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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527760/restoration-of-cefixime-induced-gut-microbiota-changes-by-lactobacillus-cocktails-and-fructooligosaccharides-in-a-mouse-model
#1
Ying Shi, Qixiao Zhai, Dongyao Li, Bingyong Mao, Xiaoming Liu, Jianxin Zhao, Hao Zhang, Wei Chen
Probiotics have been used to rebuild the antibiotic-induced dysfunction in gut microbiota, but whether the different strains of probiotics result in similar or reverse effects remains unclear. In this study, the different recovery effects of two cocktails (each contains four strains) of Lactobacillus and fructooligosaccharide against cefixime-induced change of gut microbiota were evaluated in C57BL/6J mice. The results show that the use of cefixime caused a reduction in the diversities of the microbial community and led to significantly decreasing to one preponderant Firmicutes phylum, which was difficult to restore naturally in the short term...
July 2017: Microbiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524623/upper-gastrointestinal-complications-following-ablation-therapy-for-atrial-fibrillation
#2
S-Y Park, M Camilleri, D Packer, K Monahan
BACKGROUND: Following ablation therapy for cardiac arrhythmias, patients may develop upper gastrointestinal (UGI) symptoms. The vagus nerve is close to the atria and may be affected by ablating energy. AIM: To identify structural or functional complications in UGI tract following ablation for atrial fibrillation (AF) and clinical outcomes and association with vagal dysfunction. METHODS: Using natural language processing of electronic medical records and an AF ablation database of 5380 patients treated during 17 years, we identified 40 patients with UGI complications...
May 19, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523434/salivary-exosomal-psma7-a-promising-biomarker-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#3
Xiaowen Zheng, Feng Chen, Qian Zhang, Yulan Liu, Peng You, Shan Sun, Jiuxiang Lin, Ning Chen
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is an intestinal immune-dysfunctional disease worldwide whose prevalence increasing in Asia including China. It is a chronic disease of the gastrointestinal tract with unknown cause. Exosomes are small vesicles in various body fluids. They have diameters of 40-120 nm, and one of their functions is long-distance transfer of various substances. In this study, we investigated the contents of salivary exosomes in patients with IBD and in healthy controls to explore a new biomarker in patients with IBD...
May 18, 2017: Protein & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513822/abdominal-pressure-and-gastrointestinal-function-an-inseparable-couple
#4
Annika Reintam Blaser, Manu Lng Malbrain, Adrian Regli
Evaluating the degree of organ dysfunction is a cornerstone in distinguishing patients with critical illness from those without. However, evaluation of the gastrointestinal (GI) function in critically ill patients is not unified, and is still largely based on subjective clinical evaluation. Intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) has been proposed as a parameter to facilitate monitoring of abdominal compartment in critical illness, but the interactions between IAP and GI function are poorly clarified.The aim of this current review is to describe interactions and associations between GI dysfunction and IAP from a pathophysiological and clinical point of view...
May 17, 2017: Anaesthesiology Intensive Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511258/management-of-autonomic-dysfunction-in-parkinson-s-disease
#5
Ronald F Pfeiffer
Autonomic dysfunction is a frequent and important nonmotor feature of Parkinson's disease (PD). Autonomic dysfunction in PD spans a broad clinical spectrum. Cardiovascular dysfunction is characterized most prominently by orthostatic hypotension. Gastrointestinal dysfunction can involve virtually all levels of the gastrointestinal tract. Urinary dysfunction can entail either too frequent voiding or difficulty voiding. Sexual dysfunction is frequent and frustrating for both the patient and the partner. Alterations in sweating and body temperature are not widely recognized, but often are present...
April 2017: Seminars in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507013/mechanisms-of-action-of-probiotics-and-the-gastrointestinal-microbiota-on-gut-motility-and-constipation
#6
REVIEW
Eirini Dimidi, Stephanos Christodoulides, S Mark Scott, Kevin Whelan
Constipation is a common and burdensome gastrointestinal disorder that may result from altered gastrointestinal motility. The effect of probiotics on constipation has been increasingly investigated in both animal and human studies, showing promising results. However, there is still uncertainty regarding the mechanisms of action of probiotics on gut motility and constipation. Several factors are vital to normal gut motility, including immune and nervous system function, bile acid metabolism and mucus secretion, and the gastrointestinal microbiota and fermentation; an imbalance or dysfunction in any of these components may contribute to aberrant gut motility and, consequently, symptoms of constipation...
