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Drosophila midgut

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305978/gene-expression-profiling-provides-insights-into-the-immune-mechanism-of-plutella-xylostella-midgut-to-microbial-infection
#1
Junhan Lin, Xiaofeng Xia, Xiao-Qiang Yu, Jinhong Shen, Yong Li, Hailan Lin, Shanshan Tang, Liette Vasseur, Minsheng You
Insect gut immunity plays a key role in defense against microorganism infection. The knowledge of insect gut immunity has been obtained mostly from Drosophila melanogaster. Little is known about gut immunity in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), a pest destroying cruciferous crops worldwide. In this study, expressions of the immune-related genes in the midgut of P. xylostella orally infected with Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pichia pastoris were profiled by RNA-seq and qRT-PCR approaches...
January 3, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276156/a-phyllopod-mediated-feedback-loop-promotes-intestinal-stem-cell-enteroendocrine-commitment-in-drosophila
#2
Chang Yin, Rongwen Xi
The intestinal epithelium in the Drosophila midgut is maintained by intestinal stem cells (ISCs), which are capable of generating both enterocytes and enteroendocrine cells (EEs) via alternative cell fate specification. Activation of Delta-Notch signaling directs ISCs for enterocyte generation, but how EEs are generated from ISCs remains poorly understood. Here, we identified Phyllopod (Phyl) as a key regulator that drives EE generation from ISCs. Phyl, which is normally suppressed by Notch, functions as an adaptor protein that bridges Tramtrack 69 (Ttk69) and E3 ubiquitin ligase Sina for degradation...
December 15, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235691/rna-interference-mediated-functional-characterization-of-aquaporin-genes-in-tribolium-castaneum
#3
X-X Yao, Q-W Meng, G-Q Li
An obvious challenge faced by most terrestrial insects is maintaining water homeostasis in an arid environment. Current research suggests aquaporins may be evolved to meet the challenge. However, up to now, this suggestion has not been verified in any insect that feeds upon solid food with mandibulate mouthparts. In the present paper, nine putative aquaporin genes [Tribolium castaneum big brain, T. castaneum Drosophila integral protein (TcDrip), T. castaneum Pyrocoelia rufa integral protein (TcPrip), T. castaneum aquaporin 12-like, T...
December 13, 2017: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171103/adult-functions-for-the-drosophila-dhr78-nuclear-receptor
#4
Stefanie Marxreiter, Carl S Thummel
BACKGROUND: The Testicular Receptors 2 and 4 (TR2, TR4) comprise a small subfamily of orphan nuclear receptors. Genetic studies in mouse models have identified roles for TR4 in developmental progression, fertility, brain development, and metabolism, as well as genetic redundancy with TR2. Here we study the adult functions of the single Drosophila member of this subfamily, DHR78, with the goal of defining its ancestral functions in the absence of genetic redundancy. RESULTS: We show that DHR78 mutants have a shortened lifespan, reduced motility, and mated DHR78 mutant females display a reduced feeding rate...
November 24, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144896/atg9-antagonizes-tor-signaling-to-regulate-intestinal-cell-growth-and-epithelial-homeostasis-in-drosophila
#5
Jung-Kun Wen, Yi-Ting Wang, Chih-Chiang Chan, Cheng-Wen Hsieh, Hsiao-Man Liao, Chin-Chun Hung, Guang-Chao Chen
Autophagy is essential for maintaining cellular homeostasis and survival under various stress conditions. Autophagy-related gene 9 (Atg9) encodes a multipass transmembrane protein thought to act as a membrane carrier for forming autophagosomes. However, the molecular regulation and physiological importance of Atg9 in animal development remain largely unclear. Here, we generated Atg9 null mutant flies and found that loss of Atg9 led to shortened lifespan, locomotor defects, and increased susceptibility to stress...
