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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893747/analysis-of-the-function-of-apoptosis-during-imaginal-wing-disc-regeneration-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#1
Sandra Diaz-Garcia, Sara Ahmed, Antonio Baonza
Regeneration is the ability that allows organisms to replace missing organs or lost tissue after injuries. This ability requires the coordinated activity of different cellular processes, including programmed cell death. Apoptosis plays a key role as a source of signals necessary for regeneration in different organisms. The imaginal discs of Drosophila melanogaster provide a particularly well-characterised model system for studying the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying regeneration. Although it has been shown that signals produced by apoptotic cells are needed for homeostasis and regeneration of some tissues of this organism, such as the adult midgut, the contribution of apoptosis to disc regeneration remains unclear...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888216/drosophila-sulf1-is-required-for-the-termination-of-intestinal-stem-cell-division-during-regeneration
#2
Masahiko Takemura, Hiroshi Nakato
Stem cell division is activated to trigger regeneration in response to tissue damage. The molecular mechanisms by which this stem cell mitotic activity is properly repressed at the end of regeneration are poorly understood. Here we show that a specific modification of heparan sulfate (HS) is critical in regulating Drosophila intestinal stem cell (ISC) division during normal midgut homeostasis and regeneration. Loss of the extracellular HS endosulfatase Sulf1 results in increased ISC division during normal homeostasis, which is caused by upregulation of mitogenic signaling including the JAK/STAT, EGFR, and Hedgehog pathways...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880869/the-impact-of-metagenomic-interplay-on-the-mosquito-redox-homeostasis
#3
REVIEW
Cody J Champion, Jiannong Xu
Mosquitoes are exposed to oxidative challenges throughout their life cycle. The primary challenge comes from a blood meal. The blood digestion turns the midgut into an oxidative environment, which imposes pressure not only on mosquito fecundity and other physiological traits but also on the microbiota in the midgut. During evolution, mosquitoes have developed numerous oxidative defense mechanisms to maintain redox homeostasis in the midgut. In addition to antioxidants, SOD, catalase, and glutathione system, sufficient supply of the reducing agent, NADPH, is vital for a successful defense against oxidative stress...
November 20, 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834607/somatic-recombination-in-adult-tissues-what-is-there-to-learn
#4
Katarzyna Siudeja, Allison J Bardin
Somatic recombination is essential to protect genomes of somatic cells from DNA damage but it also has important clinical implications, as it is a driving force of tumorigenesis leading to inactivation of tumor suppressor genes. Despite this importance, our knowledge about somatic recombination in adult tissues remains very limited. Our recent work, using the Drosophila adult midgut has demonstrated that spontaneous events of mitotic recombination accumulate in aging adult intestinal stem cells and result in frequent loss of heterozygosity (LOH)...
November 11, 2016: Fly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783936/intestinal-ire1-is-required-for-increased-triglyceride-metabolism-and-longer-lifespan-under-dietary-restriction
#5
Nuno Miguel Luis, Lifen Wang, Mauricio Ortega, Hansong Deng, Subhash D Katewa, Patrick Wai-Lun Li, Jason Karpac, Heinrich Jasper, Pankaj Kapahi
Dietary restriction (DR) is one of the most robust lifespan-extending interventions in animals. The beneficial effects of DR involve a metabolic adaptation toward increased triglyceride usage. The regulatory mechanism and the tissue specificity of this metabolic switch remain unclear. Here, we show that theĀ IRE1/XBP1 endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress signaling module mediates metabolic adaptation upon DR in flies by promoting triglyceride synthesis and accumulation in enterocytes (ECs) of the Drosophila midgut...
October 25, 2016: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765651/metamorphosis-of-the-drosophila-visceral-musculature-and-its-role-in-intestinal-morphogenesis-and-stem-cell-formation
#6
Patrick Aghajanian, Shigeo Takashima, Manash Paul, Amelia Younossi-Hartenstein, Volker Hartenstein
The visceral musculature of the Drosophila intestine plays important roles in digestion as well as development. Detailed studies investigating the embryonic development of the visceral muscle exist; comparatively little is known about postembryonic development and metamorphosis of this tissue. In this study we have combined the use of specific markers with electron microscopy to follow the formation of the adult visceral musculature and its involvement in gut development during metamorphosis. Unlike the adult somatic musculature, which is derived from a pool of undifferentiated myoblasts, the visceral musculature of the adult is a direct descendant of the larval fibers, as shown by activating a lineage tracing construct in the larval muscle and obtaining labeled visceral fibers in the adult...
