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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531187/multi-scale-computational-study-of-the-mechanical-regulation-of-cell-mitotic-rounding-in-epithelia
#1
Ali Nematbakhsh, Wenzhao Sun, Pavel A Brodskiy, Aboutaleb Amiri, Cody Narciso, Zhiliang Xu, Jeremiah J Zartman, Mark Alber
Mitotic rounding during cell division is critical for preventing daughter cells from inheriting an abnormal number of chromosomes, a condition that occurs frequently in cancer cells. Cells must significantly expand their apical area and transition from a polygonal to circular apical shape to achieve robust mitotic rounding in epithelial tissues, which is where most cancers initiate. However, how cells mechanically regulate robust mitotic rounding within packed tissues is unknown. Here, we analyze mitotic rounding using a newly developed multi-scale subcellular element computational model that is calibrated using experimental data...
May 22, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530617/-principles-of-urinary-tract-reconstructive-surgery
#2
Juan Gomez Rivas, Jesús Cisneros Ledo
INTRODUCTION: In the last 15 years, the role of laparoscopic surgery has progressively increased to include reconstructive procedures such as pyeloplasty and management of ureteral stricture, in addition to being a field in continuous development, this refers to the improvement of ergonomics, new instruments and new techniques. We present a review on basic features of laparoscopic reconstructive surgery in urology. ACQUISITION OF EVIDENCE: For this review, an exhaustive literature search was performed in PUBMED, MEDILNE, BioMed central and others, with the keywords: reconstructive surgery, urology, laparoscopy...
May 2017: Archivos Españoles de Urología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527839/modulation-of-matrix-metalloproteinase-14-tissue-inhibitor-of-metalloproteinase-3-tissue-inhibitor-of-metalloproteinase-4-and-inducible-nitric-oxide-synthase-in-the-development-of-periapical-lesions
#3
Lorena Teodoro de Castro Cassanta, Virmondes Rodrigues, Jose Roberto Violatti-Filho, Benedito Alves Teixeira Neto, Vinícius Marques Tavares, Eduarda Castelo Branco Araujo Bernal, Danila Malheiros Souza, Marcelo Sivieri Araujo, Sanivia Aparecida de Lima Pereira, Denise Bertulucci Rocha Rodrigues
INTRODUCTION: Periapical cysts and granulomas are chronic lesions caused by an inflammatory immune response against microbial challenge in the root canal. Different cell types, cytokines, and molecules have been associated with periapical lesion formation and expansion. Therefore, because of the chronic inflammatory state of these lesions, the aim of this study was to evaluate the in situ expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-14 and -19, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-3 and -4, CD68, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in periapical cysts and granulomas...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Endodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526296/mesenchymal-stem-cells-mscs-attenuate-cutaneous-sclerodermatous-graft-versus-host-disease-scl-gvhd-through-inhibition-of-immune-cell-infiltration-in-a-mouse-model
#4
Ji-Young Lim, Da-Bin Ryu, Sung-Eun Lee, Gyeongsin Park, Chang-Ki Min
Human chronic graft-versus-host disease (CGVHD) shares clinical characteristics with a murine sclerodermatous GVHD (Scl-GVHD) model that is characterized by skin thickening and lung fibrosis. A B10.D2 → BALB/c transplant model of Scl-GVHD was used to address the therapeutic effect of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) on the development of CGVHD. The clinical and pathological severity of cutaneous Scl-GVHD was significantly attenuated in MSC-treated recipients relative to Scl-GVHD controls. After MSC treatment, skin collagen production was significantly reduced with consistent downregulation of TGF-β expression...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523375/a-model-for-one-dimensional-morphoelasticity-and-its-application-to-fibroblast-populated-collagen-lattices
#5
Shakti N Menon, Cameron L Hall, Scott W McCue, D L Sean McElwain
The mechanical behaviour of solid biological tissues has long been described using models based on classical continuum mechanics. However, the classical continuum theories of elasticity and viscoelasticity cannot easily capture the continual remodelling and associated structural changes in biological tissues. Furthermore, models drawn from plasticity theory are difficult to apply and interpret in this context, where there is no equivalent of a yield stress or flow rule. In this work, we describe a novel one-dimensional mathematical model of tissue remodelling based on the multiplicative decomposition of the deformation gradient...
