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Drosophila midgut

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838758/active-subsite-properties-subsite-residues-and-targeting-to-lysosomes-or-midgut-lumen-of-cathepsins-l-from-the-beetle-tenebrio-molitor
#1
Ticiane F Damasceno, Renata O Dias, Juliana R de Oliveira, Roberto K Salinas, Maria A Juliano, Clelia Ferreira, Walter R Terra
Cathepsins L are the major digestive peptidases in the beetle Tenebrio molitor. Two digestive cathepsins L (TmCAL2 and TmCAL3) from it had their 3D structures solved. The aim of this paper was to study in details TmCAL3 specificity and properties and relate them to its 3D structure. Recombinant TmCAL3 was assayed with 64 oligopeptides with different amino acid replacements in positions P2, P1, P1' and P2'. Results showed that TmCAL3 S2 specificity differs from the human enzyme and that its specificities also explain why on autoactivation two propeptide residues remain in the enzyme...
August 25, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830925/duplication-and-sub-neofunctionalization-of-malvolio-an-insect-homolog-of-nramp-in-the-subsocial-beetle-nicrophorus-vespilloides
#2
Elijah C Mehlferber, Kyle M Benowitz, Eileen M Roy-Zokan, Elizabeth C McKinney, Christopher B Cunningham, Allen J Moore
With growing numbers of sequenced genomes, increasing numbers of duplicate genes are uncovered. Here we examine Malvolio, a gene in the natural resistance-associated macrophage protein (Nramp) family, that has been duplicated in the subsocial beetle, Nicrophorus vespilloides, which exhibits advanced parental behavior. There is only one copy of Mvl in honey bees and Drosophila, whereas in vertebrates there are two copies that are subfunctionalized. We first compared amino acid sequences for Drosophila, beetles, mouse and humans...
August 22, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826503/tissue-specific-regulation-of-bmp-signaling-by-drosophila-n-glycanase-1
#3
Antonio Galeone, Seung Yeop Han, Chengcheng Huang, Akira Hosomi, Tadashi Suzuki, Hamed Jafar-Nejad
Mutations in the human N-glycanase 1 (NGLY1) cause a rare, multisystem congenital disorder with global developmental delay. However, the mechanisms by which NGLY1 and its homologs regulate embryonic development are not known. Here we show that Drosophila Pngl encodes an N-glycanase and exhibits a high degree of functional conservation with human NGLY1. Loss of Pngl results in developmental midgut defects reminiscent of midgut-specific loss of BMP signaling. Pngl mutant larvae also exhibit a severe midgut clearance defect, which cannot be fully explained by impaired BMP signaling...
August 4, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821771/thermal-acclimation-mitigates-cold-induced-paracellular-leak-from-the-drosophila-gut
#4
Heath A MacMillan, Gil Y Yerushalmi, Sima Jonusaite, Scott P Kelly, Andrew Donini
Chill susceptible insects suffer tissue damage and die at low temperatures. The mechanisms that cause chilling injury are not well understood but a growing body of evidence suggests that a cold-induced loss of ion and water homeostasis leads to hemolymph hyperkalemia that depolarizes cells, leading to cell death. The apparent root of this cascade is the net leak of osmolytes down their concentration gradients in the cold. Many insects, however, are capable of adjusting their thermal physiology, and cold-acclimated Drosophila can maintain homeostasis and avoid injury better than warm-acclimated flies...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764953/effect-of-erythritol-formulation-on-the-mortality-fecundity-and-physiological-excretion-in-drosophila-suzukii
#5
Siew Bee Tang, Jana C Lee, Jin Kyo Jung, Man-Yeon Choi
Previously, we studied various combinations of non-nutritive sugars including erythritol and erythrose having a potentially insecticidal effect on Drosophila suzukii. The study suggested two potential physiological changes causing fly mortality: 1) starvation from the feeding of non-metabolizable erythritol and erythrose; 2) abnormal osmotic pressure increased in the hemolymph with erythritol transported from the midgut. In the present study, sucrose and erythritol were applied to blueberries and effects of these combinations on fly mortality and fecundity were monitored in the lab and greenhouse...
