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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919705/the-complete-mitochondrial-genome-of-thitarodes-sejilaensis-lepidoptera-hepialidae-a-host-insect-of-ophiocordyceps-sinensis-and-its-implication-in-taxonomic-revision-of-hepialusadopted-in-china
#1
Zhiwen Zou, Qiang Min, Shiyu Cheng, Tianrong Xin, Bin Xia
The mitochondrial genome is widely used for phylogenetic analyses and evolutionary biology. The complete mitochondrial genome of Thitarodes sejilaensis (Lepidoptera: Hepialidae) was sequenced and analyzed in this study. This mitogenome is a typical circular molecule of 15,290bp, with the gene content, orientation and order identical to other insects in the family Hepialidae. The genome nucleotide composition is heavily biased towards As and Ts, accounting for 80.87% of total nucleotide content. The major strand shows a positive AT-skew and negative GC-skew...
December 2, 2016: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914923/alloantigen-gene-transfer-to-hepatocytes-promotes-tolerance-to-pancreatic-islet-graft-by-inducing-cd8-regulatory-t-cells
#2
Valentin Le Guen, Jean-Paul Judor, Françoise Boeffard, Vanessa Gauttier, Nicolas Ferry, Jean-Paul Soulillou, Sophie Brouard, Sophie Conchon
BACKGROUND & AIM: Induction of donor-specific immune tolerance is a good alternative to chronic life-long immunosuppression for transplant patients. Donor major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules represent the main targets of the allogeneic immune response of transplant recipients. Liver-targeted gene transfer with viral vectors induces tolerance toward the encoded antigen. The aim of this work was to determine whether alloantigen gene transfer to hepatocytes induces tolerance and promotes graft acceptance...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912886/medicinal-plants-and-natural-molecules-with-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-activity-against-rotavirus-a-systematic-review
#3
REVIEW
Gopalsamy Rajiv Gandhi, Paula Gurgel Barreto, Bruno Dos Santos Lima, Jullyana de Souza Siqueira Quintans, Adriano Antunes de Souza Araújo, Narendra Narain, Lucindo Jose Quintans-Júnior, Ricardo Queiroz Gurgel
BACKGROUND: Rotaviruses can cause life-threatening health disorders, such as severe dehydrating gastroenteritis and diarrhea in children. Vaccination is the main preventive strategy to reduce rotavirus diarrhea and the severity of episodes, but vaccines are not fully effective and new episodes may occur, even in vaccinated children. The WHO recommends oral rehydration therapy and zinc supplementation for rotavirus-induced diarrhea management. There is little preclinical evidence to support the use of phytotherapeutics in the management of rotaviral infections...
December 15, 2016: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911784/%C3%AE-arrestin-mediates-the-frank-starling-mechanism-of-cardiac-contractility
#4
Dennis M Abraham, Robert T Davis, Chad M Warren, Lan Mao, Beata M Wolska, R John Solaro, Howard A Rockman
The Frank-Starling law of the heart is a physiological phenomenon that describes an intrinsic property of heart muscle in which increased cardiac filling leads to enhanced cardiac contractility. Identified more than a century ago, the Frank-Starling relationship is currently known to involve length-dependent enhancement of cardiac myofilament Ca(2+) sensitivity. However, the upstream molecular events that link cellular stretch to the length-dependent myofilament Ca(2+) sensitivity are poorly understood. Because the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) and the multifunctional transducer protein β-arrestin have been shown to mediate mechanosensitive cellular signaling, we tested the hypothesis that these two proteins are involved in the Frank-Starling mechanism of the heart...
November 28, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897250/fluorinated-benzalkylsilane-molecular-rectifiers
#5
Zachary A Lamport, Angela D Broadnax, David Harrison, Katrina J Barth, Lee Mendenhall, Clayton T Hamilton, Martin Guthold, Timo Thonhauser, Mark E Welker, Oana D Jurchescu
We report on the synthesis and electrical properties of nine new alkylated silane self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) - (EtO)3Si(CH2)nN = CHPhX where n = 3 or 11 and X = 4-CF3, 3,5-CF3, 3-F-4-CF3, 4-F, or 2,3,4,5,6-F, and explore their rectification behavior in relation to their molecular structure. The electrical properties of the films were examined in a metal/insulator/metal configuration, with a highly-doped silicon bottom contact and a eutectic gallium-indium liquid metal (EGaIn) top contact. The junctions exhibit high yields (>90%), a remarkable resistance to bias stress, and current rectification ratios (R) between 20 and 200 depending on the structure, degree of order, and internal dipole of each molecule...
