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Nayeon Lee, M F Horstemeyer, R Prabhu, Jun Liao, Hongjoo Rhee, Youssef Hammi, Robert D Moser, Lakiesha N Williams
In this study a woodpecker's hyoid apparatus was characterized to determine its impact mitigation mechanism using finite element (FE) analysis. The woodpecker's hyoid apparatus, comprising bone and muscle, has a unique geometry compared to those of other birds. The hyoid starts at the beak tip, surrounds the woodpecker's skull, and ends at the upper beak/front head intersection while being surrounded by muscle along the whole length. A FE model of the hyoid apparatus was created based on the geometry, microstructure, and mechanical properties garnered from our experimental measurements...
October 25, 2016: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
Karen J Mickle, Peter Caputi, Jan M Potter, Julie R Steele
BACKGROUND: Reduced toe flexor strength is an independent predictor of falls in older people. However it is unknown whether strengthening programs can restore toe flexor strength in older individuals. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a progressive resistance training program, focused specifically on the foot muscles, could improve toe flexor strength in community-dwelling older people. METHODS: After baseline testing, 85 men and women (age range 60-90years) were randomized to either a supervised, progressive resistance training (n=43) or a home-based exercise (n=42) group for 12weeks...
October 7, 2016: Clinical Biomechanics
Shu-Fang Chang
PURPOSE: We investigated the relationships among geriatric syndrome, physiological functions, and body composition in community-dwelling older people with varying nutritional statuses. Other factors correlated with nutritional status in community-dwelling older people were also explored. BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization has initiated preventive programs for addressing malnutrition. However, few studies have focused on the correlations among geriatric syndrome, physiological functions, and body composition in older people at risk of malnutrition...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Nursing Scholarship
Cristina Jácome, Alda Marques
PURPOSE: Pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) is effective in patients with moderate to severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, the effects of PR in patients with mild COPD have not yet been established. Thus, this study investigated the short- and long-term effects of PR in patients with mild COPD in comparison with patients with moderate to severe disease. METHODS: A total of 32 patients with mild (group 1) and 29 with moderate to severe (group 2) COPD completed the study...
November 2016: Journal of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation and Prevention
V MacBean, C Hughes, G Nicol, C C Reilly, G F Rafferty
Neural respiratory drive, quantified by the parasternal intercostal muscle electromyogram (EMGpara), provides a sensitive measure of respiratory system load-capacity balance. Reference values for EMGpara-based measures are lacking and the influence of individual anthropometric characteristics is not known. EMGpara is conventionally expressed as a percentage of that obtained during a maximal inspiratory effort (EMGpara%max), leading to difficulty in applying the technique in subjects unable to reliably perform such manoeuvres...
October 25, 2016: Physiological Measurement
David J Beale
This article comments on the study by Schoenfeld, et al. entitled "The effect of protein timing on muscle strength and hypertrophy: a meta-analysis" and discusses how the methodology led to inconclusive results.
2016: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
Dana S Poole, Nathalie Doorenweerd, Jaap J Plomp, Ahmed Mahfouz, Marcel J T Reinders, Louise van der Weerd
The ability to administer systemically high doses of manganese as contrast agent while circumventing its toxicity is of particular interest for exploratory MRI studies of the brain. Administering low doses either repeatedly or continuously over time has been shown to enable the acquisition of satisfactory MRI images of the mouse brain without apparent side effects. Here we have systematically compared the obtained MRI contrast and recorded potential systemic side effects such as stress response and muscle strength impairment in relation to the achieved contrast...
October 21, 2016: NeuroImage
Amelia Guadalupe-Grau, Jose Antonio Carnicero, Jose Losa-Reyna, Jesús Tresguerres, Maria Del Carmen Gómez-Cabrera, Carmen Castillo, Ana Alfaro-Acha, Cristina Rosado-Artalejo, Leocadio Rodriguez-Mañas, Francisco José García-García
INTRODUCTION: Aging is a process that involves a reduction in muscle strength and anabolic hormone concentrations, which impacts significantly on health. AIM: To study the hormone/total strength (H/TS) ratio as a proxy of anabolic insensitivity status in elders, and its relationship with disability, hospitalization, and mortality risk. DESIGN: A total of 1462 persons aged ≥65 years from the Toledo Study of Healthy Aging participated in this study...
