Read by QxMD icon Read

Drosophila midgut

Paul Szyszka, C Giovanni Galizia
In a recent paper, Joseph and colleagues (Joseph et al., 2017) have characterized an IR60b receptor-expressing neuron in Drosophila. They showed that it responds to sucrose and serves to limit sucrose consumption, and proposed that it may thereby act to prevent overfeeding. Here, we propose an alternative hypothesis for the functional role of sucrose feeding control, and for how this limitation of sucrose uptake is accomplished. Adult fruit flies feed by excreting saliva onto the food, and imbibing the predigested liquefied food, or by filling the crop, where the food is predigested...
March 13, 2018: Chemical Senses
Beatriz Hernández de Madrid, Jordi Casanova
The Drosophila GATA factor gene serpent (srp) is required for the early differentiation of the anterior and posterior midgut primordia. In particular, srp is sufficient and necessary for the primordial gut cells to undertake an epithelial-to-mesenchimal transition (EMT). Two other GATA factor genes, dGATAe and grain (grn), are also specifically expressed in the midgut. On the one hand, dGATAe expression is activated by srp. Embryos homozygous for a deficiency uncovering dGATAe were shown to lack the expression of some differentiated midgut genes...
2018: PloS One
Joung-Sun Park, Ho-Jun Jeon, Jung-Hoon Pyo, Young-Shin Kim, Mi-Ae Yoo
Stem cell dysfunction is closely linked to tissue and organismal aging and age-related diseases, and heavily influenced by the niche cells' environment. The DNA damage response (DDR) is a key pathway for tissue degeneration and organismal aging; however, the precise protective role of DDR in stem cell/niche aging is unclear. The Drosophila midgut is an excellent model to study the biology of stem cell/niche aging because of its easy genetic manipulation and its short lifespan. Here, we showed that deficiency of DDR in Drosophila enterocytes (ECs) accelerates intestinal stem cell (ISC) aging...
March 7, 2018: Aging
Bo G Lindberg, Xiongzhuo Tang, Widad Dantoft, Priya Gohel, Shiva Seyedoleslami Esfahani, Jessica M Lindvall, Ylva Engström
Gut immunity is regulated by intricate and dynamic mechanisms to ensure homeostasis despite a constantly changing microbial environment. Several regulatory factors have been described to participate in feedback responses to prevent aberrant immune activity. Little is, however, known about how transcriptional programs are directly tuned to efficiently adapt host gut tissues to the current microbiome. Here we show that the POU/Oct gene nubbin (nub) encodes two transcription factor isoforms, Nub-PB and Nub-PD, which antagonistically regulate immune gene expression in Drosophila...
March 2, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Gabriel N Aughey, Alicia Estacio Gomez, Jamie Thomson, Hang Yin, Tony D Southall
During development eukaryotic gene expression is coordinated by dynamic changes in chromatin structure. Measurements of accessible chromatin are used extensively to identify genomic regulatory elements. Whilst chromatin landscapes of pluripotent stem cells are well characterised, chromatin accessibility changes in the development of somatic lineages are not well defined. Here we show that cell-specific chromatin accessibility data can be produced via ectopic expression of E. coli Dam methylase in vivo, without the requirement for cell-sorting (CATaDa)...
February 26, 2018: ELife
Ana García Del Arco, Bruce A Edgar, Sylvia Erhardt
Stem cells of the Drosophila midgut (ISCs) are the only mitotically dividing cells of the epithelium and, therefore, presumably the only epithelial cells that require functional kinetochores for microtubule spindle attachment during mitosis. The histone variant CENP-A marks centromeric chromatin as the site of kinetochore formation and spindle attachment during mitotic chromosome segregation. Here, we show that centromeric proteins distribute asymmetrically during ISC division. Whereas newly synthesized CENP-A is enriched in differentiating progeny, CENP-C is undetectable in these cells...