November 29, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895119/partial-agonist-and-biased-signaling-properties-of-the-synthetic-enantiomers-j113863-ucb35625-at-chemokine-receptors-ccr2-and-ccr5
#6
Jenny Corbisier, Alexandre Huszagh, Céline Galés, Marc Parmentier, Jean-Yves Springael
Biased agonism at G protein coupled receptors constitutes a promising area of research for the identification of new therapeutic molecules. In this study, we identified two novel biased ligands for the chemokine receptors CCR2 and CCR5 and characterized their functional properties. We showed that J113863 and its enantiomer UCB35625, initially identified as high-affinity antagonists for CCR1 and CCR3, also bind with low affinity to the closely related receptors CCR2 and CCR5. Binding of J113863 and UCB35625 to CCR2 or CCR5 resulted in the full or partial activation of the three Gi proteins and the two Go isoforms...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890015/the-involvement-of-regulatory-non-coding-rnas-in-sepsis-a-systematic-review
#7
Jeffery Ho, Hung Chan, Sunny H Wong, Maggie H T Wang, Jun Yu, Zhangang Xiao, Xiaodong Liu, Gordon Choi, Czarina C H Leung, Wai T Wong, Zheng Li, Tony Gin, Matthew T V Chan, William K K Wu
BACKGROUND: Sepsis coincides with altered gene expression in different tissues. Accumulating evidence has suggested that microRNAs, long non-coding RNAs, and circular RNAs are important molecules involved in the crosstalk with various pathways pertinent to innate immunity, mitochondrial functions, and apoptosis. METHODS: We searched articles indexed in PubMed (MEDLINE), EMBASE and Europe PubMed Central databases using the Medical Subject Heading (MeSH) or Title/Abstract words ("microRNA", "long non-coding RNA", "circular RNA", "sepsis" and/or "septic shock") from inception to Sep 2016...
November 28, 2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885553/biosimilars-for-the-treatment-of-chronic-inflammatory-diseases-a-systematic-review-of-published-evidence
#8
REVIEW
Ira Jacobs, Danielle Petersel, Leah Isakov, Sadiq Lula, K Lea Sewell
BACKGROUND: Clinicians are required to assimilate, critically evaluate, and extrapolate information to support appropriate use of biosimilars across indications. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to systematically collate all published data in order to assess the weight (quantity and quality) of available evidence for each molecule and inform and support healthcare decision-making in chronic inflammatory diseases. METHODS: MEDLINE(®), EMBASE(®), and ISI Web of Science(®) were searched to September 2015...
December 2016: BioDrugs: Clinical Immunotherapeutics, Biopharmaceuticals and Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883085/phenotypic-and-functional-characterization-of-the-major-lymphocyte-populations-in-the-fruit-eating-bat-pteropus-alecto
#9
Julia María Martínez Gómez, Pravin Periasamy, Charles-Antoine Dutertre, Aaron Trent Irving, Justin Han Jia Ng, Gary Crameri, Michelle L Baker, Florent Ginhoux, Lin-Fa Wang, Sylvie Alonso
The unique ability of bats to act as reservoir for viruses that are highly pathogenic to humans suggests unique properties and functional characteristics of their immune system. However, the lack of bat specific reagents, in particular antibodies, has limited our knowledge of bat's immunity. Using cross-reactive antibodies, we report the phenotypic and functional characterization of T cell subsets, B and NK cells in the fruit-eating bat Pteropus alecto. Our findings indicate the predominance of CD8(+) T cells in the spleen from wild-caught bats that may reflect either the presence of viruses in this organ or predominance of this cell subset at steady state...
November 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881707/a-cd80-biased-ctla4-ig-fusion-protein-with-superior-in-vivo-efficacy-by-simultaneous-engineering-of-affinity-selectivity-stability-and-fcrn-binding
#10
Julie Douthwaite, Jacques Moisan, Cyril Privezentzev, Blagoje Soskic, Shereen Sabbah, Suzanne Cohen, Andie Collinson, Elizabeth England, Catherine Huntington, Ben Kemp, Li Zhuang, Suzanne Hudak, D Gareth Rees, Debbie Goldberg, Chris Barton, Linda Chang, Inna Vainshtein, Meina Liang, Laurie Iciek, Philip Ambery, Mark Peakman, Tristan J Vaughan, Tim I M Tree, David M Sansom, Michael A Bowen, Ralph R Minter, Lutz Jermutus
Affinity- and stability-engineered variants of CTLA4-Ig fusion molecules with enhanced pharmacokinetic profiles could yield improved therapies with the potential of higher efficacy and greater convenience to patients. In this study, to our knowledge, we have, for the first time, used in vitro evolution to simultaneously optimize CTLA4 affinity and stability. We selected for improved binding to both ligands, CD80 and CD86, and screened as dimeric Fc fusions directly in functional assays to identify variants with stronger suppression of in vitro T cell activation...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881084/assessing-characteristics-of-rna-amplification-methods-for-single-cell-rna-sequencing
#11
Hannah R Dueck, Rizi Ai, Adrian Camarena, Bo Ding, Reymundo Dominguez, Oleg V Evgrafov, Jian-Bing Fan, Stephen A Fisher, Jennifer S Herstein, Tae Kyung Kim, Jae Mun Hugo Kim, Ming-Yi Lin, Rui Liu, William J Mack, Sean McGroty, Joseph D Nguyen, Neeraj Salathia, Jamie Shallcross, Tade Souaiaia, Jennifer M Spaethling, Christopher P Walker, Jinhui Wang, Kai Wang, Wei Wang, Andre Wildberg, Lina Zheng, Robert H Chow, James Eberwine, James A Knowles, Kun Zhang, Junhyong Kim
BACKGROUND: Recently, measurement of RNA at single cell resolution has yielded surprising insights. Methods for single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) have received considerable attention, but the broad reliability of single cell methods and the factors governing their performance are still poorly known. RESULTS: Here, we conducted a large-scale control experiment to assess the transfer function of three scRNA-seq methods and factors modulating the function. All three methods detected greater than 70% of the expected number of genes and had a 50% probability of detecting genes with abundance greater than 2 to 4 molecules...
