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model based fmri

Hideaki Kaneko, Shuo Zhang, Miho Sekiguchi, Takuya Nikaido, Koshi Makita, Jiro Kurata, Shin-Ichi Konno
STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate activity of the nucleus accumbens (NAc) in response to lumbar mechanical stimulation in patients with chronic low back pain (cLBP) using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Although a modified activity of the NAc was characterized in cLBP patients, its pathological significance has yet to be determined. We hypothesized that NAc activation in response to pain might differ depending on the extent of psychiatric problems, which might be associated with the affective/motivational background of chronic pain...
October 17, 2016: Spine
Konstantinos Nasiotis, Simon Clavagnier, Sylvain Baillet, Christopher C Pack
Magnetoencephalography (MEG) is used in clinical and fundamental studies of brain functions, primarily for the excellent temporal resolution it provides. The spatial resolution is often assumed to be poor, because of the ill-posed nature of MEG source modeling. However, the question of spatial resolution in MEG has seldom been studied in quantitative detail. Here we use the well-known retinotopic organization of the primary visual cortex (V1) as a benchmark for estimating the spatial resolution of MEG source imaging...
October 12, 2016: NeuroImage
Mona Maneshi, Shahabeddin Vahdat, Jean Gotman, Christophe Grova
Independent component analysis (ICA) has been widely used to study functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) connectivity. However, the application of ICA in multi-group designs is not straightforward. We have recently developed a new method named "shared and specific independent component analysis" (SSICA) to perform between-group comparisons in the ICA framework. SSICA is sensitive to extract those components which represent a significant difference in functional connectivity between groups or conditions, i...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Laura D Lewis, Kawin Setsompop, Bruce R Rosen, Jonathan R Polimeni
Oscillatory neural dynamics play an important role in the coordination of large-scale brain networks. High-level cognitive processes depend on dynamics evolving over hundreds of milliseconds, so measuring neural activity in this frequency range is important for cognitive neuroscience. However, current noninvasive neuroimaging methods are not able to precisely localize oscillatory neural activity above 0.2 Hz. Electroencephalography and magnetoencephalography have limited spatial resolution, whereas fMRI has limited temporal resolution because it measures vascular responses rather than directly recording neural activity...
October 11, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Nikola K Kasabov, Maryam Gholami Doborjeh, Zohreh Gholami Doborjeh
This paper introduces a new methodology for dynamic learning, visualization, and classification of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) as spatiotemporal brain data. The method is based on an evolving spatiotemporal data machine of evolving spiking neural networks (SNNs) exemplified by the NeuCube architecture [1]. The method consists of several steps: mapping spatial coordinates of fMRI data into a 3-D SNN cube (SNNc) that represents a brain template; input data transformation into trains of spikes; deep, unsupervised learning in the 3-D SNNc of spatiotemporal patterns from data; supervised learning in an evolving SNN classifier; parameter optimization; and 3-D visualization and model interpretation...
October 6, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
Jason M Scimeca, Perri L Katzman, David Badre
Adaptive memory requires context-dependent control over how information is retrieved, evaluated and used to guide action, yet the signals that drive adjustments to memory decisions remain unknown. Here we show that prediction errors (PEs) coded by the striatum support control over memory decisions. Human participants completed a recognition memory test that incorporated biased feedback to influence participants' recognition criterion. Using model-based fMRI, we find that PEs-the deviation between the outcome and expected value of a memory decision-correlate with striatal activity and predict individuals' final criterion...
October 7, 2016: Nature Communications
Rebecca B Price, Stephanie Lane, Kathleen Gates, Thomas E Kraynak, Michelle S Horner, Michael E Thase, Greg J Siegle
BACKGROUND: There is well-known heterogeneity in affective mechanisms in depression that may extend to positive affect. We used data-driven parsing of neural connectivity to reveal subgroups present across depressed and healthy individuals during positive processing, informing targets for mechanistic intervention. METHODS: Ninety-two individuals (68 depressed patients, 24 never-depressed control subjects) completed a sustained positive mood induction during functional magnetic resonance imaging...
