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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106627/outcomes-after-elevation-of-serratus-anterior-fascia-during-prosthetic-breast-reconstruction
#1
Akhil K Seth, Elliot M Hirsch, John Y S Kim, Neil A Fine
BACKGROUND: Achieving optimal inferolateral coverage is critical to successful prosthetic breast reconstruction. Serratus anterior fascia (SF) elevation, a promising alternative to muscle flaps and acellular dermis (ADM), has not been rigorously studied. This study evaluates complication rates after mastectomy and immediate tissue expander (TE) coverage using SF, relative to other existing methods of reconstruction. METHODS: Retrospective review of consecutive patients undergoing mastectomy with immediate TE reconstruction over 10 years at 1 institution was performed...
January 19, 2017: Annals of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103228/human-specific-cortical-synaptic-connections-and-their-plasticity-is-that-what-makes-us-human
#2
Joana Lourenço, Alberto Bacci
One outstanding difference between Homo sapiens and other mammals is the ability to perform highly complex cognitive tasks and behaviors, such as language, abstract thinking, and cultural diversity. How is this accomplished? According to one prominent theory, cognitive complexity is proportional to the repetition of specific computational modules over a large surface expansion of the cerebral cortex (neocortex). However, the human neocortex was shown to also possess unique features at the cellular and synaptic levels, raising the possibility that expanding the computational module is not the only mechanism underlying complex thinking...
January 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102490/genome-engineering-of-stem-cell-organoids-for-disease-modeling
#3
REVIEW
Yingmin Sun, Qiurong Ding
Precision medicine emerges as a new approach that takes into account individual variability. Successful realization of precision medicine requires disease models that are able to incorporate personalized disease information and recapitulate disease development processes at the molecular, cellular and organ levels. With recent development in stem cell field, a variety of tissue organoids can be derived from patient specific pluripotent stem cells and adult stem cells. In combination with the state-of-the-art genome editing tools, organoids can be further engineered to mimic disease-relevant genetic and epigenetic status of a patient...
January 19, 2017: Protein & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102348/ho-1-inhibits-preadipocyte-proliferation-and-differentiation-at-the-onset-of-obesity-via-ros-dependent-activation-of-akt2
#4
Gabriel Wagner, Josefine Lindroos-Christensen, Elisa Einwallner, Julia Husa, Thea-Christin Zapf, Katharina Lipp, Sabine Rauscher, Marion Gröger, Andreas Spittler, Robert Loewe, Florian Gruber, J Catharina Duvigneau, Thomas Mohr, Hedwig Sutterlüty-Fall, Florian Klinglmüller, Gerhard Prager, Berthold Huppertz, Jeanho Yun, Oswald Wagner, Harald Esterbauer, Martin Bilban
Excessive accumulation of white adipose tissue (WAT) is a hallmark of obesity. The expansion of WAT in obesity involves proliferation and differentiation of adipose precursors, however, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we used an unbiased transcriptomics approach to identify the earliest molecular underpinnings occuring in adipose precursors following a brief HFD in mice. Our analysis identifies Heme Oxygenase-1 (HO-1) as strongly and selectively being upregulated in the adipose precursor fraction of WAT, upon high-fat diet (HFD) feeding...
January 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102225/glucocorticoid-receptor-signalling-activates-yap-in-breast-cancer
#5
Giovanni Sorrentino, Naomi Ruggeri, Alessandro Zannini, Eleonora Ingallina, Rebecca Bertolio, Carolina Marotta, Carmelo Neri, Elisa Cappuzzello, Mattia Forcato, Antonio Rosato, Miguel Mano, Silvio Bicciato, Giannino Del Sal
The Hippo pathway is an oncosuppressor signalling cascade that plays a major role in the control of cell growth, tissue homoeostasis and organ size. Dysregulation of the Hippo pathway leads to aberrant activation of the transcription co-activator YAP (Yes-associated protein) that contributes to tumorigenesis in several tissues. Here we identify glucocorticoids (GCs) as hormonal activators of YAP. Stimulation of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) leads to increase of YAP protein levels, nuclear accumulation and transcriptional activity in vitro and in vivo...
