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TBI Neuroimaging

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665763/neuroimaging-radiological-interpretation-system-niris-for-acute-traumatic-brain-injury-tbi
#1
Max Wintermark, Ying Li, Victoria Y Ding, Yingding Xu, Bin Jiang, Robyn L Ball, Michael Zeineh, Alisa Gean, Pina Sanelli
To develop an outcome-based NeuroImaging Radiological Interpretation System (NIRIS) for acute traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients that would standardize the interpretation of non-contrast head CTs and consolidate imaging findings into ordinal severity categories that would inform specific patient management actions and that could be used as a clinical decision support tool. We retrospectively identified all patients transported to our emergency department by ambulance or helicopter, for whom a trauma alert was triggered per established criteria and who underwent a non-contrast head CT due to suspicion of TBI, between November 2015 and April 2016...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619661/midline-shift-is-unrelated-to-subjective-pupillary-reactivity-assessment-on-admission-in-moderate-and-severe-traumatic-brain-injury
#2
Basil Nourallah, David K Menon, Frederick A Zeiler
BACKGROUND: This study aims to determine the relationship between pupillary reactivity, midline shift and basal cistern effacement on brain computed tomography (CT) in moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). All are important diagnostic and prognostic measures, but their relationship is unclear. METHODS: A total of 204 patients with moderate-to-severe TBI, documented pupillary reactivity, and archived neuroimaging were included. Extent of midline shift and basal cistern effacement were extracted from admission brain CT...
April 4, 2018: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29573026/neural-correlates-of-reduced-depressive-symptoms-following-cognitive-training-for-chronic-traumatic-brain-injury
#3
Kihwan Han, David Martinez, Sandra B Chapman, Daniel C Krawczyk
Depression is the most frequent comorbid psychiatric condition among individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Yet, little is known about changes in the brain associated with reduced depressive symptoms following rehabilitation for TBI. We identified whether cognitive training alleviates comorbid depressive symptoms in chronic TBI (>6 months post-injury) as a secondary effect. Further, we elucidated neural correlates of alleviated depressive symptoms following cognitive training. A total of seventy-nine individuals with chronic TBI (53 depressed and 26 non-depressed individuals, measured using the Beck Depressive Inventory [BDI]), underwent either strategy- or information-based cognitive training in a small group for 8 weeks...
March 23, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29488436/neuroimaging-of-the-injured-pediatric-brain-methods-and-new-lessons
#4
Emily L Dennis, Talin Babikian, Christopher C Giza, Paul M Thompson, Robert F Asarnow
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a significant public health problem in the United States, especially for children and adolescents. Current epidemiological data estimate over 600,000 patients younger than 20 years are treated for TBI in emergency rooms annually. While many patients experience a full recovery, for others there can be long-lasting cognitive, neurological, psychological, and behavioral disruptions. TBI in youth can disrupt ongoing brain development and create added family stress during a formative period...
February 1, 2018: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29487565/luteinizing-hormone-and-testosterone-levels-during-acute-phase-of-severe-traumatic-brain-injury-prognostic-implications-for-adult-male-patients
#5
Alexandre Hohl, Fernando Areas Zanela, Gabriela Ghisi, Marcelo Fernando Ronsoni, Alexandre Paim Diaz, Marcelo Liborio Schwarzbold, Alcir Luiz Dafre, Benjamin Reddi, Kátia Lin, Felipe Dal Pizzol, Roger Walz
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a worldwide core public health problem affecting mostly young male subjects. An alarming increase in incidence has turned TBI into a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in young adults as well as a tremendous resource burden on the health and welfare sector. Hormone dysfunction is highly prevalent during the acute phase of severe TBI. In particular, investigation of the luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone levels during the acute phase of severe TBI in male has identified a high incidence of low testosterone levels in male patients (36...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433912/factors-influencing-emergency-department-care-of-young-children-at-risk-for-clinically-important-traumatic-brain-injury
#6
Tara Rhine, Shari L Wade, Nanhua Zhang, Huaiyu Zang, Stephanie Kennebeck, Lynn Babcock
OBJECTIVES: Care decisions for young children presenting to the emergency department (ED) with head injury are often challenging (e.g. whether to obtain neuroimaging). We sought to identify factors associated with acute management of children at-risk for clinically important traumatic brain injury (ciTBI) and describe symptom management. METHODS: Observational evaluation of children, ages 0-4years, presenting to a pediatric ED following minor head injury. Children with ≥1 risk element per the Pediatric Emergency Care Academic Research Network's decision rule were deemed "at-risk" for ciTBI...
January 31, 2018: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29404847/human-brain-modeling-with-its-anatomical-structure-and-realistic-material-properties-for-brain-injury-prediction
#7
Noritoshi Atsumi, Yuko Nakahira, Eiichi Tanaka, Masami Iwamoto
Impairments of executive brain function after traumatic brain injury (TBI) due to head impacts in traffic accidents need to be obviated. Finite element (FE) analyses with a human brain model facilitate understanding of the TBI mechanisms. However, conventional brain FE models do not suitably describe the anatomical structure in the deep brain, which is a critical region for executive brain function, and the material properties of brain parenchyma. In this study, for better TBI prediction, a novel brain FE model with anatomical structure in the deep brain was developed...
