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X Mu, S Ahmad, S Hur
The ability to distinguish between self and nonself is the fundamental basis of the immune system in all organisms. The conceptual distinction between self and nonself, however, breaks down when it comes to endogenous retroviruses and other retroelements. While some retroelements retain the virus-like features including the capacity to replicate and reinvade the host genome, most have become inactive through mutations or host epigenetic silencing. And yet, accumulating evidence suggests that endogenous retroelements, both active and inactive, play important roles not only in pathogenesis of immune disorders, but also in proper functioning of the immune system...
2016: Advances in Immunology
Sijia Wu, Xinman Zhang, Jiuqiang Han
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0161913.].
2016: PloS One
François E Dufrasne, Catherine Lombard, Patrick Goubau, Jean Ruelle
BST-2 or tetherin is a host cell restriction factor that prevents the budding of enveloped viruses at the cell surface, thus impairing the viral spread. Several countermeasures to evade this antiviral factor have been positively selected in retroviruses: the human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) relies on the envelope glycoprotein (Env) to overcome BST-2 restriction. The Env gp36 ectodomain seems involved in this anti-tetherin activity, however residues and regions interacting with BST-2 are not clearly defined...
October 14, 2016: Viruses
Shanshan Xu, Lanlan Dong, Yingying Shi, Liujun Chen, Peipei Yuan, Shuang Wang, Zhi Li, Yan Sun, Song Han, Jun Yin, Biwen Peng, Xiaohua He, Wanhong Liu
Human foamy virus (HFV) is a complex and unique retrovirus with the longest genomes among retroviruses used as vectors for gene therapy. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are regarded as key regulators that involved in diverse biological processes during viral infection. However, the role of lncRNAs in HFV infection remains unknown. In this study, we utilized next-generation sequencing to first characterize lncRNAs in 293T cells after HFV infection, evaluating length distribution, exon number distribution, volcano picture and lncRNA class distribution...
October 18, 2016: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Karoline Rodrigues Campos, Maria Gisele Gonçalves, Adele Caterino-de-Araujo
Changes in retrovirus acquisition/transmission behaviors have been reported in Brazil, with a concerning increase in HIV-1 infected individuals aged 15 to 39 years. In São Paulo, HIV-1/HTLV-1 and HIV-1/HTLV-2 coinfections have been associated with intravenous drug use and failure to detect HTLV-1/2 with immunosuppression and the use of active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Negative results for HTLV serologic [western blotting (WB)] and molecular [real-time PCR pol (qPCR)] confirmatory assays have been reported, whereas the best sensitivity has been found for INNO-LIA (LIA)...
October 17, 2016: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Silvana Opp, Thomas Fricke, Caitlin Shepard, Dmytro Kovalskyy, Akash Bhattacharya, Frank Herkules, Dmitri N Ivanov, Kim Baek, Jose Valle-Casuso, Felipe Diaz-Griffero
The small molecule 6-(tert-butyl)-4-phenyl-4-(trifluoromethyl)-1H,3H-1,3,5-triazin-2-one (3G11) inhibits HIV-1 replication in the human T cell line MT-2. Here we showed that 3G11 specifically and potently blocks HIV-1 infection. By contrast, 3G11 did not block other retroviruses such as HIV-2, simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVmac ), bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV), feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV), N-tropic murine leukemia virus (N-MLV), B-tropic murine leukemia virus (B-MLV) and Moloney murine leukemia virus (Mo-MLV)...
October 17, 2016: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
Patricia Morcillo, Elena Chaves-Pozo, José Meseguer, M Ángeles Esteban, Alberto Cuesta
In teleost fish, there are no commercial cell lines for the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). Thus, we have established the sea bass brain (DLB-1) cell line, using a fish retrovirus for immortalization, which resemble epithelial cells and express glial cells markers. Exposure to metals [Cd, methylmercury (MeHg), Pb or As] produces cytotoxicity and induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Interestingly, cell cycle analysis of DLB-1 cells shows that exposure to metals alters it significantly...
October 13, 2016: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
Ting Yuan, Weitong Yao, Kenzo Tokunaga, Rongge Yang, Binlian Sun
BACKGROUND: Several members of the TRIM family have been implicated in antiviral defense. Our previous report showed that human TRIM11 potently inhibited HIV-1 transduction by reducing the viral reverse transcripts. These results prompted us to examine the effect of TRIM11 on HIV-1 uncoating, which is closely related to viral reverse transcription. RESULTS: Using a combination of in vitro binding and in situ proximity ligation assay, we showed that TRIM11 could interact with HIV-1 capsid...
