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Drosophila midgut

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219118/bmcalpains-are-involved-in-autophagy-and-apoptosis-during-metamorphosis-and-after-starvation-in-bombyx-mori
#1
Hui-Yu Yi, Wan-Ying Yang, Wen-Mei Wu, Xing-Xia Li, Xiao-Juan Deng, Qing-Rong Li, Yang Cao, Yang-Jin Zhong, Ya-Dong Huang
Apoptosis and autophagy play crucial roles during Bombyx mori metamorphosis and in response to various adverse conditions, including starvation. Recently, calpain, one of the major intracellular proteases, has been reported to be involved in apoptosis and autophagy in mammals. BmATG5 and BmATG6 have been identified to mediate apoptosis following autophagy induced by 20-hydroxyecdysone and starvation in B. mori. However, B. mori calpains and their functions remain unclear. In this study, phylogenetic analysis of calpains from B...
November 7, 2016: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188867/bombyx-mori-serpin6-regulates-prophenoloxidase-activity-and-the-expression-of-antimicrobial-proteins
#2
Bing Li, Hai-Zhong Yu, Chong-Jun Ye, Yan Ma, Xing Li, Tao Fan, Fu-Sheng Chen, Jia-Ping Xu
Serpins are a family of serine protease inhibitors that are found widely in insects. They play an important role in insect physiological responses, such as innate immunity and development. In this study, we obtained the Bombyx mori serpin6 (BmSerpin6) sequence from National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) and the silkworm genome database (SilkDB). Reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) results showed that BmSerpin6 was expressed highly in hemocytes, the midgut, and the fat body. After challenging with Micrococcus luteus (Mi) and Serratia marcescens (Sm), the BmSerpin6 expression level was induced significantly...
February 8, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188726/the-roles-of-v-type-h-atpase-and-na-k-atpase-in-energizing-k-and-h-transport-in-larval-drosophila-gut-epithelia
#3
Natalie M D'Silva, Andrew Donini, Michael J O'Donnell
We analyzed V-type H(+)-ATPase (VA) and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (NKA) along the caeca and midgut of third instar Drosophila larvae using immunohistochemistry and ATPase activity assays. Corresponding H(+) and K(+) fluxes were characterized using the Scanning Ion-Selective Electrode Technique (SIET), and the roles of transport ATPases in energizing ion transport across the larval gut were investigated by basal application of bafilomycin, a VA inhibitor, and ouabain, a NKA inhibitor. Addition of bafilomycin led to a decrease in H(+) absorption along the caeca and midgut except at the copper cells and large flat cell zone of the middle midgut...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178568/midgut-derived-activin-regulates-glucagon-like-action-in-the-fat-body-and-glycemic-control
#4
Wei Song, Daojun Cheng, Shangyu Hong, Benoit Sappe, Yanhui Hu, Neil Wei, Changqi Zhu, Michael B O'Connor, Pavlos Pissios, Norbert Perrimon
While high-caloric diet impairs insulin response to cause hyperglycemia, whether and how counter-regulatory hormones are modulated by high-caloric diet is largely unknown. We find that enhanced response of Drosophila adipokinetic hormone (AKH, the glucagon homolog) in the fat body is essential for hyperglycemia associated with a chronic high-sugar diet. We show that the activin type I receptor Baboon (Babo) autonomously increases AKH signaling without affecting insulin signaling in the fat body via, at least, increase of Akh receptor (AkhR) expression...
February 7, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119449/in-vivo-modelling-of-the-pathogenic-effect-of-copper-transporter-mutations-that-cause-menkes-and-wilson-disease-motor-neuropathy-and-susceptibility-to-alzheimer-s-disease
#5
Stephen W Mercer, Jianbin Wang, Richard Burke
Copper is an essential biometal and several inherited diseases are directly associated with a disruption to normal copper homeostasis. The best characterised are the copper deficiency and toxicity disorders Menkes and Wilson disease, caused by mutations in the p-Type Cu-ATPase genes ATP7A and ATP7B respectively. Missense mutations in the C-terminal portion of ATP7A have also been shown to cause Distal Motor Neuropathy while polymorphisms in ATP7B are associated with increased risk of Alzheimer's disease. We have generated a single, in vivo model for studying multiple pathogenic mutations in ATP7 proteins, using Drosophila melanogaster, which has a single orthologue of ATP7A and ATP7B...