December 1, 2016: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760824/rna-interference-directed-against-the-transglutaminase-gene-triggers-dysbiosis-of-gut-microbiota-in-drosophila
#7
Sanae Sekihara, Toshio Shibata, Mai Hyakkendani, Shun-Ichiro Kawabata
We recently reported that transglutaminase (TG) suppresses immune deficiency pathway-controlled antimicrobial peptides (IMD-AMPs), thereby conferring immune tolerance to gut microbes, and that RNAi of the TG gene in flies decreases the lifespan compared with non-TG-RNAi flies. Here, analysis of the bacterial composition of the Drosophila gut by next-generation sequencing revealed that gut microbiota comprising one dominant genus of Acetobacter in non-TG-RNAi flies was shifted to that comprising two dominant genera of Acetobacter and Providencia in TG-RNAi flies...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27721443/functional-analysis-of-cyp6er1-a-p450-gene-associated-with-imidacloprid-resistance-in-nilaparvata-lugens
#8
Rui Pang, Meng Chen, Zhikun Liang, Xiangzhao Yue, Hu Ge, Wenqing Zhang
The cytochrome P450 CYP6ER1 has been reported to play an important role in imidacloprid resistance of the brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens, and is overexpressed in most resistant populations. In the present study, we confirmed that CYP6ER1 expression can be induced by certain levels of imidacloprid. Developmental expression analysis revealed that CYP6ER1 was expressed highly in the adult stage, and tissue distribution analysis showed that CYP6ER1 was expressed mainly in the fat body and midgut. RNA interference (RNAi) of CYP6ER1 and transgenic expression of CYP6ER1 in Drosophila melanogaster both suggested that the expression of CYP6ER1 is sufficient to confer imidacloprid resistance...
October 10, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693629/activation-of-the-tor-myc-signaling-axis-in-intestinal-stem-and-progenitor-cells-affects-longevity-stress-resistance-and-metabolism-in-drosophila
#9
Olha M Strilbytska, Uliana V Semaniuk, Kenneth B Storey, Bruce A Edgar, Oleh V Lushchak
The TOR (target of rapamycin) signaling pathway and the transcriptional factor Myc play important roles in growth control. Myc acts, in part, as a downstream target of TOR to regulate the activity and functioning of stem cells. Here we explore the role of TOR-Myc axis in stem and progenitor cells in the regulation of lifespan, stress resistance and metabolism in Drosophila. We found that both overexpression of rheb and myc-rheb in midgut stem and progenitor cells decreased the lifespan and starvation resistance of flies...
September 29, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27678067/characterization-and-expression-profiling-of-atp-binding-cassette-transporter-genes-in-the-diamondback-moth-plutella-xylostella-l
#10
Weiping Qi, Xiaoli Ma, Weiyi He, Wei Chen, Mingmin Zou, Geoff M Gurr, Liette Vasseur, Minsheng You
BACKGROUND: ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are one of the major transmembrane protein families found in all organisms and play important roles in transporting a variety of compounds across intra and extra cellular membranes. In some species, ABC transporters may be involved in the detoxification of substances such as insecticides. The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), a destructive pest of cruciferous crops worldwide, is an important species to study as it is resistant to many types of insecticides as well as biological control Bacillus thuringiensis toxins...
September 27, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27594789/plant-defense-inhibitors-affect-the-structures-of-midgut-cells-in-drosophila-melanogaster-and-callosobruchus-maculatus
#11
Hongmei Li-Byarlay, Barry R Pittendrigh, Larry L Murdock
Plants produce proteins such as protease inhibitors and lectins as defenses against herbivorous insects and pathogens. However, no systematic studies have explored the structural responses in the midguts of insects when challenged with plant defensive proteins and lectins across different species. In this study, we fed two kinds of protease inhibitors and lectins to the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and alpha-amylase inhibitors and lectins to the cowpea bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus. We assessed the changes in midgut cell structures by comparing them with such structures in insects receiving normal diets or subjected to food deprivation...
