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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676512/occupational-functional-plasticity-revealed-by-brain-entropy-a-resting-state-fmri-study-of-seafarers
#1
Nizhuan Wang, Huijun Wu, Min Xu, Yang Yang, Chunqi Chang, Weiming Zeng, Hongjie Yan
Recently, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has been increasingly used to assess brain function. Brain entropy is an effective model for evaluating the alteration of brain complexity. Specifically, the sample entropy (SampEn) provides a feasible solution for revealing the brain's complexity. Occupation is one key factor affecting the brain's activity, but the neuropsychological mechanisms are still unclear. Thus, in this article, based on fMRI and a brain entropy model, we explored the functional complexity changes engendered by occupation factors, taking the seafarer as an example...
April 20, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673322/the-spatio-temporal-dynamics-of-deviance-and-target-detection-in-the-passive-and-active-auditory-oddball-paradigm-a-sloreta-study
#2
Christoph Justen, Cornelia Herbert
BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have investigated the neural underpinnings of passive and active deviance and target detection in the well-known auditory oddball paradigm by means of event-related potentials (ERPs) or functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The present auditory oddball study investigates the spatio-temporal dynamics of passive versus active deviance and target detection by analyzing amplitude modulations of early and late ERPs while at the same time exploring the neural sources underling this modulation with standardized low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA) ...
April 19, 2018: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669002/tractography-verified-by-intraoperative-magnetic-resonance-imaging-and-subcortical-stimulation-during-tumor-resection-near-the-corticospinal-tract
#3
Timo Münnich, Jan Klein, Elke Hattingen, Anika Noack, Eva Herrmann, Volker Seifert, Christian Senft, Marie-Therese Forster
BACKGROUND: Tractography is a popular tool for visualizing the corticospinal tract (CST). However, results may be influenced by numerous variables, eg, the selection of seeding regions of interests (ROIs) or the chosen tracking algorithm. OBJECTIVE: To compare different variable sets by correlating tractography results with intraoperative subcortical stimulation of the CST, correcting intraoperative brain shift by the use of intraoperative MRI. METHODS: Seeding ROIs were created by means of motor cortex segmentation, functional MRI (fMRI), and navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (nTMS)...
April 14, 2018: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664902/a-general-prediction-model-for-the-detection-of-adhd-and-autism-using-structural-and-functional-mri
#4
Bhaskar Sen, Neil C Borle, Russell Greiner, Matthew R G Brown
This work presents a novel method for learning a model that can diagnose Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), as well as Autism, using structural texture and functional connectivity features obtained from 3-dimensional structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and 4-dimensional resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans of subjects. We explore a series of three learners: (1) The LeFMS learner first extracts features from the structural MRI images using the texture-based filters produced by a sparse autoencoder...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657509/a-tensor-statistical-model-for-quantifying-dynamic-functional-connectivity
#5
Yingying Zhu, Xiaofeng Zhu, Minjeong Kim, Jin Yan, Guorong Wu
Functional connectivity (FC) has been widely investigated in many imaging-based neuroscience and clinical studies. Since functional Magnetic Resonance Image (MRI) signal is just an indirect reflection of brain activity, it is difficult to accurately quantify the FC strength only based on signal correlation. To address this limitation, we propose a learning-based tensor model to derive high sensitivity and specificity connectome biomarkers at the individual level from resting-state fMRI images. First, we propose a learning-based approach to estimate the intrinsic functional connectivity...
June 2017: Information Processing in Medical Imaging: Proceedings of the ... Conference
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610078/estimating-dynamic-connectivity-states-in-fmri-using-regime-switching-factor-models
#6
Chee-Ming Ting, Hernando Ombao, S Balqis Samdin, Sh-Hussain Salleh
We consider the challenges in estimating the state-related changes in brain connectivity networks with a large number of nodes. Existing studies use the sliding-window analysis or time-varying coefficient models, which are unable to capture both smooth and abrupt changes simultaneously, and rely on ad-hoc approaches to the high-dimensional estimation. To overcome these limitations, we propose a Markov-switching dynamic factor model, which allows the dynamic connectivity states in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data to be driven by lower-dimensional latent factors...
April 2018: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607288/neural-correlates-of-aggressive-behavior-in-real-time-a-review-of-fmri-studies-of-laboratory-reactive-aggression
#7
Jennifer R Fanning, Sarah Keedy, Mitchell E Berman, Royce Lee, Emil F Coccaro
Purpose of review: Aggressive behavior has adaptive value in many natural environments; however, it places substantial burden and costs on human society. For this reason, there has long been interest in understanding the neurobiological basis of aggression. This interest, and the flourishing of neuroimaging research in general, has spurred the development of a large and growing scientific literature on the topic. As a result, a neural circuit model of aggressive behavior has emerged that implicates interconnected brain regions that are involved in emotional reactivity, emotion regulation, and cognitive control...
