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Prescription drug abuse misuse

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303402/examining-the-relationship-between-religious-coping-and-the-misuse-of-prescription-stimulants-among-a-sample-of-undergraduate-students
#1
Andrew R Gallucci, Christine Hackman, Amanda Wilkerson
BACKGROUND: There is a well-established inverse relationship in undergraduate samples between a person's religious coping and substance abuse. Positive religious coping (PRC) has been associated with decreases in the use of alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana. Investigations examining prescription drug misuse and PRC found that higher levels of PRC were related to a reduction in the misuse of some prescription drugs. However, the literature has yet to identify an inverse relationship between PRC and the misuse of prescription stimulants (MPS) among undergraduates...
January 5, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241835/the-impact-of-a-statewide-mandatory-prescription-drug-monitoring-program-on-opioid-prescribing-by-emergency-medicine-providers-across-15-hospitals-in-a-single-health-system
#2
Brian Suffoletto, Michael Lynch, Charissa B Pacella, Donald M Yealy, Clifton W Callaway
Prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMP) enable registered prescribers to obtain real-time information on patients' prescription history of controlled medications. We sought to describe the impact of a state-mandated PDMP on opioid prescribing by Emergency Medicine providers. We retrospectively analyzed electronic medical records of 122,732 adult patients discharged with an opioid prescription from 15 Emergency Departments in a single health system in Pennsylvania from July 2015 to March, 2017. We used an interrupted time-series design to evaluate the percentage of patients discharged each month with an opioid prescription before and after state law mandated PDMP use on August 25th, 2016...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227522/pediatric-pharmaceutical-ingestions
#3
Jennifer A Lowry, Michele Burns, Diane P Calello
Pharmaceutical ingestions comprise an important part of pediatric toxicology. Based on the 2015 Annual Report of the American Association of Poison Control Centers' National Poison Data System, coupled with recent epidemiology articles on the topic of pediatric toxicology, it is apparent that poison prevention education has not been completely successful in decreasing exposures to toxic drugs. From the unintentional ingestion in a toddler due to unsafe storage to the intentional adolescent ingestion for misuse and abuse, pharmaceutical medications continue to cause harm...
December 1, 2017: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200044/past-year-substance-use-by-student-nurses
#4
Martha A Boulton, Kathleen A O'Connell
PURPOSE: Nurses who abuse substances are a threat to patients, colleagues, society, and themselves. Research indicates that substance use often begins during undergraduate years. The purpose of this research was to identify rates of past year substance use by student nurses. METHOD: A quantitative, cross-sectional, correlational design was used to examine past year substance use by student nurses and to determine whether substance use is related to age, gender, race, relationship status, ethnicity, country of birth, type of school program, and year in program...
October 2017: Journal of Addictions Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199066/abuse-liability-assessment-for-biologic-drugs-all-molecules-are-not-created-equal
#5
Christina L Zuch de Zafra, Carrie G Markgraf, David R Compton, Thomas J Hudzik
The development of novel drug candidates involves the thorough evaluation of potential efficacy and safety. To facilitate the safety assessment in light of global increases in prescription drug misuse/abuse, health authorities have developed guidance documents which provide a framework for evaluating the abuse liability of candidate therapeutics. The guidances do not distinguish between small molecules and biologics/biotherapeutics; however, there are key differences between these classes of therapeutics which are important drivers of concern for abuse...
December 2, 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187813/a-mirna-signature-for-cognitive-deficits-and-alcohol-use-disorder-in-persons-living-with-hiv-aids
#6
Dorota Wyczechowska, Hui-Yi Lin, Andrea LaPlante, Duane Jeansonne, Adam Lassak, Christopher H Parsons, Patricia E Molina, Francesca Peruzzi
HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) affects more than half of persons living with HIV-1/AIDS (PLWHA). Identification of biomarkers representing the cognitive status of PLWHA is a critical step for implementation of successful cognitive, behavioral and pharmacological strategies to prevent onset and progression of HAND. However, the presence of co-morbidity factors in PLWHA, the most common being substance abuse, can prevent the identification of such biomarkers. We have optimized a protocol to profile plasma miRNAs using quantitative RT-qPCR and found a miRNA signature with very good discriminatory ability to distinguish PLWHA with cognitive impairment from those without cognitive impairment...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179227/-on-the-risk-of-dependence-on-gabapentinoids
#7
Udo Bonnet, Norbert Scherbaum
In the last ten years, the prescriptions of the gabapentinoids gabapentin and pregabalin increased largely also in Germany. Since several national and international pharmacovigilance-databases have warned for abuse liabilities and overdose fatalities in association with both gabapentinoids, which moreover, became to be sold on internet and black-markets, their addictive power has been subject to an ongoing clinical debate. As pre- and post-approval clinical trials did not reveal significant signs of dependence on gabapentin or pregabalin, we systematically searched in PubMed and Scopus for clinical studies and case reports being associated with abuse of and dependence on these drugs...