May 18, 2017: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521866/neovascular-deterioration-impaired-nadph-oxidase-and-inflammatory-cytokine-expression-in-adipose-derived-multipotent-cells-from-subjects-with-metabolic-syndrome
#6
Wilfredo Oliva-Olivera, Said Lhamyani, Leticia Coín-Aragüez, Daniel Castellano-Castillo, Juan Alcaide-Torres, Elena María Yubero-Serrano, Rajaa El Bekay, Francisco José Tinahones
OBJECTIVE: Expansion of adipose tissue depends on the growth of its vascular network and it has been shown that adipose tissue dysfunction in obese subjects with the metabolic syndrome is associated with decreased angiogenesis. However, some subjects with a high body mass index do not develop metabolic abnormalities associated with obesity. In this study we examined the neovascular properties, expression levels of proteins involved in cellular redox balance and inflammatory cytokines in adipose-derived multipotent mesenchymal cells (ASCs) of subjects with different metabolic profiles...
June 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520915/ovary-specific-depletion-of-the-nuclear-receptor-nr5a2-compromises-expansion-of-the-cumulus-oophorus-but-not-fertilization-by-icsi
#7
Kalyne Bertolin, Marie-Charlotte Meinsohn, João Suzuki, Jan Gossen, Kristina Schoonjans, Rajesha Duggavathi, Bruce D Murphy
The orphan nuclear receptor, liver receptor homolog-1 (Nr5a2) is widely expressed in mammalian tissues, its ovarian expression is restricted to granulosa cells of activated follicles. We employed the floxed Nr5a2 (Nr5a2f/f) mutant mouse line and two granulosa-specific Cre lines, Amhr2Cre and tgCyp19Cre, to develop two tissue- and time-specific Nr5a2 depletion models, Nr5a2Amhr2-/- and Nr5a2Cyp19-/-. In the Nr5a2Cyp19-/- ovaries, Nr5a2 was depleted in mural granulosa, but not cumulus cells. We induced follicular development in mutant and wild type (control, CON) mice with equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) followed 44h later treatment with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) to induce ovulation...
May 18, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520776/proteomic-analysis-of-tea-plants-camellia-sinensis-with-purple-young-shoots-during-leaf-development
#8
Qiongqiong Zhou, Zhidan Chen, Jinwook Lee, Xinghui Li, Weijiang Sun
Tea products made from purple leaves are highly preferred by consumers due to the health benefits. This study developed a proteome reference map related to color changes during leaf growth in tea (Camellia sinensis) plant with purple young shoots using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE). Forty-six differentially expressed proteins were detected in the gel and successfully identified by using MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS. The pronounced changes in the proteomic profile between tender purple leaves (TPL) and mature green leaves (MGL) included: 1) the lower activity of proteins associated with CO2 assimilation, energy metabolism and photo flux efficiency and higher content of anthocyanins in TPL than those in MGL may protect tender leaves against photo-damage; 2) the higher abundance of chalcone synthase (CHS), chalcone isomerase (CHI) and flavonol synthase (FLS) likely contributes to the synthesis of anthocyanins, catechins and flavonols in TPL tissues; 3) higher abundance of stress response proteins, such as glutathione S-transferases (GST) and phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (PHGPx), could enhance the tolerance of TPL tissues to adverse condition in; and 4) the increased abundance of proteins related to protein synthesis, nucleic acids and cell wall proteins should be beneficial for the proliferation and expansion of leaf cell in TPL tissues...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518147/survivin-a-key-player-in-cancer-progression-increases-in-obesity-and-protects-adipose-tissue-stem-cells-from-apoptosis
#9
Miriam Ejarque, Victòria Ceperuelo-Mallafré, Carolina Serena, Gisela Pachón, Yaiza Núñez-Álvarez, Margarida Terrón-Puig, Enrique Calvo, Catalina Núñez-Roa, Wilfredo Oliva-Olivera, Francisco J Tinahones, Miguel Angel Peinado, Joan Vendrell, Sonia Fernández-Veledo
Adipose tissue (AT) has a central role in obesity-related metabolic imbalance through the dysregulated production of cytokines and adipokines. In addition to its known risk for cardiovascular disease and diabetes, obesity is also a major risk for cancer. We investigated the impact of obesity for the expression of survivin, an antiapoptotic protein upregulated by adipokines and a diagnostic biomarker of tumor onset and recurrence. In a cross-sectional study of 111 subjects classified by body mass index, circulating levels of survivin and gene expression in subcutaneous AT were significantly higher in obese patients and positively correlated with leptin...
