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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211592/a-methodology-for-assessing-deployment-trauma-and-its-consequences-in-oef-oif-ond-veterans-the-tracts-longitudinal-prospective-cohort-study
#1
Regina E McGlinchey, William P Milberg, Jennifer R Fonda, Catherine Brawn Fortier
Many US veterans of Afghanistan and Iraq have multiple physical and psychiatric problems. A major focus of research has been on determining the effects of mild Traumatic Brain Injury (mTBI), but mTBI is rarely diagnosed in the absence of co-occurring conditions such as blast exposure, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, substance abuse, etc. These potentially interactive psychological and physical conditions produce complex patterns of cognitive, psychological, and physical symptoms that impede civilian reintegration and complicate efficient and effective treatment planning...
February 17, 2017: International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209807/blast-injury-of-the-ear-by-massive-explosion-a-review-of-41-cases
#2
Stanislas Ballivet de Régloix, A Crambert, O Maurin, Q Lisan, S Marty, Y Pons
BACKGROUND: Blast injuries in modern warfare are common, and the ear is often affected as it is an effective pressure transducer. This study aimed to evaluate military blast injuries of the ear. METHODS: From May 2002 to October 2014, all patients referred to two military hospitals near Paris, France following exposure to massive explosions were analysed. RESULTS: Among the 41 patients (82 ears), 36 of them reported tinnitus, 25 hearing loss, 14 earache and 8 vertigo...
February 16, 2017: Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203741/primary-blast-lung-injury-a-review
#3
T E Scott, E Kirkman, M Haque, I E Gibb, P Mahoney, J G Hardman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 1, 2017: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179694/functional-and-anatomical-outcome-in-closed-globe-combat-ocular-injuries
#4
Qamar Ul Islam, Mazhar Ishaq, Amer Yaqub, Muhammad Kamran Saeed
OBJECTIVE: To analyse the pattern, visual and anatomical outcome of closed globe combat-related ocular injuries sustained by troops. METHODS: This retrospective study was conducted at Armed Forces Institute of Ophthalmology, Rawalpindi, Pakistan, and comprised patients with ocular injuries from January 2010 to June 2014. Record of each patient was evaluated and demography, mode and type of injury, initial and final visual acuity, associated globe injuries, concomitant non-ocular injuries, type of surgical procedures and complications were endorsed on a pre-devised proforma...
December 2016: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164653/blast-burn-combined-injury-followed-by-immediate-seawater-immersion-induces-hemodynamic-changes-and-metabolic-acidosis-an-experimental-study-in-a-canine-model
#5
Yi Hu, Qingxiang Mao, Shaobing Ye, Ji Peng, Xiaoqin Gan, Xian Chen, Hong Yan
BACKGROUND: Severe burn-blast combined injury often causes systematic dysfunction related to blood coagulation, anticoagulation, and fibrinolysis. However, studies of burn-blast combined injury followed by immersion in seawater are rarely reported. METHODS: A canine burn-blast combined injury model was established including blast injury caused by explosion immediately followed by burning with gelatinized gasoline flames. The dogs were randomly divided into four groups: burn-blast injury (BB group); burn-blast injury followed by seawater immersion for four hours (BBI group); only immersed in seawater (I group); and sham treatment with no injury or immersion (S group)...
July 1, 2016: Clinical Laboratory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161798/behavioral-and-inflammatory-response-in-animals-exposed-to-a-low-pressure-blast-wave-and-supplemented-with-%C3%AE-alanine
#6
Jay R Hoffman, Amitai Zuckerman, Omri Ram, Oren Sadot, Jeffrey R Stout, Ishay Ostfeld, Hagit Cohen
This study investigated the benefit of β-alanine (BA) supplementation on behavioral and cognitive responses relating to mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in rats exposed to a low-pressure blast wave. Animals were fed a normal diet with or without (PL) BA supplementation (100 mg kg(-1)) for 30-day, prior to being exposed to a low-pressure blast wave. A third group of animals served as a control (CTL). These animals were fed a normal diet, but were not exposed to the blast...
February 4, 2017: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151589/from-blast-to-bench-a-translational-mini-review-of-posttraumatic-headache
#7
REVIEW
Laura S Moye, Amynah A Pradhan
Current events within the military and professional sports have resulted in an increased recognition of the long-term and debilitating consequences of traumatic brain injury. Mild traumatic brain injury accounts for the majority of head injuries, and posttraumatic headache is the most common adverse effect. It is estimated that between 30% to 90% of traumatic brain injuries result in posttraumatic headache, and for a significant number of people this headache disorder can continue for up to and over a year post injury...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149247/blast-pulmonaire-primaire-chez-le-br%C3%A3-l%C3%A3-a-propos-d%C3%A2-un-cas-et-revue-de-la-litt%C3%A3-rature
#8
S Siah, A Emane, M Bertin-Maghit
Blasts can cause specific lesions requiring specialized care. After an explosion, primary blast injury (due to the shock wave), secondary blast injury (due to shrapnel) or tertiary blast injury (due to the victim being displaced by the blast) can occur. Secondary and tertiary blasts are much more frequent than primary blasts and can lead to polytrauma. Burns occur in 5% of cases and are termed quaternary blast lesions, which include lesions not due to the above-mentioned mechanisms. Care of secondary and tertiary blasts does not differ to that for any polytrauma...