January 19, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101913/nasopharyngeal-colonization-with-streptococcus%C3%A2-pneumoniae-triggers-dendritic-cell-dependent-antibody-responses-against-invasive-disease-in-mice
#6
Anne Dommaschk, Nadine Ding, Meritxell Tort Tarres, Lara F Bittersohl, Regina Maus, Jennifer Stolper, Danny Jonigk, Peter Braubach, Torsten Lippmann, Tobias Welte, Ulrich A Maus
Nasopharyngeal colonization with Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn) is an important precondition for the development of pneumococcal pneumonia. At the same time, nasopharyngeal colonization with Spn has been shown to mount adaptive immune responses against Spn in mice and humans. Cellular responses of the nasopharyngeal compartment, including the nasal-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT), to pneumococcal colonization and their importance for developing adaptive immune responses are poorly defined. We show that nasopharyngeal colonization with S...
January 19, 2017: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101179/study-of-the-functional-mechanisms-of-osteopontin-and-chemokine-like-factor-1-in-the-development-and-progression-of-abdominal-aortic-aneurysms-in-rats
#7
Jun Li, Xia Bao, Yongxin Li, Yuewei Wang, Zonggang Zhao, Xing Jin
The aim of the study was to investigate the functional mechanisms of osteopontin (Opn) and chemokine-like factor 1 (Cklf1) during the development and progression of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) in rats. Healthy adult Sprague-Dawley rats (n=30) were randomly divided into the AAA, control and sham groups (10 rats/group) and experimental rat models of AAA were generated by enzyme perfusion in abdominal aorta for 30 min. The AAA formation was assessed by measuring the aortal diameter and hematoxylin and eosin staining as well as specific staining to detect the structural changes of the aorta and inflammatory cell infiltration...
December 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100655/furosemide-depresses-the-presynaptic-fiber-volley-and-modifies-frequency-dependent-axonal-excitability-in-rat-hippocampus
#8
Mogens Andreasen, Steen Nedergaard
The loop diuretic furosemide is known to have anticonvulsant effects, believed to be exerted through blockade of glial Na-K-Cl cotransport causing altered volume regulation in brain tissue. The possibility that direct effects of furosemide on neuronal properties could also be involved is supported by previous observations, but such effects have not been thoroughly investigated. In the present study we show that furosemide has two opposing effects on stimulus-induced postsynaptic excitation in the non-epileptic rat hippocampal slice: i) an enhancement of e-s coupling, which depended on intact GABAA transmission and was partially mimicked by selective blockade of K-Cl cotransport, and ii) a decrement of fEPSPs...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100648/multi-scale-structural-analysis-of-plant-er-pm-contact-sites
#9
Heather E McFarlane, Eun Kyoung Lee, Laura S van Bezouwen, Bradford Ross, Abel Rosado, A Lacey Samuels
Membrane contact sites (MCS) are recognized across eukaryotic systems as important nanostructures. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-plasma membrane (PM) contact sites (EPCS) are involved in excitation-contraction coupling, signalling, and plant responses to stress. In this report, we perform a multi-scale structural analysis of Arabidopsis EPCS that combine live cell imaging, quantitative transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and electron tomography over a developmental gradient. To place EPCS in the context of the entire cortical ER, we examined GFP-HDEL in living cells over a developmental gradient, then SYT1-GFP was used as a specific marker of EPCS...
