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Drosophila midgut

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636800/molecular-dissection-of-smooth-septate-junctions-understanding-their-roles-in-arthropod-physiology
#1
REVIEW
Mikio Furuse, Yasushi Izumi
Smooth septate junctions (sSJs) are cell-cell junctions that are thought to regulate the paracellular pathway of the intestine and renal system in arthropods. The detailed mechanism of action of sSJs is not well understood, because their molecular organization has remained elusive for a long time. Recently, two sSJ-specific membrane proteins, Ssk and Mesh, were identified by screening monoclonal antibodies raised against sSJ-containing membrane fractions isolated from the silkworm midgut. Furthermore, a genetic screen in Drosophila based on microscopic observation of sSJ formation identified Tsp2A as a novel sSJ-specific membrane protein...
June 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569426/structure-and-expression-of-sulfatase-and-sulfatase-modifying-factor-genes-in-the-diamondback-moth-plutella-xylostella-l
#2
Xiao-Li Ma, Wei-Yi He, Wei Chen, Xue-Jiao Xu, Wei-Ping Qi, Ming-Min Zou, Yan-Chun You, Simon W Baxter, Ping Wang, Min-Sheng You
The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), uses sulfatases (SULF) to counteract the glucosinolate-myrosinase defensive system that cruciferous plants have evolved to deter insect feeding. Sulfatase activity is regulated by post-translational modification of a cysteine residue by sulfatase modifying factor 1 (SUMF1). We identified 12 SULF genes (PxylSulfs) and two SUMF1 genes (PxylSumf1s) in the P. xylostella genome. Phylogenetic analysis of SULFs and SUMFs from P. xylostella, Bombyx mori, Manduca sexta, Heliconius melpomene, Danaus plexippus, Drosophila melanogaster, Tetranychus urticae and Homo sapiens showed that the SULFs were clustered into five groups, and the SUMFs could be divided into two groups...
June 1, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28561738/oxidative-stress-induces-stem-cell-proliferation-via-trpa1-ryr-mediated-ca-2-signaling-in-the-drosophila-midgut
#3
Chiwei Xu, Junjie Luo, Li He, Craig Montell, Norbert Perrimon
Precise regulation of stem cell activity is crucial for tissue homeostasis and necessary to prevent overproliferation. In the Drosophila adult gut, high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been detected with different types of tissue damage, and oxidative stress has been shown to be both necessary and sufficient to trigger intestinal stem cell (ISC) proliferation. However, the connection between oxidative stress and mitogenic signals remains obscure. In a screen for genes required for ISC proliferation in response to oxidative stress, we identified two regulators of cytosolic Ca(2+) levels, transient receptor potential A1 (TRPA1) and ryanodine receptor (RyR)...
May 31, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533229/intrinsic-regulation-of-enteroendocrine-fate-by-numb
#4
Jérémy Sallé, Louis Gervais, Benjamin Boumard, Marine Stefanutti, Katarzyna Siudeja, Allison J Bardin
How terminal cell fates are specified in dynamically renewing adult tissues is not well understood. Here we explore terminal cell fate establishment during homeostasis using the enteroendocrine cells (EEs) of the adult Drosophila midgut as a paradigm. Our data argue against the existence of local feedback signals, and we identify Numb as an intrinsic regulator of EE fate. Our data further indicate that Numb, with alpha-adaptin, acts upstream or in parallel of known regulators of EE fate to limit Notch signaling, thereby facilitating EE fate acquisition...
May 22, 2017: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479306/intestinal-stem-cell-pool-regulation-in-drosophila
#5
Yinhua Jin, Parthive H Patel, Alexander Kohlmaier, Bojana Pavlovic, Chenge Zhang, Bruce A Edgar
Intestinal epithelial renewal is mediated by intestinal stem cells (ISCs) that exist in a state of neutral drift, wherein individual ISC lineages are regularly lost and born but ISC numbers remain constant. To test whether an active mechanism maintains stem cell pools in the Drosophila midgut, we performed partial ISC depletion. In contrast to the mouse intestine, Drosophila ISCs failed to repopulate the gut after partial depletion. Even when the midgut was challenged to regenerate by infection, ISCs retained normal proportions of asymmetric division and ISC pools did not increase...
