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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137466/evaluation-of-extremity-injuries-presented-to-emergency-department
#1
Ali Karakus, Guven Kuvandik, Ezgi Atalay
OBJECTIVE: In this study, we aimed to review cases with firearms injury of extremities presented to our hospital. METHODS: After approval by Institutional Board, electronic database was retrospectively screened for firearms injury of extremities between 2012 and 2015. Overall, 600 cases with firearms injury of extremities were included in the study. Cases were assessed for demographic and clinical characteristics, Mangled extremity severity score (MESS), Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), costs and outcomes...
October 2017: Archives of Iranian Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133177/region-specific-alterations-in-astrocyte-and-microglia-morphology-following-exposure-to-blasts-in-the-mouse-hippocampus
#2
Gloria J DeWalt, Biraaj Mahajan, Andrea R Foster, Lauren D E Thompson, Andrew A Marttini, Eric V Schmidt, Sara Mansuri, Dwayne D'Souza, Shama Patel, Madeline Tenenbaum, Karla I Brandao-Viruet, Dominique Thompson, Bryan Duong, Danica H Smith, Todd A Blute, William D Eldred
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a serious public health concern, especially injuries from repetitive insults. The main objective of this study was to immunocytochemically examine morphological alterations in astrocytes and microglia in the hippocampus 48hours following a single blast versus multiple blasts in adult C57BL/6 mice. The effects of ketamine and xylazine (KX), two common anesthetic agents used in TBI research, were also evaluated due to the confounding effect of anesthetics on injury outcome. Results showed a significant increase in hypertrophic microglia that was limited to the outer molecular layer of the dentate gyrus, but only in the absence of KX...
November 10, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126430/lack-of-chronic-neuroinflammation-in-the-absence-of-focal-hemorrhage-in-a-rat-model-of-low-energy-blast-induced-tbi
#3
Miguel A Gama Sosa, Rita De Gasperi, Georgina S Perez Garcia, Heidi Sosa, Courtney Searcy, Danielle Vargas, Pierce L Janssen, Gissel M Perez, Anna E Tschiffely, William G Janssen, Richard M McCarron, Patrick R Hof, Fatemeh G Haghighi, Stephen T Ahlers, Gregory A Elder
Blast-related traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been a common cause of injury in the recent conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. Blast waves can damage blood vessels, neurons, and glial cells within the brain. Acutely, depending on the blast energy, blast wave duration, and number of exposures, blast waves disrupt the blood-brain barrier, triggering microglial activation and neuroinflammation. Recently, there has been much interest in the role that ongoing neuroinflammation may play in the chronic effects of TBI...
November 10, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121655/experimental-blunt-chest-trauma-induced-myocardial-inflammation-and-alteration-of-gap-junction-protein-connexin-43
#4
Miriam Kalbitz, Elisa Maria Amann, Belinda Bosch, Annette Palmer, Anke Schultze, Jochen Pressmar, Birte Weber, Martin Wepler, Florian Gebhard, Hubert Schrezenmeier, Rolf Brenner, Markus Huber-Lang
OBJECTIVE: Severe blunt chest trauma in humans is associated with high mortality rates. Whereas lung tissue damage and lung inflammation after blunt chest trauma have extensively been investigated, the traumatic and posttraumatic effects on the heart remain poorly understood. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to define cardiac injury patterns in an experimental blunt chest trauma model in rats. METHODS: Experimental blunt chest trauma was induced by a blast wave in rats, with subsequent analysis of its effects on the heart...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110266/reparative-effects-of-poloxamer-p188-in-astrocytes-exposed-to-controlled-microcavitation
#5
Johnwesly Kanagaraj, Bo Chen, Shu Xiao, Michael Cho
Blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI) is a neurological dysfunction that can result from a sudden exposure to shockwave and lead to adverse health consequences. Currently, there are no preventive measures that specifically target bTBI. Several hypotheses have been formulated to explain such injuries, including the generation of microcavitation (e.g., microbubbles) in the brain that subsequently collapses with high pressure. This study was designed to explore and elucidate potential therapeutic effects of surfactants (poloxamers P188) to partially repair the damaged brain tissue due to bTBI...