January 18, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099525/polyethylene-glycol-camouflaged-earthworm-hemoglobin
#10
Vivek P Jani, Alborz Jelvani, Selamawit Moges, Parimala Nacharaju, Camille Roche, David Dantsker, Andre Palmer, Joel M Friedman, Pedro Cabrales
Nearly 21 million components of blood and whole blood and transfused annually in the United States, while on average only 13.6 million units of blood are donated. As the demand for Red Blood Cells (RBCs) continues to increase due to the aging population, this deficit will be more significant. Despite decades of research to develop hemoglobin (Hb) based oxygen (O2) carriers (HBOCs) as RBC substitutes, there are no products approved for clinical use. Lumbricus terrestris erythrocruorin (LtEc) is the large acellular O2 carrying protein complex found in the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097409/genetic-and-epigenetic-intra-tumour-heterogeneity-in-colorectal-cancer
#11
Huw Geraint Jones, Gareth Jenkins, Namor Williams, Paul Griffiths, Phil Chambers, John Beynon, Dean Harris
INTRODUCTION: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a highly heterogeneous disease, with pathologically similar cancers having completely different responses to treatment and patient survival. Intra-tumour heterogeneity (defined as distinct morphological and phenotypic differences) has recently been demonstrated to be an important factor in the development and behaviour of cancer cells and can be used to determine response to anticancer therapy. METHOD: Patients with resected CRC had DNA extracted from eight defined tumour areas which were analysed for two genetic mutations (BRAF and KRAS) and one epigenetic trait (CpG island methylator phenotype/CIMP)...
January 17, 2017: World Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096344/atrial-natriuretic-peptide-regulates-adipose-tissue-accumulation-in-adult-atria
#12
Nadine Suffee, Thomas Moore-Morris, Patrick Farahmand, Catherine Rücker-Martin, Gilles Dilanian, Magali Fradet, Daigo Sawaki, Geneviève Derumeaux, Pascal LePrince, Karine Clément, Isabelle Dugail, Michel Puceat, Stéphane N Hatem
The abundance of epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) is associated with atrial fibrillation (AF), the most frequent cardiac arrhythmia. However, both the origin and the factors involved in EAT expansion are unknown. Here, we found that adult human atrial epicardial cells were highly adipogenic through an epithelial-mesenchymal transition both in vitro and in vivo. In a genetic lineage tracing the WT1(CreERT2+/-)Rosa(tdT+/-) mouse model subjected to a high-fat diet, adipocytes of atrial EAT derived from a subset of epicardial progenitors...
January 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096308/-re-building-a-kidney
#13
Leif Oxburgh, Thomas J Carroll, Ondine Cleaver, Daniel R Gossett, Deborah K Hoshizaki, Jeffrey A Hubbell, Benjamin D Humphreys, Sanjay Jain, Jan Jensen, David L Kaplan, Carl Kesselman, Christian J Ketchum, Melissa H Little, Andrew P McMahon, Stuart J Shankland, Jason R Spence, M Todd Valerius, Jason A Wertheim, Oliver Wessely, Ying Zheng, Iain A Drummond
(Re)Building a Kidney is a National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases-led consortium to optimize approaches for the isolation, expansion, and differentiation of appropriate kidney cell types and the integration of these cells into complex structures that replicate human kidney function. The ultimate goals of the consortium are two-fold: to develop and implement strategies for in vitro engineering of replacement kidney tissue, and to devise strategies to stimulate regeneration of nephrons in situ to restore failing kidney function...
January 17, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096216/basal-filopodia-and-vascular-mechanical-stress-organize-fibronectin-into-pillars-bridging-the-mesoderm-endoderm-gap
#14
Yuki Sato, Kei Nagatoshi, Ayumi Hamano, Yuko Imamura, David Huss, Seiichi Uchida, Rusty Lansford
Cells may exchange information with other cells and tissues by exerting forces on the extracellular matrix (ECM). Fibronectin (FN) is an important ECM component that forms fibrils through cell contacts and creates directionally biased geometry. Here, we demonstrate that FN is deposited as pillars between widely separated germ layers, namely the somitic mesoderm and the endoderm, in quail embryos. Alongside the FN pillars, long filopodia protrude from the basal surfaces of somite epithelial cells. Loss-of-function of Ena/VASP, α5β1-integrins or talin in the somitic cells abolished the FN pillars, indicating that FN pillar formation is dependent on the basal filopodia through these molecules...