May 18, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515941/tissue-resident-lymphocytes-sentinel-of-the-transformed-tissue
#10
EDITORIAL
Saïda Dadi, Ming O Li
Tumor cells can be detected and cleared by lymphocytes in a process termed cancer immunosurveillance. However, the contributing cell types had not been fully characterized. Using oncogene-induced murine models of epithelial cancer, a recent study showed that cell transformation triggers expansion of tissue-resident lymphocytes derived from innate, T cell receptor (TCR) αβ and TCRγδ lineages. These type-1-like innate lymphoid cells (ILC1ls) and type 1 innate-like T cells (ILTC1s) share a gene expression program distinct from those of conventional lymphocytes, and exhibit cytolytic activities against tumor cells...
2017: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515356/licensing-delineates-helper-and-effector-nk-cell-subsets-during-viral-infection
#11
Anthony E Zamora, Ethan G Aguilar, Can M Sungur, Lam T Khuat, Cordelia Dunai, G Raymond Lochhead, Juan Du, Claire Pomeroy, Bruce R Blazar, Dan L Longo, Jeffrey M Venstrom, Nicole Baumgarth, William J Murphy
Natural killer (NK) cells can be divided into phenotypic subsets based on expression of receptors that bind self-MHC-I molecules, a concept termed licensing or education. Here we show NK cell subsets with different migratory, effector, and immunoregulatory functions in dendritic cell and antigen (ag)-specific CD8+ T cell responses during influenza and murine cytomegalovirus infections. Shortly after infection, unlicensed NK cells localized in draining lymph nodes and produced GM-CSF, which correlated with the expansion and activation of dendritic cells, and resulted in greater and sustained ag-specific T cell responses...
May 18, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513533/deleterious-metabolic-effects-of-high-fructose-intake-the-preventive-effect-of-lactobacillus-kefiri-administration
#12
María Guillermina Zubiría, Sabrina Eliana Gambaro, María Amanda Rey, Paula Carasi, María de Los Ángeles Serradell, Andrés Giovambattista
Modern lifestyle and diets have been associated with metabolic disorders and an imbalance in the normal gut microbiota. Probiotics are widely known for their health beneficial properties targeting the gut microbial ecosystem. The aim of our study was to evaluate the preventive effect of Lactobacillus kefiri (L. kefiri) administration in a fructose-rich diet (FRD) mice model. Mice were provided with tap water or fructose-added (20% w/v) drinking water supplemented or not with L. kefiri. Results showed that probiotic administration prevented weight gain and epidydimal adipose tissue (EAT) expansion, with partial reversion of the adipocyte hypertrophy developed by FRD...
May 17, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513058/pro-myogenic-and-low-oxygen-culture-increases-expression-of-contractile-smooth-muscle-markers-in-human-fibroblasts
#13
Matija Veber, David Dolivo, Marsha Rolle, Tanja Dominko
Smooth muscle cells are essential for tissue engineering strategies to fabricate organs such as blood vessels, esophagus, and bladder, and to create disease models of these systems. In order for such therapies and models to be feasible, smooth muscle cells must be sourced effectively to enable production of large numbers of functional cells. In vitro, smooth muscle cells divide slowly and demonstrate short proliferative lifespans compared to other types of cells including stem cells and fibroblasts, limiting the number of cells that can be derived from expansion in culture of a primary isolation...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509260/rapid-serum-free-isolation-of-oligodendrocyte-progenitor-cells-from-adult-rat-spinal-cord
#14
John Bianco, Dario Carradori, Ronald Deumens, Anne des Rieux
Oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) play a pivotal role in both health and disease within the central nervous system, with oligodendrocytes, arising from resident OPCs, being the main myelinating cell type. Disruption in OPC numbers can lead to various deleterious health defects. Numerous studies have described techniques for isolating OPCs to obtain a better understanding of this cell type and to open doors for potential treatments of injury and disease. However, the techniques used in the majority of these studies involve several steps and are time consuming, with current culture protocols using serum and embryonic or postnatal cortical tissue as a source of isolation...