June 6, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428611/transcription-factor-antagonism-controls-enteroendocrine-cell-specification-from-intestinal-stem-cells
#6
Yumei Li, Zhimin Pang, Huanwei Huang, Chenhui Wang, Tao Cai, Rongwen Xi
The balanced maintenance and differentiation of local stem cells is required for Homeostatic renewal of tissues. In the Drosophila midgut, the transcription factor Escargot (Esg) maintains undifferentiated states in intestinal stem cells, whereas the transcription factors Scute (Sc) and Prospero (Pros) promote enteroendocrine cell specification. However, the mechanism through which Esg and Sc/Pros coordinately regulate stem cell differentiation is unknown. Here, by combining chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis with genetic studies, we show that both Esg and Sc bind to a common promoter region of pros...
April 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400441/neuralized-regulates-crumbs-endocytosis-and-epithelium-morphogenesis-via-specific-stardust-isoforms
#7
Gantas Perez-Mockus, Vanessa Roca, Khalil Mazouni, François Schweisguth
Crumbs (Crb) is a conserved determinant of apical membrane identity that regulates epithelial morphogenesis in many developmental contexts. In this study, we identify the Crb complex protein Stardust (Sdt) as a target of the E3 ubiquitin ligase Neuralized (Neur) in Drosophila melanogaster Neur interacts with and down-regulates specific Sdt isoforms containing a Neur binding motif (NBM). Using a CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)-induced deletion of the NBM-encoding exon, we found that Sdt is a key Neur target and that Neur acts via Sdt to down-regulate Crb...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399198/functional-validation-of-apoptosis-genes-iap1-and-dronc-in-midgut-tissue-of-the-biting-midge-culicoides-sonorensis-diptera-ceratopogonidae-by-rnai
#8
M K Mills, D Nayduch, D S McVey, K Michel
Culicoides biting midges transmit multiple ruminant viruses, including bluetongue virus and epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus, causing significant economic burden worldwide. To further enhance current control techniques, understanding vector-virus interactions within the midge is critical. We developed previously a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) delivery method to induce RNA interference (RNAi) for targeted gene knockdown in adult Culicoides sonorensis Wirth & Jones. Here, we confirm the C. sonorensis inhibitor of apoptosis 1 (CsIAP1) as an anti-apoptotic functional ortholog of IAP1 in Drosophila, identify the ortholog of the Drosophila initiator caspase DRONC (CsDRONC), and demonstrate that injection of dsRNA into the hemocoel can be used for targeted knockdown in the midgut in C...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390875/effect-of-non-nutritive-sugars-to-decrease-the-survivorship-of-spotted-wing-drosophila-drosophila-suzukii
#9
Man-Yeon Choi, Siew Bee Tang, Seung-Joon Ahn, Kaushalya G Amarasekare, Peter Shearer, Jana C Lee
In this study, we investigated the effects of non-nutritive sugars and sugar alcohols on the survivorship of spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii, and found erythritol and erythrose as potentially insecticidal to the fly. In a dose-dependent study, erythritol and erythrose significantly reduced fly longevity, with 100% mortality with 1, 0.5, 0.1 & 0.05M doses after feeding for 7days. When sucrose and erythritol solutions were provided separately to flies for 7days, there was no effect on survivorship regardless of erythritol concentrations...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343984/amitosis-of-polyploid-cells-regenerates-functional-stem-cells-in-the-drosophila-intestine
#10
Elena M Lucchetta, Benjamin Ohlstein
Organ fitness depends on appropriate maintenance of stem cell populations, and aberrations in functional stem cell numbers are associated with malignancies and aging. Symmetrical division is the best characterized mechanism of stem cell replacement, but other mechanisms could also be deployed, particularly in situations of high stress. Here, we show that after severe depletion, intestinal stem cells (ISCs) in the Drosophila midgut are replaced by spindle-independent ploidy reduction of cells in the enterocyte lineage through a process known as amitosis...