November 6, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101581/a-case-of-traumatic-infraorbital-neuroma
#6
Shahriar Amjadi, Weng Onn Chan, Saul Rajak, David K Morrissey, Sumu Simon, Gary Davis, Dinesh Selva, Alkis J Psaltis
A 53-year-old Afghan man presented with a 12-month history of left proptosis, diplopia and facial swelling 20 years after a bomb blast injury. Magnetic resonance and computed tomography imaging revealed a well-circumscribed lesion centred within the left inferior orbit/superior maxillary sinus along with left orbital fracture. Histopathology and immunostaining of the debulked lesion were consistent with traumatic neuroma of the infraorbital nerve. Infraorbital neuromas have developed following orbital decompression surgeries but have not been reported previously following non-surgical trauma...
December 2017: Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089110/chest-response-assessment-of-post-mortem-swine-under-blast-loadings
#7
Johanna Boutillier, Sébastien De Mezzo, Caroline Deck, Pascal Magnan, Pierre Naz, Rémy Willinger
To better protect soldiers from blast threat, that principally affect air-filled organs such a lung, it is necessary to develop an adapted injury criterion and, prior to this, to evaluate the response of a biological model against that threat. The objective of this study is to provide some robust data to quantify the chest response of post-mortem swine under blast loadings. 7 post-mortem swine (54.5 ± 2.6 kg), placed side-on to the threat and against the ground, were exposed to 5 shock-waves of increasing intensities...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056367/burns-caused-by-electronic-vaping-devices-e-cigarettes-a-new-classification-proposal-based-on-mechanisms
#8
K Serror, M Chaouat, Matthieu M Legrand, F Depret, J Haddad, N Malca, M Mimoun, D Boccara
Introduction With more than 10 million of daily users, e-cigarettes encountered a great success. But in the past few years, the number of medical reports of injuries caused by the explosion of e-cigarettes has significantly increased. This article aims at reporting our series and reviewing the literature to propose a new classification based on the mechanisms of injuries related to e-cigarettes that can guide non-specialists and specialists in the management of these patients. Method We performed a retrospective review of our institutional burn database from June 2016 to July 2017 for injuries caused by or in the context of using an e-cigarette...
October 19, 2017: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055895/the-pattern-of-paediatric-blast-injury-in-afghanistan
#9
Daniel C Thompson, R J Crooks, J C Clasper, A Lupu, S A Stapley, D J Cloke
INTRODUCTION: Between 2009 and 2015, 3746 children died, and 7904 were injured as a result of armed conflict within Afghanistan. Improvised explosive devices (IEDs) and explosive remnants of war accounted for 29% of child casualties in 2015. The aim of this study was to review the burden of paediatric blast injuries admitted to Camp Bastion, Afghanistan, and to investigate the hypothesis that children suffer proportionally more head injuries than adults. METHOD: A retrospective analysis was undertaken of prospectively collected data derived from the UK Joint Theatre Trauma Registry of ambulant paediatric (aged 2-15 years) admissions with blast injuries at the Role 3 Field Hospital, Camp Bastion from June 2006 to March 2013...
October 21, 2017: Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053083/surgical-management-of-penetrating-spinal-cord-injury-primarily-due-to-shrapnel-and-its-effect-on-neurological-outcome-a-literature-review-and-meta-analysis
#10
Michael H Lawless, Evan J Lytle, Andrea F McGlynn, John A Engler
OBJECTIVE This study was performed to determine whether decompression of penetrating spinal cord injury (SCI) due to explosive shrapnel leads to greater neurological recovery than conservative management. METHODS In accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, a comprehensive literature search using PubMed/MEDLINE, Web of Science, Google Scholar, and the Defense Technical Information Center public site was conducted on May 2, 2016. Studies that described penetrating SCI with shrapnel as an etiology, included surgical and/or conservative management, and demonstrated admission and follow-up neurological status were eligible for inclusion in this study...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030450/effect-of-concussion-and-blast-exposure-on-symptoms-after-military-deployment
#11
Jack W Tsao, Lauren A Stentz, Minoo Rouhanian, Robin S Howard, Briana N Perry, F Jay Haran, Paul F Pasquina, Mikias Wolde, Carolyn E Taylor, Radhames Lizardo, Scott Liu, Eusebio Flores, Alia H Creason, Katalina Sher
OBJECTIVE: To examine whether blast exposure alone and blast-associated concussion result in similar neurologic and mental health symptoms. METHODS: A 14-item questionnaire was administered to male US Marines on their return from deployment in Iraq and/or Afghanistan. RESULTS: A total of 2,612 Marines (median age 22 years) completed the survey. Of those, 2,320 (88.9%) reported exposure to ≥1 blast during their current and/or prior deployments...
