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Jieun Yoon, Akihiro Kanamori, Keisuke Fujii, Hiroko Isoda, Tomohiro Okura
PURPOSE: Maslinic acid (MA) is a component derived from a natural olive-based extract known to have pharmacological functions that include suppressing inflammation. This study examined how MA, in conjunction with whole-body vibration training (WBVT), can improve knee and muscle function in elderly women with knee osteoarthritis (OA). METHODS: The study was a double-blinded, placebo-controlled, randomized intervention study that enrolled individuals with knee pain...
2018: PloS One
André Bonadias Gadelha, Silvia Gonçalves Ricci Neri, Ricardo Jacó de Oliveira, Martim Bottaro, Ana Cristina de David, Baruch Vainshelboim, Ricardo M Lima
Background/Study context: Falls represent the leading cause of accidental deaths in the elderly. Sarcopenia is a geriatric syndrome defined as the loss of muscle mass and strength. However, the association between falls and sarcopenia is still unclear. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the association between different stages of sarcopenia and postural balance, risk of falls, and fear of falling in community-dwelling older women. METHODS: A total of 196 women (68.6 ± 6...
March 20, 2018: Experimental Aging Research
Neha Dewan, Joy C MacDermid, Ruby Grewal, Karen Beattie
In a prospective cohort of 113 patients followed 4 years after distal radius fracture (DRF), 24% of patients experienced a subsequent fall and 19% experienced a subsequent fracture. People with poor balance, greater fracture-specific pain/disability, low bone density, and prior falls had nearly a three times higher risk of subsequent falls. PURPOSE: To determine the extent to which modifiable risk factors alone or in combination with bone mineral density (BMD) and non-modifiable risk factors predict subsequent falls and osteoporotic (OP) fractures after distal radius fracture (DRF)...
March 20, 2018: Archives of Osteoporosis
Jarred G Gillett, Glen A Lichtwark, Roslyn N Boyd, Lee A Barber
PURPOSE: To investigate the efficacy of a 12-week combined functional anaerobic and strength training program on neuromuscular properties and functional capacity in young adults with spastic-type CP. METHODS: 17 young adults (21±4 years, 9 males, GMFCS I=11, II=6) were randomized to 12 weeks, 3 sessions per week, of high intensity functional anaerobic and progressive resistance training of the lower limbs (n=8), or a waitlist control group (n=9). Pre- and post-training plantar flexor and tibialis anterior muscle volumes and composition, passive and active plantar flexor muscle properties, and functional capacity outcomes were assessed...
March 20, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Jan C van der Meijden, Michelle E Kruijshaar, Laurike Harlaar, Dimitris Rizopoulos, Nadine A M E van der Beek, Ans T van der Ploeg
OBJECTIVES: Pompe disease is a progressive metabolic myopathy for which enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) was approved in 2006. While various publications have examined the effects of ERT in classic-infantile patients and in adults, little has been published on ERT in children with non-classic presentations. STUDY DESIGN: This prospective study was conducted from June 1999 to May 2015. Seventeen patients from various countries participated. Outcome measures comprised muscle function (6-minute walk test, quick motor-function test (QMFT)), muscle strength (hand-held dynamometry; manual muscle testing), and lung function (FVC sitting and supine)...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
Morten Kristoffersen, Øyvind Sandbakk, Espen Tønnessen, Ida Svendsen, Gøran Paulsen, Elisabeth Ersvær, Irene Nygård, Kari Rostad, Anita Ryningen, Vegard V Iversen, Knut Skovereng, Bent R Rønnestad, Hilde Gundersen
Purpose: Although strength and sprint training are widely used methods in competitive cycling, no previous studies have compared the acute responses and recovery rates following such sessions among highly trained cyclists. The primary aim of the current study was to compare power production and biochemical markers of metabolic stress and muscle damage following a session of heavy strength (HS) and short-sprint training (SS). Methods: Eleven well-trained male cyclists (18 ± 2 years with maximal oxygen uptake of 67...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Jay R Hoffman, Alyssa Varanoske, Jeffrey R Stout
β-Alanine is one of the more popular sport supplements used by strength/power athletes today. The popularity of β-alanine stems from its ability to enhance intracellular muscle-buffering capacity thereby delaying fatigue during high-intensity exercise by increasing muscle carnosine content. Recent evidence also suggests that elevated carnosine levels may enhance cognitive performance and increase resiliency to stress. These benefits are thought to result from carnosine's potential role as an antioxidant. This review will discuss these new findings including recent investigations examining β-alanine supplementation and increased resiliency to posttraumatic stress and mild traumatic brain injury...