2016: International Journal of Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27578182/the-migrations-of-drosophila-muscle-founders-and-primordial-germ-cells-are-interdependent
#12
Vincent Stepanik, Leslie Dunipace, Young-Kyung Bae, Frank Macabenta, Jingjing Sun, Nathanie Trisnadi, Angelike Stathopoulos
Caudal visceral mesoderm (CVM) cells migrate from posterior to anterior of the Drosophila embryo as two bilateral streams of cells to support the specification of longitudinal muscles along the midgut. To accomplish this long-distance migration, CVM cells receive input from their environment, but little is known about how this collective cell migration is regulated. In a screen we found that wunen mutants exhibit CVM cell migration defects. Wunens are lipid phosphate phosphatases known to regulate the directional migration of primordial germ cells (PGCs)...
September 1, 2016: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27575041/pink1-is-required-for-timely-cell-type-specific-mitochondrial-clearance-during-drosophila-midgut-metamorphosis
#13
Yan Liu, Jingjing Lin, Minjie Zhang, Kai Chen, Shengxi Yang, Qun Wang, Hongqin Yang, Shusen Xie, Yongjian Zhou, Xi Zhang, Fei Chen, Yufeng Yang
Mitophagy is the selective degradation of mitochondria by autophagy, which is an important mitochondrial quality and quantity control process. During Drosophila metamorphosis, the degradation of midgut involves a large change in length and organization, which is mediated by autophagy. Here we noticed a cell-type specific mitochondrial clearance process that occurs in enterocytes (ECs), while most mitochondria remain in intestinal stem cells (ISCs) during metamorphosis. Although PINK1/PARKIN represent the canonical pathway for the elimination of impaired mitochondria in varied pathological conditions, their roles in developmental processes or normal physiological conditions have been less studied...
August 26, 2016: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27570230/ubx-dynamically-regulates-dpp-signaling-by-repressing-dad-expression-during-copper-cell-regeneration-in-the-adult-drosophila-midgut
#14
Hongjie Li, Yanyan Qi, Heinrich Jasper
The gastrointestinal (GI) tract of metazoans is lined by a series of regionally distinct epithelia. To maintain structure and function of the GI tract, regionally diversified differentiation of somatic stem cell (SC) lineages is critical. The adult Drosophila midgut provides an accessible model to study SC regulation and specification in a regionally defined manner. SCs of the posterior midgut (PM) have been studied extensively, but the control of SCs in the middle midgut (MM) is less well understood. The MM contains a stomach-like copper cell region (CCR) that is regenerated by gastric stem cells (GSSCs) and contains acid-secreting copper cells (CCs)...
August 25, 2016: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27464714/discovery-of-midgut-genes-for-the-rna-interference-control-of-corn-rootworm
#15
Xu Hu, Nina M Richtman, Jian-Zhou Zhao, Keith E Duncan, Xiping Niu, Lisa A Procyk, Meghan A Oneal, Bliss M Kernodle, Joseph P Steimel, Virginia C Crane, Gary Sandahl, Julie L Ritland, Richard J Howard, James K Presnail, Albert L Lu, Gusui Wu
RNA interference (RNAi) is a promising new technology for corn rootworm control. This paper presents the discovery of new gene targets - dvssj1 and dvssj2, in western corn rootworm (WCR). Dvssj1 and dvssj2 are orthologs of the Drosophila genes snakeskin (ssk) and mesh, respectively. These genes encode membrane proteins associated with smooth septate junctions (SSJ) which are required for intestinal barrier function. Based on bioinformatics analysis, dvssj1 appears to be an arthropod-specific gene. Diet based insect feeding assays using double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) targeting dvssj1 and dvssj2 demonstrate targeted mRNA suppression, larval growth inhibition, and mortality...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27373966/electrolyte-transport-pathways-induced-in-the-midgut-epithelium-of-drosophila-melanogaster-larvae-by-commensal-gut-microbiota-and-pathogens
#16
Shubha R Shanbhag, Abraham T Vazhappilly, Abhay Sane, Natalie M D'Silva, Subrata Tripathi
Microbiota colonizing exposed epithelial surfaces are vital for sustenance of metazoan life, but communication between microbiota, epithelial cells and the host immune system is only beginning to be understood. We address this issue in the posterior midgut epithelium of Drosophila larvae where nutrient transport and immune functions are exclusively transcellular. We showed that larvae emerging into a sterile post-embryonic environment have symmetrical apical and basal membranes. In contrast, larvae emerging into non-sterile media, the source of microbiota, have markedly asymmetric membranes, with apical membrane conductance more than five-fold higher than the basal membranes...
