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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661381/a-review-of-the-safety-and-efficacy-of-inhaled-methoxyflurane-as-an-analgesic-for-outpatient-procedures
#1
REVIEW
C Jephcott, J Grummet, N Nguyen, O Spruyt
Methoxyflurane delivered via a hand-held inhaler is a proven analgesic which has been used in Australasia for emergency relief of trauma associated pain since the 1970s. The agent is self-administered by the patient under the supervision of trained personnel. More than 5 million patients have received inhaled methoxyflurane without significant side effects. Methoxyflurane is also licensed in Australasia for the relief of pain in monitored conscious patients requiring analgesia for minor surgical procedures...
May 2018: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658714/activation-of-trpv3-by-wood-smoke-particles-and-roles-in-pneumotoxicity
#2
Cassandra Deering-Rice, Nam Nguyen, Zhenyu Lu, James Cox, Darien Shapiro, Erin G Romero, Virginia K Mitchell, Katherine L Burrell, John M Veranth, Christopher A Reilly
Wood/biomass smoke particulate materials (WBSPM) are pneumotoxic, but mechanisms by which these materials affect lung cells are not fully understood. We previously identified transient receptor potential (TRP) ankyrin-1 as a sensor for electrophiles in WBSPM and hypothesized that other TRP channels expressed by lung cells might also be activated by WBSPM, contributing to pneumotoxicity. Screening TRP channel activation by WBSPM using calcium flux assays revealed TRPV3 activation by materials obtained from burning multiple types of wood under fixed conditions...
April 16, 2018: Chemical Research in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603693/assessment-of-salivary-catalase-a-amylase-and-cotinine-levels-in-chronic-smokers-a-comparative-study
#3
Satvinder Singh, Mamta Sharma, Nitika Rohilla, Varun Salgotra, Varun Kumar, Rahul K Sharma
INTRODUCTION: One of the common practices observed in many parts of the world is smoking, of which tobacco forms an important constituent which is burned and inhaled. Smoking is known to have potential effect on body's immune system, antioxidants level, and salivary cotinine levels. Hence, we planned the present study to evaluate the impact of cigarette smoke on salivary anti-oxidant levels and cotinine levels in smokers and nonsmokers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The present study included assessment of salivary parameters of smokers and nonsmokers...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29573689/source-apportionment-and-carcinogenic-risk-assessment-of-passive-air-sampler-derived-pahs-and-pcbs-in-a-heavily-industrialized-region
#4
Banu Cetin, Sema Yurdakul, Elif Gungormus, Fatma Ozturk, Sait C Sofuoglu
Cancer has become the primary reason of deaths in Dilovasi probably due to its location with unique topography under the influence of heavy industrialization and traffic. In this study, possible sources and carcinogenic health risks of PAHs and PCBs were investigated in Dilovasi region by Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) and the USEPA approach, respectively. PAHs and PCBs were measured monthly for a whole year at 23 sampling sites using PUF disk passive samplers. Average ambient air concentrations were found as 285±431ng/m3 and 4152±6072pg/m3 , for Σ15 PAH and Σ41 PCB, respectively...
March 21, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29548862/defining-the-criteria-for-intubation-of-the-patient-with-thermal-burns
#5
Jenelle H Badulak, Michael Schurr, Angela Sauaia, Anna Ivashchenko, Erik Peltz
OBJECTIVES: Recent studies demonstrate that burn patients are undergoing unnecessary intubations. We sought to determine the clinical criteria that predict intubations with benefit. METHODS: This was a retrospective review of intubated adults admitted to our center with thermal burns 2008-2013. Criteria for intubation were defined as traditional criteria (suspected smoke inhalation, oropharynx soot, hoarseness, dysphagia, singed facial hair, oral edema, oral burn, non-full thickness facial burns), or ABA criteria as defined by the 2011 ABA guidelines (full thickness facial burns, stridor, respiratory distress, swelling on laryngoscopy, upper airway trauma, altered mentation, hypoxia/hypercarbia, hemodynamic instability)...