November 27, 2017: Fortschritte der Neurologie-Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173117/psychosocial-risks-of-prescription-drug-misuse-among-u-s-racial-ethnic-minorities-a-systematic-review
#8
Bridgette J Peteet
Prescription drug misuse (PDM) is the leading cause of accidental death in the U.S. One in five Americans report at least one lifetime incident of PDM. PDM has been studied extensively, yet there is limited inclusion of racial/ethnic minorities due to purportedly lower rates of PDM. However, health disparate groups often face more detrimental consequences of substance abuse including behavioral, social, and medical/mental health (e.g., injury, HIV/AIDS, incarceration, educational attainment, and comorbidity)...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Ethnicity in Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070156/born-into-addiction-neonatal-abstinence-syndrome-and-pediatric-dentistry
#9
Jennifer L Cully
Drug overdose and opioid-involved deaths continue to increase across the United States. An end-condition related to opioid abuse is neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS). The implications for pregnant or post-partum women using an opioid, whether prescribed or illicit, can have significant effects on their infant. First described in the 1970s, NAS is defined as a postnatal drug withdrawal syndrome that primarily occurs in opioid-exposed infants. There are no nationally accepted, evidence-based treatment protocols for these infants...
September 15, 2017: Pediatric Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049111/risk-management-for-opioid-prescribing-in-the-treatment-of-patients-with-pain-from-cancer-or-terminal-illness-inadvertent-oversight-or-taboo
#10
David J Copenhaver, Nicolas B Karvelas, Scott M Fishman
As the United States experiences an epidemic of prescription drug abuse, and guidelines on safe practices in prescribing opioids in chronic pain have subsequently emerged from professional organizations and governmental agencies, limited guidance exists for prescribers of opioids to treat pain in patients with cancer or terminal illness. Patients with active cancer or terminal illness often have pain and are frequently prescribed opioids and other controlled substances. Current studies suggest that patients with cancer have similar rates of risk for misuse, abuse, and addiction as the general public...
November 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026458/safe-opioid-prescription-a-smart-on-fhir-approach-to-clinical-decision-support
#11
Shyamashree Sinha, Mark Jensen, Sarah Mullin, Peter L Elkin
Background Prescription opioid pain medication overuse, misuse and abuse have been a significant contributing factor in the opioid epidemic. The rising death rates from opioid overdose have caused healthcare practitioners and researchers to work on optimizing pain therapy and limiting the prescriptions for pain medications. The state of New York has implemented a prescription drug monitoring program(PDMP), amended public health law to limit the prescription of opioids for acute pain and utilized the resources of the state and county health departments to help in curbing this epidemic...
2017: Online Journal of Public Health Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985090/policies-to-mitigate-nonmedical-use-of-prescription-medications-how-should-emerging-evidence-of-gabapentin-misuse-be-addressed
#12
Alyssa M Peckham, Kathleen A Fairman, David A Sclar
Over the past decade, increased prescription supply has facilitated an epidemic of nonmedical use of controlled substances, including predominantly opioids, as well as benzodiazepines, z-hypnotics, and stimulants. Areas covered: More recently, misuse of noncontrolled prescriptions, such as gabapentin, has been detected. Gabapentin misuse has been associated with drug-related harm and increased healthcare service utilization in a few studies, including a recent large-sample analysis of commercially insured enrollees in the United States (U...
October 6, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981581/systematic-review-to-determine-which-validated-measurement-tools-can-be-used-to-assess-risk-of-problematic-analgesic-use-in-patients-with-chronic-pain
#13
R Lawrence, D Mogford, L Colvin
Background: Misuse of prescription opioids, and other drugs prescribed for chronic pain, has increased, with major concerns about harm. This review was undertaken to identify validated measurement tools for risk assessment and monitoring of chronic non-cancer pain patients being considered for, or currently prescribed, analgesic drugs with abuse potential. Methods: Selected databases (Embase, Medline, Cochrane library/CENTRAL, PsycINFO, PubMed, CINAHL) were systematically searched for studies evaluating tools for risk of analgesic misuse, either before, or during, analgesic therapy for chronic pain, using predetermined inclusion/exclusion criteria...
December 1, 2017: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981253/high-throughput-screening-method-for-systematic-surveillance-of-drugs-of-abuse-by-multisegment-injection-capillary-electrophoresis-mass-spectrometry
#14
Alicia DiBattista, Dianne Rampersaud, Howard Lee, Marcus Kim, Philip Britz-McKibbin
New technologies are urgently required for reliable drug screening given a worldwide epidemic of prescription drug abuse and its devastating socioeconomic impacts on public health. Primary screening of drugs of abuse (DoA) currently relies on immunoassays that are prone to bias and are not applicable to detect an alarming array of psychoactive stimulants, tranquilizers, and synthetic opioids. These limitations impact patient safety when monitoring for medication compliance, drug substitution, or misuse/abuse and require follow-up confirmatory testing by more specific yet lower throughput instrumental methods...
