal-bacterial-overgrowth
#19
Bani Chander Roland, Gerard E Mullin, Monica Passi, Xi Zheng, Ahmed Salem, Robert Yolken, Pankaj Jay Pasricha
BACKGROUND: Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) is an increasingly recognized clinical syndrome; however, its etiophathogenesis is poorly understood. We hypothesized that loss of gastric acid, a delayed intestinal transit, and ileocecal valve dysfunction may contribute to the genesis of this syndrome. AIMS: Our primary aim was to assess these parameters using wireless motility capsule (WMC) testing and to correlate them with the presence or absence of SIBO...
September 4, 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869532/cftr-nherf2-lpa%C3%A2-complex-in-the-airway-and-gut-epithelia
#20
REVIEW
Weiqiang Zhang, Zhihong Zhang, Yanhui Zhang, Anjaparavanda P Naren
The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a cAMP- and cGMP-regulated chloride (Cl(-)) and bicarbonate (HCO₃(-)) channel localized primarily at the apical plasma membrane of epithelial cells lining the airway, gut and exocrine glands, where it is responsible for transepithelial salt and water transport. Several human diseases are associated with altered CFTR channel function. Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by the absence or dysfunction of CFTR channel activity, resulting from mutations in the gene...
September 4, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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