May 16, 2017: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507070/limited-colonization-undermined-by-inadequate-early-immune-responses-define-the-dynamics-of-decidual-listeriosis
#15
Gabrielle Rizzuto, Elisa Tagliani, Priyanka Manandhar, Adrian Erlebacher, Anna I Bakardjiev
The bacterial pathogen Listeria monocytogenes causes a food-borne systemic disease in pregnant women that can lead to preterm labor, stillbirth, or severe neonatal disease. Colonization of the maternal decidua appears to be an initial step in the maternal component of the disease as well as bacterial transmission to the placenta and fetus. Host-pathogen interactions in the decidua during this early stage of infection remain poorly understood. Here, we assessed the dynamics of L. monocytogenes infection in primary human decidual organ cultures and in the murine decidua in vivo...
May 15, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502783/evolution-expression-analysis-and-functional-verification-of-catharanthus-roseus-rlk1-like-kinase-crrlk1l-family-proteins-in-pear-pyrus-bretchneideri
#16
Xiaobing Kou, Kaijie Qi, Xin Qiao, Hao Yin, Xing Liu, Shaoling Zhang, Juyou Wu
The Catharanthus roseus RLK1-like kinase (CrRLK1L) family is involved in multiple processes during plant growth. However, little is known about CrRLK1L in the wood of the pear fruit tree Pyrus bretchneideri. In this study, 26 CrRLK1L gene members were identified in pear and were grouped into six subfamilies according to phylogenetic analyses. Evolutionary analysis indicated that recent whole genome duplication (WGD) and dispersed gene duplications may contribute to the expansion of the CrRLK1L gene family in pear...
May 10, 2017: Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502007/high-resolution-image-stitching-as-a-tool-to-assess-tissue-level-protein-distribution-and-localization
#17
Bryan A Millis, Matthew J Tyska
High-resolution microscopy has traditionally come at the expense of field of view, resulting in suboptimal interpretation of protein distribution throughout large or complex samples. Likewise, a low-resolution microscopic approach inhibits the ability of researchers to precisely localize proteins of interest at the subcellular level. Until recently, the ability to combine the strengths of these approaches was limited and technically impractical for most laboratories to implement. Continued advances in microscope automation, sophisticated software applications, and modern workstations have enabled expansion of such combinatorial approaches to researchers outside computationally focused fields...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501726/osteogenic-differentiation-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-is-impaired-by-bone-morphogenetic-protein-7
#18
Paweena Wongwitwichot, Jasadee Kaewsrichan
PURPOSE: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent adult stem cells and present in practically all tissues but originally identified within the bone marrow (BM). The differentiation potential of these cells is generally impaired when culturing in vitro for cell expansion. The aim of this study is to speedily increase the numbers of bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) with substantially maintaining their differentiation potential in vitro and improving bone formation in vivo...
May 11, 2017: Advances in Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501476/endothelial-cells-are-not-required-for-specification-of-respiratory-progenitors
#19
Jamie A Havrilak, Kristin R Melton, John M Shannon
Crosstalk between mesenchymal and epithelial cells influences organogenesis in multiple tissues, such as lung, pancreas, liver, and the nervous system. Lung mesenchyme comprises multiple cell types, however, and precise identification of the mesenchymal cell type(s) that drives early events in lung development remains unknown. Endothelial cells have been shown to be required for some aspects of lung epithelial patterning, lung stem cell differentiation, and regeneration after injury. Furthermore, endothelial cells are involved in early liver and pancreas development...
May 10, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499078/genome-wide-analysis-of-the-lateral-organ-boundaries-domain-lbd-gene-family-in-eucalyptus-grandis-reveals-members-that-differentially-impact-secondary-growth
#20
Qiang Lu, Fenjuan Shao, Colleen Macmillan, Iain W Wilson, Karen van der Merwe, Steven G Hussey, Alexander A Myburg, Xiaomei Dong, Deyou Qiu
Lateral Organ Boundaries Domain (LBD) proteins are plant-specific transcription factors playing crucial roles in growth and development. However, the function of LBD proteins in Eucalyptus grandis remains largely unexplored. In the present study, LBD genes in E. grandis were identified and characterized using bioinformatics approaches. Gene expression patterns in various tissues and the transcriptional responses of EgLBDs to exogenous hormones were determined by qRT-PCR. Functions of the selected EgLBDs were studied by ectopically overexpressing in a hybrid poplar (Populus alba × Populus glandulosa)...
May 12, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
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