February 5, 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29385016/fatigue-is-associated-with-global-and-regional-thalamic-morphometry-in-veterans-with-a-history-of-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#8
Alexandra L Clark, Scott F Sorg, Kelsey Holiday, Erin D Bigler, Katherine J Bangen, Nicole D Evangelista, Mark W Bondi, Dawn M Schiehser, Lisa Delano-Wood
OBJECTIVE: Fatigue is a complex, multidimensional phenomenon that commonly occurs following traumatic brain injury (TBI). The thalamus-a structure vulnerable to both primary and secondary injuries in TBI-is thought to play a pivotal role in the manifestation of fatigue. We explored how neuroimaging markers of local and global thalamic morphometry relate to the subjective experience of fatigue post-TBI. METHODS: Sixty-three Veterans with a history of mild TBI underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging and completed questionnaires related to fatigue and psychiatric symptoms...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285732/emerging-approaches-to-neurocircuits-in-ptsd-and-tbi-imaging-the-interplay-of-neural-and-emotional-trauma
#9
Andrea D Spadoni, Mingxiong Huang, Alan N Simmons
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and traumatic brain injury (TBI) commonly co-occur in general and military populations and have a number of overlapping symptoms. While research suggests that TBI is risk factor for PTSD and that PTSD may mediate TBI-related outcomes, the mechanisms of these relationships are not well understood. Neuroimaging may help elucidate patterns of neurocircuitry both specific and common to PTSD and TBI and thus help define the nature of their interaction, refine diagnostic classification, and may potentially yield opportunities for targeted treatments...
December 29, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29262441/imaging-in-neurocritical-care-practice
#10
Craig Williamson, Larry Morgan, Joshua P Klein
The use of neuroimaging in conjunction with serial neurological examinations is a core component of modern neurocritical care practice. Although there is a growing role for other neuromonitoring techniques, the ability to quickly and accurately interpret images in the context of a patient's clinical status arguably remains the indispensable skill for neurocritical care practitioners. Due to its rapid acquisition time and excellent ability to detect intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), cerebral edema, and signs of elevated intracranial pressure, computed tomography (CT) remains the most useful neuroimaging technique for intensive care unit (ICU) patients...
December 2017: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250027/derivation-of-a-three-biomarker-panel-to-improve-diagnosis-in-patients-with-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#11
W Frank Peacock, Timothy E Van Meter, Nazanin Mirshahi, Kyle Ferber, Robert Gerwien, Vani Rao, Haris Iqbal Sair, Ramon Diaz-Arrastia, Frederick K Korley
Background: Nearly 5 million emergency department (ED) visits for head injury occur each year in the United States, of which <10% of patients show abnormal computed tomography (CT) findings. CT negative patients frequently suffer protracted somatic, behavioral, and neurocognitive dysfunction. Our goal was to evaluate biomarkers to identify mild TBI (mTBI) in patients with suspected head injury. Methods: An observational ED study of head-injured and control patients was conducted at Johns Hopkins University (HeadSMART)...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249173/long-term-prospective-memory-impairment-following-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-with-loss-of-consciousness-findings-from-the-canadian-longitudinal-study-on-aging
#12
Marc Bedard, Vanessa Taler, Jason Steffener
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to examine the extent to which loss of consciousness (LOC) following mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) may be associated with impairments in time- and event-based prospective memory (PM). PM is thought to involve executive processes and be subserved by prefrontal regions. Neuroimaging research suggests alterations to these areas of the brain several years after mTBI, particularly if LOC was experienced. However, it remains unclear whether impairments in time- or event-based functioning may persist more than a year after mTBI, and what the link with duration of LOC may be...
December 18, 2017: Clinical Neuropsychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209266/current-opportunities-for-clinical-monitoring-of-axonal-pathology-in-traumatic-brain-injury
#13
REVIEW
Parmenion P Tsitsopoulos, Sami Abu Hamdeh, Niklas Marklund
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a multidimensional and highly complex disease commonly resulting in widespread injury to axons, due to rapid inertial acceleration/deceleration forces transmitted to the brain during impact. Axonal injury leads to brain network dysfunction, significantly contributing to cognitive and functional impairments frequently observed in TBI survivors. Diffuse axonal injury (DAI) is a clinical entity suggested by impaired level of consciousness and coma on clinical examination and characterized by widespread injury to the hemispheric white matter tracts, the corpus callosum and the brain stem...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198271/the-neuropsychology-of-traumatic-brain-injury-looking-back-peering-ahead
#14
Keith Owen Yeates, Harvey S Levin, Jennie Ponsford
The past 50 years have been a period of exciting progress in neuropsychological research on traumatic brain injury (TBI). Neuropsychologists and neuropsychological testing have played a critical role in these advances. This study looks back at three major scientific advances in research on TBI that have been critical in pushing the field forward over the past several decades: The advent of modern neuroimaging; the recognition of the importance of non-injury factors in determining recovery from TBI; and the growth of cognitive rehabilitation...