September 30, 2016: Annals of Burns and Fire Disasters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121256/traumatic-brain-injury-in-iraq-and-afghanistan-veterans-new-results-from-a-national-random-sample-study
#9
Lisa K Lindquist, Holly C Love, Eric B Elbogen
This study randomly sampled post-9/11 military veterans and reports on causes, predictors, and frequency of traumatic brain injury (TBI) (N=1,388). A total of 17.3% met criteria for TBI during military service, with about one-half reporting multiple head injuries, which were related to higher rates of posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, back pain, and suicidal ideation. The most common mechanisms of TBI included blasts (33.1%), objects hitting head (31.7%), and fall (13.5%). TBI was associated with enlisted rank, male gender, high combat exposure, and sustaining TBI prior to military service...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112258/restoring-gm1-ganglioside-expression-ameliorates-axonal-outgrowth-inhibition-and-cognitive-impairments-induced-by-blast-traumatic-brain-injury
#10
Vardit Rubovitch, Yael Zilberstein, Joab Chapman, Shaul Schreiber, Chaim G Pick
Blast induced traumatic brain injury (B-TBI) may cause various degrees of cognitive and behavioral disturbances but the exact brain pathophysiology involved is poorly understood. It was previously suggested that ganglioside alteration on the axon surface as well as axonal regenerating inhibitors (ARIs) such as myelin associated glycoprotein (MAG) were involved in axonal outgrowth inhibition (AOI), leading to brain damage. GM1 ganglioside content in the brain was significantly reduced while GD1 ganglioside was not affected...
January 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110483/explosive-blast-loading-on-human-3d-aggregate-minibrains
#11
Nicole E Zander, Thuvan Piehler, Helena Hogberg, David Pamies
The effects of primary explosive blast on brain tissue still remain mostly unknown. There are few in vitro models that use real explosives to probe the mechanisms of injury at the cellular level. In this work, 3D aggregates of human brain cells or brain microphysiological system were exposed to military explosives at two different pressures (50 and 100 psi). Results indicate that membrane damage and oxidative stress increased with blast pressure, but cell death remained minimal.
January 21, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110378/belfast-limb-arterial-and-skeletal-trauma-blast-the-evolution-of-punishment-shooting-in-northern-ireland
#12
REVIEW
M Lau, S McCain, R Baker, D W Harkin
INTRODUCTION: Northern Ireland has developed significant experience in specific punishment injuries due to its unique civil unrest. Simple gunshot wound (GSW) injuries have begun to evolve into more complex injuries. CASE PRESENTATION: We describe three cases of young male victims who suffered from GSW injuries-from a single GSW injury to multiple GSW injuries involving all four limbs; the phenomenon of Belfast Limb Arterial and Skeletal Trauma. We describe the management of these injuries, with a review of current literature...
January 21, 2017: Irish Journal of Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107370/neuronal-injury-and-glial-changes-are-hallmarks-of-open-field-blast-exposure-in-swine-frontal-lobe
#13
Srinivasu Kallakuri, Alok Desai, Ke Feng, Sharvani Tummala, Tal Saif, Chaoyang Chen, Liying Zhang, John M Cavanaugh, Albert I King
With the rapid increase in the number of blast induced traumatic brain injuries and associated neuropsychological consequences in veterans returning from the operations in Iraq and Afghanistan, the need to better understand the neuropathological sequelae following exposure to an open field blast exposure is still critical. Although a large body of experimental studies have attempted to address these pathological changes using shock tube models of blast injury, studies directed at understanding changes in a gyrencephalic brain exposed to a true open field blast are limited and thus forms the focus of this study...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096246/chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy-is-latency-in-symptom-onset-explained-by-tau-propagation
#14
Joshua Kriegel, Zachary Papadopoulos, Ann C McKee
Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a neurodegenerative tauopathy associated with repetitive mild brain trauma. CTE, previously termed "dementia pugilistica," has been identified in American football, ice hockey, baseball, rugby and soccer players, boxers, wrestlers, and military personnel exposed to blast and other traumatic brain injuries. There is often a long latency period between an individual's exposure to repetitive brain trauma and the clinical symptoms of CTE. The pathology of CTE is characterized by a progression from isolated focal perivascular hyperphosphorylated tau lesions in the cerebral cortex to a widespread tauopathy that involves diffuse cortical and medial temporal lobe regions...
