keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Blast injury

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923561/neuropathology-and-neurobehavioral-alterations-in-a-rat-model-of-traumatic-brain-injury-to-occupants-of-vehicles-targeted-by-underbody-blasts
#1
Flaubert Tchantchou, William L Fourney, Ulrich H Leist, Joshua Vaughan, Parisa Rangghran, Adam Puche, Gary Fiskum
Many victims of blast-induced traumatic brain injury are occupants of military vehicles targeted by land mines. Recently improved vehicle designs protect these individuals against blast overpressure, leaving acceleration as the main force potentially responsible for brain injury. We recently developed a unique rat model of under-vehicle blast-induced hyperacceleration where exposure to acceleration as low as 50G acceleration force results in histopathological evidence of diffuse axonal injury and astrocyte activation, with no evidence of neuronal cell death...
December 3, 2016: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907158/effects-of-exposure-to-blast-overpressure-on-intracranial-pressure-and-blood-brain-barrier-permeability-in-a-rat-model
#2
Usmah Kawoos, Ming Gu, Jason Lankasky, Richard M McCarron, Mikulas Chavko
Exposure to blast overpressure (BOP) activates a cascade of pathological processes including changes in intracranial pressure (ICP) and blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability resulting in traumatic brain injury (TBI). In this study the effect of single and multiple exposures at two intensities of BOP on changes in ICP and BBB permeability in Sprague-Dawley rats was evaluated. Animals were exposed to a single or three repetitive (separated by 0.5 h) BOPs at 72 kPa or 110 kPa. ICP was monitored continuously via telemetry for 6 days after exposure to BOP...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884214/neuronal-and-glial-changes-in-the-brain-resulting-from-explosive-blast-in-an-experimental-model
#3
James A Goodrich, Jung H Kim, Robert Situ, Wesley Taylor, Ted Westmoreland, Fu Du, Steven Parks, Geoffrey Ling, Jung Y Hwang, Amedeo Rapuano, Faris A Bandak, Nihal C de Lanerolle
Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is the signature injury in warfighters exposed to explosive blasts. The pathology underlying mTBI is poorly understood, as this condition is rarely fatal and thus postmortem brains are difficult to obtain for neuropathological studies. Here we report on studies of an experimental model with a gyrencephalic brain that is exposed to single and multiple explosive blast pressure waves. To determine injuries to the brain resulting from the primary blast, experimental conditions were controlled to eliminate any secondary or tertiary injury from blasts...
November 24, 2016: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883130/nanobubbles-cavitation-shock-waves-and-traumatic-brain-injury
#4
Upendra Adhikari, Ardeshir Goliaei, Max L Berkowitz
Collapse of bubbles, microscopic or nanoscopic, due to their interaction with the impinging pressure wave produces a jet of particles moving in the direction of the wave. If there is a surface nearby, the high-speed jet particles hit it, and as a result damage to the surface is produced. This cavitation effect is well known and intensely studied in case of microscopic sized bubbles. It can be quite damaging to materials, including biological tissues, but it can also be beneficial when controlled, like in case of sonoporation of biological membranes for the purpose of drug delivery...
November 24, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882062/genotyping-and-mutation-pattern-in-the-overlapping-mhr-region-of-hbv-isolates-in-southern-khorasan-eastern-iran
#5
Masood Ziaee, Davod Javanmard, Gholamreza Sharifzadeh, Mohammad Hasan Namaei, Ghodsiyeh Azarkar
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B virus, with 8 known distinct genotypes, is one of the most serious health problems which results to liver injuries. The surface gene of Hepatitis B virus completely overlaps with the polymerase gene. Mutations in the RT gene result in changes in the overlapping hepatitis B surface antigen. OBJECTIVES: The present study aimed to evaluate the genotypes and prevalence of mutations in a segment of S and RT gene in HBV isolates in Southern Khorasan, Iran...
October 2016: Hepatitis Monthly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881470/modelling-primary-blast-lung-injury-current-capability-and-future-direction
#6
EDITORIAL
Timothy Scott, E Hulse, M Haque, E Kirkman, J Hardman, P Mahoney
Primary blast lung injury frequently complicates military conflict and terrorist attacks on civilian populations. The fact that it occurs in areas of conflict or unpredictable mass casualty events makes clinical study in human casualties implausible. Research in this field is therefore reliant on the use of some form of biological or non-biological surrogate model. This article briefly reviews the modelling work undertaken in this field until now and describes the rationale behind the generation of an in silico physiological model...
November 23, 2016: Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871100/biomechanical-response-of-military-booted-and-unbooted-foot-ankle-tibia-from-vertical-loading
#7
Frank A Pintar, Michael B Schlick, Narayan Yoganandan, Liming Voo, Andrew C Merkle, Michael Kleinberger
A new anthropomorphic test device (ATD) is being developed by the US Army to be responsive to vertical loading during a vehicle underbody blast event. To obtain design parameters for the new ATD, a series of non-injurious tests were conducted to derive biofidelity response corridors for the foot-ankle complex under vertical loading. Isolated post mortem human surrogate (PMHS) lower leg specimens were tested with and without military boot and in different initial foot-ankle positions. Instrumentation included a six-axis load cell at the proximal end, three-axis accelerometers at proximal and distal tibia, and calcaneus, and strain gages...