October 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157853/perfusion-imaging-in-acute-traumatic-brain-injury
#15
REVIEW
David B Douglas, Ruchir Chaudhari, Jason M Zhao, James Gullo, Jared Kirkland, Pamela K Douglas, Ely Wolin, James Walroth, Max Wintermark
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a significant problem worldwide and neuroimaging plays a critical role in diagnosis and management. Recently, perfusion neuroimaging techniques have been explored in TBI to determine and characterize potential perfusion neuroimaging biomarkers to aid in diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis. In this article, computed tomography (CT) bolus perfusion, MR imaging bolus perfusion, MR imaging arterial spin labeling perfusion, and xenon CT are reviewed with a focus on their applications in acute TBI...
February 2018: Neuroimaging Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157846/definition-of-traumatic-brain-injury-neurosurgery-trauma-orthopedics-neuroimaging-psychology-and-psychiatry-in-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#16
REVIEW
Mubashir Pervez, Ryan S Kitagawa, Tiffany R Chang
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) disrupts the normal function of the brain. This condition can adversely affect a person's quality of life with cognitive, behavioral, emotional, and physical symptoms that limit interpersonal, social, and occupational functioning. Although many systems exist, the simplest classification includes mild, moderate, and severe TBI depending on the nature of injury and the impact on the patient's clinical status. Patients with TBI require prompt evaluation and multidisciplinary management...
February 2018: Neuroimaging Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155947/dementia-after-moderate-severe-traumatic-brain-injury-coexistence-of-multiple-proteinopathies
#17
Kimbra Kenney, Diego Iacono, Brian L Edlow, Douglas I Katz, Ramon Diaz-Arrastia, Kristen Dams-O'Connor, Daniel H Daneshvar, Allison Stevens, Allison L Moreau, Lee S Tirrell, Ani Varjabedian, Anastasia Yendiki, Andre van der Kouwe, Azma Mareyam, Jennifer A McNab, Wayne A Gordon, Bruce Fischl, Ann C McKee, Daniel P Perl
We report the clinical, neuroimaging, and neuropathologic characteristics of 2 patients who developed early onset dementia after a moderate-severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). Neuropathological evaluation revealed abundant β-amyloid neuritic and cored plaques, diffuse β-amyloid plaques, and frequent hyperphosphorylated-tau neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) involving much of the cortex, including insula and mammillary bodies in both cases. Case 1 additionally showed NFTs in both the superficial and deep cortical layers, occasional perivascular and depth-of-sulci NFTs, and parietal white matter rarefaction, which corresponded with decreased parietal fiber tracts observed on ex vivo MRI...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089921/the-neurological-wake-up-test-a-role-in-neurocritical-care-monitoring-of-traumatic-brain-injury-patients
#18
REVIEW
Niklas Marklund
The most fundamental clinical monitoring tool in traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients is the repeated clinical examination. In the severe TBI patient treated by continuous sedation in a neurocritical care (NCC) unit, sedation interruption is required to enable a clinical evaluation (named the neurological wake-up test; NWT) assessing the level of consciousness, pupillary diameter and reactivity to light, and presence of focal neurological deficits. There is a basic conflict regarding the NWT in the NCC setting; can the clinical information obtained by the NWT justify the risk of inducing a stress response in a severe TBI patient? Furthermore, in the presence of advanced multimodal monitoring and neuroimaging, is the NWT necessary to identify important clinical alterations? In studies of severe TBI patients, the NWT was consistently shown to induce a stress reaction including brief increases in intracranial pressure (ICP) and changes in cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP)...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051745/traumatic-brain-injury-severity-neuropathophysiology-and-clinical-outcome-insights-from-multimodal-neuroimaging
#19
Andrei Irimia, Sheng-Yang Matthew Goh, Adam C Wade, Kavi Patel, Paul M Vespa, John D Van Horn
BACKGROUND: The relationship between the acute clinical presentation of patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI), long-term changes in brain structure prompted by injury and chronic functional outcome is insufficiently understood. In this preliminary study, we investigate how acute Glasgow coma score (GCS) and epileptic seizure occurrence after TBIs are statistically related to functional outcome (as quantified using the Glasgow Outcome Score) and to the extent of cortical thinning observed 6 months after the traumatic event...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032776/neuropsychological-recovery-trajectories-in-moderate-to-severe-traumatic-brain-injury-influence-of-patient-characteristics-and-diffuse-axonal-injury
#20
Amanda R Rabinowitz, Tessa Hart, John Whyte, Junghoon Kim
OBJECTIVES: The goal of the present study was to elucidate the influence of demographic and neuropathological moderators on the longitudinal trajectory neuropsychological functions during the first year after moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). In addition to examining demographic moderators such as age and education, we included a measure of whole-brain diffuse axonal injury (DAI), and examined measures of processing speed (PS), executive function (EF), and verbal learning (VL) separately...
March 2018: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
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