May 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506730/-the-human-gut-microbiota-interactions-with-the-host-and-dysfunctions
#7
P Lepage
The human intestinal microbiota is composed of approximately 100,000 billion microorganisms with the average total number of different commensal bacterial species estimated at over 500 per individual. The human intestinal microbiota can be considered as an organ within another, which co-evolved with its host to achieve a symbiotic relationship leading to physiological homeostasis. The host provides an environment enriched in nutrients and the microbiota provides essential functions. Dysbiosis of the intestinal microbiota (changes in bacterial composition) has been associated with local dysfunctions of the gastrointestinal tract, such as inflammatory bowel disease or irritable bowel syndrome but also with obesity and metabolic diseases...
May 12, 2017: Revue des Maladies Respiratoires
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506496/twins-labeling-liquid-chromatography-mass-spectrometry-based-metabolomics-for-absolute-quantification-of-tryptophan-and-its-key-metabolites
#8
Huimin Guo, Yu Jiao, Xu Wang, Tao Lu, Zunjian Zhang, Fengguo Xu
Tryptophan metabolism plays a crucial role in mediating gastrointestinal function. Here, in order to absolutely quantify tryptophan and its metabolites, a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) based targeted metabolomics approach was developed using N-dimethyl-/N-diethyl-amino naphthalene-1-sulfonyl chloride (Dns/Dens-Cl) as twins labeling (TL) reagents. Dns-Cl is famous in amine and phenol derivations, and structure is similar with Dens-Cl. The introduction of easily protonated moiety of tertiary ammonium-containing part in the derivatives from Dns to tryptophan and its metabolites not only improved the LC separation but also enhanced their MS response...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501568/polytrauma-induced-hepatic-stress-response-and-the-development-of-liver-insulin-resistance
#9
Robert M Akscyn, J Lee Franklin, Tatyana A Gavrikova, Joseph L Messina
Insulin resistance and metabolic dysfunction are common following injury. Polytrauma is defined as combined injuries to more than one body part or organ system, and is common in modern warfare, as well as automobile and industrial accidents. Polytrauma can include any combination of burn injury, fracture, hemorrhage, trauma to the extremities, and blunt or penetrating trauma. Multiple minor injuries are often more deleterious than a more severe single injury. To investigate the mechanisms of development of insulin resistance following injury, we have developed a rat model of polytrauma which combined soft tissue trauma with burn injury and penetrating gastrointestinal (GI) trauma...
May 10, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499731/discovery-of-n-substituted-endo-3-8-aza-bicyclo-3-2-1-oct-3-yl-phenol-and-phenyl-carboxamide-series-of-%C3%AE-opioid-receptor-antagonists
#10
Lan Jiang, David T Beattie, John R Jacobsen, Samuel Kintz, Glenmar P Obedencio, Daisuke Saito, Ioanna Stergiades, Ross G Vickery, Daniel D Long
Gastrointestinal dysfunction as a consequence of the use of opioid analgesics is of significant clinical concern. First generation drugs to treat these opioid-induced side-effects were limited by their negative impact on opioid receptor agonist-induced analgesia. Second generation therapies target a localized, peripherally-restricted, non-CNS penetrant drug distribution of opioid receptor antagonists. Herein we describe the discovery of the N-substituted-endo-3-(8-aza-bicyclo[3.2.1]oct-3-yl)-phenol and -phenyl carboxamide series of μ-opioid receptor antagonists...
