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Prescription drug abuse misuse

G Jeanne, D Purper-Ouakil, H Rigole, N Franc
AIM: There have been significant changes in adolescent consumption habits over the past fifteen years. New molecules have been synthesized, new devices created and a number of products have increased in popularity; and as a result clinicians sometimes lack information. We chose to focus on this population because of its vulnerability, as adolescents show low sensitivity to long-term outcomes of their actions and may be easily influenced by peers as regards experimentation of new drugs...
October 6, 2016: L'Encéphale
Stevan Geoffrey Severtson, Matthew S Ellis, Steven P Kurtz, Andrew Rosenblum, Theodore J Cicero, Mark W Parrino, Michael K Gilbert, Mance E Buttram, Nabarun Dasgupta, Becki BucherBartelson, Jody L Green, Richard C Dart
BACKGROUND: The development of abuse deterrent formulations is one strategy for reducing prescription opioid misuse and abuse. A putative abuse deterrent formulation of oxycodone extended release (OxyContin(®)) was introduced in 2010. Early reports demonstrated reduced abuse and diversion, however, an analysis of social media found 32 feasible methods to circumvent the abuse deterrent mechanism. We measured trends of diversion, abuse and street price of OxyContin to assess the durability of the initial reduction in abuse...
October 3, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Andrew W Roberts, Joel F Farley, G Mark Holmes, Christine U Oramasionwu, Chris Ringwalt, Betsy Sleath, Asheley C Skinner
Controlled substance lock-in programs are garnering increased attention from payers and policy makers seeking to combat the epidemic of opioid misuse. These programs require high-risk patients to visit a single prescriber and pharmacy for coverage of controlled substance medication services. Despite high prevalence of the programs in Medicaid, we know little about their effects on patients' behavior and outcomes aside from reducing controlled substance-related claims. Our study was the first rigorous investigation of lock-in programs' effects on out-of-pocket controlled substance prescription fills, which circumvent the programs' restrictions and mitigate their potential public health benefits...
October 1, 2016: Health Affairs
Lisa L Weyandt, Danielle R Oster, Marisa E Marraccini, Bergljot Gyda Gudmundsdottir, Bailey A Munro, Emma S Rathkey, Alison McCallum
Prescription stimulants, including methylphenidate (e.g., Ritalin) and amphetamine compounds (e.g., dextroamphetamine; Adderall), have been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and are classified by the United States Drug Enforcement Administration as Schedule II medications because of their high potential for abuse and dependence (Drug Enforcement Administration, U.S. Department of Justice, 2015). Despite the potential health and judicial consequences, misuse of prescription stimulants, typically defined as taking stimulants without a valid prescription, or use of stimulants other than as prescribed, has become a serious problem in the United States and abroad, especially on college campuses...
October 2016: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
Lynn R Webster, Carmela Pantaleon, Manish S Shah, Ray DiFalco, Matthew Iverson, Michael D Smith, Eric R Kinzler, Stefan Aigner
OBJECTIVE:  Misuse and abuse of prescription opioids remains a major healthcare concern despite considerable efforts to increase public awareness. Abuse-deterrent formulations of prescription opioids are designed to reduce intentional misuse, abuse, and prescription opioid-related death. A novel extended-release (ER) formulation of morphine (Morphine ARER; MorphaBond™) resists physical manipulation and retains the drug's ER characteristics, even if attempts are made to manipulate the formulation...
September 20, 2016: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
Sonia R Talwar, Amarita S Randhawa, Erica H Dankiewicz, Nancy T Crudele, J David Haddox
BACKGROUND: Healthcare professionals and consumers refer to online drug-information compendia (eg, Epocrates and WebMD) to learn about prescription medications, including opioid analgesics. With the significant risks associated with opioids, including abuse, misuse, and addiction, any of which can result in life-threatening overdose, it is important for those seeking information from online compendia to have access to current, accurate, and complete drug information to help support clinical treatment decisions...
July 2016: Journal of Opioid Management
Casey L Penn
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2016: Journal of the Arkansas Medical Society
Nicola Principi, Susanna Esposito
BACKGROUND: Antibiotics are among the drugs most commonly prescribed to children in hospitals and communities. Unfortunately, a great number of these prescriptions are unnecessary or inappropriate. Antibiotic abuse and misuse have several negative consequences, including drug-related adverse events, the emergence of multidrug resistant bacterial pathogens, the development of Clostridium difficile infection, the negative impact on microbiota, and undertreatment risks. In this paper, the principle of and strategies for paediatric antimicrobial stewardship (AS) programs, the effects of AS interventions and the common barriers to development and implementation of AS programs are discussed...
2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
(no author information available yet)
The first comparative study of prescription drug abuse in the European Union suggests the problem is bigger than previously thought.
August 17, 2016: Nursing Standard
Li-Tzy Wu, Jennifer McNeely, Geetha A Subramaniam, Gaurav Sharma, Paul VanVeldhuisen, Robert P Schwartz
BACKGROUND: Substance use and its associated use disorders are under-detected and under-treated in primary care. There is a need for a clinically useful brief screening and assessment instrument to identify primary care patients with substance use, sub-threshold substance use disorder (SUD), and SUD to facilitate brief intervention and treatment. METHODS: We describe the design of the recently completed National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network's tobacco, alcohol, prescription medications, and substance use/misuse screen and brief assessment tool validation study...