July 5, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
Anthony J Gifuni, Adam Kendal, Fabrice Jollant
Guilt is a self-conscious emotion associated with the negative appraisal of one's behavior. In recent years, several neuroimaging studies have investigated the neural correlates of guilt, but no meta-analyses have yet identified the most robust activation patterns. A systematic review of literature found 16 functional magnetic resonance imaging studies with whole-brain analyses meeting the inclusion criteria, for a total of 325 participants and 135 foci of activation. A meta-analysis was then conducted using activation likelihood estimation...
October 4, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Manish Saggar, Eva Tsalikian, Nelly Mauras, Paul Mazaika, Neil H White, Stuart Weinzimer, Bruce Buckingham, Tamara Hershey, Allan L Reiss
Sustained dysregulation of blood glucose (hyper or hypoglycemia) associated with type 1 diabetes (T1D) has been linked to cognitive deficits and altered brain anatomy and connectivity. However, a significant gap remains with respect to how T1D affects spontaneous at-rest connectivity in young developing brains. Here, using a large multi-site study, resting state functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (rsfMRI) data were examined in young children with T1D (N=57, mean age=7.88 years; 27F) as compared to age-matched non-diabetic controls (N=26, mean age=7...
October 4, 2016: Diabetes
Cesar Echavarria, Shahin Nasr, Roger Tootell
In fMRI studies, human lateral occipital (LO) cortex is thought to respond selectively to images of objects, compared with nonobjects. However, it remains unresolved whether all objects evoke equivalent levels of activity in LO, and, if not, which image features produce stronger activation. Here, we used an unbiased parametric texture model to predict preferred versus nonpreferred stimuli in LO. Observation and psychophysical results showed that predicted preferred stimuli (both objects and nonobjects) had smooth (rather than textured) surfaces...
September 2016: ENeuro
Falk Eippert, Yazhuo Kong, Mark Jenkinson, Irene Tracey, Jonathan C W Brooks
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of the human spinal cord is a difficult endeavour due to the cord's small cross-sectional diameter, signal drop-out as well as image distortion due to magnetic field inhomogeneity, and the confounding influence of physiological noise from cardiac and respiratory sources. Nevertheless, there is great interest in spinal fMRI due to the spinal cord's role as the principal sensorimotor interface between the brain and the body and its involvement in a variety of sensory and motor pathologies...
September 28, 2016: NeuroImage
(no author information available yet)
Reports an error in "A general benevolence dimension that links neural, psychological, economic, and life-span data on altruistic tendencies" by Jason Hubbard, William T. Harbaugh, Sanjay Srivastava, David Degras and Ulrich Mayr (, Advanced Online Publication, Aug 11, 2016, np). In the article, there was an error in the Task, Stimuli, and Procedures section. In the 1st sentence in the 6th paragraph, "Following the scanning phase, participants completed self-report questionnaires meant to reflected the Prosocial Disposition construct: the agreeableness scale from the Big F, which includes empathic concern and perspective-taking, and a scale of personality descriptive adjectives related to altruistic behavior (Wood, Nye, & Saucier, 2010)...
October 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
Daniel J Levitin, Scott T Grafton
Functional brain imaging has revealed much about the neuroanatomical substrates of higher cognition, including music, language, learning, and memory. The technique lends itself to studying of groups of individuals. In contrast, the nature of expert performance is typically studied through the examination of exceptional individuals using behavioral case studies and retrospective biography. Here, we combined fMRI and the study of an individual who is a world-class expert musician and composer in order to better understand the neural underpinnings of his music perception and cognition, in particular, his mental representations for music...