June 2017: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605578/tracing-the-interplay-between-syntactic-and-lexical-features-fmri-evidence-from-agreement-comprehension
#8
Ileana Quiñones, Nicola Molinaro, Simona Mancini, Juan Andrés Hernández-Cabrera, Horacio Barber, Manuel Carreiras
The current fMRI study was designed to investigate whether the processing of different gender-related cues embedded in nouns affects the computation of agreement dependencies and, if so, where this possible interaction is mapped in the brain. We used the Spanish gender agreement system, which makes it possible to manipulate two different factors: the agreement between different sentence constituents (i.e., by contrasting congruent versus incongruent determiner-noun pairs) and the formal (i.e., orthographical/morphological) and/or lexical information embedded in the noun -i...
March 29, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601060/revealing-neurocomputational-mechanisms-of-reinforcement-learning-and-decision-making-with-the-hbayesdm-package
#9
Woo-Young Ahn, Nathaniel Haines, Lei Zhang
Reinforcement learning and decision-making (RLDM) provide a quantitative framework and computational theories with which we can disentangle psychiatric conditions into the basic dimensions of neurocognitive functioning. RLDM offer a novel approach to assessing and potentially diagnosing psychiatric patients, and there is growing enthusiasm for both RLDM and computational psychiatry among clinical researchers. Such a framework can also provide insights into the brain substrates of particular RLDM processes, as exemplified by model-based analysis of data from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) or electroencephalography (EEG)...
October 2017: Comput Psychiatr
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580569/default-mode-connectivity-in-major-depressive-disorder-measured-up-to-10-days-after-ketamine-administration
#10
Jennifer W Evans, Joanna Szczepanik, Nancy Brutsché, Lawrence T Park, Allison C Nugent, Carlos A Zarate
BACKGROUND: The symptoms of major depressive disorder (MDD) are rapidly alleviated by administration of a single dose of the glutamatergic modulator ketamine. However, few studies have investigated the potential sustained neural effects of this agent beyond immediate infusion. This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine the effect of a single ketamine infusion on the resting state default mode network (DMN) at 2 and 10 days after a single ketamine infusion in unmedicated subjects with MDD as well as healthy control subjects (HCs)...
February 15, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29579045/from-correlation-to-causation-estimating-effective-connectivity-from-zero-lag-covariances-of-brain-signals
#11
Jonathan Schiefer, Alexander Niederbühl, Volker Pernice, Carolin Lennartz, Jürgen Hennig, Pierre LeVan, Stefan Rotter
Knowing brain connectivity is of great importance both in basic research and for clinical applications. We are proposing a method to infer directed connectivity from zero-lag covariances of neuronal activity recorded at multiple sites. This allows us to identify causal relations that are reflected in neuronal population activity. To derive our strategy, we assume a generic linear model of interacting continuous variables, the components of which represent the activity of local neuronal populations. The suggested method for inferring connectivity from recorded signals exploits the fact that the covariance matrix derived from the observed activity contains information about the existence, the direction and the sign of connections...
March 26, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29578027/distinct-and-overlapping-fusiform-activation-to-faces-and-food
#12
Kayleigh Adamson, Vanessa Troiani
The fusiform cortex is a part of the ventral visual stream and is typically associated with face processing. Indeed, a subregion of the fusiform has been named the "fusiform face area" or FFA, based on its robust response to faces relative to other objects. In a separate literature, appetizing food has also been shown to activate bilateral fusiform cortex, yet no study to date has directly compared face and food responses within the same paradigm. Here, we use functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to compare face and food responses in ventral visual cortex and other regions that are typically associated with face processing...
March 22, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29568824/multimodal-hyper-connectivity-networks-for-mci-classification
#13
Yang Li, Xinqiang Gao, Biao Jie, Pew-Thian Yap, Min-Jeong Kim, Chong-Yaw Wee, Dinggang Shen
Hyper-connectivity network is a network where every edge is connected to more than two nodes, and can be naturally denoted using a hyper-graph. Hyper-connectivity brain network, either based on structural or functional interactions among the brain regions, has been used for brain disease diagnosis. However, the conventional hyper-connectivity network is constructed solely based on single modality data, ignoring potential complementary information conveyed by other modalities. The integration of complementary information from multiple modalities has been shown to provide a more comprehensive representation about the brain disruptions...
September 2017: Medical Image Computing and Computer-assisted Intervention: MICCAI ..
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29551416/cross-situational-learning-is-supported-by-propose-but-verify-hypothesis-testing
#14
Sam C Berens, Jessica S Horst, Chris M Bird
When we encounter a new word, there are often multiple objects that the word might refer to [1]. Nonetheless, because names for concrete nouns are constant, we are able to learn them across successive encounters [2, 3]. This form of "cross-situational" learning may result from either associative mechanisms that gradually accumulate evidence for each word-object association [4, 5] or rapid propose-but-verify (PbV) mechanisms where only one hypothesized referent is stored for each word, which is either subsequently verified or rejected [6, 7]...