September 2016: Contemporary Clinical Trials
Kelly R Peck, Jennifer Harman Ehrentraut, Doralina L Anghelescu
Prescription opioid use has increased in recent decades. Although opioids provide effective pain control, their use may be associated with the risk of misuse. Opioid misuse (OM) is prevalent among adolescents and young adults (AYAs). Opioids are necessary to treat cancer-related pain; however, oncology patients are not immune to medication misuse. Research examining OM among AYAs with cancer is scarce. This article examines the risk factors described in the general adult and adolescent medication abuse literature and aims to provide recommendations for practice in the AYA oncology population...
May 2016: Journal of Opioid Management
Natalie D Pope, Karen L Slovak, Jarod T Giger
Instruments assessing geriatric case managers' perceptions of prescription abuse are limited. Based on a review of current literature and pilot testing feedback, 22 items were initially assembled to form an older adult Prescription Drug Assessment Questionnaire (PDAQ). Case managers (N = 161) at an older adult agency located in a Midwestern state were surveyed using the instrument. Data were subjected to exploratory factor analysis using principal axis factoring (PAF) and Promax rotation, and Horn's parallel analysis determined the number of extracted factors...
June 26, 2016: Journal of Applied Gerontology: the Official Journal of the Southern Gerontological Society
Ellen Meara, Jill R Horwitz, Wilson Powell, Lynn McClelland, Weiping Zhou, A James O'Malley, Nancy E Morden
BACKGROUND: In response to rising rates of opioid abuse and overdose, U.S. states enacted laws to restrict the prescribing and dispensing of controlled substances. The effect of these laws on opioid use is unclear. METHODS: We tested associations between prescription-opioid receipt and state controlled-substances laws. Using Medicare administrative data for fee-for-service disabled beneficiaries 21 to 64 years of age who were alive throughout the calendar year (8...
July 7, 2016: New England Journal of Medicine
Food And Drug Administration Public Health Service U S Department Of Health And Human Services
On March 22, 2016, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) announced enhanced warnings for immediate-release opioid pain medications related to risks of misuse, abuse, addiction, overdose, and death. The new safety warnings also added to all prescription opioid medications to inform prescribers and patients of additional risks related to opioid use.
June 2016: Journal of Pain & Palliative Care Pharmacotherapy
Carl Grey, P Bradley Hall
Opioid abuse, misuse and overdose is now a public health epidemic receiving political, medical, and media attention at all levels. Despite the fact that many people know someone suffering from addiction, there is very little research focusing on this issue in older adults. Chronic pain, a highly prevalent affliction for the aging population, has been accompanied by a significant increase in opioid use. This, along with some unique aspects of older adults (increased susceptibility to illness, higher likelihood of altered presentation of illness, and impaired recovery), means that great care needs to be taken when considering opioids for treatment...
May 2016: West Virginia Medical Journal
Duy Q Nguyen, Brian Chung, Loryn L Osburn, Mark A Della Paolera, Benjamin Chavez
OBJECTIVE: This article aims to explore the statistics observed in the Pacific Northwest regarding substance abuse, as Oregon and Washington have been shown to be most affected given the increased treatment admissions for opioid utilization and mortality related to medication overdose. METHODS: Using PubMed and National Conference of State Legislatures database, articles detailing prescription drug abuse statistics, programs, and laws were collected and analyzed in order to identify possible solutions...
June 9, 2016: Journal of Pharmacy Practice
Udi E Ghitza
Over the past two decades, a steeply growing number of persons with chronic non-cancer pain have been using opioid analgesics chronically to treat it, accompanied by a markedly increased prevalence of individuals with opioid-related misuse, opioid use disorders, emergency department visits, hospitalizations, admissions to drug treatment programs, and drug overdose deaths. This opioid misuse and overdose epidemic calls for well-designed randomized-controlled clinical trials into more skillful and appropriate pain management and for developing effective analgesics that have lower abuse liability and are protective against stress induced by chronic non-cancer pain...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Steven Schultz, Carol Chamberlain, Marius Vulcan, Humair Rana, Bhavin Patel, John C Alexander
BACKGROUND: Hydrocodone-containing products were recently rescheduled from Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) schedule III to schedule II due to concerns of abuse and misuse. These changes went into effect on October 6, 2014. OBJECTIVE: This quality improvement project involved a retrospective analysis to determine the effect of the DEA schedule change on prescribing habits of hydrocodone-containing products as well as the remaining schedule III and IV opioids, codeine (schedule III) and tramadol (schedule IV)...
May 2016: Journal of Opioid Management
Maia De Luca, Daniele Donà, Carlotta Montagnani, Andrea Lo Vecchio, Marta Romanengo, Claudia Tagliabue, Chiara Centenari, Patrizia D'Argenio, Rebecca Lundin, Carlo Giaquinto, Luisa Galli, Alfredo Guarino, Susanna Esposito, Mike Sharland, Ann Versporten, Herman Goossens, Giangiacomo Nicolini
BACKGROUND: Antimicrobials are the most commonly prescribed drugs. Many studies have evaluated antibiotic prescriptions in the paediatric outpatient but few studies describing the real antibiotic consumption in Italian children's hospitals have been published. Point-prevalence survey (PPS) has been shown to be a simple, feasible and reliable standardized method for antimicrobials surveillance in children and neonates admitted to the hospital. In this paper, we presented data from a PPS on antimicrobial prescriptions carried out in 7 large Italian paediatric institutions...
2016: PloS One
Ebtesam A Abood, Mayyada Wazaify
BACKGROUND: The abuse and misuse of prescription and nonprescription or the so-called Over-The-Counter (OTC) drugs is a serious and growing public health problem worldwide. The increased availability of these drugs has contributed to a dramatic rise of inappropriate use. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate abuse/misuse of prescription and non-prescription drugs in community pharmacies in Aden city-Yemen and to gather information about suspected drug abusers in the community...
June 6, 2016: Substance Use & Misuse
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