May 4, 2017: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343031/assessing-the-genotoxic-effects-of-two-lipid-peroxidation-products-4-oxo-2-nonenal-and-4-hydroxy-hexenal-in-haemocytes-and-midgut-cells-of-drosophila-melanogaster-larvae
#11
Eşref Demir, Ricard Marcos
Lipid peroxidation products can induce tissue damage and are implicated in diverse pathological conditions, including aging, atherosclerosis, brain disorders, cancer, lung and various liver disorders. Since in vivo studies produce relevant information, we have selected Drosophila melanogaster as a suitable in vivo model to characterise the potential risks associated to two lipid peroxidation products namely 4-oxo-2-nonenal (4-ONE) and 4-hydroxy-hexenal (4-HHE). Toxicity, intracellular reactive oxygen species production, and genotoxicity were the end-points evaluated...
March 22, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337032/drosophila-dyskerin-is-required-for-somatic-stem-cell-homeostasis
#12
Rosario Vicidomini, Arianna Petrizzo, Annamaria di Giovanni, Laura Cassese, Antonella Anna Lombardi, Caterina Pragliola, Maria Furia
Drosophila represents an excellent model to dissect the roles played by the evolutionary conserved family of eukaryotic dyskerins. These multifunctional proteins are involved in the formation of H/ACA snoRNP and telomerase complexes, both involved in essential cellular tasks. Since fly telomere integrity is guaranteed by a different mechanism, we used this organism to investigate the specific role played by dyskerin in somatic stem cell maintenance. To this aim, we focussed on Drosophila midgut, a hierarchically organized and well characterized model for stemness analysis...
March 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289209/injury-stimulated-and-self-restrained-bmp-signaling-dynamically-regulates-stem-cell-pool-size-during-drosophila-midgut-regeneration
#13
Aiguo Tian, Bing Wang, Jin Jiang
Many adult organs rely on resident stem cells to maintain homeostasis. Upon injury, stem cells increase proliferation, followed by lineage differentiation to replenish damaged cells. Whether stem cells also change division mode to transiently increase their population size as part of a regenerative program and, if so, what the underlying mechanism is have remained largely unexplored. Here we show that injury stimulates the production of two bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) ligands, Dpp and Gbb, which drive an expansion of intestinal stem cells (ISCs) by promoting their symmetric self-renewing division in Drosophila adult midgut...
March 28, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272390/atf3-acts-as-a-rheostat-to-control-jnk-signalling-during-intestinal-regeneration
#14
Jun Zhou, Bruce A Edgar, Michael Boutros
Epithelial barrier function is maintained by coordination of cell proliferation and cell loss, whereas barrier dysfunction can lead to disease and organismal death. JNK signalling is a conserved stress signalling pathway activated by bacterial infection and tissue damage, often leading to apoptotic cell death and compensatory cell proliferation. Here we show that the stress inducible transcription factor ATF3 restricts JNK activity in the Drosophila midgut. ATF3 regulates JNK-dependent apoptosis and regeneration through the transcriptional regulation of the JNK antagonist, Raw...
March 8, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246211/apoptosis-restores-cellular-density-by-eliminating-a-physiologically-or-genetically-induced-excess-of-enterocytes-in-the-drosophila-midgut
#15
Rihab Loudhaief, Alexandra Brun-Barale, Olivia Benguettat, Marie-Paule Nawrot-Esposito, David Pauron, Marcel Amichot, Armel Gallet
Using pathogens or high levels of opportunistic bacteria to damage the gut, studies in Drosophila have identified many signaling pathways involved in gut regeneration. Dying cells emit signaling molecules that accelerate intestinal stem cell proliferation and progenitor differentiation to replace the dying cells quickly. This process has been named 'regenerative cell death'. Here, mimicking environmental conditions, we show that the ingestion of low levels of opportunistic bacteria was sufficient to launch an accelerated cellular renewal program despite the brief passage of bacteria in the gut and the absence of cell death and this is is due to the moderate induction of the JNK pathway that stimulates stem cell proliferation...