March 10, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29549287/function-specific-and-enhanced-brain-structural-connectivity-mapping-via-joint-modeling-of-diffusion-and-functional-mri
#15
Shu-Hsien Chu, Keshab K Parhi, Christophe Lenglet
A joint structural-functional brain network model is presented, which enables the discovery of function-specific brain circuits, and recovers structural connections that are under-estimated by diffusion MRI (dMRI). Incorporating information from functional MRI (fMRI) into diffusion MRI to estimate brain circuits is a challenging task. Usually, seed regions for tractography are selected from fMRI activation maps to extract the white matter pathways of interest. The proposed method jointly analyzes whole brain dMRI and fMRI data, allowing the estimation of complete function-specific structural networks instead of interactively investigating the connectivity of individual cortical/sub-cortical areas...
March 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29541538/transcranial-dc-stimulation-modifies-functional-connectivity-of-large-scale-brain-networks-in-abstinent-methamphetamine-users
#16
Alireza Shahbabaie, Mitra Ebrahimpoor, Ali Hariri, Michael A Nitsche, Javad Hatami, Emad Fatemizadeh, Mohammad Ali Oghabian, Hamed Ekhtiari
Background: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a noninvasive brain stimulation tool suited to alter cortical excitability and activity via the application of weak direct electrical currents. An increasing number of studies in the addiction literature suggests that tDCS modulates subjective self-reported craving through stimulation of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). The major goal of this study was to explore effects of bilateral DLPFC stimulation on resting state networks (RSNs) in association with drug craving modulation...
March 2018: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29541439/network-specific-sex-differentiation-of-intrinsic-brain-function-in-males-with-autism
#17
Dorothea L Floris, Meng-Chuan Lai, Tanmay Nath, Michael P Milham, Adriana Di Martino
Background: The male predominance in the prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has motivated research on sex differentiation in ASD. Multiple sources of evidence have suggested a neurophenotypic convergence of ASD-related characteristics and typical sex differences. Two existing, albeit competing, models provide predictions on such neurophenotypic convergence. These two models are testable with neuroimaging. Specifically, the Extreme Male Brain (EMB) model predicts that ASD is associated with enhanced brain maleness in both males and females with ASD (i...
2018: Molecular Autism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29529408/functional-activation-during-a-cognitive-control-task-in-healthy-youth-specific-to-externalizing-or-internalizing-behaviors
#18
Katherine H Karlsgodt, Angelica A Bato, Toshikazu Ikuta, Bart D Peters, Pamela DeRosse, Philip R Szeszko, Anil K Malhotra
BACKGROUND: Externalizing behaviors are negative behaviors expressed outwardly, including rule breaking, aggression, and risk taking; internalizing behaviors are expressed inwardly, including depression, withdrawal, and anxiety. Such behavior can cause problems in early life and predict difficulties across the lifespan. There is evidence for a relationship between executive function and both externalizing and internalizing. However, although these behaviors occur along a spectrum, there is little neuroimaging research on this relationship in typically developing youth...
February 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29529406/separable-effects-of-childhood-maltreatment-and-adult-adaptive-functioning-on-amygdala-connectivity-during-emotion-processing
#19
Lauren A Demers, Kelly Jedd McKenzie, Ruskin H Hunt, Dante Cicchetti, Raquel A Cowell, Fred A Rogosch, Sheree L Toth, Kathleen M Thomas
BACKGROUND: Individuals with a history of maltreatment show altered amygdala reactivity to emotional stimuli, atypical frontal regulatory control, and differences in frontolimbic connectivity compared with nonmaltreated controls. However, despite early trauma, many individuals who experience maltreatment show resilience or adaptive functioning in adulthood including positive social, educational, and occupational outcomes. METHODS: The present study used a psychophysiological interaction model to examine the effect of adult adaptive functioning on group differences between maltreated and nonmaltreated adults in task-based amygdala functional connectivity...
February 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29522112/toward-leveraging-human-connectomic-data-in-large-consortia-generalizability-of-fmri-based-brain-graphs-across-sites-sessions-and-paradigms
#20
Hengyi Cao, Sarah C McEwen, Jennifer K Forsyth, Dylan G Gee, Carrie E Bearden, Jean Addington, Bradley Goodyear, Kristin S Cadenhead, Heline Mirzakhanian, Barbara A Cornblatt, Ricardo E Carrión, Daniel H Mathalon, Thomas H McGlashan, Diana O Perkins, Aysenil Belger, Larry J Seidman, Heidi Thermenos, Ming T Tsuang, Theo G M van Erp, Elaine F Walker, Stephan Hamann, Alan Anticevic, Scott W Woods, Tyrone D Cannon
While graph theoretical modeling has dramatically advanced our understanding of complex brain systems, the feasibility of aggregating connectomic data in large imaging consortia remains unclear. Here, using a battery of cognitive, emotional and resting fMRI paradigms, we investigated the generalizability of functional connectomic measures across sites and sessions. Our results revealed overall fair to excellent reliability for a majority of measures during both rest and tasks, in particular for those quantifying connectivity strength, network segregation and network integration...
March 7, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
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