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Drosophila midgut

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755433/-de-novo-dna-synthesis-in-aedes-aegypti-midgut-cells-as-a-complementary-strategy-to-limit-dengue-viral-replication
#1
Javier Serrato-Salas, Salvador Hernández-Martínez, Jesús Martínez-Barnetche, Renaud Condé, Alejandro Alvarado-Delgado, Federico Zumaya-Estrada, Humberto Lanz-Mendoza
Aedes aegypti is the main vector of Dengue Virus, carrying the virus during the whole mosquito life post-infection. Few mosquito fitness costs have been associated to the virus infection, thereby allowing for a swift dissemination. In order to diminish the mosquito population, public health agency use persistent chemicals with environmental impact for disease control. Most countries barely use biological controls, if at all. With the purpose of developing novel Dengue control strategies, a detailed understanding of the unexplored virus-vector interactions is urgently needed...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754801/ingestion-of-food-particles-regulates-the-mechanosensing-misshapen-yorkie-pathway-in-drosophila-intestinal-growth
#2
Qi Li, Niraj K Nirala, Yingchao Nie, Hsi-Ju Chen, Gary Ostroff, Junhao Mao, Qi Wang, Lan Xu, Y Tony Ip
The intestinal epithelium has a high cell turnover rate and is an excellent system to study stem cell-mediated adaptive growth. In the Drosophila midgut, the Ste20 kinase Misshapen, which is distally related to Hippo, has a niche function to restrict intestinal stem cell activity. We show here that, under low growth conditions, Misshapen is localized near the cytoplasmic membrane, is phosphorylated at the threonine 194 by the upstream kinase Tao, and is more active toward Warts, which in turn inhibits Yorkie...
May 9, 2018: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719584/-drosophila-pebp1-inhibits-intestinal-stem-cell-aging-via-suppression-of-erk-pathway
#3
Jung-Hoon Pyo, Ho-Jun Jeon, Joung-Sun Park, Jae-Sun Lee, Hae-Young Chung, Mi-Ae Yoo
The intestine is a high cellular turnover tissue largely dependent on the regenerative function of stem cell throughout life, and a signaling center for the health and viability of organisms. Therefore, better understanding of the mechanisms underlying the regulation of intestinal stem cell (ISC) regenerative potential is essential for the possible intervention of aging process and age-related diseases. Drosophila midgut is a well-established model system for studying the mechanisms underlying ISC regenerative potential during aging...
April 6, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29714689/temporospatial-induction-of-homeodomain-gene-cut-dictates-natural-lineage-reprogramming
#4
Ke Xu, Xiaodan Liu, Yuchun Wang, Chouin Wong, Yan Song
Understanding how cellular identity naturally interconverts with high efficiency and temporospatial precision is crucial for regenerative medicine. Here we revealed a natural midgut-to-renal lineage conversion event during Drosophila metamorphosis and identified the evolutionarily-conserved homeodomain protein Cut as a master switch in this process. A steep Wnt/Wingless morphogen gradient intersects with a pulse of steroid hormone ecdysone to induce cut expression in a subset of midgut progenitors and reprogram them into renal progenitors...
May 1, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625135/effect-of-heterochromatin-stability-on-intestinal-stem-cell-aging-in-drosophila
#5
Ho-Jun Jeon, Young-Shin Kim, Joong-Gook Kim, Kyu Heo, Jung-Hoon Pyo, Masamitsu Yamaguchi, Joung-Sun Park, Mi-Ae Yoo
Chromatin change is one of the crucial causes of aging. Specifically, maintenance of heterochromatin stability is critical for cellular integrity, and its loss induces genomic instability and cellular aging. However, the causes and effects of heterochromatin instability in multicellular tissue aging still remain unclear. Here, in the adult Drosophila midgut, we report age-related loss of heterochromatin stability in enterocytes (ECs) due to the loss and dispersion of tri-methylated histone H3 Lys9 (H3K9me3) and heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1)...
April 3, 2018: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29587144/nutritional-control-of-stem-cell-division-through-s-adenosylmethionine-in-drosophila-intestine
#6
Fumiaki Obata, Kayoko Tsuda-Sakurai, Takahiro Yamazaki, Ryo Nishio, Kei Nishimura, Masaki Kimura, Masabumi Funakoshi, Masayuki Miura
The intestine has direct contact with nutritional information. The mechanisms by which particular dietary molecules affect intestinal homeostasis are not fully understood. In this study, we identified S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), a universal methyl donor synthesized from dietary methionine, as a critical molecule that regulates stem cell division in Drosophila midgut. Depletion of either dietary methionine or SAM synthesis reduces division rate of intestinal stem cells. Genetic screening for putative SAM-dependent methyltransferases has identified protein synthesis as a regulator of the stem cells, partially through a unique diphthamide modification on eukaryotic elongation factor 2...