October 21, 2016: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
Leandro L de Souza, Fernanda L B de Araujo, Fernanda A M da Silva, Thaís S Mucciaroni, João E de Araujo
We previously showed that a yin meridian of the upper limb decreased electromyographic activity (root mean square) and muscle strength ipsilateral and contralateral to the side of stimulation. Here, we tested the upper trapezius (UT) muscle response after stimulation of a yang meridian of the upper limb, the small intestine (SI). Thirty-eight healthy volunteers were randomized into the following groups: UT muscle (SI14), distant of the UT muscle (SI8), without stimulation (CG), and sham (R3). An acupuncturist certificated by the Brazilian Society of Physical Therapists and Acupuncturists performed the needle insertion...
October 2016: Journal of Acupuncture and Meridian Studies
Qingde Wang, Kezheng Mao, Chunli Wang, Wei Mei
Background Prior studies have mainly assessed transoral odontoidectomy for basilar invagination with irreducible atlantoaxial dislocation. However, studies evaluating transoral release and posterior reduction with occipitocervical fixation in this setting are scarce. Methods From 2008 to 2013, 11 patients (6 men and 5 women; 23-67 years of age) with basilar invagination and irreducible atlantoaxial dislocation underwent surgery. They presented signs and symptoms of myelopathy or significant spinal cord injury, and were treated by transoral soft tissue release without odontoidectomy, under skull traction with heavy weight and by posterior reduction with occipitocervical plate fixation...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Neurological Surgery. Part A, Central European Neurosurgery
Jacob J Morse, Gramos Pallaska, Patrick R Pierce, Travis M Fields, Sujay S Galen, Moh H Malek
Morse, JJ, Pallaska, G, Pierce, PR, Fields, TM, Galen, SS, and Malek, MH. Acute low-dose caffeine supplementation increases electromyographic fatigue threshold in healthy men. J Strength Cond Res 30(11): 3236-3241, 2016-The purpose of this study is to determine whether consumption of a single low-dose caffeine drink will delay the onset of the electromyographic fatigue threshold (EMGFT) in the superficial quadriceps femoris muscles. We hypothesize that the EMGFT values for the caffeine condition will be significantly higher than the EMGFT values for the placebo condition...
November 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Achilleas Boutsiadis, Laurent Baverel, Hubert Lenoir, Philippe Delsol, Johannes Barth
Chronic acromioclavicular (AC) instability is a rare posttraumatic shoulder condition that can lead to undesirable symptoms like persistent pain, muscle fatigue, loss of strength, or even scapular dyskinesis. It is well known that in these cases the superior functional results depend on the restoration of the anatomy and stability of the AC joint in both vertical and horizontal planes. Considering the ligaments degeneration and atrophy in chronic AC joint dislocations, we present an arthroscopic-assisted reconstruction of both the coracoclavicular and AC ligaments using autograft augmentation...
October 21, 2016: Techniques in Hand & Upper Extremity Surgery
Florian Husmann, Martin Gube, Sabine Felser, Matthias Weippert, Anett Mau-Moeller, Sven Bruhn, Martin Behrens
PURPOSE: Despite growing interest in task-dependent alterations of central and peripheral fatigue following endurance exercise, little is known about the impact of rowing on quadriceps muscle fatigue. This study aimed to investigate central and peripheral mechanisms of fatigue following a 2000-m rowing time-trial. METHODS: Eight competitive rowers (4 males, 4 females, 20 ± 4 years) performed a 2000-m time-trial on an indoor rower and a control condition (sitting)...
October 21, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Prachaya Srivanitchapoom, Ejaz A Shamim, Pierre Diomi, Takaaki Hattori, Sanjay Pandey, Sherry Vorbach, Jung E Park, Tianxia Wu, Sungyoung Auh, Mark Hallett
STUDY DESIGN: Exploratory case-control study. INTRODUCTION: Writer's cramp (WC) is a type of focal hand dystonia. The central nervous system plays a role in its pathophysiology, but abnormalities in the affected musculoskeletal components may also be relevant. PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: We compared the active range of motion (ROM) in patients with WC and healthy volunteers (HVs) and correlated the findings with disease duration and severity. METHODS: Affected limb joints were measured with goniometers...