2018: Advances in Food and Nutrition Research
Giovanni Cirillo, Vincenzo Todisco, Gioacchino Tedeschi
OBJECTIVE: To assess the long-term effects of subcutaneous immunoglobulin (SCIg) on neurophysiological and clinical parameters in patients affected by chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP). METHODS: 16 drug-naïve CIDP patients, fulfilling the clinical and neurophysiological criteria for typical CIDP, were treated with one cycle of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) (0.4 g/kg/day for 5 consecutive days) and then shifted to the subcutaneous treatment (SCIg) (0...
February 19, 2018: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Francesco Landi, Riccardo Calvani, Anna Picca, Matteo Tosato, Anna Maria Martone, Elena Ortolani, Sara Salini, Teodosio Pafundi, Giulia Savera, Cecilia Pantanelli, Roberto Bernabei, Emanuele Marzetti
Background: Primordial prevention is essential for promoting cardiovascular health and longevity through the so-called seven cardiovascular health metrics (CHMs) (i.e. smoking, body mass index, diet, physical activity, blood pressure, blood glucose and total cholesterol). Measures of muscle mass and function are recognized as powerful predictors of health-related events and survival. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to assess the prevalence and distribution of the seven CHMs and measures of muscle mass and function in an unselected cohort of community-dwellers...
March 14, 2018: European Journal of Public Health
Rita E Deering, Meredith Cruz, Jonathon W Senefeld, Tatyana Pashibin, Sarah Eickmeyer, Sandra K Hunter
PURPOSE: To determine whether postpartum women (vaginal and Cesarean delivery) have deficits in trunk flexor strength, fatigability and steadiness, compared with nulligravid women, up to 26 weeks postpartum. We hypothesized that postpartum women would be weaker, more fatigable and have greater torque fluctuations than controls, with Cesarean delivery showing greater deficits than vaginal delivery. METHODS: 22 control women (nulligravid) and 29 postpartum women (20-40 years, 19 who delivered via vaginal birth, 13 via Caesarian section) participated...
March 16, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Joni A Mettler, Dillon M Magee, Barbara M Doucet
PURPOSE: Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) is commonly used in rehabilitation settings to increase muscle mass and strength. However, the effects of NMES on muscle growth are not clear and no human studies have compared anabolic signaling between low-frequency (LF-) and high-frequency (HF-) NMES. The purpose of this study was to determine the skeletal muscle anabolic signaling response to an acute bout of LF- and HF-NMES. METHODS: Eleven young healthy volunteers (6 men; 5 women) received an acute bout of LF- (20 Hz) and HF- (60 Hz) NMES...
March 16, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Natasha A Lannin, Louise Ada, Coralie English, Julie Ratcliffe, Maria Crotty
Rationale Although clinical practice guidelines recommend that management of moderate to severe spasticity include the use of botulinum toxin-A in conjunction with therapy, there is currently no evidence to support the addition of therapy. Aims To determine the effect and cost-benefit of adding evidence-based movement training to botulinum toxin-A. Sample size estimate A total of 136 participants will be recruited in order to be able to detect a between-group difference of seven points on the Goal Attainment Scale T-score with 80% power at a two-tailed significance level of 0...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of Stroke: Official Journal of the International Stroke Society
Jeffrey S Schachar, Hemikaa Devakumar, Laura Martin, Sara Farag, Eric A Hurtado, G Willy Davila
INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: Native tissue vaginal repairs are associated with relatively high levels of recurrence. Systematic reviews have noted that preoperative pelvic floor muscle strength was associated with increased risk of recurrence in the short term. METHODS: This is a retrospective review of patients who underwent a primary reconstructive surgery for anterior compartment vaginal prolapse between 2001 and 2015. Patients were divided into "absent," "weak" and "good" preoperative PFM strength (aPFM, wPFM and gPFM, respectively) based on a modified Oxford scale...
March 19, 2018: International Urogynecology Journal
Andrea Petronio Rossi, Gianluigi Zaza, Marina Zanardo, Francesco Pedelini, Laura Dalla Verde, Chiara Caletti, Alessia D'Introno, Antonio Lupo, Mauro Zamboni
BACKGROUND: Renal transplant (RTX) recipients seem to experience a better quality of life compared to dialysis patients. However, the factors responsible for this positive effect are not completely defined. Conceivably, a change in the physical performance of these patients could play a role. METHODS: To assess this, we measured: (1) waist circumference, fat mass and appendicular fat-free mass (aFFM) by dual-energy X-ray densitometry, (2) physical performance with the Short Physical Performance Battery, and (3) muscle strength with the handgrip test, in 59 male RTX, 11 chronic kidney disease in conservative treatment (CKD) and 10 peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients...