March 26, 2018: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29582498/requirement-of-leptinotarsa-decemlineata-gene-within-the-74ef-puff-for-larval-pupal-metamorphosis-and-appendage-growth
#7
Q-Y Xu, Q-W Meng, P Deng, K-Y Fu, W-C Guo, G-Q Li
Two Drosophila melanogaster E-twenty-six domain transcription factor isoforms (E74A and E74B) act differentially at the start of the 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) signalling cascade to regulate larval-pupal metamorphosis. In the present paper, we identified the two isoforms (LdE74A and LdE74B) in Leptinotarsa decemlineata. During the larval development stage, the mRNA transcript levels of the two LdE74 isoforms were correlated with circulating 20E titres. In vitro midgut culture and in vivo dietary supplementation with 20E revealed that the presence of 20E induced expression peaks of both LdE74A and LdE74B, with similar patterns observed for the two isoforms...
March 26, 2018: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29546407/the-role-of-the-sucrose-responsive-ir60b-neuron-for-drosophila-melanogaster-a-hypothesis
#8
Paul Szyszka, C Giovanni Galizia
In a recent paper, Joseph and colleagues (Joseph et al., 2017) have characterized an IR60b receptor-expressing neuron in Drosophila. They showed that it responds to sucrose and serves to limit sucrose consumption, and proposed that it may thereby act to prevent overfeeding. Here, we propose an alternative hypothesis for the functional role of sucrose feeding control, and for how this limitation of sucrose uptake is accomplished. Adult fruit flies feed by excreting saliva onto the food, and imbibing the predigested liquefied food, or by filling the crop, where the food is predigested...
March 13, 2018: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29518114/gata-factor-genes-in-the-drosophila-midgut-embryo
#9
Beatriz Hernández de Madrid, Jordi Casanova
The Drosophila GATA factor gene serpent (srp) is required for the early differentiation of the anterior and posterior midgut primordia. In particular, srp is sufficient and necessary for the primordial gut cells to undertake an epithelial-to-mesenchimal transition (EMT). Two other GATA factor genes, dGATAe and grain (grn), are also specifically expressed in the midgut. On the one hand, dGATAe expression is activated by srp. Embryos homozygous for a deficiency uncovering dGATAe were shown to lack the expression of some differentiated midgut genes...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29514136/deficiency-in-dna-damage-response-of-enterocytes-accelerates-intestinal-stem-cell-aging-in-drosophila
#10
Joung-Sun Park, Ho-Jun Jeon, Jung-Hoon Pyo, Young-Shin Kim, Mi-Ae Yoo
Stem cell dysfunction is closely linked to tissue and organismal aging and age-related diseases, and heavily influenced by the niche cells' environment. The DNA damage response (DDR) is a key pathway for tissue degeneration and organismal aging; however, the precise protective role of DDR in stem cell/niche aging is unclear. The Drosophila midgut is an excellent model to study the biology of stem cell/niche aging because of its easy genetic manipulation and its short lifespan. Here, we showed that deficiency of DDR in Drosophila enterocytes (ECs) accelerates intestinal stem cell (ISC) aging...
March 7, 2018: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29499056/nubbin-isoform-antagonism-governs-drosophila-intestinal-immune-homeostasis
#11
Bo G Lindberg, Xiongzhuo Tang, Widad Dantoft, Priya Gohel, Shiva Seyedoleslami Esfahani, Jessica M Lindvall, Ylva Engström
Gut immunity is regulated by intricate and dynamic mechanisms to ensure homeostasis despite a constantly changing microbial environment. Several regulatory factors have been described to participate in feedback responses to prevent aberrant immune activity. Little is, however, known about how transcriptional programs are directly tuned to efficiently adapt host gut tissues to the current microbiome. Here we show that the POU/Oct gene nubbin (nub) encodes two transcription factor isoforms, Nub-PB and Nub-PD, which antagonistically regulate immune gene expression in Drosophila...
March 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29481322/catada-reveals-global-remodelling-of-chromatin-accessibility-during-stem-cell-differentiation-in-vivo
#12
Gabriel N Aughey, Alicia Estacio Gomez, Jamie Thomson, Hang Yin, Tony D Southall
During development eukaryotic gene expression is coordinated by dynamic changes in chromatin structure. Measurements of accessible chromatin are used extensively to identify genomic regulatory elements. Whilst chromatin landscapes of pluripotent stem cells are well characterised, chromatin accessibility changes in the development of somatic lineages are not well defined. Here we show that cell-specific chromatin accessibility data can be produced via ectopic expression of E. coli Dam methylase in vivo, without the requirement for cell-sorting (CATaDa)...
February 26, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466727/in-vivo-analysis-of-centromeric-proteins-reveals-a-stem-cell-specific-asymmetry-and-an-essential-role-in-differentiated-non-proliferating-cells
#13
Ana García Del Arco, Bruce A Edgar, Sylvia Erhardt
Stem cells of the Drosophila midgut (ISCs) are the only mitotically dividing cells of the epithelium and, therefore, presumably the only epithelial cells that require functional kinetochores for microtubule spindle attachment during mitosis. The histone variant CENP-A marks centromeric chromatin as the site of kinetochore formation and spindle attachment during mitotic chromosome segregation. Here, we show that centromeric proteins distribute asymmetrically during ISC division. Whereas newly synthesized CENP-A is enriched in differentiating progeny, CENP-C is undetectable in these cells...