February 18, 2016: Journal of Hand Therapy: Official Journal of the American Society of Hand Therapists
Mahmoud Zaqout, Nathalie Michels, Wolfgang Ahrens, Claudia Börnhorst, Dénes Molnár, Luis A Moreno, Gabriele Eiben, Alfonso Siani, Stalo Papoutsou, Toomas Veidebaum, Stefaan De Henauw
PURPOSE: Exposure to breastfeeding improves the survival, health, and development of children; therefore, breast milk is recommended as the exclusive nutrient source for feeding term infants during the first 6 months. This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the possible association between exposure to exclusive breastfeeding and physical fitness performance in children and, if so, whether this association is influenced by the breastfeeding duration. METHODS: A total of 2853 (52...
October 22, 2016: European Journal of Nutrition
Sandra Bouma, Mark Peterson, Erin Gatza, Sung Won Choi
Survivorship after pediatric HCT has increased over the past decade. Focus on long-term care and well-being remains critical due to risk of poor dietary habits and exaggerated sedentary behavior, which can lead to muscle weakness, increased risk for obesity, and cardiometabolic disorders. Nutrition and physical activity are key factors in survivorship; however, data are limited. Comprehensive nutritional assessments, including nutrition-focused physical examination, grip strength, and food/activity surveys, were completed in 36 pediatric HCT survivors (aged 2-25 years)...
October 21, 2016: Pediatric Transplantation
Jaehoon Choi, Sang Woo Park, Junhyung Kim, Jeongseob Park, Jun Sik Kim
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to compare the strength of the relationships between predictors and late-onset enophthalmos in medial and inferior orbital wall fractures and to determine the most significant predictive factor of enophthalmos in medial or inferior orbital wall fracture. METHODS: Sixty-three adult patients with unilateral medial or inferior orbital wall fracture who had been left untreated for more than two months were enrolled in this study...
September 7, 2016: Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery: JPRAS
Tessa Strain, Claire Fitzsimons, Paul Kelly, Nanette Mutrie
BACKGROUND: In 2011, the UK physical activity guidelines were updated to include recommendations for muscle strengthening and balance & coordination (at least two sessions of relevant activities per week). However, monitoring and policy efforts remain focussed on aerobic activity. This study aimed to assess differences by gender and age in the a) prevalence of muscle strengthening and balance & co-ordination guidelines, and b) participation in guideline-specific activities. METHODS: The sample for the muscle strengthening analyses was 10,488 adult (16-64 years) and 3857 older adult (≥65 years) 2012-2014 Scottish Health Survey respondents...
October 21, 2016: BMC Public Health
Marcin Kozakiewicz, Leszek Olbrzymek, Ludomir Stefanczyk, Marek Olszycki, Piotr Komorowski, Bogdan Walkowiak, Bartłomiej Konieczny, Michał Krasowski, Jerzy Sokołowski
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to present a new possibility to create radio-opaque implant material for craniomaxillofacial reconstruction. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The test disks made of the own compound of polyethylenes with addiction of 2, 4, and 6 % of weight TiO2 was investigated for cytotoxicity [each group 15 disks respectively]. Next, computed tomography of the disks was performed in environment of muscle and fat. Hardness, tensile modulus and strength, and compressive modulus and strength were tested too...
October 20, 2016: Clinical Oral Investigations
S T Oestergaard, T Stojkovic, J R Dahlqvist, C Bouchet-Seraphin, J Nectoux, F Leturcq, M Cossée, G Solé, C Thomsen, T O Krag, J Vissing
OBJECTIVE: In this study, muscle involvement assessed by MRI and levels of GMPPB and glycosylation of α-dystroglycan expression in muscle were examined in patients with limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD) type 2T. METHODS: Six new patients with genetically verified mutations in GMPPB were studied. T1-weighted magnetic resonance images were obtained in 4 participants. Muscle strength and potential involvement of extramuscular organs were examined. Glycosylation of α-dystroglycan in muscle was studied, and GMPPB and α-dystroglycan expression was analyzed by Western blotting...
December 2016: Neurology. Genetics
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