October 13, 2016: Retrovirology
José Eduardo Vargas, Leonardo Chicaybam, Renato Tetelbom Stein, Amilcar Tanuri, Andrés Delgado-Cañedo, Martin H Bonamino
Gene therapy protocols require robust and long-term gene expression. For two decades, retrovirus family vectors have offered several attractive properties as stable gene-delivery vehicles. These vectors represent a technology with widespread use in basic biology and translational studies that require persistent gene expression for treatment of several monogenic diseases. Immunogenicity and insertional mutagenesis represent the main obstacles to a wider clinical use of these vectors. Efficient and safe non-viral vectors are emerging as a promising alternative and facilitate clinical gene therapy studies...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Translational Medicine
Lizna M Ali, Tahir A Rizvi, Farah Mustafa
Retroviruses belong to the family Retroviridae and are ribonucleoprotein (RNP) particles that contain a dimeric RNA genome. Retroviral particle assembly is a complex process, and how the virus is able to recognize and specifically capture the genomic RNA (gRNA) among millions of other cellular and spliced retroviral RNAs has been the subject of extensive investigation over the last two decades. The specificity towards RNA packaging requires higher order interactions of the retroviral gRNA with the structural Gag proteins...
October 11, 2016: Viruses
Shun Lu, Jing Wang, Jixing Ye, Yulong Zou, Yunxiao Zhu, Qiang Wei, Xin Wang, Shengli Tang, Hao Liu, Jiaming Fan, Fugui Zhang, Evan M Farina, Maryam M Mohammed, Dongzhe Song, Junyi Liao, Jiayi Huang, Dan Guo, Minpeng Lu, Feng Liu, Jianxiang Liu, Li Li, Chao Ma, Xue Hu, Michael J Lee, Russell R Reid, Guillermo A Ameer, Dongsheng Zhou, Tongchuan He
Regenerative medicine and bone tissue engineering using mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) hold great promise as an effective approach to bone and skeletal reconstruction. While adipose tissue harbors MSC-like progenitors, or multipotent adipose-derived cells (MADs), it is important to identify and characterize potential biological factors that can effectively induce osteogenic differentiation of MADs. To overcome the time-consuming and technically challenging process of isolating and culturing primary MADs, here we establish and characterize the reversibly immortalized mouse multipotent adipose-derived cells (iMADs)...
2016: American Journal of Translational Research
Guido Ferrari, Barton F Haynes, Scott Koenig, Jeffrey L Nordstrom, David M Margolis, Georgia D Tomaras
HIV-1 is a retrovirus that integrates into host chromatin and can remain transcriptionally quiescent in a pool of immune cells. This characteristic enables HIV-1 to evade both host immune responses and antiretroviral drugs, leading to persistent infection. Upon reactivation of proviral gene expression, HIV-1 envelope (HIV-1 Env) glycoproteins are expressed on the cell surface, transforming latently infected cells into targets for HIV-1 Env-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), which can engage immune effector cells to kill productively infected CD4(+) T cells and thus limit the spread of progeny virus...
October 7, 2016: Nature Reviews. Drug Discovery
Tomáš Kroupa, Hana Langerová, Michal Doležal, Jan Prchal, Vojtěch Spiwok, Eric Hunter, Michaela Rumlová, Richard Hrabal, Tomáš Ruml
Matrix proteins play a key role in the transport of retroviral proteins inside infected cells and in the interaction with cellular membranes. In most retroviruses, retroviral matrix proteins are N-terminally myristoylated. This modification serves as a membrane targeting signal and also as an anchor for the membrane interaction. The aim of this work was to characterize interactions anchoring retroviral matrix protein at the plasma membrane of infected cell. To address this issue, we compared the structures and membrane affinity of the Mason-Pfizer monkey virus (M-PMV) wild-type matrix protein with its two budding deficient double mutants, i...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Molecular Biology
T Tsuruyama, T Hiratsuka, N Yamada
Extensive research has been performed regarding the integration sites of murine leukemia retrovirus (MLV) for the identification of proto-oncogenes. To date, the overlap of mutations within specific oligonucleotides across different tumor genomes has been regarded as a rare event; however, a recent study of MLV integration into the oncogene Zfp521 suggested the existence of a hotspot oligonucleotide for MLV integration. In the current review, we discuss the hotspots of MLV integration into several genes: c-Myc, Stat5a and N-myc, as well as ZFP521, as examined in tumor genomes...