March 13, 2018: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29531853/pattern-of-burn-injury-at-north-of-jordan
#6
Ziad A Bataineh, Thekraiat M Al Quran, Hamzeh Al Balas, Muhmammad R Khammash
To the best of our knowledge, pattern of burn injury was not reported yet at our region, our hospital considered the only tertiary referral center with the only burn unit at the region since 2001 till date, a retrospective analysis of our computerized filing system recorded 527 burn patients between 2001-2016, mean age was 26 years; 1.27:1 was the male to female ratio, 79 patients were found to have major burns, 46% of admissions were below 20 years' age, 92% was at domestic site of affection and 65% due to flame burn followed by scald burn in about 23%...
2018: International Journal of Burns and Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29530306/contemporary-burn-survival
#7
Karel D Capek, Linda E Sousse, Gabriel Hundeshagen, Charles D Voigt, Oscar E Suman, Celeste C Finnerty, Kristofer Jennings, David N Herndon
BACKGROUND: The standard of burn treatment today reflects major advances. We sought to quantitate the impact of these advances on burn survival via age-stratified mortality ratios compared with other reported mortality analyses in burns. STUDY DESIGN: Age, percent of the total body surface area (TBSA) burned, presence of inhalation injury, length of stay, and survival status were recorded at admission and at discharge for all new burn admissions between 1989 and 2017...
February 23, 2018: Journal of the American College of Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29526247/burn-injury-mortality-in-patients-with-preexisting-and-new-onset-renal-disease
#8
Laquanda T Knowlin, Laura Purcell, Bruce A Cairns, Anthony G Charles
INTRODUCTION: We sought to examine the impact of preexisting and new onset renal disease on burn injury mortality. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of patients admitted to a regional burn center from 2002-2012 was performed. Variables analyzed included demographics, burn mechanism, inhalation injury status, and % TBSA. Poisson regression was performed to estimate risk of in-hospital burn mortality. RESULTS: There were a total of 7640 patients over the study period...
March 1, 2018: American Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29525626/effects-on-il-1%C3%AE-signaling-activation-induced-by-water-and-organic-extracts-of-fine-particulate-matter-pm-2-5-in-vitro
#9
Fanfan Xu, Xinghua Qiu, Xinyan Hu, Yu Shang, Michal Pardo, Yanhua Fang, Junxia Wang, Yinon Rudich, Tong Zhu
Fine particulate matter (PM2.5 ) air pollution poses a major risk to human health worldwide, and absorbed chemicals play a key role in determining the toxicity of PM2.5 . After inhalation and entry into the lungs, PM2.5 components induce pro-inflammatory cytokines (e.g., interleukin (IL)-1β) in pulmonary cells. To test whether PM2.5 components induce IL-1β through signing pathways that include the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)/nuclear factor-κ-gene binding (NF-κB), nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat protein 3 (NLRP3), we exposed the mouse macrophage cell-line RAW264...
March 8, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29524922/substantial-reductions-in-ambient-pahs-pollution-and-lives-saved-as-a-co-benefit-of-effective-long-term-pm-2-5-pollution-controls
#10
Shaofei Kong, Qin Yan, Huang Zheng, Haibiao Liu, Wei Wang, Shurui Zheng, Guowei Yang, Mingming Zheng, Jian Wu, Shihua Qi, Guofeng Shen, Lili Tang, Yan Yin, Tianliang Zhao, Huan Yu, Dantong Liu, Delong Zhao, Tao Zhang, Jujun Ruan, Mingzhi Huang
Under great efforts in fighting against serious haze problem of China since 2013, decreasing of air pollutants especially for fine particles (PM2.5 ) has been revealed for several key regions. This study tried to answer whether the reduction of PM2.5 -bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was coincident with PM2.5 because of long-term pollution control measures (PCM), and to assess source-oriented health risks associated with inhalation exposure to PAHs. Field measurements were carried out before and after the publishing of local air pollution protection plan for Nanjing, a mega-city in east China...