May 3, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490634/inflammatory-cytokines-down-regulate-the-barrier-protective-prostasin-matriptase-proteolytic-cascade-early-in-experimental-colitis
#11
Marguerite S Buzza, Tierra A Johnson, Gregory D Conway, Erik W Martin, Subhradip Mukhopadhyay, Terez Shea-Donohue, Toni M Antalis
Compromised gastrointestinal barrier function is strongly associated with the progressive and destructive pathologies of the two main forms of IBD, Ulcerative Colitis (UC) and Crohns disease (CD). Matriptase is a membrane-anchored serine protease encoded by Suppression of Tumorigenicity-14 (ST14) gene, which is critical for epithelial barrier development and homeostasis. Matriptase barrier protective activity is linked with the glycosyl-phosphatidyl-inositol (GPI)-anchored serine protease prostasin, which is a co-factor for matriptase zymogen activation...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487998/effects-of-dietary-l-tryptophan-supplementation-on-intestinal-response-to-chronic-unpredictable-stress-in-broilers
#12
Yunshuang Yue, Yuming Guo, Ying Yang
Stress has been recognized as a critical risk factor for gastrointestinal diseases in both humans and animals. However, nutritional strategies to attenuate stress-induced intestinal barrier function and underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. This study tested the hypothesis that L-tryptophan enhanced intestinal barrier function by regulating mucosal serotonin metabolism in chronic unpredictable stress-exposed broilers. One-day-old male broilers (Arbor Acres) were fed a basal diet supplemented with or without L-tryptophan in the absence or presence of chronic unpredictable stress...
May 9, 2017: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487607/effects-of-hwangryunhaedok-tang-on-gastrointestinal-motility-function-in-mice
#13
Hyoyeon Kim, Iksung Kim, Min Cheol Lee, Hyun Jung Kim, Guem San Lee, Hyungwoo Kim, Byung Joo Kim
AIM: To investigate the effects of Hwangryunhaedok-tang (HHT) on gastrointestinal (GI) motility in mice. METHODS: The effects of a boiling water extract of HHT (HHTE) on GI motility were investigated by calculating percent intestinal transit rates (ITR%) and gastric emptying (GE) values using Evans Blue and phenol red, respectively, in normal mice and in mice with experimentally induced GI motility dysfunction (GMD). In addition, the effects of the four components of HHT, that is, Gardeniae Fructus (GF), Scutellariae Radix (SR), Coptidis Rhizoma (CR), and Phellodendri Cortex (PC), on GI motility were also investigated...
April 21, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484814/contemporary-approaches-to-perioperative-iv-fluid-therapy
#14
REVIEW
Paul S Myles, Sam Andrews, Jonathan Nicholson, Dileep N Lobo, Monty Mythen
BACKGROUND: Intravenous fluid therapy is required for most surgical patients, but inappropriate regimens are commonly prescribed. The aim of this narrative review was to provide evidence-based guidance on appropriate perioperative fluid management. METHOD: We did a systematic literature search of the literature to identify relevant studies and meta-analyses to develop recommendations. RESULTS: Of 275 retrieved articles, we identified 25 articles to inform this review...
May 8, 2017: World Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476502/quercetin-suppresses-nlrp3-inflammasome-activation-in-epithelial-cells-triggered-by-escherichia-coli-o157-h7
#15
Yansong Xue, Min Du, Mei-Jun Zhu
Inflammatory responses elicited by LRR and PYD domains-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome is induced by a wide variety of stress signals including infectious agents and cellular disorders. E. coli O157:H7 causes serious gastrointestinal diseases that results in severe inflammation and oxidative stress, causing host cell damage. In this study, we found that E. coli O157:H7 infection induced NLRP3 assembly, caspase-1 activation and interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18 release in Caco-2 cells. Infection also resulted in mitochondrial dysfunction with disrupted mitochondrial potential and mitochondrial complex-I activity, as well as the cytosolic release of cytochrome c and altered mitochondrial respiratory chain...
May 2, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474627/scrub-typhus-in-uttarakhand-adjoining-uttar-pradesh-seasonality-clinical-presentations-predictors-of-mortality
#16
Anurag Bhargava, Reshma Kaushik, Rajeev Mohan Kaushik, Anita Sharma, Sohaib Ahmad, Minakshi Dhar, Garima Mittal, Sushant Khanduri, Priyannk Pant, Rajesh Kakkar
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Scrub typhus is a re-emerging mite-borne rickettsiosis, which continues to be underdiagnosed, with lethal consequences. The present study was conducted to determine the seasonality, clinical presentation and predictors of mortality in patients with scrub typhus at a tertiary care teaching hospital in northern India. METHODS: Scrub typhus was suspected in patients attending the hospital as per the standard case definition and serological evidence was obtained by performing an IgM ELISA...