August 12, 2016: Neurocase
Miriam C Klein-Flügge, Steven W Kennerley, Karl Friston, Sven Bestmann
UNLABELLED: Integrating costs and benefits is crucial for optimal decision-making. Although much is known about decisions that involve outcome-related costs (e.g., delay, risk), many of our choices are attached to actions and require an evaluation of the associated motor costs. Yet how the brain incorporates motor costs into choices remains largely unclear. We used human fMRI during choices involving monetary reward and physical effort to identify brain regions that serve as a choice comparator for effort-reward trade-offs...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Margherita Melloni, Pablo Billeke, Sandra Baez, Eugenia Hesse, Laura de la Fuente, Gonzalo Forno, Agustina Birba, Indira García-Cordero, Cecilia Serrano, Angelo Plastino, Andrea Slachevsky, David Huepe, Mariano Sigman, Facundo Manes, Adolfo M García, Lucas Sedeño, Agustín Ibáñez
Recursive social decision-making requires the use of flexible, context-sensitive long-term strategies for negotiation. To succeed in social bargaining, participants' own perspectives must be dynamically integrated with those of interactors to maximize self-benefits and adapt to the other's preferences, respectively. This is a prerequisite to develop a successful long-term self-other integration strategy. While such form of strategic interaction is critical to social decision-making, little is known about its neurocognitive correlates...
September 27, 2016: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Wei Li, Miao Wang, Wenzhen Zhu, Yuanyuan Qin, Yue Huang, Xi Chen
Functional brain connectivity is altered during the pathological processes of Alzheimer's disease (AD), but the specific evolutional rules are insufficiently understood. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging indicates that the functional brain networks of individuals with AD tend to be disrupted in hub-like nodes, shifting from a small world architecture to a random profile. Here, we proposed a novel evolution model based on computational experiments to simulate the transition of functional brain networks from normal to AD...
September 28, 2016: Scientific Reports
Danilo DonGiovanni, Lucia Maria Vaina
Extracting functional connectivity patterns among cortical regions in fMRI datasets is a challenge stimulating the development of effective data-driven or model based techniques. Here, we present a novel data-driven method for the extraction of significantly connected functional ROIs directly from the preprocessed fMRI data without relying on a priori knowledge of the expected activations. This method finds spatially compact groups of voxels which show a homogeneous pattern of significant connectivity with other regions in the brain...
2016: Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience
Leonardo Fernandino, Colin J Humphries, Lisa L Conant, Mark S Seidenberg, Jeffrey R Binder
UNLABELLED: The capacity to process information in conceptual form is a fundamental aspect of human cognition, yet little is known about how this type of information is encoded in the brain. Although the role of sensory and motor cortical areas has been a focus of recent debate, neuroimaging studies of concept representation consistently implicate a network of heteromodal areas that seem to support concept retrieval in general rather than knowledge related to any particular sensory-motor content...
September 21, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Andrew A Nicholson, Daniela Rabellino, Maria Densmore, Paul A Frewen, Christian Paret, Rosemarie Kluetsch, Christian Schmahl, Jean Théberge, Richard W J Neufeld, Margaret C McKinnon, Jim Reiss, Rakesh Jetly, Ruth A Lanius
Amygdala dysregulation has been shown to be central to the pathophysiology of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) representing a critical treatment target. Here, amygdala downregulation was targeted using real-time fMRI neurofeedback (rt-fMRI-nf) in patients with PTSD, allowing us to examine further the regulation of emotional states during symptom provocation. Patients (n = 10) completed three sessions of rt-fMRI-nf with the instruction to downregulate activation in the amygdala, while viewing personalized trauma words...
September 20, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
Louis Gagnon, Amy F Smith, David A Boas, Anna Devor, Timothy W Secomb, Sava Sakadžić
Oxygen is delivered to brain tissue by a dense network of microvessels, which actively control cerebral blood flow (CBF) through vasodilation and contraction in response to changing levels of neural activity. Understanding these network-level processes is immediately relevant for (1) interpretation of functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) signals, and (2) investigation of neurological diseases in which a deterioration of neurovascular and neuro-metabolic physiology contributes to motor and cognitive decline...
2016: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
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