March 17, 2018: Journal of Nephrology
Adam Witten, Mikkel B Clausen, Kristian Thorborg, Mikkel L Attrup, Per Hölmich
PURPOSE: Subacromial impingement syndrome (SIS) is associated with low self-reported shoulder function, impairments in shoulder strength and range of motion (ROM), and pain. It is not known how the symptomatology associated with SIS is reflected in the choice of treatment. This study compares self-reported shoulder function, shoulder strength, ROM, and pain in patients with SIS considered candidates and non-candidates for subacromial decompression (SAD). METHOD: Self-reported shoulder function (Q-DASH and SPADI), maximum isometric muscle strength in shoulder abduction (Abd-strength) and external rotation (ER-strength), active abduction ROM (Abd-ROM) and passive internal rotation ROM (IR-ROM) were measured in a consecutive cohort of patients with SIS referred to an orthopedic outpatient clinic...
March 17, 2018: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
Xiu-Ying Zhang, Yusuke Yanagi, Zijing Sheng, Kouji Nagata, Koichi Nakayama, Tomoaki Taguchi
Neonates with congenital diaphragmatic hernia often require surgical defect closure with a patch. Alternatives to native diaphragmatic tissue are critically needed for this paediatric surgery. The clinical efficacy of mesh patches is limited by complications associated with residual foreign material and by hernia recurrence. In this study, we used a novel bio-3D printer method to generate large scaffold-free tissue patches composed of human cells. The resulting large tissue constructs had high elasticity and strength...
March 9, 2018: Biomaterials
Michael R Deschenes, Shuhan Li, Matthew A Adan, Jane J Oh, Hailey C Ramsey
BACKGROUND: This project aimed to determine the adaptability of the neuromuscular system to the stimuli of exercise training, and aging. METHODS: Young adult, and aged male rats were randomly assigned to either exercise training, or sedentary control groups. Exercise training featured an 8 week program of treadmill running. At the end of the intervention period, neuromuscular function was quantified with ex vivo stimulation procedures on isolated soleus muscles...
March 14, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
Friedrich C Jassil, Alisia Carnemolla, Helen Kingett, Bruce Paton, Aidan G O'Keeffe, Jacqueline Doyle, Stephen Morris, Neville Lewis, Amy Kirk, Andrea Pucci, Kusuma Chaiyasoot, Rachel L Batterham
INTRODUCTION: Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and sleeve gastrectomy are the two most common bariatric surgery performed in the UK that result in comparable weight loss and remission of obesity-associated comorbidities. However, there is a paucity of studies examining the impact of these procedures on body composition, physical activity levels, sedentary behaviour, physical function and strength, dietary intake, health-related quality of life and costs. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The BARI-LIFESTYLE observational study is a 1-year prospective, longitudinal cohort study within a real-world routine clinical care setting aiming to recruit 100 patients with severe obesity undergoing either primary Roux-en-Y gastric bypass or sleeve gastrectomy from two bariatric centres in London, UK...
March 16, 2018: BMJ Open
Joel T Fuller, Michael C Hartland, Luke T Maloney, Kade Davison
OBJECTIVE: To systematically appraise and summarise meta-analyses investigating the effect of exercise compared with a control condition on health outcomes in cancer survivors. DESIGN: Umbrella review of intervention systematic reviews. DATA SOURCES: Web of Science, Scopus, Cochrane Library, CINAHL and MEDLINE databases were searched using a predefined search strategy. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Eligible meta-analyses compared health outcomes between cancer survivors participating in an exercise intervention and a control condition...
March 16, 2018: British Journal of Sports Medicine
Ditte Beck Jepsen, Jesper Ryg, Niklas Rye Jørgensen, Stinus Hansen, Tahir Masud
BACKGROUND: PaVOS is a randomized controlled trial (RCT) which aims to address the use of whole-body vibration exercise (WBV) in combination with parathyroid hormone 1-34 fragment teriparatide (PTH 1-34) treatment in patients with osteoporosis. PTH 1-34 is an effective but expensive anabolic treatment for osteoporosis. WBV has been found to stimulate muscle and bone growth. Animal studies have shown a beneficial effect on bone when combining PTH 1-34 with mechanical loading. A combined treatment with PTH 1-34 and WBV may potentially have beneficial effects on bone and muscles, and reduce fracture risk...
March 16, 2018: Trials
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