December 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472048/multispecies-mass-mortality-of-marine-fauna-linked-to-a-toxic-dinoflagellate-bloom
#17
Michel Starr, Stéphane Lair, Sonia Michaud, Michael Scarratt, Michael Quilliam, Denis Lefaivre, Michel Robert, Andrew Wotherspoon, Robert Michaud, Nadia Ménard, Gilbert Sauvé, Sylvie Lessard, Pierre Béland, Lena Measures
Following heavy precipitation, we observed an intense algal bloom in the St. Lawrence Estuary (SLE) that coincided with an unusually high mortality of several species of marine fish, birds and mammals, including species designated at risk. The algal species was identified as Alexandrium tamarense and was determined to contain a potent mixture of paralytic shellfish toxins (PST). Significant levels of PST were found in the liver and/or gastrointestinal contents of several carcasses tested as well as in live planktivorous fish, molluscs and plankton samples collected during the bloom...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470370/high-dosage-of-a-fixed-combination-oxycodone-naloxone-prolonged-release-efficacy-and-tolerability-in-patients-with-chronic-cancer-pain
#18
Francesco Amato, Silvia Ceniti, Sergio Mameli, Giovanni M Pisanu, Renato Vellucci, Vincenzo Palmieri, Leonardo Consoletti, Dorotea Magaldi, Paolo Notaro, Claudio Marcassa
PURPOSE: Opioids are associated with side effects in the treatment of moderate-to-severe chronic cancer pain. Oral combination of opioid agonist-antagonist oxycodone-naloxone (OXN-PR) attenuates gastrointestinal side effects; however, evidence on high-dose OXN-PR treatment is scant. This study evaluates the efficacy and tolerability of high-dose OXN-PR in chronic cancer pain. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This was a multicenter, prospective 60-day observation on consecutive cancer patients with uncontrolled moderate-severe chronic pain or intolerant to other analgesics, who were switched at entry visit (T0) to OXN-PR ≥80 mg daily...
May 3, 2017: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468842/novel-mutations-in-dystonin-provide-clues-to-the-pathomechanisms-of-hsan-vi
#19
Fiore Manganelli, Silvia Parisi, Maria Nolano, Feifei Tao, Simona Paladino, Chiara Pisciotta, Stefano Tozza, Claudia Nesti, Adriana P Rebelo, Vincenzo Provitera, Filippo M Santorelli, Michael E Shy, Tommaso Russo, Stephan Zuchner, Lucio Santoro
OBJECTIVE: To describe a second hereditary sensory autonomic neuropathy type VI (HSAN-VI) family harboring 2 novel heterozygous mutations in the dystonin (DST) gene and to evaluate their effect on neurons derived from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC). METHODS: The family consisted of 3 affected siblings from nonconsanguineous healthy parents. All members underwent clinical and electrophysiologic evaluation and genetic analysis. Two patients underwent quantitative sensory testing (QST), cardiovascular reflexes, dynamic sweat test, and skin biopsy to evaluate somatic and autonomic cutaneous innervation and to get fibroblast cultures for developing iPSC-derived neurons...
May 3, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463151/patient-reported-outcomes-after-radiation-therapy-in-men-with-prostate-cancer-a%C3%A2-systematic-review-of-prognostic-tool-accuracy-and-validity
#20
Michael E O'Callaghan, Elspeth Raymond, Jared M Campbell, Andrew D Vincent, Kerri Beckmann, David Roder, Sue Evans, John McNeil, Jeremy Millar, John Zalcberg, Martin Borg, Kim Moretti
PURPOSE: To identify, through a systematic review, all validated tools used for the prediction of patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) in patients being treated with radiation therapy for prostate cancer, and provide a comparative summary of accuracy and generalizability. METHODS AND MATERIALS: PubMed and EMBASE were searched from July 2007. Title/abstract screening, full text review, and critical appraisal were undertaken by 2 reviewers, whereas data extraction was performed by a single reviewer...
June 1, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
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