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Drosophila epigenetics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801151/correlation-between-desiccation-stress-response-and-epigenetic-modifications-of-genes-in-drosophila-melanogaster-an-example-of-environment-epigenome-interaction
#1
Vineeta Sharma, Surbhi Kohli, Vani Brahmachari
Animals from different phyla including arthropods tolerate water stress to different extent. This tolerance is accompanied by biochemical changes which in turn are due to transcriptional alteration. The changes in transcription can be an indirect effect on some of the genes, ensuing from the effect of stress on the regulators of transcription including epigenetic regulators. Within this paradigm, we investigated the correlation between stress response and epigenetic modification underlying gene expression modulation during desiccation stress in Canton-S...
August 8, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761084/single-vector-non-leaky-gene-expression-system-for-drosophila-melanogaster
#2
Arslan Akmammedov, Marco Geigges, Renato Paro
An ideal transgenic gene expression system is inducible, non-leaky, and well tolerated by the target organism. While the former has been satisfactorily realized, leakiness and heavy physiological burden imposed by the existing systems are still prominent hurdles in their successful implementation. Here we describe a new system for non-leaky expression of transgenes in Drosophila. PRExpress is based on a single transgenic construct built from endogenous components, the inducible hsp70 promoter and a multimerized copy of a Polycomb response element (PRE) controlled by epigenetic chromatin regulators of the Polycomb group...
July 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743695/ectopic-application-of-the-repressive-histone-modification-h3k9me2-establishes-post-zygotic-reproductive-isolation-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#3
Hua Jiang, Jordi Moreno-Romero, Juan Santos-González, Geert De Jaeger, Kris Gevaert, Eveline Van De Slijke, Claudia Köhler
Hybrid seed lethality as a consequence of interspecies or interploidy hybridizations is a major mechanism of reproductive isolation in plants. This mechanism is manifested in the endosperm, a dosage-sensitive tissue supporting embryo growth. Deregulated expression of imprinted genes such as ADMETOS (ADM) underpin the interploidy hybridization barrier in Arabidopsis thaliana; however, the mechanisms of their action remained unknown. In this study, we show that ADM interacts with the AT hook domain protein AHL10 and the SET domain-containing SU(VAR)3-9 homolog SUVH9 and ectopically recruits the heterochromatic mark H3K9me2 to AT-rich transposable elements (TEs), causing deregulated expression of neighboring genes...
July 25, 2017: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712876/drosophila-sce-dring-e3-ligase-inhibits-apoptosis-in-a-dp53-dependent-manner
#4
Carolina J Simoes da Silva, Sol Fereres, Rocío Simón, Ana Busturia
The Polycomb group (PcG) of proteins control developmental gene silencing and are highly conserved between flies and mammals. PcG proteins function by controlling post-translational modification of histones, such as ubiquitylation, which impacts chromatin compaction and thus gene transcription. Changes in PcG cellular levels have drastic effects on organismal development and are involved in the generation of human pathologies such as cancer. However, the mechanisms controlling their levels of expression and their physiological effects are only partially understood...
September 1, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710457/methyl-cpg-binding-domain-proteins-inhibit-interspecies-courtship-and-promote-aggression-in-drosophila
#5
Tarun Gupta, Hannah R Morgan, Jonathan C Andrews, Edmond R Brewer, Sarah J Certel
Reproductive isolation and speciation are driven by the convergence of environmental and genetic variation. The integration of these variation sources is thought to occur through epigenetic marks including DNA methylation. Proteins containing a methyl-CpG-binding domain (MBD) bind methylated DNA and interpret epigenetic marks, providing a dynamic yet evolutionarily adapted cellular output. Here, we report the Drosophila MBD-containing proteins, dMBD-R2 and dMBD2/3, contribute to reproductive isolation and survival behavioral strategies...
July 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706074/germ-line-inherited-h3k27me3-restricts-enhancer-function-during-maternal-to-zygotic-transition
#6
Fides Zenk, Eva Loeser, Rosaria Schiavo, Fabian Kilpert, Ozren Bogdanović, Nicola Iovino
Gametes carry parental genetic material to the next generation. Stress-induced epigenetic changes in the germ line can be inherited and can have a profound impact on offspring development. However, the molecular mechanisms and consequences of transgenerational epigenetic inheritance are poorly understood. We found that Drosophila oocytes transmit the repressive histone mark H3K27me3 to their offspring. Maternal contribution of the histone methyltransferase Enhancer of zeste, the enzymatic component of Polycomb repressive complex 2, is required for active propagation of H3K27me3 during early embryogenesis...
July 14, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702320/parental-obesity-leads-to-metabolic-changes-in-the-f2-generation-in-drosophila
#7
Rebecca A S Palu, Sophia A Praggastis, Carl S Thummel
OBJECTIVE: A significant portion of the heritable risk for complex metabolic disorders cannot be attributed to classic Mendelian genetic factors. At least some of this missing heritability is thought to be due to the epigenetic influence of parental and grandparental metabolic state on offspring health. Previous work suggests that this transgenerational phenomenon is evolutionarily conserved in Drosophila. These studies, however, have all depended on dietary paradigms to alter parental metabolic state, which can have inconsistent heritable effects on the metabolism of offspring...