August 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755695/preimaginal-exposure-to-azadirachtin-affects-food-selection-and-digestive-enzymes-in-adults-of-drosophila-melanogaster-diptera-drosophilidae
#6
Samira Kilani-Morakchi, Radia Bezzar-Bendjazia, Maroua Ferdenache, Nadia Aribi
Among the plant derived product, azadirachtin, a neem-based insecticide, is exceptional in having a broad range of bioactivity including toxicity, growth, development and reproduction effects, repellency and antifeedancy. If considerable progress on the physiological and biological activities and agricultural application of azadirachtin has been achieved, its exact mechanism of action remains uncertain. In this study, we aimed at assessing the lethal and sublethal behavioral and physiological effects of azadirachtin on Drosophila melanogaster Meigen, 1830 (Diptera: Drosophilidae) as biological model...
August 2017: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743761/naturally-segregating-variation-at-ugt86dd-contributes-to-nicotine-resistance-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#7
Chad A Highfill, Jonathan H Tran, Samantha K T Nguyen, Taylor R Moldenhauer, Xiaofei Wang, Stuart J Macdonald
Identifying the sequence polymorphisms underlying complex trait variation is a key goal of genetics research, since knowing the precise causative molecular events allows insight into the pathways governing trait variation. Genetic analysis of complex traits in model systems regularly starts by constructing QTL maps, but generally fails to identify causative sequence polymorphisms. Previously we mapped a series of QTL contributing to resistance to nicotine in a Drosophila melanogaster multiparental mapping resource and here use a battery of functional tests to resolve QTL to the molecular level...
September 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733238/circadian-regulation-of-caterpillar-feeding-and-growth
#8
Agnieszka Suszczynska, Magdalena Maria Kaniewska, Piotr Bebas, Jadwiga Maria Giebultowicz, Joanna Kotwica-Rolinska
Circadian clocks orchestrate many physiological processes in adult organisms. For example, rhythmic feeding behavior is regulated by the central clock in the nervous system in coordination with metabolic rhythms, which in turn depend mostly on peripheral clocks localized in many tissues. Disruption of the circadian clock leads to metabolic dysregulation both in mammals and in the model insect Drosophila melanogaster. Circadian coordination of feeding and metabolism has been studied mainly in adult insects and not in larval stages, which are dramatically different from adults in species with complete full metamorphosis...
August 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717187/the-inducible-blockage-of-rnai-reveals-a-role-for-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-in-the-regulation-of-dsrna-endocytic-capacity-in-bactrocera-dorsalis
#9
Xiaolong Dong, Xiaoxue Li, Qiujia Li, Hongmei Jia, Hongyu Zhang
Exogenous double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) can trigger gene silencing through the RNA interference (RNAi) pathway. Our previous research established that Bactrocera dorsalis can block RNAi after an initial priming of exposure to dsRNA. However, the mechanism underlying this phenomenon is not yet fully understood. Here, we demonstrate that fatty acid biosynthesis and metabolism pathways play important roles in the blockage of RNAi induced by dsRNA priming. The ratio of linoleic acid (LA) to arachidonic acid (AA) was significantly increased in the hemolymph of B...
July 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704512/a-role-for-the-drosophila-zinc-transporter-zip88e-in-protecting-against-dietary-zinc-toxicity
#10
Christopher D Richards, Coral G Warr, Richard Burke
Zinc absorption in animals is thought to be regulated in a local, cell autonomous manner with intestinal cells responding to dietary zinc content. The Drosophila zinc transporter Zip88E shows strong sequence similarity to Zips 42C.1, 42C.2 and 89B as well as mammalian Zips 1, 2 and 3, suggesting that it may act in concert with the apically-localised Drosophila zinc uptake transporters to facilitate dietary zinc absorption by importing ions into the midgut enterocytes. However, the functional characterisation of Zip88E presented here indicates that Zip88E may instead play a role in detecting and responding to zinc toxicity...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700915/a-model-for-adult-organ-resizing-demonstrates-stem-cell-scaling-through-a-tunable-commitment-rate
#11
XinXin Du, Lucy Erin O'Brien, Ingmar Hans Riedel-Kruse
Many adult organs grow or shrink to accommodate different physiological demands. Often, as total cell number changes, stem cell number changes proportionally in a phenomenon called "stem cell scaling". The cellular behaviors that give rise to scaling are unknown. Here we study two complementary theoretical models of the adult Drosophila midgut, a stem cell-based organ with known resizing dynamics. First, we derive a differential equations model of midgut resizing and show that the in vivo kinetics of growth can be recapitulated if the rate of fate commitment depends on the tissue's stem cell proportion...