November 16, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125862/peptidergic-control-in-a-fruit-crop-pest-the-spotted-wing-drosophila-drosophila-suzukii
#6
Caroline S Gough, Grace M Fairlamb, Petra Bell, Ronald J Nachman, Neil Audsley, R Elwyn Isaac
Neuropeptides play an important role in the regulation of feeding in insects and offer potential targets for the development of new chemicals to control insect pests. A pest that has attracted much recent attention is the highly invasive Drosophila suzukii, a polyphagous pest that can cause serious economic damage to soft fruits. Previously we showed by mass spectrometry the presence of the neuropeptide myosuppressin (TDVDHVFLRFamide) in the nerve bundle suggesting that this peptide is involved in regulating the function of the crop, which in adult dipteran insects has important roles in the processing of food, the storage of carbohydrates and the movement of food into the midgut for digestion...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108021/hippo-tgf-%C3%AE-and-src-mapk-pathways-regulate-transcription-of-the-upd3-cytokine-in-drosophila-enterocytes-upon-bacterial-infection
#7
Philip Houtz, Alessandro Bonfini, Xi Liu, Jonathan Revah, Aurélien Guillou, Mickael Poidevin, Korneel Hens, Hsin-Yi Huang, Bart Deplancke, Yu-Chen Tsai, Nicolas Buchon
Cytokine signaling is responsible for coordinating conserved epithelial regeneration and immune responses in the digestive tract. In the Drosophila midgut, Upd3 is a major cytokine, which is induced in enterocytes (EC) and enteroblasts (EB) upon oral infection, and initiates intestinal stem cell (ISC) dependent tissue repair. To date, the genetic network directing upd3 transcription remains largely uncharacterized. Here, we have identified the key infection-responsive enhancers of the upd3 gene and show that distinct enhancers respond to various stresses...
November 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097655/kenny-mediates-selective-autophagic-degradation-of-the-ikk-complex-to-control-innate-immune-responses
#8
Radu Tusco, Anne-Claire Jacomin, Ashish Jain, Bridget S Penman, Kenneth Bowitz Larsen, Terje Johansen, Ioannis P Nezis
Selective autophagy is a catabolic process with which cellular material is specifically targeted for degradation by lysosomes. The function of selective autophagic degradation of self-components in the regulation of innate immunity is still unclear. Here we show that Drosophila Kenny, the homolog of mammalian IKKγ, is a selective autophagy receptor that mediates the degradation of the IκB kinase complex. Selective autophagic degradation of the IκB kinase complex prevents constitutive activation of the immune deficiency pathway in response to commensal microbiota...
November 2, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084242/transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-activin-signaling-in-neurons-increases-susceptibility-to-starvation
#9
Wen-Bin Alfred Chng, Rafael Koch, Xiaoxue Li, Shu Kondo, Emi Nagoshi, Bruno Lemaitre
Animals rely on complex signaling network to mobilize its energy stores during starvation. We have previously shown that the sugar-responsive TGFβ/Activin pathway, activated through the TGFβ ligand Dawdle, plays a central role in shaping the post-prandial digestive competence in the Drosophila midgut. Nevertheless, little is known about the TGFβ/Activin signaling in sugar metabolism beyond the midgut. Here, we address the importance of Dawdle (Daw) after carbohydrate ingestion. We found that Daw expression is coupled to dietary glucose through the evolutionarily conserved Mio-Mlx transcriptional complex...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074370/the-zinc-finger-protein-cg12744-is-essential-for-differentiation-and-regeneration-after-infection-in-the-adult-drosophila-midgut
#10
Qiang Liu, Li Hua Jin
Pluripotent stem cell activity is essential to maintain regeneration and homeostasis in the Drosophila midgut following environmental challenges. Although multiple pathways have been implicated in epithelial renewal, the underlying regulatory mechanisms and correlations between relevant genes and pathways remain elusive. In this study, we show that the zinc finger protein CG12744 plays an important role in the differentiation and regeneration of epithelial cells in response to oral infection with Erwinia carotovora carotovora 15...