July 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695823/pervasive-epigenetic-effects-of-drosophila-euchromatic-transposable-elements-impact-their-evolution
#8
Yuh Chwen G Lee, Gary H Karpen
Transposable elements (TEs) are widespread genomic parasites, and their evolution has remained a critical question in evolutionary genomics. Here, we study the relatively unexplored epigenetic impacts of TEs and provide the first genome-wide quantification of such effects in D. melanogaster and D. simulans. Surprisingly, the spread of repressive epigenetic marks (histone H3K9me2) to nearby DNA occurs at >50% of euchromatic TEs, and can extend up to 20 kb. This results in differential epigenetic states of genic alleles and, in turn, selection against TEs...
July 11, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674274/all-are-equal-but-some-are-more-equal-than-others-epigenetic-regulation-of-germ-line-stem-cell-fate-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#9
Sonam Mehrotra, Girish Deshpande
Adult stem cells are capable of both symmetric andasymmetric cell divisions. Asymmetric cell division allows self-renewal and gives rise to intermediate cells that ultimately differentiate into specific cell types. Consequently, adult stem cells play a key role in development and tissue homeostasis during the life span of an organism. Typically, adult stem cell divisions are regulated through coordination between non-autonomous signaling from the niche and cell-autonomous influences from stem cell-intrinsic factors...
June 30, 2017: Genes & Genetic Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665982/the-sertad-protein-taranis-plays-a-role-in-polycomb-mediated-gene-repression
#10
Pranabananda Dutta, Willis X Li
The Polycomb group (PcG) proteins have been implicated in epigenetic transcriptional repression in development, stem cell maintenance and in cancer. The chromodomain protein Polycomb (Pc) is a key member of the PcG. Pc binds to the histone mark, trimethylated histone 3 lysine 27 (H3K27me3), to initiate transcriptional repression. How PcG proteins are recruited to target loci is not fully understood. Here we show that the Drosophila SERTA domain protein Taranis (Tara) is involved in transcriptional regulation of Pc target genes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658280/reversible-perturbations-of-gene-regulation-after-genome-editing-in-drosophila-cells
#11
Stefan Kunzelmann, Klaus Förstemann
The prokaryotic phage defense CRISPR/cas-system has developed into a versatile toolbox for genome engineering and genetic studies in many organisms. While many efforts were spent on analyzing the consequences of off-target effects, only few studies addressed side-effects that occur due to the targeted manipulation of the genome. Here, we show that the CRISPR/cas9-mediated integration of an epitope tag in combination with a selection cassette can trigger an siRNA-mediated, epigenetic genome surveillance pathway in Drosophila melanogaster cells...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656157/opportunities-lost-and-gained-changes-in-progenitor-competence-during-nervous-system-development
#12
REVIEW
Dylan R Farnsworth, Chris Q Doe
During development of the central nervous system, a small pool of stem cells and progenitors generate the vast neural diversity required for neural circuit formation and behavior. Neural stem and progenitor cells often generate different progeny in response to the same signaling cue (e.g. Notch or Hedgehog), including no response at all. How does stem cell competence to respond to signaling cues change over time? Recently, epigenetics particularly chromatin remodeling - has emerged as a powerful mechanism to control stem cell competence...
2017: Neurogenesis (Austin, Tex.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644712/comparative-analysis-of-behavioral-and-transcriptional-variation-underlying-co2-sensory-neuron-function-and-development-in-drosophila
#13
Jia Wern Pan, Joi McLaughlin, Haining Yang, Charles Leo, Paula Rambarat, Sumie Okuwa, Anaïs Monroy-Eklund, Sabrina Clark, Corbin D Jones, Pelin Cayirlioglu Volkan
Carbon dioxide is an important environmental cue for many insects, regulating many behaviors including some that have direct human impacts. To further improve our understanding of how this system varies among closely related insect species, we examined both the behavioral response to CO2 as well as the transcriptional profile of key developmental regulators of CO2 sensory neurons in the olfactory system across the Drosophila genus. We found that CO2 generally evokes repulsive behavior across most of the Drosophilids we examined, but this behavior has been lost or reduced in several lineages...
June 23, 2017: Fly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638443/dosage-compensation-and-sex-specific-epigenetic-landscape-of-the-x-chromosome-in-the-pea-aphid
#14
Gautier Richard, Fabrice Legeai, Nathalie Prunier-Leterme, Anthony Bretaudeau, Denis Tagu, Julie Jaquiéry, Gaël Le Trionnaire
BACKGROUND: Heterogametic species display a differential number of sex chromosomes resulting in imbalanced transcription levels for these chromosomes between males and females. To correct this disequilibrium, dosage compensation mechanisms involving gene expression and chromatin accessibility regulations have emerged throughout evolution. In insects, these mechanisms have been extensively characterized only in Drosophila but not in insects of agronomical importance. Aphids are indeed major pests of a wide range of crops...