November 24, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875327/automated-tracking-of-colloidal-clusters-with-sub-pixel-accuracy-and-precision
#12
Casper van der Wel, Daniela J Kraft
Quantitative tracking of features from video images is a basic technique employed in many areas of science. Here, we present a method for the tracking of features that partially overlap, in order to be able to track so-called colloidal molecules. Our approach implements two improvements into existing particle tracking algorithms. Firstly, we use the history of previously identified feature locations to successfully find their positions in consecutive frames. Secondly, we present a framework for non-linear least-squares fitting to summed radial model functions and analyze the accuracy (bias) and precision (random error) of the method on artificial data...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871670/convergence-of-sex-differences-and-the-neuroimmune-system-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#13
REVIEW
Margaret M McCarthy, Christopher L Wright
The male bias in autism spectrum disorder incidence is among the most extreme of all neuropsychiatric disorders, yet the origins of the sex difference remain obscure. Developmentally, males are exposed to high levels of testosterone and its byproduct, estradiol. Together these steroids modify the course of brain development by altering neurogenesis, cell death, migration, differentiation, dendritic and axonal growth, synaptogenesis, and synaptic pruning, all of which can be deleteriously impacted during the course of developmental neuropsychiatric disorders...
October 11, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864940/endogenous-lpa1-receptor-agonists-demonstrate-ligand-bias-between-calcium-and-erk-signalling-pathways-in-human-lung-fibroblasts
#14
Afrah Sattikar, Mark R Dowling, Elizabeth M Rosethorne
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Human lung fibroblasts (HLF) express high levels of the LPA1 receptor, a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that responds to the endogenous lipid mediator lysophosphatidic acid (1-acyl-2-hydroxy-sn-glycero-3-phosphate; LPA). Several molecular species or analogues of LPA exist and have been detected in biological fluids such as serum and plasma. The most widely expressed of the LPA receptor family is the LPA1 receptor, which predominantly couples to Gq/11 , Gi/o and G12/13 proteins...
November 16, 2016: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862999/assessment-of-bromodomain-target-engagement-by-a-series-of-bi2536-analogues-with-miniaturized-bet-bret
#15
Luke W Koblan, Dennis L Buckley, Christopher J Ott, Mark E Fitzgerald, Stuart W J Ember, Jin-Yi Zhu, Shuai Liu, Justin M Roberts, David Remillard, Sarah Vittori, Wei Zhang, Ernst Schonbrunn, James E Bradner
Evaluating the engagement of a small molecule ligand with a protein target in cells provides useful information for chemical probe optimization and pharmaceutical development. While several techniques exist that can be performed in a low-throughput manner, systematic evaluation of large compound libraries remains a challenge. In-cell engagement measurements are especially useful when evaluating compound classes suspected to target multiple cellular factors. In this study we used a bioluminescent resonant energy transfer assay to assess bromodomain engagement by a compound series containing bromodomain- and kinase-biasing polypharmacophores based on the known dual BRD4 bromodomain/PLK1 kinase inhibitor BI2536...
December 6, 2016: ChemMedChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862735/identification-of-two-distinct-sites-for-antagonist-and-biased-agonist-binding-to-the-human-chemokine-receptor-cxcr3
#16
Lampros Milanos, Noureldin Saleh, Ralf C Kling, Jonas Kaindl, Nuska Tschammer, Timothy Clark
The chemokine receptor CXCR3 is a G protein-coupled receptor that conveys extracellular signals into cells by changing its conformation upon ligand binding. We previously hypothesized that small-molecule allosteric CXCR3-agonists do not bind to the same allosteric binding pocket as 8-azaquinazolinone-based negative allosteric modulators. We have now performed molecular-dynamics (MD) simulations with metadynamics enhanced sampling on the CXCR3 system to refine structures and binding modes and to predict the CXCR3-binding affinities of the biased allosteric agonist FAUC1036 and the negative allosteric modulator RAMX3...