January 17, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079681/internal-jugular-vein-compression-a-novel-approach-to-mitigate-blast-induced-hearing-injury
#15
Brian Sindelar, Michael Shinners, Sydney Sherman, Kevin Novak, Kristine Erickson, Vimal Patel, Paul Kubilis, David Smith, John Finan, Julian E Bailes
HYPOTHESIS: Internal jugular vein (IJV) compression before blast injury will lead to reduced risk of traumatic hearing injury following exposure to a blast injury. BACKGROUND: IJV compression and its effects on not only intracranial, but also intracochlear pressure may potentiate blast induced hearing injury, therefore, precluding its use as a prophylactic therapy for blast induced traumatic brain injury. METHODS: Twenty Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to a 17...
January 10, 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078807/traumatized-muscle-derived-multipotent-progenitor-cells-recruit-endothelial-cells-through-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-a-action
#16
Heidi R H Supanc, Shannon Gorman, Rocky S Tuan
Traumatized muscle, such as that debrided from blast injury sites, is considered a promising and convenient tissue source for multipotent progenitor cells (MPCs), a population of adult mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-like cells. The present study aimed to assess the regenerative therapeutic potential of human traumatized muscle-derived MPCs, e.g., for injury repair in the blast-traumatized extremity, by comparing their pro-angiogenic potential in vitro and capillary recruitment activity in vivo to those of MSCs isolated from human bone marrow, a widely-used tissue source...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077004/endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-modulation-as-a-target-for-ameliorating-effects-of-blast-induced-traumatic-brain-injury
#17
Brandon Peter Lucke-Wold, Aric Logsdon, Ryan C Turner, Jason D Huber, Charles L Rosen
Blast traumatic brain injury (bTBI) has been shown to contribute to progressive neurodegenerative disease. Recent evidence suggests that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is a mechanistic link between acute neurotrauma and progressive tauopathy. We propose that ER stress contributes to extensive behavioral changes associated with a CTE-like phenotype. Targeting ER stress is a promising option for the treatment of neurotrauma related neurodegeneration warranting investigation. Utilizing our validated and clinically relevant Sprague-Dawley blast model, we investigated a time course of mechanistic changes that occur following bTBI (50 PSI) including: ER stress activation, iron mediated toxicity, and tauopathy via western blot and immunohistochemistry...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051987/traumatic-hearing-loss-in-the-context-of-blast-related-tympanic-membrane-perforation
#18
Max D Pusz, Jon Robitschek
OBJECTIVE: Identify associated clinical factors and characterize the various forms of hearing loss in the context of blast-related traumatic tympanic membrane (TM) perforation sustained in the combat setting. METHODS: A prospective study of 41 patients who sustained a TM perforation secondary to blast injury between 2010 and 2012 while serving in combat. Clinical examinations and audiograms were obtained for all patients by a single-institution Otolaryngology service with comparative data generated from review of pre and post-trauma hearing screens...
January 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28001756/transcranial-red-near-infrared-light-emitting-diode-therapy-to-improve-cognition-in-chronic-traumatic-brain-injury
#19
Margaret A Naeser, Paula I Martin, Michael D Ho, Maxine H Krengel, Yelena Bogdanova, Jeffrey A Knight, Megan K Yee, Ross Zafonte, Judith Frazier, Michael R Hamblin, Bang-Bon Koo
We review the general topic of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and our research utilizing transcranial photobiomodulation (tPBM) to improve cognition in chronic TBI using red/near-infrared (NIR) light-emitting diodes (LEDs) to deliver light to the head. tPBM improves mitochondrial function increasing oxygen consumption, production of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and improving cellular energy stores. Nitric oxide is released from the cells increasing regional blood flow in the brain. Review of published studies: In our previously published study, 11 chronic TBI patients with closed-head TBI caused by different accidents (motor vehicle accident, sports-related, improvised explosive device blast injury) and exhibiting long-lasting cognitive dysfunction received 18 outpatient treatments (Monday, Wednesday, Friday for 6 weeks) starting at 10 months to 8 years post-TBI...
December 2016: Photomedicine and Laser Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986702/a-systems-science-approach-to-understanding-polytrauma-and-blast-related-injury-bayesian-network-model-of-data-from-a-survey-of-the-florida-national-guard
#20
Peter A Toyinbo, Rodney D Vanderploeg, Heather G Belanger, Andrea M Spehar, William A Lapcevic, Steven G Scott
We sought to further define the epidemiology of the complex, multiple injuries collectively known as polytrauma/blast-related injury (PT/BRI). Using a systems science approach, we performed Bayesian network modeling to find the most accurate representation of the complex system of PT/BRI and identify key variables for understanding the subsequent effects of blast exposure in a sample of Florida National Guard members (1,443 deployed to Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom and 1,655 not deployed) who completed an online survey during the period from 2009 to 2010...
January 15, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
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