2017: Epigenetics & Chromatin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636597/phase-separation-drives-heterochromatin-domain-formation
#15
Amy R Strom, Alexander V Emelyanov, Mustafa Mir, Dmitry V Fyodorov, Xavier Darzacq, Gary H Karpen
Constitutive heterochromatin is an important component of eukaryotic genomes that has essential roles in nuclear architecture, DNA repair and genome stability, and silencing of transposon and gene expression. Heterochromatin is highly enriched for repetitive sequences, and is defined epigenetically by methylation of histone H3 at lysine 9 and recruitment of its binding partner heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1). A prevalent view of heterochromatic silencing is that these and associated factors lead to chromatin compaction, resulting in steric exclusion of regulatory proteins such as RNA polymerase from the underlying DNA...
July 13, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630141/temperature-responsive-mirnas-in-drosophila-orchestrate-adaptation-to-different-ambient-temperatures
#16
Isabel Fast, Charlotte Hewel, Laura Wester, Julia Schumacher, Daniel Gebert, Hans Zischler, Christian Berger, David Rosenkranz
The majority of Drosophila genes are expressed in a temperature-dependent manner, but the way in which small RNAs may contribute to this effect is completely unknown as we currently lack an idea of how small RNA transcriptomes change as a function of temperature. Applying high throughput sequencing techniques complemented by quantitative real-time PCR experiments, we demonstrate that altered ambient temperature induces drastic, but reversible changes in sequence composition and total abundance of both, miRNA- and piRNA populations...
June 19, 2017: RNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620760/notch-an-interactive-player-in-neurogenesis-and-disease
#17
REVIEW
Runrui Zhang, Anna Engler, Verdon Taylor
Notch signaling is evolutionarily conserved from Drosophila to human. It plays critical roles in neural stem cell maintenance and neurogenesis in the embryonic brain as well as in the adult brain. Notch functions greatly depend on careful regulation and cross-talk with other regulatory mechanisms. Deregulation of Notch signaling is involved in many neurodegenerative diseases and brain disorders. Here, we summarize the fundamental role of Notch in neuronal development and specification and discuss how epigenetic regulation and pathway cross-talk contribute to Notch function...
June 15, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575027/linking-epigenetic-function-to-electrostatics-the-dnmt2-structural-model-example
#18
Gilberto Cavalheiro Vieira, Gustavo Fioravanti Vieira, Marialva Sinigaglia, Vera Lúcia da Silva Valente
The amino acid sequence of DNMT2 is very similar to the catalytic domains of bacterial and eukaryotic proteins. However, there is great variability in the region of recognition of the target sequence. While bacterial DNMT2 acts as a DNA methyltransferase, previous studies have indicated low DNA methylation activity in eukaryotic DNMT2, with preference by tRNA methylation. Drosophilids are known as DNMT2-only species and the DNA methylation phenomenon is a not elucidated case yet, as well as the ontogenetic and physiologic importance of DNMT2 for this species group...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549975/knockdown-of-epigenetic-transcriptional-co-regulator-brd2a-disrupts-apoptosis-and-proper-formation-of-hindbrain-and-midbrain-hindbrain-boundary-mhb-region-in-zebrafish
#19
Tami Murphy, Heather Melville, Eliza Fradkin, Giana Bistany, Gregory Branigan, Kelly Olsen, Catharine R Comstock, Hayley Hanby, Ellie Garbade, Angela J DiBenedetto
Brd2 is a member of the bromodomain-extraterminal domain (BET) family of proteins and functions as an acetyl-histone-directed transcriptional co-regulator and recruitment scaffold in chromatin modification complexes affecting signal-dependent transcription. While Brd2 acts as a protooncogene in mammalian blood, developmental studies link it to regulation of neuronal apoptosis and epilepsy, and complete knockout of the gene is invariably embryonic lethal. In Drosophila, the Brd2 homolog acts as a maternal effect factor necessary for segment formation and identity and proper expression of homeotic loci, including Ultrabithorax and engrailed...
August 2017: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529475/fragile-x-associated-tremor-ataxia-syndrome-from-molecular-pathogenesis-to-development-of-therapeutics
#20
REVIEW
Ha Eun Kong, Juan Zhao, Shunliang Xu, Peng Jin, Yan Jin
Fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by a premutation CGG repeat expansion (55-200 repeats) within the 5' UTR of the fragile X gene (FMR1). FXTAS is characterized by intension tremor, cerebellar ataxia, progressive neurodegeneration, parkinsonism and cognitive decline. The development of transgenic mouse and Drosophila melanogaster models carrying an expanded CGG repeat has yielded valuable insight into the pathophysiology of FXTAS. To date, we know of two main molecular mechanisms of this disorder: (1) a toxic gain of function of the expanded CGG-repeat FMR1 mRNA, which results in the binding/sequestration of the CGG-binding proteins; and (2) CGG repeat-associated non-AUG-initiated (RAN) translation, which generates a polyglycine peptide toxic to cells...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
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