January 24, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057305/stem-cell-based-tumorigenesis-in-adult-drosophila
#6
S X Hou, S R Singh
Recent studies suggest that a small subset of cells within a tumor, the so-called cancer stem cells (CSCs), are responsible for tumor propagation, relapse, and the eventual death of most cancer patients. CSCs may derive from a few tumor-initiating cells, which are either transformed normal stem cells or reprogrammed differentiated cells after acquiring initial cancer-causing mutations. CSCs and normal stem cells share some properties, but CSCs differ from normal stem cells in their tumorigenic ability. Notably, CSCs are usually resistant to chemo- and radiation therapies...
2017: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992405/tricellular-junctions-regulate-intestinal-stem-cell-behaviour-to-maintain-homeostasis
#7
Martin Resnik-Docampo, Christopher L Koehler, Rebecca I Clark, Joseph M Schinaman, Vivien Sauer, Daniel M Wong, Sophia Lewis, Cecilia D'Alterio, David W Walker, D Leanne Jones
Ageing results in loss of tissue homeostasis across taxa. In the intestine of Drosophila melanogaster, ageing is correlated with an increase in intestinal stem cell (ISC) proliferation, a block in terminal differentiation of progenitor cells, activation of inflammatory pathways, and increased intestinal permeability. However, causal relationships between these phenotypes remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate that ageing results in altered localization and expression of septate junction proteins in the posterior midgut, which is quite pronounced in differentiated enterocytes (ECs) at tricellular junctions (TCJs)...
January 2017: Nature Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914919/expressing-a-moth-abcc2-gene-in-transgenic-drosophila-causes-susceptibility-to-bt-cry1ac-without-requiring-a-cadherin-like-protein-receptor
#8
Tristan Stevens, Sisi Song, John B Bruning, Amanda Choo, Simon W Baxter
Bt toxins ingested by insect pests can bind to midgut receptors and cause death, although several steps in this process remain unclear. Multiple Bt toxin receptors have been identified in Lepidoptera, including a cadherin-like protein (CaLP), which is central to several models explaining Bt toxins' mode of action. Mutations in the Plutella xylostella ATP-dependent binding cassette transporter C2 (Px-abcc2), rather than CaLP, are genetically linked with Bt Cry1Ac resistance. Here we expressed Px-abcc2 in Drosophila and performed larval bioassays to determine whether this protein acts as an effective Bt receptor...
January 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893747/analysis-of-the-function-of-apoptosis-during-imaginal-wing-disc-regeneration-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#9
Sandra Diaz-Garcia, Sara Ahmed, Antonio Baonza
Regeneration is the ability that allows organisms to replace missing organs or lost tissue after injuries. This ability requires the coordinated activity of different cellular processes, including programmed cell death. Apoptosis plays a key role as a source of signals necessary for regeneration in different organisms. The imaginal discs of Drosophila melanogaster provide a particularly well-characterised model system for studying the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying regeneration. Although it has been shown that signals produced by apoptotic cells are needed for homeostasis and regeneration of some tissues of this organism, such as the adult midgut, the contribution of apoptosis to disc regeneration remains unclear...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888216/drosophila-sulf1-is-required-for-the-termination-of-intestinal-stem-cell-division-during-regeneration
#10
Masahiko Takemura, Hiroshi Nakato
Stem cell division is activated to trigger regeneration in response to tissue damage. The molecular mechanisms by which this stem cell mitotic activity is properly repressed at the end of regeneration are poorly understood. Here, we show that a specific modification of heparan sulfate is crucial for regulating Drosophila intestinal stem cell (ISC) division during normal midgut homeostasis and regeneration. Loss of the extracellular heparan sulfate endosulfatase Sulf1 resulted in increased ISC division during normal homeostasis, which was caused by upregulation of mitogenic signaling including the JAK-STAT, EGFR and Hedgehog pathways...