November 7, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28953820/study-on-the-prescribing-patterns-of-antipsychotic-medication-in-a-rural-england-community-mental-health-team
#15
Madhavan Seshadri, Ahmed Elsemary, Madhusudan Deepak Thalitaya, Lawrence Chikodzore, Priya Nagalingam
INTRODUCTION: Providing comprehensive services for about 400 patients in the South Herefordshire area, the community mental health team manages cases of varying severity and complexity, ranging from Schizophrenia, to neuroses and disorders of adult personality. Antipsychotic medication remains a mainstay of treatment and management for patients under the team case load; hence a need exists for a detailed look into the prescription patterns of such medications. AIM: The aim of this study was to look into the prescribing patterns of antipsychotics for a sample of 50 patients in the South Herefordshire community team during the year of 2016 (from Jan 2016 to Dec 2016), as well as investigate whether these antipsychotics were licensed to be used for the corresponding diagnoses of these patients...
September 2017: Psychiatria Danubina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921667/polysubstance-use-among-adolescents-in-a-low-income-rural-community-latent-classes-for-middle-and-high-school-students
#16
Roderick A Rose, Caroline B R Evans, Paul R Smokowski, Matthew O Howard, Katie L Stalker
PURPOSE: Rural communities are currently being impacted by a nationwide epidemic of prescription opioid misuse. Rural adolescent substance users may be at substantial risk for later addiction to these and other drugs. METHODS: This study uses Latent Class Analysis to identify subtypes of polysubstance users among a sample of 7,074 rural adolescents. Separate models were estimated for middle- and high-school youth. Predictive validity was estimated using cumulative ordinal logistic regression of the classes on a set of youth and family characteristics...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Rural Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865800/the-role-of-continuing-medical-education-in-increasing-enrollment-in-prescription-drug-monitoring-programs
#17
John T Finnell, Robert K Twillman, Stephanie A Breslan, Jan Schultz, Lyerka Miller
PURPOSE: Opioid diversion, misuse, and abuse are rapidly growing problems in the United States; >60% of all drug overdose deaths involve an opioid. At least 49 states now have fully operational prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMPs) to support legitimate medical use of controlled substances; however, there is considerable underutilization of such programs. METHODS: To increase awareness of PDMPs and their use, a continuing medical education program including 2 webcasts and a series of newsletters was offered to health care providers...
August 30, 2017: Clinical Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857643/opioid-prescribing-in-rural-family-practices-a-qualitative-study
#18
Ivy A Click, Jeri Ann Basden, Joy M Bohannon, Heather Anderson, Fred Tudiver
BACKGROUND: Rural Tennessee, especially rural East Tennessee has seen a dramatic increase in rates of controlled drug prescriptions and controlled drug overdose deaths in recent years. However, little is known about the individual decisions to prescribe or continue prescriptions with relation to addiction concerns. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to learn more about what factors lead to physicians' prescribing control drugs for non-cancer pain through the use of focus groups...
August 31, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853974/the-impact-of-individual-level-social-capital-in-non-medical-use-of-pain-medications-among-individuals-50-years-or-older-from-diverse-racial-ethnic-backgrounds
#19
Humberto Reynoso-Vallejo, Myra Rosen-Reynoso
OBJECTIVES: In 2014, there were 21.5 million Americans (12 years old or older) that had a substance abuse disorder and almost 2 million of them had a substance use disorder involving prescription pain relievers (SAMHSA, 2014). The misuse of non-medical pain medication (NMPM) is a significant public health problem. This study examines the impact of individual-level social capital in non-medical use of pain medications (NMPM) among individuals 50 years or older. METHODS: Data from the 2003 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (n = 11,146) was analyzed using bivariate analysis and logistic regression analysis...
August 30, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28845476/opioid-prescription-drug-use-and-expenditures-in-us-outpatient-physician-offices-evidence-from-two-nationally-representative-surveys
#20
Zaina P Qureshi, M Rifat Haider, Rosa Rodriguez-Monguio, Nikki R Wooten, Ruslan V Nikitin, Sarah Ball, Kelly Barth, Ronit Elk, Ronnie Horner, Charles Bennett
BACKGROUND: Opioids are widely prescribed for their analgesic properties. Chronic opioid use is a persistent problem in the US. Nevertheless, little is known about its prescribing and utilization patterns and overall expenditures. OBJECTIVE: This study examined secular trends in opioid prescription drug utilization and expenditures, along with factors associated with opioid prescription drug use in US physician offices. METHODS: National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NAMCS) and Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) data (2006-2010), both nationally representative surveys, were used to assess the trend, predictors of opioid prescription among US adults (more than 18 years) and the opioid-associated expenditures as a whole and borne by the patients in outpatient settings...
2017: Cancer Therapy & Oncology International Journal
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