March 1, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219118/bmcalpains-are-involved-in-autophagy-and-apoptosis-during-metamorphosis-and-after-starvation-in-bombyx-mori
#16
Hui-Yu Yi, Wan-Ying Yang, Wen-Mei Wu, Xing-Xia Li, Xiao-Juan Deng, Qing-Rong Li, Yang Cao, Yang-Jin Zhong, Ya-Dong Huang
Apoptosis and autophagy play crucial roles during Bombyx mori metamorphosis and in response to various adverse conditions, including starvation. Recently, calpain, one of the major intracellular proteases, has been reported to be involved in apoptosis and autophagy in mammals. BmATG5 and BmATG6 have been identified to mediate apoptosis following autophagy induced by 20-hydroxyecdysone and starvation in B. mori. However, B. mori calpains and their functions remain unclear. In this study, phylogenetic analysis of calpains from B...
November 7, 2016: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188867/bombyx-mori-serpin6-regulates-prophenoloxidase-activity-and-the-expression-of-antimicrobial-proteins
#17
Bing Li, Hai-Zhong Yu, Chong-Jun Ye, Yan Ma, Xing Li, Tao Fan, Fu-Sheng Chen, Jia-Ping Xu
Serpins are a family of serine protease inhibitors that are found widely in insects. They play an important role in insect physiological responses, such as innate immunity and development. In this study, we obtained the Bombyx mori serpin6 (BmSerpin6) sequence from National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) and the silkworm genome database (SilkDB). Reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) results showed that BmSerpin6 was expressed highly in hemocytes, the midgut, and the fat body. After challenging with Micrococcus luteus (Mi) and Serratia marcescens (Sm), the BmSerpin6 expression level was induced significantly...
April 30, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188726/the-roles-of-v-type-h-atpase-and-na-k-atpase-in-energizing-k-and-h-transport-in-larval-drosophila-gut-epithelia
#18
Natalie M D'Silva, Andrew Donini, Michael J O'Donnell
We analyzed V-type H(+)-ATPase (VA) and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (NKA) along the caeca and midgut of third instar Drosophila larvae using immunohistochemistry and ATPase activity assays. Corresponding H(+) and K(+) fluxes were characterized using the Scanning Ion-Selective Electrode Technique (SIET), and the roles of transport ATPases in energizing ion transport across the larval gut were investigated by basal application of bafilomycin, a VA inhibitor, and ouabain, a NKA inhibitor. Addition of bafilomycin led to a decrease in H(+) absorption along the caeca and midgut except at the copper cells and large flat cell zone of the middle midgut...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178568/midgut-derived-activin-regulates-glucagon-like-action-in-the-fat-body-and-glycemic-control
#19
Wei Song, Daojun Cheng, Shangyu Hong, Benoit Sappe, Yanhui Hu, Neil Wei, Changqi Zhu, Michael B O'Connor, Pavlos Pissios, Norbert Perrimon
While high-caloric diet impairs insulin response to cause hyperglycemia, whether and how counter-regulatory hormones are modulated by high-caloric diet is largely unknown. We find that enhanced response of Drosophila adipokinetic hormone (AKH, the glucagon homolog) in the fat body is essential for hyperglycemia associated with a chronic high-sugar diet. We show that the activin type I receptor Baboon (Babo) autonomously increases AKH signaling without affecting insulin signaling in the fat body via, at least, increase of Akh receptor (AkhR) expression...
February 7, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119449/in-vivo-modeling-of-the-pathogenic-effect-of-copper-transporter-mutations-that-cause-menkes-and-wilson-diseases-motor-neuropathy-and-susceptibility-to-alzheimer-s-disease
#20
Stephen W Mercer, Jianbin Wang, Richard Burke
Copper is an essential biometal, and several inherited diseases are directly associated with a disruption to normal copper homeostasis. The best characterized are the copper deficiency and toxicity disorders Menkes and Wilson diseases caused by mutations in the p-type Cu-ATPase genes ATP7A and ATP7B, respectively. Missense mutations in the C-terminal portion of ATP7A have also been shown to cause distal motor neuropathy, whereas polymorphisms in ATP7B are associated with increased risk of Alzheimer's disease...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
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