July 4, 2016: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27321560/origin-and-dynamic-lineage-characteristics-of-the-developing-drosophila-midgut-stem-cells
#17
Shigeo Takashima, Patrick Aghajanian, Amelia Younossi-Hartenstein, Volker Hartenstein
Proliferating intestinal stem cells (ISCs) generate all cell types of the Drosophila midgut, including enterocytes, endocrine cells, and gland cells (e.g., copper cells), throughout the lifetime of the animal. Among the signaling mechanisms controlling the balance between ISC self-renewal and the production of different cell types, Notch (N) plays a pivotal role. In this paper we investigated the emergence of ISCs during metamorphosis and the role of N in this process. Precursors of the Drosophila adult intestinal stem cells (pISCs) can be first detected within the pupal midgut during the first hours after onset of metamorphosis as motile mesenchymal cells...
August 15, 2016: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27250760/molecular-mechanism-and-functional-significance-of-acid-generation-in-the-drosophila-midgut
#18
Gayle Overend, Yuan Luo, Louise Henderson, Angela E Douglas, Shireen A Davies, Julian A T Dow
The gut of Drosophila melanogaster includes a proximal acidic region (~pH 2), however the genome lacks the H(+)/K(+) ATPase characteristic of the mammalian gastric parietal cell, and the molecular mechanisms of acid generation are poorly understood. Here, we show that maintenance of the low pH of the acidic region is dependent on H(+) V-ATPase, together with carbonic anhydrase and five further transporters or channels that mediate K(+), Cl(-) and HCO3(-) transport. Abrogation of the low pH did not influence larval survival under standard laboratory conditions, but was deleterious for insects subjected to high Na(+) or K(+) load...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27229474/a-subset-of-neurons-controls-the-permeability-of-the-peritrophic-matrix-and-midgut-structure-in-drosophila-adults
#19
Hiroyuki Kenmoku, Hiroki Ishikawa, Manabu Ote, Takayuki Kuraishi, Shoichiro Kurata
The metazoan gut performs multiple physiological functions, including digestion and absorption of nutrients, and also serves as a physical and chemical barrier against ingested pathogens and abrasive particles. Maintenance of these functions and structures is partly controlled by the nervous system, yet the precise roles and mechanisms of the neural control of gut integrity remain to be clarified in Drosophila Here, we screened for GAL4 enhancer-trap strains and labeled a specific subsets of neurons, using Kir2...
August 1, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27193687/an-obligatory-role-for-neurotensin-in-high-fat-diet-induced-obesity
#20
Jing Li, Jun Song, Yekaterina Y Zaytseva, Yajuan Liu, Piotr Rychahou, Kai Jiang, Marlene E Starr, Ji Tae Kim, Jennifer W Harris, Frederique B Yiannikouris, Wendy S Katz, Peter M Nilsson, Marju Orho-Melander, Jing Chen, Haining Zhu, Timothy Fahrenholz, Richard M Higashi, Tianyan Gao, Andrew J Morris, Lisa A Cassis, Teresa W-M Fan, Heidi L Weiss, Paul R Dobner, Olle Melander, Jianhang Jia, B Mark Evers
Obesity and its associated comorbidities (for example, diabetes mellitus and hepatic steatosis) contribute to approximately 2.5 million deaths annually and are among the most prevalent and challenging conditions confronting the medical profession. Neurotensin (NT; also known as NTS), a 13-amino-acid peptide predominantly localized in specialized enteroendocrine cells of the small intestine and released by fat ingestion, facilitates fatty acid translocation in rat intestine, and stimulates the growth of various cancers...
May 11, 2016: Nature
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