November 2016: Stapp Car Crash Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871099/evaluation-of-wiaman-technology-demonstrator-biofidelity-relative-to-sub-injurious-pmhs-response-in-simulated-under-body-blast-events
#8
Hollie A Pietsch, Kelly E Bosch, David R Weyland, E Meade Spratley, Kyvory A Henderson, Robert S Salzar, Terrance A Smith, Brandon M Sagara, Constantine K Demetropoulos, Christopher J Dooley, Andrew C Merkle
Three laboratory simulated sub-injurious under-body blast (UBB) test conditions were conducted with whole-body Post Mortem Human Surrogates (PMHS) and the Warrior Assessment Injury Manikin (WIAMan) Technology Demonstrator (TD) to establish and assess UBB biofidelity of the WIAMan TD. Test conditions included a rigid floor and rigid seat with independently varied pulses. On the floor, peak velocities of 4 m/s and 6 m/s were applied with a 5 ms time to peak (TTP). The seat peak velocity was 4 m/s with varied TTP of 5 and 10 ms...
November 2016: Stapp Car Crash Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857651/civilian-blast-related-burn-injuries
#9
J N Patel, A Tan, P Dziewulski
There is limited English literature describing the experience of a civilian hospital managing blast-related burn injuries. As the largest regional burn unit, we reviewed our cases with the aim of identifying means to improve current management. A 6-year retrospective analysis of all patients coded as sustaining blast-related burns was conducted through the unit's burns database. Medical case notes were reviewed for information on burn demographics, management and outcomes. 42 patients were identified. Male to female ratio was 37:5...
March 31, 2016: Annals of Burns and Fire Disasters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855566/experimental-investigation-of-cavitation-as-a-possible-damage-mechanism-in-blast-induced-traumatic-brain-injury-in-post-mortem-human-subject-heads
#10
Robert S Salzar, Derrick Treichler, Andrew Wardlaw, Greg Weiss, Jacques Goeller
The potential of blast induced traumatic brain injury from the mechanism of localized cavitation of the cerebral spinal fluid is investigated. While the mechanism and criteria for non-impact blast-induced TBI injury is still unknown, this study demonstrates that local cavitation in the CSF layer of the cranial volume could contribute to these injuries. The cranial contents of three post mortem human surrogate cephali were replaced with both a normal saline solution, and a ballistic gel mixture with a simulated CSF layer...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853132/traumatic-brain-injuries
#11
Kaj Blennow, David L Brody, Patrick M Kochanek, Harvey Levin, Ann McKee, Gerard M Ribbers, Kristine Yaffe, Henrik Zetterberg
Traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) are clinically grouped by severity: mild, moderate and severe. Mild TBI (the least severe form) is synonymous with concussion and is typically caused by blunt non-penetrating head trauma. The trauma causes stretching and tearing of axons, which leads to diffuse axonal injury - the best-studied pathogenetic mechanism of this disorder. However, mild TBI is defined on clinical grounds and no well-validated imaging or fluid biomarkers to determine the presence of neuronal damage in patients with mild TBI is available...
November 17, 2016: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849491/quality-of-life-in-united-states-veterans-with-combat-related-ostomies-from-iraq-and-afghanistan
#12
Michael S Clemens, Thomas A Heafner, J Devin B Watson, James K Aden, Todd E Rasmussen, Sean C Glasgow
OBJECTIVE: Assess the impact of ostomy formation on quality of life for U.S. Service Members. METHODS: U.S. personnel sustaining colorectal trauma from 2003 to 2011 were identified using the Department of Defense Trauma Registry. A cross-sectional observational study was conducted utilizing prospective interviews with standard survey instruments. Primary outcome measures were the Stoma Quality of Life Scale and Veterans RAND 36 scores and subjective responses. Patients with colorectal trauma not requiring ostomy served as controls...
November 2016: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849332/pulmonary-microvascular-dysfunction-and-pathological-changes-induced-by-blast-injury-in-a-rabbit-model
#13
Si Yu Wu, Geng Fen Han, Jian Yi Kang, Liang Chao Zhang, Ai Min Wang, Jian Min Wang
BACKGROUND: Vascular leakage has been proven to play a critical role in the incidence and development of explosive pulmonary barotrauma. Quantitatively investigated in the present study was the severity of vascular leakage in a gradient blast injury series, as well as ultrastructural evidence relating to pulmonary vascular leakage. METHODS: One hundred adult male New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into 5 groups according to distance from the detonator (10 cm, 15 cm, 20 cm, 30 cm, and sham control)...