February 20, 2018: Cell Reports
Deborah A Hursh, Brian G Stultz
Zinc finger in the cerebellum (Zic) proteins are a family of transcription factors with multiple roles during development, particularly in neural tissues. The founding member of the Zic family is the Drosophila odd-paired (opa) gene. The Opa protein has a DNA binding domain containing five Cys2His2-type zinc fingers and has been shown to act as a sequence-specific DNA binding protein. Opa has significant homology to mammalian Zic1, Zic2, and Zic3 within the zinc finger domain and in two other conserved regions outside that domain...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Koji Takeda, Takashi Okumura, Mayu Terahata, Mio Yamaguchi, Kiichiro Taniguchi, Takashi Adachi-Yamada
Enteroendocrine cells (EEs) are evolutionarily conserved gastrointestinal secretory cells that show scattered distribution in the intestinal epithelium. These cells classified into several subtypes based on the hormones they produce in both mammals and insects. In the fruit fly Drosophila, it has been suggested that nearly equal numbers of two subtypes of EEs (Allatostatin A: AstA and Diuretic hormone 31 : Dh31) are alternately produced from the intestinal stem cells in the posterior midgut. However, we found that these two subtypes are not always present in this manner, but are rather distributed in a complementary frequency gradient along the posterior midgut...
February 2018: Zoological Science
Li He, Guangwei Si, Jiuhong Huang, Aravinthan D T Samuel, Norbert Perrimon
Somatic stem cells constantly adjust their self-renewal and lineage commitment by integrating various environmental cues to maintain tissue homeostasis. Although numerous chemical and biological signals have been identified that regulate stem-cell behaviour, whether stem cells can directly sense mechanical signals in vivo remains unclear. Here we show that mechanical stress regulates stem-cell differentiation in the adult Drosophila midgut through the stretch-activated ion channel Piezo. We find that Piezo is specifically expressed in previously unidentified enteroendocrine precursor cells, which have reduced proliferation ability and are destined to become enteroendocrine cells...
February 7, 2018: Nature
Javier Serrato-Salas, Javier Izquierdo-Sánchez, Martha Argüello, Renáud Conde, Alejandro Alvarado-Delgado, Humberto Lanz-Mendoza
Priming is the conceptual term defining memory phenomenon in innate immune response. Numerous examples of enhanced secondary immune response have been described in diverse taxa of invertebrates; which naturally lacks memory response. In mosquitoes, a previous non-lethal challenge with some specific pathogens modify their immune response against the same microorganism; developing an improved antimicrobial reaction. In this work, we explore the ability of Aedes aegypti to mount a higher antiviral response upon a second oral DENV challenge...
February 2, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Zheng Wang, Hong Zhang
Mitophagy maintains mitochondrial homeostasis and cell health. A new study demonstrates that the ubiquitin-binding protein Vps13D functions downstream of the fission factor Drp1 to control mitochondrial size and autophagic clearance in Drosophila midgut cells.
January 22, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Sean Conway, Christine L Sansone, Anika Benske, Kaitlin Kentala, Johan Billen, Jozef Vanden Broeck, Edward M Blumenthal
Normal gut function is vital for animal survival, and deviations from such function can contribute to malnutrition, inflammation, increased susceptibility to pathogens, diabetes, neurodegenerative diseases, and cancer. In the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, mutation of the gene drop-dead (drd) results in defective gut function, as measured by enlargement of the crop and reduced food movement through the gut, and drd mutation also causes the unrelated phenotypes of neurodegeneration, early adult lethality and female sterility...
January 22, 2018: Journal of Insect Physiology
Gil Y Yerushalmi, Lidiya Misyura, Heath A MacMillan, Andrew Donini
At low temperatures, Drosophila, like most insects, lose the ability to regulate ion and water balance across the gut epithelia, which can lead to a lethal increase of [K+] in the hemolymph (hyperkalemia). Cold-acclimation, the physiological response to a prior low temperature exposure, can mitigate or entirely prevent these ion imbalances, but the physiological mechanisms that facilitate this process are not well understood. Here, we test whether plasticity in the ionoregulatory physiology of the gut and Malpighian tubules of Drosophila may aid in preserving ion homeostasis in the cold...
January 24, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Logan Myers, Hiran Perera, Michael G Alvarado, Thomas Kidd
The RET receptor tyrosine kinase is critical for the development of the enteric nervous system (ENS), acting as a receptor for Glial Cell Line-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (GDNF) via GFR co-receptors. Drosophila has a well-conserved RET homologue (Ret) that has been proposed to function independently of the Gfr-like co-receptor (Gfrl). We find that Ret is required for development of the stomatogastric (enteric) nervous system (SNS) in both embryos and larvae, and its loss results in feeding defects. Live imaging analysis suggests that peristaltic waves are initiated but not propagated in mutant midguts...