October 10, 2016: Oncogene
Roberta Bruhn, Elizabeth Moreno, Ester C Sabino, Naura Aparecida F Ferreira, Anna Barbara F Carneiro-Proietti, Maria Esther D Lopes, Divaldo Sampaio, Paula Loureiro, Brian Custer, Thelma T Goncalez
BACKGROUND: There has been increased worldwide emphasis on the many benefits of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) serostatus awareness for both infection prevention and improved treatment outcomes. Previous studies indicate that donors may use blood donation to be tested; the objectives of this analysis were to assess, among donors with previously undisclosed risk behavior in the 12 months before donation, the frequency of those who have previously been tested for HIV and the demographic and behavioral factors associated with such testing...
September 9, 2016: Transfusion
Katrina M Morris, Denis O'Meally, Thiri Zaw, Xiaomin Song, Amber Gillett, Mark P Molloy, Adam Polkinghorne, Katherine Belov
Production of milk is a key characteristic of mammals, but the features of lactation vary greatly between monotreme, marsupial and eutherian mammals. Marsupials have a short gestation followed by a long lactation period, and milk constituents vary greatly across lactation. Marsupials are born immunologically naïve and rely on their mother's milk for immunological protection. Koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) are an iconic Australian species that are increasingly threatened by disease. Here we use a mammary transcriptome, two milk proteomes and the koala genome to comprehensively characterise the protein components of koala milk across lactation, with a focus on immune constituents...
October 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
Miguel Turrero García, Emanuele Mazzola, Corey C Harwell
Neocortical excitatory and inhibitory neurons derive from distinct progenitor domains during embryonic development and migrate to their final positions, where they assemble into functional circuits. This process appears to be influenced by lineage relationships among locally born excitatory neurons, raising the intriguing possibility that this might be true for cortical interneurons. Two recent articles by the Fishell laboratory and our own used retrovirus-encoded DNA barcodes as unambiguous lineage-tracing tools to address this question, finding that clonally related inhibitory interneurons dispersed widely across the forebrain (Harwell et al...
October 5, 2016: Neuron
Y Liu, Y F Zhang, X L Sun, S Y Liu
The envelope protein (Env) of the Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV) is known to be a unique oncoprotein responsible for inducing ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma (OPA). The objective of this study was to prepare a specific monoclonal antibody (mAb) against the JSRV Env protein using bioinformatic analysis. According to the structure and epitope prediction results of JSRV Env, the JSRV-Env572-615 antigen was prepared via peptide synthesis (amino acid sequence 572-615, denoted as JSRV-Env572-615). BALB/c mice were immunized to prepare the anti-JSRV-Env572-615 mAb...
August 29, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Iona E Maher, Damien P Higgins
Koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) populations are increasingly vulnerable and one of the main threats is chlamydial infection. Koala retrovirus (KoRV) has been proposed as an underlying cause of the koala's susceptibility to infection with Chlamydia and high rates of lymphoid neoplasia; however, the regionally ubiquitous, endogenous nature of this virus suggests that KoRV A infection is not sufficient for immune suppression to occur. A recently discovered exogenous variant of KoRV, KoRV B, has several structural elements that cause increased pathogenicity in related retroviruses and was associated with lymphoid neoplasia in one study...
2016: PloS One
Elisa D'Agati, Mariabernarda Pitzianti, Emanuela Balestrieri, Claudia Matteucci, Paola Sinibaldi Vallebona, Augusto Pasini
Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) have been associated with many complex diseases including neuropsychiatric diseases, such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In ADHD an over-expression of HERV-H family in peripheral blood mononuclear cells has been documented. It has been hypothesized that HERVs may represent the link between genetic and environmental risk factors, contributing to the clinical onset and/or to the progression of the neurodevelopmental disease. The effect of pharmacological treatment on HERV transcriptional activity in psychiatric disorders has been attracting attention...
July 2016: New Microbiologica
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