November 7, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029772/inhibition-of-mammalian-target-of-rapamycin-signaling-with-rapamycin-prevents-trauma-induced-heterotopic-ossification
#12
Ammar T Qureshi, Devaveena Dey, Erin M Sanders, Jonathan G Seavey, Allison M Tomasino, Kaitlyn Moss, Benjamin Wheatley, David Cholok, Shawn Loder, John Li, Benjamin Levi, Thomas A Davis
A pressing clinical need exists for 63% to 65% of combat-wounded service members and 11% to 20% of civilians who develop heterotopic ossification (HO) after blast-related extremity injury and traumatic injuries, respectively. The mammalian target of rapamycin pathway is a central cellular sensor of injury. We evaluated the prophylactic effects of rapamycin, a selective inhibitor of mammalian target of rapamycin signaling, on HO formation in a rat model of blast-related, polytraumatic extremity injury. Rapamycin was administered intraperitoneally daily for 14 days at 0...
November 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029579/fatigue-but-not-mtbi-history-ptsd-or-sleep-quality-directly-contributes-to-reduced-prospective-memory-performance-in-iraq-and-afghanistan-era-veterans
#13
Holly K Rau, Rebecca Hendrickson, Hannah C Roggenkamp, Sarah Peterson, Brett Parmenter, David G Cook, Elaine Peskind, Kathleen F Pagulayan
OBJECTIVE: Memory problems that affect daily functioning are a frequent complaint among Veterans reporting a history of repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), especially in cohorts with comorbid PTSD. Here, we test the degree to which subjective sleep impairment and daytime fatigue account for the association of PTSD and self-reported mTBI history with prospective memory. METHOD: 82 Veterans with and without personal history of repeated blast-related mTBI during deployment were administered the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS), Memory for Intentions Test (MIST), Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), Neurobehavioral Symptom Inventory (NSI), and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI)...
October 13, 2017: Clinical Neuropsychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020847/sphingolipids-and-microrna-changes-in-blood-following-blast-traumatic-brain-injury-an-exploratory-study
#14
Venkata Siva Sai Sujith Sajja, Anna Jablonska, Norman Haughey, Jeff W M Bulte, Robert D Stevens, Joseph B Long, Piotr Walczak, Miroslaw Janowski
At present, accurate and reliable biomarkers to ascertain the presence, severity, or prognosis of blast traumatic brain injury (bTBI) are lacking. There is an urgent need to establish accurate and reliable biomarkers capable of mbTBI detection. Currently, there are no studies that identify changes in miRNA and lipids at varied severities of bTBI. Various biological components such as lipids, circulating mRNA, and miRNA, could potentially be detected using advanced techniques such as next-generation sequencing and mass spectroscopy...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017388/pathophysiological-bases-of-comorbidity-traumatic-brain-injury-and-post-traumatic-stress-disorder
#15
Gary B Kaplan, Kimberly A Leite-Morris, Lei Wang, Kendra K Rumbika, Stephen C Heinrichs, Xiang Zeng, Liquan Wu, Danielle T Arena, Yang D Teng
The high rates of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnoses encountered in recent years by the United States Veterans Affairs Healthcare System have increased public awareness and research investigation into these conditions. In this review, we analyze the neural mechanisms underlying the TBI/PTSD comorbidity. TBI and PTSD present with common neuropsychiatric symptoms including anxiety, irritability, insomnia, personality changes, and memory problems, and this overlap complicates diagnostic differentiation...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994788/evaluating-primary-blast-effects-in-vitro
#16
Niall J Logan, Hari Arora, Claire A Higgins