July 11, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699138/toxicity-membrane-binding-and-uptake-of-the-sclerotinia-sclerotiorum-agglutinin-ssa-in-different-insect-cell-lines
#12
Ying Shen, Kristof De Schutter, Tomasz Walski, Els J M Van Damme, Guy Smagghe
The fungal lectin purified from Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, further referred to as Sclerotinia sclerotiorum agglutinin or SSA, possesses insecticidal activity against important pest insects such as pea aphids (Acyrthosiphon pisum). This paper aims at a better understanding of its activity at cellular level. Therefore, different insect cell lines were treated with SSA. These cell lines were derived from different tissues and represent the three major orders of insects important in agriculture: CF-203 (midgut Choristoneura fumiferana, Lepidoptera), GUTAW1 (midgut, Helicoverpa zea, Lepidoptera), High5 cells (ovary, Trichoplusia ni, Lepidoptera), Sf9 (ovary cells from Spodoptera frugiperda, Lepidoptera), S2 (hemocyte, Drosophila melanogaster, Diptera), and TcA (whole body, Tribolium castaneum, Coleoptera)...
July 11, 2017: In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology. Animal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687666/domain-specific-control-of-germ-cell-polarity-and-migration-by-multifunction-tre1-gpcr
#13
Michelle G LeBlanc, Ruth Lehmann
The migration of primordial germ cells (PGCs) from their place of origin to the embryonic gonad is an essential reproductive feature in many animal species. In Drosophila melanogaster, a single G protein-coupled receptor, Trapped in endoderm 1 (Tre1), mediates germ cell polarization at the onset of active migration and directs subsequent migration of PGCs through the midgut primordium. How these different aspects of cell behavior are coordinated through a single receptor is not known. We demonstrate that two highly conserved domains, the E/N/DRY and NPxxY motifs, have overlapping and unique functions in Tre1...
September 4, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663346/pink1-and-parkin-regulate-drosophila-intestinal-stem-cell-proliferation-during-stress-and-aging
#14
Christopher L Koehler, Guy A Perkins, Mark H Ellisman, D Leanne Jones
Intestinal stem cells (ISCs) maintain the midgut epithelium in Drosophila melanogaster Proper cellular turnover and tissue function rely on tightly regulated rates of ISC division and appropriate differentiation of daughter cells. However, aging and epithelial injury cause elevated ISC proliferation and decreased capacity for terminal differentiation of daughter enteroblasts (EBs). The mechanisms causing functional decline of stem cells with age remain elusive; however, recent findings suggest that stem cell metabolism plays an important role in the regulation of stem cell activity...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662029/a-genetic-framework-controlling-the-differentiation-of-intestinal-stem-cells-during-regeneration-in-drosophila
#15
Zongzhao Zhai, Jean-Philippe Boquete, Bruno Lemaitre
The speed of stem cell differentiation has to be properly coupled with self-renewal, both under basal conditions for tissue maintenance and during regeneration for tissue repair. Using the Drosophila midgut model, we analyze at the cellular and molecular levels the differentiation program required for robust regeneration. We observe that the intestinal stem cell (ISC) and its differentiating daughter, the enteroblast (EB), form extended cell-cell contacts in regenerating intestines. The contact between progenitors is stabilized by cell adhesion molecules, and can be dynamically remodeled to elicit optimal juxtacrine Notch signaling to determine the speed of progenitor differentiation...