December 28, 2017: Development
Junhan Lin, Xiaofeng Xia, Xiao-Qiang Yu, Jinhong Shen, Yong Li, Hailan Lin, Shanshan Tang, Liette Vasseur, Minsheng You
Insect gut immunity plays a key role in defense against microorganism infection. The knowledge of insect gut immunity has been obtained mostly from Drosophila melanogaster. Little is known about gut immunity in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), a pest destroying cruciferous crops worldwide. In this study, expressions of the immune-related genes in the midgut of P. xylostella orally infected with Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pichia pastoris were profiled by RNA-seq and qRT-PCR approaches...
January 3, 2018: Gene
Chang Yin, Rongwen Xi
The intestinal epithelium in the Drosophila midgut is maintained by intestinal stem cells (ISCs), which are capable of generating both enterocytes and enteroendocrine cells (EEs) via alternative cell fate specification. Activation of Delta-Notch signaling directs ISCs for enterocyte generation, but how EEs are generated from ISCs remains poorly understood. Here, we identified Phyllopod (Phyl) as a key regulator that drives EE generation from ISCs. Phyl, which is normally suppressed by Notch, functions as an adaptor protein that bridges Tramtrack 69 (Ttk69) and E3 ubiquitin ligase Sina for degradation...
December 15, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
X-X Yao, Q-W Meng, G-Q Li
An obvious challenge faced by most terrestrial insects is maintaining water homeostasis in an arid environment. Current research suggests aquaporins may be evolved to meet the challenge. However, up to now, this suggestion has not been verified in any insect that feeds upon solid food with mandibulate mouthparts. In the present paper, nine putative aquaporin genes [Tribolium castaneum big brain, T. castaneum Drosophila integral protein (TcDrip), T. castaneum Pyrocoelia rufa integral protein (TcPrip), T. castaneum aquaporin 12-like, T...
December 13, 2017: Insect Molecular Biology
Stefanie Marxreiter, Carl S Thummel
BACKGROUND: The Testicular Receptors 2 and 4 (TR2, TR4) comprise a small subfamily of orphan nuclear receptors. Genetic studies in mouse models have identified roles for TR4 in developmental progression, fertility, brain development, and metabolism, as well as genetic redundancy with TR2. Here we study the adult functions of the single Drosophila member of this subfamily, DHR78, with the goal of defining its ancestral functions in the absence of genetic redundancy. RESULTS: We show that DHR78 mutants have a shortened lifespan, reduced motility, and mated DHR78 mutant females display a reduced feeding rate...
February 2018: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
Jung-Kun Wen, Yi-Ting Wang, Chih-Chiang Chan, Cheng-Wen Hsieh, Hsiao-Man Liao, Chin-Chun Hung, Guang-Chao Chen
Autophagy is essential for maintaining cellular homeostasis and survival under various stress conditions. Autophagy-related gene 9 (Atg9) encodes a multipass transmembrane protein thought to act as a membrane carrier for forming autophagosomes. However, the molecular regulation and physiological importance of Atg9 in animal development remain largely unclear. Here, we generated Atg9 null mutant flies and found that loss of Atg9 led to shortened lifespan, locomotor defects, and increased susceptibility to stress...
November 16, 2017: ELife
Caroline S Gough, Grace M Fairlamb, Petra Bell, Ronald J Nachman, Neil Audsley, R Elwyn Isaac
Neuropeptides play an important role in the regulation of feeding in insects and offer potential targets for the development of new chemicals to control insect pests. A pest that has attracted much recent attention is the highly invasive Drosophila suzukii, a polyphagous pest that can cause serious economic damage to soft fruits. Previously we showed by mass spectrometry the presence of the neuropeptide myosuppressin (TDVDHVFLRFamide) in the nerve bundle suggesting that this peptide is involved in regulating the function of the crop, which in adult dipteran insects has important roles in the processing of food, the storage of carbohydrates and the movement of food into the midgut for digestion...
2017: PloS One
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"