January 15, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096215/brassinosteroid-signaling-directs-formative-cell-divisions-and-protophloem-differentiation-in-arabidopsis-root-meristems
#15
Yeon Hee Kang, Alice Breda, Christian S Hardtke
Brassinosteroids (BRs) trigger an intracellular signaling cascade through its receptors BR INSENSITIVE 1 (BRI1), BRI1-LIKE 1 (BRL1) and BRL3. Recent studies suggest that BR-independent inputs related to vascular differentiation, for instance root protophloem development, modulate downstream BR signaling components. Here, we report that protophloem sieve element differentiation is indeed impaired in bri1 brl1 brl3 mutants, although this effect might not be mediated by canonical downstream BR signaling components...
January 15, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095649/the-effect-of-mechanical-stress-on-the-proliferation-adipogenic-differentiation-and-gene-expression-of-human-adipose-derived-stem-cells
#16
Nora E Paul, Bernd Denecke, Bong-Sung Kim, Alice Dreser, Jürgen Bernhagen, Norbert Pallua
To allow for a better implementation of external volume expansion to clinical applications for soft tissue regeneration, it is necessary to comprehensively understand the underlying mechanisms. Since human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) play a crucial role in soft tissue enlargement, we investigated the impact of cyclic stretch on gene expression, proliferation rate, and adipogenic differentiation of these cells. After cyclic stretching, RNA was extracted and subjected to DNA microarray analysis and RT-qPCR...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093725/shape-and-geometry-control-of-the-drosophila-tracheal-tubule
#17
REVIEW
Shigeo Hayashi, Bo Dong
For efficient respiration, tubular airways must be constructed with an optimal diameter and length for the dimensions of the body. In Drosophila, the growth of embryonic tracheal tubules proceeds in two dimensions, by axial elongation and diameter expansion. The growth forces in each dimension are controlled by distinct genetic programs and cellular mechanisms. Recent studies reveal that the apical cortex and the apical extracellular matrix filling the luminal space are essential for the generation, balancing, and equilibrium of these growth forces...
January 17, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092336/the-construction-of-expanded-prefabricated-adipose-tissue-epat-using-an-external-volume-expansion-eve-device
#18
Yi Yuan, Shuifa Yang, Yangyan Yi, Jianhua Gao, Feng Lu
BACKGROUND: Multiple studies have demonstrated that mechanical forces promote the growth of adipose tissue. However, the mechanism of adipose tissue regeneration induced by mechanical forces remains unclear. METHODS: In an experiment using rats, prefabricated adipose tissue with a vessel pedicle was expanded using an external volume expansion (EVE) device. The volume of fat flaps was tested at different time points. Cell proliferation and angiogenesis were analyzed using immunofluorescence...
January 12, 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090143/acute-exercise-regulates-adipogenic-gene-expression-in-white-adipose-tissue
#19
Y Shen, H Zhou, W Jin, H J Lee
White adipose tissue expansion is associated with both hypertrophy and hyperplasia of adipocytes. Exercise training results in adipocyte hypotrophy by activating lipolysis, but it is poorly understood whether exercise regulates adipogenesis by altering adipogenic gene expression. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of a single bout of swimming exercise on adipogenic gene expression in white adipose tissue (WAT). Male C57BL/6J mice were divided into two groups: a sedentary control group and a 120-minute swimming exercise group...
December 2016: Biology of Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089874/mathematical-modelling-of-cell-layer-growth-in-a-hollow-fibre-bioreactor
#20
Lloyd A C Chapman, Jonathan P Whiteley, Helen M Byrne, Sarah L Waters, Rebecca J Shipley
Generating autologous tissue grafts of a clinically useful volume requires efficient and controlled expansion of cell populations harvested from patients. Hollow fibre bioreactors show promise as cell expansion devices, owing to their potential for scale-up. However, further research is required to establish how to specify appropriate hollow fibre bioreactor operating conditions for expanding different cell types. In this study we develop a simple model for the growth of a cell layer seeded on the outer surface of a single fibre in a perfused hollow fibre bioreactor...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
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