December 15, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947534/interorgan-regulation-of-drosophila-intestinal-stem-cell-proliferation-by-a-hybrid-organ-boundary-zone
#11
Jessica K Sawyer, Erez Cohen, Donald T Fox
The molecular identities and regulation of cells at interorgan boundaries are often unclear, despite the increasingly appreciated role of organ boundaries in disease. Using Drosophila as a model, we here show that a specific population of adult midgut organ-boundary intestinal stem cells (OB-ISCs) is regulated by the neighboring hindgut, a developmentally distinct organ. This distinct OB-ISC control occurs through proximity to a specialized transition zone between the endodermal midgut and ectodermal hindgut that shares molecular signatures of both organs, which we term the hybrid zone (HZ)...
November 15, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945500/dual-role-of-bmp-signaling-in-the-regulation-of-drosophila-intestinal-stem-cell-self-renewal
#12
Aiguo Tian, Jin Jiang
Many adult organs including Drosophila adult midguts rely on resident stem cells to replenish damaged cells during tissue homeostasis and regeneration. Previous studies have shown that, upon injury, intestinal stem cells (ISCs) in the midguts can increase proliferation and lineage differentiation to meet the demand for tissue repair. Our recent study has demonstrated that, in response to certain injury, midguts can expand ISC population size as an additional regenerative mechanism. We found that injury elicited by bleomycin feeding or bacterial infection increased the production of two BMP ligands (Dpp and Gbb) in enterocytes (ECs), leading to elevated BMP signaling in progenitor cells that drove an expansion of ISCs by promoting their symmetric self-renewing division...
September 25, 2017: Fly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933588/death-by-over-eating-the-gaucher-disease-associated-gene-gba1-identified-in-a-screen-for-mediators-of-autophagic-cell-death-is-necessary-for-developmental-cell-death-in-drosophila-midgut
#13
Santosh K Dasari, Eyal Schejter, Shani Bialik, Aya Shkedy, Vered Levin-Salomon, Smadar Levin-Zaidman, Adi Kimchi
Autophagy is critical for homeostasis and cell survival during stress, but can also lead to cell death, a little understood process that has been shown to contribute to developmental cell death in lower model organisms, and to human cancer cell death. We recently reported (1) on our thorough molecular and morphologic characterization of an autophagic cell death system involving resveratrol treatment of lung carcinoma cells. To gain mechanistic insight into this death program, we performed a signalome-wide RNAi screen for genes whose functions are necessary for resveratrol-induced death...
September 21, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838758/active-subsite-properties-subsite-residues-and-targeting-to-lysosomes-or-midgut-lumen-of-cathepsins-l-from-the-beetle-tenebrio-molitor
#14
Ticiane F Damasceno, Renata O Dias, Juliana R de Oliveira, Roberto K Salinas, Maria A Juliano, Clelia Ferreira, Walter R Terra
Cathepsins L are the major digestive peptidases in the beetle Tenebrio molitor. Two digestive cathepsins L (TmCAL2 and TmCAL3) from it had their 3D structures solved. The aim of this paper was to study in details TmCAL3 specificity and properties and relate them to its 3D structure. Recombinant TmCAL3 was assayed with 64 oligopeptides with different amino acid replacements in positions P2, P1, P1' and P2'. Results showed that TmCAL3 S2 specificity differs from the human enzyme and that its specificities also explain why on autoactivation two propeptide residues remain in the enzyme...
October 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830925/duplication-and-sub-neofunctionalization-of-malvolio-an-insect-homolog-of-nramp-in-the-subsocial-beetle-nicrophorus-vespilloides
#15
Elijah C Mehlferber, Kyle M Benowitz, Eileen M Roy-Zokan, Elizabeth C McKinney, Christopher B Cunningham, Allen J Moore
With growing numbers of sequenced genomes, increasing numbers of duplicate genes are being uncovered. Here we examine Malvolio, a gene in the natural resistance-associated macrophage protein (Nramp) family, that has been duplicated in the subsocial beetle, Nicrophorus vespilloides, which exhibits advanced parental behavior. There is only one copy of Mvl in honey bees and Drosophila, whereas in vertebrates there are two copies that are subfunctionalized. We first compared amino acid sequences for Drosophila, beetles, mice, and humans...