March 7, 2018: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29519450/inflammatory-health-effects-of-indoor-and-outdoor-particulate-matter
#11
REVIEW
Weidong Wu, Yuefei Jin, Chris Carlsten
Inflammation is a common and essential event in the pathogenesis of diverse diseases. Decades of research has converged on an understanding that all combustion-derived particulate matter (PM) is inflammatory to some extent in the lungs and also systemically, substantially explaining a significant portion of the massive cardiopulmonary disease burden associated with these exposures. In general, this means that efforts to do the following can all be beneficial: reduce particulates at the source, decrease the inflammatory potential of PM output, and, where PM inhalation is unavoidable, administer anti-inflammatory treatment...
March 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29500117/extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-in-severe-respiratory-failure-resulting-from-burns-and-smoke-inhalation-injury
#12
Lajos Szentgyorgyi, Chloe Shepherd, Ken W Dunn, Peter Fawcett, Julian M Barker, Paul Exton, Marc O Maybauer
Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is one of the most frequent forms of extracorporeal life support (ECLS) and can be used as rescue therapy in patients with severe respiratory failure resulting from burns and/or smoke inhalation injury. Experience and literature on this treatment option is still very limited, consequently results are varied. We report a retrospective analysis of our experience with veno-venous (VV) ECMO in burn patients. All five patients, three male and two female (age: 28-37 years) had flame type burns and smoke inhalation injury...
February 27, 2018: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29489307/emergency-department-management-of-smoke-inhalation-injury-in-adults-digest
#13
Karalynn Otterness, Christine Ahn, Jeffrey Nusbaum, Nachi Gupta
Smoke inhalation injury portends increased morbidity and mortality in fire-exposed patients. Upper airway thermal burns, inflammation from lower airway irritants, and systemic effects of carbon monoxide and cyanide can contribute to injury. A standardized diagnostic protocol for inhalation injury is lacking, and management remains mostly supportive. Clinicians should maintain a high index of suspicion for concomitant traumatic injuries. Diagnosis is mostly clinical, aided by bronchoscopy and other supplementary tests...
March 1, 2018: Emergency Medicine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29489306/emergency-department-management-of-smoke-inhalation-injury-in-adults
#14
Karalynn Otterness, Christine Ahn
Smoke inhalation injury portends increased morbidity and mortality in fire-exposed patients. Upper airway thermal burns, inflammation from lower airway irritants, and systemic effects of carbon monoxide and cyanide can contribute to injury. A standardized diagnostic protocol for inhalation injury is lacking, and management remains mostly supportive. Clinicians should maintain a high index of suspicion for concomitant traumatic injuries. Diagnosis is mostly clinical, aided by bronchoscopy and other supplementary tests...
March 2018: Emergency Medicine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29481849/mechanisms-of-toxicity-and-biomarkers-of-flavoring-and-flavor-enhancing-chemicals-in-emerging-tobacco-and-non-tobacco-products
#15
REVIEW
Gurjot Kaur, Thivanka Muthumalage, Irfan Rahman
Tobacco products containing flavorings, such as electronic nicotine delivery devices (ENDS) or e-cigarettes, cigars/cigarillos, waterpipes, and heat-not-burn devices (iQOS) are continuously evolving. In addition to increasing the exposure of teenagers and adults to nicotine containing flavoring products and flavoring enhancers, chances of nicotine addiction through chronic use and abuse also increase. These flavorings are believed to be safe for ingestion, but little information is available about their effects on the lungs...