January 15, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880869/the-impact-of-metagenomic-interplay-on-the-mosquito-redox-homeostasis
#11
REVIEW
Cody J Champion, Jiannong Xu
Mosquitoes are exposed to oxidative challenges throughout their life cycle. The primary challenge comes from a blood meal. The blood digestion turns the midgut into an oxidative environment, which imposes pressure not only on mosquito fecundity and other physiological traits but also on the microbiota in the midgut. During evolution, mosquitoes have developed numerous oxidative defense mechanisms to maintain redox homeostasis in the midgut. In addition to antioxidants, SOD, catalase, and glutathione system, sufficient supply of the reducing agent, NADPH, is vital for a successful defense against oxidative stress...
November 20, 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834607/somatic-recombination-in-adult-tissues-what-is-there-to-learn
#12
Katarzyna Siudeja, Allison J Bardin
Somatic recombination is essential to protect genomes of somatic cells from DNA damage but it also has important clinical implications, as it is a driving force of tumorigenesis leading to inactivation of tumor suppressor genes. Despite this importance, our knowledge about somatic recombination in adult tissues remains very limited. Our recent work, using the Drosophila adult midgut has demonstrated that spontaneous events of mitotic recombination accumulate in aging adult intestinal stem cells and result in frequent loss of heterozygosity (LOH)...
November 11, 2016: Fly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783936/intestinal-ire1-is-required-for-increased-triglyceride-metabolism-and-longer-lifespan-under-dietary-restriction
#13
Nuno Miguel Luis, Lifen Wang, Mauricio Ortega, Hansong Deng, Subhash D Katewa, Patrick Wai-Lun Li, Jason Karpac, Heinrich Jasper, Pankaj Kapahi
Dietary restriction (DR) is one of the most robust lifespan-extending interventions in animals. The beneficial effects of DR involve a metabolic adaptation toward increased triglyceride usage. The regulatory mechanism and the tissue specificity of this metabolic switch remain unclear. Here, we show that theĀ IRE1/XBP1 endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress signaling module mediates metabolic adaptation upon DR in flies by promoting triglyceride synthesis and accumulation in enterocytes (ECs) of the Drosophila midgut...
October 25, 2016: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765651/metamorphosis-of-the-drosophila-visceral-musculature-and-its-role-in-intestinal-morphogenesis-and-stem-cell-formation
#14
Patrick Aghajanian, Shigeo Takashima, Manash Paul, Amelia Younossi-Hartenstein, Volker Hartenstein
The visceral musculature of the Drosophila intestine plays important roles in digestion as well as development. Detailed studies investigating the embryonic development of the visceral muscle exist; comparatively little is known about postembryonic development and metamorphosis of this tissue. In this study we have combined the use of specific markers with electron microscopy to follow the formation of the adult visceral musculature and its involvement in gut development during metamorphosis. Unlike the adult somatic musculature, which is derived from a pool of undifferentiated myoblasts, the visceral musculature of the adult is a direct descendant of the larval fibers, as shown by activating a lineage tracing construct in the larval muscle and obtaining labeled visceral fibers in the adult...