November 9, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855242/biologic-or-tofacitinib-monotherapy-for-rheumatoid-arthritis-in-people-with-traditional-disease-modifying-anti-rheumatic-drug-dmard-failure-a-cochrane-systematic-review-and-network-meta-analysis-nma
#17
REVIEW
Jasvinder A Singh, Alomgir Hossain, Elizabeth Tanjong Ghogomu, Amy S Mudano, Peter Tugwell, George A Wells
BACKGROUND: We performed a systematic review, a standard meta-analysis and network meta-analysis (NMA), which updates the 2009 Cochrane Overview, 'Biologics for rheumatoid arthritis (RA)'. This review is focused on biologic monotherapy in people with RA in whom treatment with traditional disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) including methotrexate (MTX) had failed (MTX/other DMARD-experienced). OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits and harms of biologic monotherapy (includes anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) (adalimumab, certolizumab pegol, etanercept, golimumab, infliximab) or non-TNF (abatacept, anakinra, rituximab, tocilizumab)) or tofacitinib monotherapy (oral small molecule) versus comparator (placebo or MTX/other DMARDs) in adults with RA who were MTX/other DMARD-experienced...
November 17, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842515/evaluation-of-pacbio-sequencing-for-full-length-bacterial-16s-rrna-gene-classification
#18
Josef Wagner, Paul Coupland, Hilary P Browne, Trevor D Lawley, Suzanna C Francis, Julian Parkhill
BACKGROUND: Currently, bacterial 16S rRNA gene analyses are based on sequencing of individual variable regions of the 16S rRNA gene (Kozich, et al Appl Environ Microbiol 79:5112-5120, 2013).This short read approach can introduce biases. Thus, full-length bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequencing is needed to reduced biases. A new alternative for full-length bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequencing is offered by PacBio single molecule, real-time (SMRT) technology. The aim of our study was to validate PacBio P6 sequencing chemistry using three approaches: 1) sequencing the full-length bacterial 16S rRNA gene from a single bacterial species Staphylococcus aureus to analyze error modes and to optimize the bioinformatics pipeline; 2) sequencing the full-length bacterial 16S rRNA gene from a pool of 50 different bacterial colonies from human stool samples to compare with full-length bacterial 16S rRNA capillary sequence; and 3) sequencing the full-length bacterial 16S rRNA genes from 11 vaginal microbiome samples and compare with in silico selected bacterial 16S rRNA V1V2 gene region and with bacterial 16S rRNA V1V2 gene regions sequenced using the Illumina MiSeq...
November 14, 2016: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829707/effect-of-topical-administration-of-fractions-and-isolated-molecules-from-plant-extracts-on-skin-wound-healing-a-systematic-review-of-murine-experimental-models
#19
REVIEW
Mariáurea Matias Sarandy, Fernanda Barbosa Lopes, Sérgio Luis Pinto da Matta, Marcus Vinicius Mello Pinto, Sirlene Souza Rodrigues Sartori, Rômulo Dias Novaes, Reggiani Vilela Golçalves
Background and Purpose. Skin wound healing is a dynamic process driven by molecular events responsible for the morphofunctional repair of the injured tissue. In a systematic review, we analyzed the relevance of plant fractions and isolates on skin wound healing. By revising preclinical investigations with murine models, we investigated if the current evidence could support clinical trials. Methods. Studies were selected in the MEDLINE/PubMed and Scopus databases according to the PRISMA statement. All 32 identified studies were submitted to data extraction and the methodological bias was investigated according to ARRIVE strategy...
2016: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27820975/rigid-patterns-of-effortful-choice-behavior-after-acute-stress-in-rats
#20
Evan E Hart, Alexandra Stolyarova, Michael A Conoscenti, Thomas R Minor, Alicia Izquierdo
Physical effort is a common cost of acquiring rewards, and decreased effort is a feature of many neuropsychiatric disorders. Stress affects performance on several tests of cognition and decision-making in both humans and nonhumans. Only a few recent reports show impairing effects of stress in operant tasks involving effort and cognitive flexibility. Brain regions affected by stress such as the medial prefrontal cortex and amygdala are also implicated in mediating effortful choices. Here we assessed effort-based decision-making after an acute stress procedure known to induce persistent impairment in shuttle escape and elevated plasma corticosterone...
November 8, 2016: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
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