June 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636800/molecular-dissection-of-smooth-septate-junctions-understanding-their-roles-in-arthropod-physiology
#16
REVIEW
Mikio Furuse, Yasushi Izumi
Smooth septate junctions (sSJs) are cell-cell junctions that are thought to regulate the paracellular pathway of the intestine and renal system in arthropods. The detailed mechanism of action of sSJs is not well understood, because their molecular organization has remained elusive for a long time. Recently, two sSJ-specific membrane proteins, Ssk and Mesh, were identified by screening monoclonal antibodies raised against sSJ-containing membrane fractions isolated from the silkworm midgut. Furthermore, a genetic screen in Drosophila based on microscopic observation of sSJ formation identified Tsp2A as a novel sSJ-specific membrane protein...
June 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569426/structure-and-expression-of-sulfatase-and-sulfatase-modifying-factor-genes-in-the-diamondback-moth-plutella-xylostella-l
#17
Xiao-Li Ma, Wei-Yi He, Wei Chen, Xue-Jiao Xu, Wei-Ping Qi, Ming-Min Zou, Yan-Chun You, Simon W Baxter, Ping Wang, Min-Sheng You
The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), uses sulfatases (SULF) to counteract the glucosinolate-myrosinase defensive system that cruciferous plants have evolved to deter insect feeding. Sulfatase activity is regulated by post-translational modification of a cysteine residue by sulfatase modifying factor 1 (SUMF1). We identified 12 SULF genes (PxylSulfs) and two SUMF1 genes (PxylSumf1s) in the P. xylostella genome. Phylogenetic analysis of SULFs and SUMFs from P. xylostella, Bombyx mori, Manduca sexta, Heliconius melpomene, Danaus plexippus, Drosophila melanogaster, Tetranychus urticae and Homo sapiens showed that the SULFs were clustered into five groups, and the SUMFs could be divided into two groups...
June 1, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28561738/oxidative-stress-induces-stem-cell-proliferation-via-trpa1-ryr-mediated-ca-2-signaling-in-the-drosophila-midgut
#18
Chiwei Xu, Junjie Luo, Li He, Craig Montell, Norbert Perrimon
Precise regulation of stem cell activity is crucial for tissue homeostasis and necessary to prevent overproliferation. In the Drosophila adult gut, high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been detected with different types of tissue damage, and oxidative stress has been shown to be both necessary and sufficient to trigger intestinal stem cell (ISC) proliferation. However, the connection between oxidative stress and mitogenic signals remains obscure. In a screen for genes required for ISC proliferation in response to oxidative stress, we identified two regulators of cytosolic Ca(2+) levels, transient receptor potential A1 (TRPA1) and ryanodine receptor (RyR)...
May 31, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533229/intrinsic-regulation-of-enteroendocrine-fate-by-numb
#19
Jérémy Sallé, Louis Gervais, Benjamin Boumard, Marine Stefanutti, Katarzyna Siudeja, Allison J Bardin
How terminal cell fates are specified in dynamically renewing adult tissues is not well understood. Here we explore terminal cell fate establishment during homeostasis using the enteroendocrine cells (EEs) of the adult Drosophila midgut as a paradigm. Our data argue against the existence of local feedback signals, and we identify Numb as an intrinsic regulator of EE fate. Our data further indicate that Numb, with alpha-adaptin, acts upstream or in parallel of known regulators of EE fate to limit Notch signaling, thereby facilitating EE fate acquisition...
July 3, 2017: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479306/intestinal-stem-cell-pool-regulation-in-drosophila
#20
Yinhua Jin, Parthive H Patel, Alexander Kohlmaier, Bojana Pavlovic, Chenge Zhang, Bruce A Edgar
Intestinal epithelial renewal is mediated by intestinal stem cells (ISCs) that exist in a state of neutral drift, wherein individual ISC lineages are regularly lost and born but ISC numbers remain constant. To test whether an active mechanism maintains stem cell pools in the Drosophila midgut, we performed partial ISC depletion. In contrast to the mouse intestine, Drosophila ISCs failed to repopulate the gut after partial depletion. Even when the midgut was challenged to regenerate by infection, ISCs retained normal proportions of asymmetric division and ISC pools did not increase...
June 6, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
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