December 1, 2016: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760824/rna-interference-directed-against-the-transglutaminase-gene-triggers-dysbiosis-of-gut-microbiota-in-drosophila
#15
Sanae Sekihara, Toshio Shibata, Mai Hyakkendani, Shun-Ichiro Kawabata
We recently reported that transglutaminase (TG) suppresses immune deficiency pathway-controlled antimicrobial peptides (IMD-AMPs), thereby conferring immune tolerance to gut microbes, and that RNAi of the TG gene in flies decreases the lifespan compared with non-TG-RNAi flies. Here, analysis of the bacterial composition of the Drosophila gut by next-generation sequencing revealed that gut microbiota comprising one dominant genus of Acetobacter in non-TG-RNAi flies was shifted to that comprising two dominant genera of Acetobacter and Providencia in TG-RNAi flies...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27721443/functional-analysis-of-cyp6er1-a-p450-gene-associated-with-imidacloprid-resistance-in-nilaparvata-lugens
#16
Rui Pang, Meng Chen, Zhikun Liang, Xiangzhao Yue, Hu Ge, Wenqing Zhang
The cytochrome P450 CYP6ER1 has been reported to play an important role in imidacloprid resistance of the brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens, and is overexpressed in most resistant populations. In the present study, we confirmed that CYP6ER1 expression can be induced by certain levels of imidacloprid. Developmental expression analysis revealed that CYP6ER1 was expressed highly in the adult stage, and tissue distribution analysis showed that CYP6ER1 was expressed mainly in the fat body and midgut. RNA interference (RNAi) of CYP6ER1 and transgenic expression of CYP6ER1 in Drosophila melanogaster both suggested that the expression of CYP6ER1 is sufficient to confer imidacloprid resistance...
October 10, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693629/activation-of-the-tor-myc-signaling-axis-in-intestinal-stem-and-progenitor-cells-affects-longevity-stress-resistance-and-metabolism-in-drosophila
#17
Olha M Strilbytska, Uliana V Semaniuk, Kenneth B Storey, Bruce A Edgar, Oleh V Lushchak
The TOR (target of rapamycin) signaling pathway and the transcriptional factor Myc play important roles in growth control. Myc acts, in part, as a downstream target of TOR to regulate the activity and functioning of stem cells. Here we explore the role of TOR-Myc axis in stem and progenitor cells in the regulation of lifespan, stress resistance and metabolism in Drosophila. We found that both overexpression of rheb and myc-rheb in midgut stem and progenitor cells decreased the lifespan and starvation resistance of flies...
January 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27678067/characterization-and-expression-profiling-of-atp-binding-cassette-transporter-genes-in-the-diamondback-moth-plutella-xylostella-l
#18
Weiping Qi, Xiaoli Ma, Weiyi He, Wei Chen, Mingmin Zou, Geoff M Gurr, Liette Vasseur, Minsheng You
BACKGROUND: ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are one of the major transmembrane protein families found in all organisms and play important roles in transporting a variety of compounds across intra and extra cellular membranes. In some species, ABC transporters may be involved in the detoxification of substances such as insecticides. The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), a destructive pest of cruciferous crops worldwide, is an important species to study as it is resistant to many types of insecticides as well as biological control Bacillus thuringiensis toxins...
September 27, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27594789/plant-defense-inhibitors-affect-the-structures-of-midgut-cells-in-drosophila-melanogaster-and-callosobruchus-maculatus
#19
Hongmei Li-Byarlay, Barry R Pittendrigh, Larry L Murdock
Plants produce proteins such as protease inhibitors and lectins as defenses against herbivorous insects and pathogens. However, no systematic studies have explored the structural responses in the midguts of insects when challenged with plant defensive proteins and lectins across different species. In this study, we fed two kinds of protease inhibitors and lectins to the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and alpha-amylase inhibitors and lectins to the cowpea bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus. We assessed the changes in midgut cell structures by comparing them with such structures in insects receiving normal diets or subjected to food deprivation...
2016: International Journal of Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27578182/the-migrations-of-drosophila-muscle-founders-and-primordial-germ-cells-are-interdependent
#20
Vincent Stepanik, Leslie Dunipace, Young-Kyung Bae, Frank Macabenta, Jingjing Sun, Nathanie Trisnadi, Angelike Stathopoulos
Caudal visceral mesoderm (CVM) cells migrate from posterior to anterior of the Drosophila embryo as two bilateral streams of cells to support the specification of longitudinal muscles along the midgut. To accomplish this long-distance migration, CVM cells receive input from their environment, but little is known about how this collective cell migration is regulated. In a screen we found that wunen mutants exhibit CVM cell migration defects. Wunens are lipid phosphate phosphatases known to regulate the directional migration of primordial germ cells (PGCs)...
September 1, 2016: Development
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