Exposure to blast events can cause severe trauma to vital organs such as the lungs, ears, and brain. Understanding the mechanisms behind such blast-induced injuries is of great importance considering the recent trend towards the use of explosives in modern warfare and terrorist-related incidents. To fully understand blast-induced injury, we must first be able to replicate such blast events in a controlled environment using a reproducible method. In this technique using shock tube equipment, shock waves at a range of pressures can be propagated over live cells grown in 2D, and markers of cell viability can be immediately analyzed using a redox indicator assay and the fluorescent imaging of live and dead cells...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985608/the-role-of-neutrophil-gelatinase-associated-lipocalin-ngal-in-the-detection-of-blast-lung-injury-in-a-military-population
#17
Andrew Lumley, Erik Osborn, Adrian Mellor, Elise LaCroix, George Johnson, Mary Wallace, Mike Stacey, Jason E Smith, David Woods
PURPOSE: To study the relationship between serum neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) and military blast and gunshot wound (GSW) to establish whether potential exists for NGAL as a biomarker for blast lung injury (BLI). METHOD: Patients from the intensive care unit (ICU) of the Role 3 Medical Treatment Facility at Camp Bastion, Helmand Province, Afghanistan were studied over a five month period commencing in 2012. Age, mechanism, trauma injury severity score (TRISS) and serum NGAL were recorded on ICU admission (NGAL1)...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981347/neuroimaging-of-deployment-associated-traumatic-brain-injury-tbi-with-a-focus-on-mild-tbi-mtbi-since-2009
#18
David H Salat, Meghan E Robinson, Danielle R Miller, Dustin C Clark, Regina E McGlinchey
OBJECTIVES: A substantial body of recent research has aimed to better understand the clinical sequelae of military trauma through the application of advanced brain imaging procedures in Veteran populations. The primary objective of this review was to highlight a portion of these recent studies to demonstrate how imaging tools can be used to understand military-associated brain injury. METHODS: We focus here on the phenomenon of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) given its high prevalence in the Veteran population and current recognition of the need to better understand the clinical implications of this trauma...
2017: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981340/vestibular-consequences-of-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-and-blast-exposure-a-review
#19
Faith W Akin, Owen D Murnane, Courtney D Hall, Kristal M Riska
The purpose of this article is to review relevant literature on the effect of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) and blast injury on the vestibular system. Dizziness and imbalance are common sequelae associated with mTBI, and in some individuals, these symptoms may last for six months or longer. In war-related injuries, mTBI is often associated with blast exposure. The causes of dizziness or imbalance following mTBI and blast injuries have been linked to white matter abnormalities, diffuse axonal injury in the brain, and central and peripheral vestibular system damage...
2017: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981339/preclinical-modelling-of-militarily-relevant-traumatic-brain-injuries-challenges-and-recommendations-for-future-directions
#20
Ibolja Cernak, Donald G Stein, Gregory A Elder, Stephn Ahlers, Kenneth Curley, Ralph G DePalma, John Duda, Milos Ikonomovic, Grant L Iverson, Firas Kobeissy, Vassilis E Koliatsos, Michael J Leggieri, Anthony M Pacifico, Douglas H Smith, Raymond Swanson, Floyd J Thompson, Frank C Tortella
As a follow-up to the 2008 state-of-the-art (SOTA) conference on traumatic brain injuries (TBIs), the 2015 event organized by the United States Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Office of Research and Development (ORD) analysed the knowledge gained over the last 7 years as it relates to basic scientific methods, experimental findings, diagnosis, therapy, and rehabilitation of TBIs and blast-induced neurotraumas (BINTs). The current article summarizes the discussions and recommendations of the scientific panel attending the Preclinical Modeling and Therapeutic Development Workshop of the conference, with special emphasis on factors slowing research progress and recommendations for ways of addressing the most significant pitfalls...
2017: Brain Injury: [BI]
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