February 20, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442316/odd-paired-the-drosophila-zic-gene
#14
Deborah A Hursh, Brian G Stultz
Zinc finger in the cerebellum (Zic) proteins are a family of transcription factors with multiple roles during development, particularly in neural tissues. The founding member of the Zic family is the Drosophila odd-paired (opa) gene. The Opa protein has a DNA binding domain containing five Cys2His2-type zinc fingers and has been shown to act as a sequence-specific DNA binding protein. Opa has significant homology to mammalian Zic1, Zic2, and Zic3 within the zinc finger domain and in two other conserved regions outside that domain...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417892/drosophila-peptide-hormones-allatostatin-a-and-diuretic-hormone-31-exhibiting-complementary-gradient-distribution-in-posterior-midgut-antagonistically-regulate-midgut-senescence-and-adult-lifespan
#15
Koji Takeda, Takashi Okumura, Mayu Terahata, Mio Yamaguchi, Kiichiro Taniguchi, Takashi Adachi-Yamada
Enteroendocrine cells (EEs) are evolutionarily conserved gastrointestinal secretory cells that show scattered distribution in the intestinal epithelium. These cells classified into several subtypes based on the hormones they produce in both mammals and insects. In the fruit fly Drosophila, it has been suggested that nearly equal numbers of two subtypes of EEs (Allatostatin A: AstA and Diuretic hormone 31 : Dh31) are alternately produced from the intestinal stem cells in the posterior midgut. However, we found that these two subtypes are not always present in this manner, but are rather distributed in a complementary frequency gradient along the posterior midgut...
February 2018: Zoological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414942/mechanical-regulation-of-stem-cell-differentiation-by-the-stretch-activated-piezo-channel
#16
Li He, Guangwei Si, Jiuhong Huang, Aravinthan D T Samuel, Norbert Perrimon
Somatic stem cells constantly adjust their self-renewal and lineage commitment by integrating various environmental cues to maintain tissue homeostasis. Although numerous chemical and biological signals have been identified that regulate stem-cell behaviour, whether stem cells can directly sense mechanical signals in vivo remains unclear. Here we show that mechanical stress regulates stem-cell differentiation in the adult Drosophila midgut through the stretch-activated ion channel Piezo. We find that Piezo is specifically expressed in previously unidentified enteroendocrine precursor cells, which have reduced proliferation ability and are destined to become enteroendocrine cells...
March 1, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408269/aedes-aegypti-antiviral-adaptive-response-against-denv-2
#17
Javier Serrato-Salas, Javier Izquierdo-Sánchez, Martha Argüello, Renáud Conde, Alejandro Alvarado-Delgado, Humberto Lanz-Mendoza
Priming is the conceptual term defining memory phenomenon in innate immune response. Numerous examples of enhanced secondary immune response have been described in diverse taxa of invertebrates; which naturally lacks memory response. In mosquitoes, a previous non-lethal challenge with some specific pathogens modify their immune response against the same microorganism; developing an improved antimicrobial reaction. In this work, we explore the ability of Aedes aegypti to mount a higher antiviral response upon a second oral DENV challenge...
July 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29374445/mitophagy-vps13d-couples-mitochondrial-fission-and-autophagic-clearance
#18
Zheng Wang, Hong Zhang
Mitophagy maintains mitochondrial homeostasis and cell health. A new study demonstrates that the ubiquitin-binding protein Vps13D functions downstream of the fission factor Drp1 to control mitochondrial size and autophagic clearance in Drosophila midgut cells.
January 22, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29371099/pleiotropic-and-novel-phenotypes-in-the-drosophila-gut-caused-by-mutation-of-drop-dead
#19
Sean Conway, Christine L Sansone, Anika Benske, Kaitlin Kentala, Johan Billen, Jozef Vanden Broeck, Edward M Blumenthal
Normal gut function is vital for animal survival, and deviations from such function can contribute to malnutrition, inflammation, increased susceptibility to pathogens, diabetes, neurodegenerative diseases, and cancer. In the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, mutation of the gene drop-dead (drd) results in defective gut function, as measured by enlargement of the crop and reduced food movement through the gut, and drd mutation also causes the unrelated phenotypes of neurodegeneration, early adult lethality and female sterility...
February 2018: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29367271/functional-plasticity-of-the-gut-and-the-malpighian-tubules-underlies-cold-acclimation-and-mitigates-cold-induced-hyperkalemia-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#20
Gil Y Yerushalmi, Lidiya Misyura, Heath A MacMillan, Andrew Donini
At low temperatures, Drosophila , like most insects, lose the ability to regulate ion and water balance across the gut epithelia, which can lead to a lethal increase of [K+ ] in the hemolymph (hyperkalemia). Cold acclimation, the physiological response to a prior low temperature exposure, can mitigate or entirely prevent these ion imbalances, but the physiological mechanisms that facilitate this process are not well understood. Here, we test whether plasticity in the ionoregulatory physiology of the gut and Malpighian tubules of Drosophila may aid in preserving ion homeostasis in the cold...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
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