October 5, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826503/tissue-specific-regulation-of-bmp-signaling-by-drosophila-n-glycanase-1
#16
Antonio Galeone, Seung Yeop Han, Chengcheng Huang, Akira Hosomi, Tadashi Suzuki, Hamed Jafar-Nejad
Mutations in the human N-glycanase 1 (NGLY1) cause a rare, multisystem congenital disorder with global developmental delay. However, the mechanisms by which NGLY1 and its homologs regulate embryonic development are not known. Here we show that Drosophila Pngl encodes an N-glycanase and exhibits a high degree of functional conservation with human NGLY1. Loss of Pngl results in developmental midgut defects reminiscent of midgut-specific loss of BMP signaling. Pngl mutant larvae also exhibit a severe midgut clearance defect, which cannot be fully explained by impaired BMP signaling...
August 4, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821771/thermal-acclimation-mitigates-cold-induced-paracellular-leak-from-the-drosophila-gut
#17
Heath A MacMillan, Gil Y Yerushalmi, Sima Jonusaite, Scott P Kelly, Andrew Donini
Chill susceptible insects suffer tissue damage and die at low temperatures. The mechanisms that cause chilling injury are not well understood but a growing body of evidence suggests that a cold-induced loss of ion and water homeostasis leads to hemolymph hyperkalemia that depolarizes cells, leading to cell death. The apparent root of this cascade is the net leak of osmolytes down their concentration gradients in the cold. Many insects, however, are capable of adjusting their thermal physiology, and cold-acclimated Drosophila can maintain homeostasis and avoid injury better than warm-acclimated flies...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764953/effect-of-erythritol-formulation-on-the-mortality-fecundity-and-physiological-excretion-in-drosophila-suzukii
#18
Siew Bee Tang, Jana C Lee, Jin Kyo Jung, Man-Yeon Choi
Previously, we studied various combinations of non-nutritive sugars including erythritol and erythrose having a potentially insecticidal effect on Drosophila suzukii. The study suggested two potential physiological changes causing fly mortality: 1) starvation from the feeding of non-metabolizable erythritol and erythrose; 2) abnormal osmotic pressure increased in the hemolymph with erythritol transported from the midgut. In the present study, sucrose and erythritol were applied to blueberries and effects of these combinations on fly mortality and fecundity were monitored in the lab and greenhouse...
August 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755695/preimaginal-exposure-to-azadirachtin-affects-food-selection-and-digestive-enzymes-in-adults-of-drosophila-melanogaster-diptera-drosophilidae
#19
Samira Kilani-Morakchi, Radia Bezzar-Bendjazia, Maroua Ferdenache, Nadia Aribi
Among the plant derived product, azadirachtin, a neem-based insecticide, is exceptional in having a broad range of bioactivity including toxicity, growth, development and reproduction effects, repellency and antifeedancy. If considerable progress on the physiological and biological activities and agricultural application of azadirachtin has been achieved, its exact mechanism of action remains uncertain. In this study, we aimed at assessing the lethal and sublethal behavioral and physiological effects of azadirachtin on Drosophila melanogaster Meigen, 1830 (Diptera: Drosophilidae) as biological model...
August 2017: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743761/naturally-segregating-variation-at-ugt86dd-contributes-to-nicotine-resistance-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#20
Chad A Highfill, Jonathan H Tran, Samantha K T Nguyen, Taylor R Moldenhauer, Xiaofei Wang, Stuart J Macdonald
Identifying the sequence polymorphisms underlying complex trait variation is a key goal of genetics research, since knowing the precise causative molecular events allows insight into the pathways governing trait variation. Genetic analysis of complex traits in model systems regularly starts by constructing QTL maps, but generally fails to identify causative sequence polymorphisms. Previously we mapped a series of QTL contributing to resistance to nicotine in a Drosophila melanogaster multiparental mapping resource and here use a battery of functional tests to resolve QTL to the molecular level...
September 2017: Genetics
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