February 23, 2018: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29475746/from-skin-allograft-coverage-to-allograft-micrograft-sandwich-method-a-retrospective-review-of-severe-burn-patients-who-received-conjunctive-application-of-cultured-epithelial-autografts
#16
Alvin Wen Choong Chua, Yik Cheong Khoo, Thi Thu Ha Truong, Evan Woo, Bien Keem Tan, Si Jack Chong
A 12-year retrospective review of severe burn patients who received cultured epithelial autografts (CEA) at the Singapore General Hospital Burns Centre from January 2005 to December 2016 was carried out. During this period, two different surgical modalities were employed to manage these burn injuries. In the earlier period, following early excision of the burn wounds, exposed surfaces were covered with a combination of split thickness skin autografts (STSG) and allografts. Surfaces covered with skin allografts were subsequently debrided of the allo-epidermis in about 3 weeks later, exposing the allodermis with granulating tissues for grafting of CEA; a technique known as the Cuono's method...
February 20, 2018: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465110/james-craufurd-gregory-19th-century-scottish-physicians-and-the-link-between-occupation-as-a-coal-miner-and-lung-disease
#17
K Donaldson, W A Wallace, T A Elliot, C Henry
By the mid-19th century about 200,000 miners were employed in a UK coal mining industry still growing with the advances of the Industrial Revolution. Coal miners were long known to suffer poor health but the link to inhaling dust in the mines had not been made. In 1813 George Pearson was the first to suggest that darkening of lungs seen in normal individuals as they aged was caused by inhaled soot from burning oil, candles and coal, which were the common domestic sources of heat and light. In 1831 Dr James Craufurd Gregory first described black pigmentation and disease in the lungs of a deceased coal miner and linked this to pulmonary accumulation of coal mine dust...
September 2017: Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463463/effect-of-primary-admission-to-burn-centers-on-the-outcomes-of-severely-burned-patients
#18
Denis Ehrl, Paul I Heidekrueger, Milomir Ninkovic, P Niclas Broer
OBJECTIVE: Burns represent a special form of severe trauma. Due to long hospitalization, rehabilitation, and extensive scar treatment, severe burn injuries rank among the most expensive traumatic injuries regarding associated health care costs. The presented single-burn-center experiences evaluated the effects of primary versus secondary burn intensive care unit (BICU) admissions on outcomes in severely burned patients. METHODS: Within 30 months, 186 patients were admitted to the BICU...
February 17, 2018: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29461292/inhalation-injury-in-the-burned-patient
#19
Guillermo Foncerrada, Derek M Culnan, Karel D Capek, Sagrario González-Trejo, Janos Cambiaso-Daniel, Lee C Woodson, David N Herndon, Celeste C Finnerty, Jong O Lee
Inhalation injury causes a heterogeneous cascade of insults that increase morbidity and mortality among the burn population. Despite major advancements in burn care for the past several decades, there remains a significant burden of disease attributable to inhalation injury. For this reason, effort has been devoted to finding new therapeutic approaches to improve outcomes for patients who sustain inhalation injuries.The three major injury classes are the following: supraglottic, subglottic, and systemic. Treatment options for these three subtypes differ based on the pathophysiologic changes that each one elicits...
February 15, 2018: Annals of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29461288/carbon-monoxide-and-cyanide-poisoning-in-the-burned-pregnant-patient-an-indication-for-hyperbaric-oxygen-therapy
#20
Derek M Culnan, Beretta Craft-Coffman, Genevieve H Bitz, Karel D Capek, Yiji Tu, William C Lineaweaver, Maggie J Kuhlmann-Capek
Carbon monoxide (CO) is a small molecule poison released as a product of incomplete combustion. Carbon monoxide binds hemoglobin, reducing oxygen delivery. This effect is exacerbated in the burned pregnant patient by fetal hemoglobin that binds CO 2.5- to 3-fold stronger than maternal hemoglobin. With no signature clinical symptom, diagnosis depends on patient injury history, elevated carboxyhemoglobin levels, and alterations in mental status. The standard of care for treatment of CO intoxication is 100% normobaric oxygen, which decreases the half-life of CO in the bloodstream from 5 hours to 1 hour...
March 2018: Annals of Plastic Surgery
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