September 2016: Ulusal Travma Ve Acil Cerrahi Dergisi, Turkish Journal of Trauma & Emergency Surgery: TJTES
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834537/ptsd-confounds-detection-of-compromised-cerebral-white-matter-integrity-in-military-veterans-reporting-a-history-of-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#14
Nicholas D Davenport, Greg J Lamberty, Nathaniel W Nelson, Kelvin O Lim, Michael T Armstrong, Scott R Sponheim
PRIMARY OBJECTIVE: Based on high comorbidity between mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among deployed military service members, this study tested the hypothesis that the presence of PTSD disrupts the association between mTBI and lower white matter integrity identified in non-military samples. Research design/Methods and procedures: In a sample of 124 recent veterans with a range of mTBI and PTSD history, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) metrics of white matter integrity in 20 regions were compared using multiple mTBI and PTSD contrasts...
2016: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834534/vestibular-balance-microvascular-and-white-matter-neuroimaging-characteristics-of-blast-injuries-and-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-four-case-reports
#15
Ramtilak Gattu, Faith W Akin, Anthony T Cacace, Courtney D Hall, Owen D Murnane, E Mark Haacke
BACKGROUND: Case reports are presented on four Veterans, aged 29-46 years, who complained of chronic dizziness and/or postural instability following blast exposures. Two of the four individuals were diagnosed with mild traumatic brain injury and three of the four were exposed to multiple blasts. Comprehensive vestibular, balance, gait, audiometry and neuroimaging procedures were used to characterize their injuries. CASE REPORT: Vestibular assessment included videonystagmography, rotary chair and cervical and ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials...
2016: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833693/e-cigarette-blast-injury-complex-facial-fractures-and-pneumocephalus
#16
Benjamin A Archambeau, Stephanie Young, Carol Lee, Troy Pennington, Christopher Vanderbeek, Dan Miulli, John Culhane, Michael Neeki
Electronic cigarettes (also known as e-cigarettes or e-cigs) are becoming a popular method of recreational nicotine use over recent years. The growth of new brands and devices has been outpacing the FDA's ability to regulate them. As a result, some of these devices fail without warning, most likely from malfunction of the lithium-ion batteries that are in close proximity to volatile compounds within the device. Failures have occurred during both use and storage of the devices or their components. The subsequent injuries from several of these events, including full thickness burns requiring grafting and blast injuries, have been observed at Arrowhead Regional Medical Center, a regional trauma and burn center in southern California...
November 2016: Western Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833293/a-review-of-three-cases-of-mobile-blast-the-new-culprit-of-hand-injury
#17
Nikunj B Mody, Surendra B Patil, Satish M Kale
Although blast injuries are common with war; cooking gas; firecracker, mobile phone blast cases are increasing in number in last couple of years. We present 3 cases of mobile blast in 3 children causing injury to dominant hand in them.
May 2016: Indian Journal of Plastic Surgery: Official Publication of the Association of Plastic Surgeons of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830938/quantitative-electroencephalography-in-a-swine-model-of-blast-induced-brain-injury
#18
Chaoyang Chen, Chengpeng Zhou, John M Cavanaugh, Srinivasu Kallakuri, Alok Desai, Liying Zhang, Albert I King
OBJECTIVE: Electroencephalography (EEG) was used to examine brain activity abnormalities earlier after blast exposure using a swine model to develop a qEEG data analysis protocol. METHODS: Anaesthetized swine were exposed to 420-450 Kpa blast overpressure and survived for 3 days after blast. EEG recordings were performed at 15 minutes before the blast and 15 minutes, 30 minutes, 2 hours and 1, 2 and 3 days post-blast using surface recording electrodes and a Biopac 4-channel data acquisition system...
November 10, 2016: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822499/acute-axonal-degeneration-drives-development-of-cognitive-motor-and-visual-deficits-after-blast-mediated-traumatic-brain-injury-in-mice
#19
Terry C Yin, Jaymie R Voorhees, Rachel M Genova, Kevin C Davis, Ashley M Madison, Jeremiah K Britt, Coral J Cintrón-Pérez, Latisha McDaniel, Matthew M Harper, Andrew A Pieper
Axonal degeneration is a prominent feature of many forms of neurodegeneration, and also an early event in blast-mediated traumatic brain injury (TBI), the signature injury of soldiers in Iraq and Afghanistan. It is not known, however, whether this axonal degeneration is what drives development of subsequent neurologic deficits after the injury. The Wallerian degeneration slow strain (WldS) of mice is resistant to some forms of axonal degeneration because of a triplicated fusion gene encoding the first 70 amino acids of Ufd2a, a ubiquitin-chain assembly factor, that is linked to the complete coding sequence of nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyltransferase 1 (NMAT1)...
September 2016: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822197/biomechanical-responses-of-the-brain-in-swine-subject-to-free-field-blasts
#20
Ke Feng, Liying Zhang, Xin Jin, Chaoyang Chen, Srinivasu Kallakuri, Tal Saif, John Cavanaugh, Albert King
Blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI) is a signature wound of modern warfare. The current incomplete understanding of its injury mechanism impedes the development of strategies for effective protection of bTBI. Despite a considerable amount of experimental animal studies focused on the evaluation of brain neurotrauma caused by blast exposure, there is very limited knowledge on the biomechanical responses of the gyrenecephalic brain subjected to primary free-field blast waves imposed in vivo. This study aims to evaluate the external and internal mechanical responses of the brain against different levels of blast loading with Yucatan swine in free field...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
keyword
keyword
11881
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"