keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Retrovirus

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228218/nonhuman-primate-models-and-understanding-the-pathogenesis-of-hiv-infection-and-aids
#1
Ronald S Veazey, Andrew A Lackner
Research using nonhuman primates (NHPs) as models for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) has resulted in tremendous achievements not only in the prevention and treatment of HIV, but also in biomedical research more broadly. Once considered a death sentence, HIV infection is now fairly well controlled with combination antiretroviral treatments, almost all of which were first tested for efficacy and safety in nonhuman primates or other laboratory animals...
December 8, 2017: ILAR Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222473/hypoxia-inducible-factor-1%C3%AE-is-essential-for-macrophage-mediated-erythroblast-proliferation-in-acute-friend-retrovirus-infection
#2
Timm Schreiber, Theresa Quinting, Ulf Dittmer, Joachim Fandrey, Kathrin Sutter
Macrophages are the frontline of defence against foreign microorganisms, including bacteria, parasites, and viruses. During acute viral infection, macrophages must invade the inflamed tissue toward low oxygen concentrations, where genetic cellular responses depend on hypoxia-inducible factors (HIF). In the study reported here we investigated the role of HIF-1α in macrophage function during acute retroviral infection. Wild-type and myeloid cell-specific HIF-1α knockout mice were infected with Friend retrovirus (FV), and immune response was analysed 7 and 10 days after infection...
December 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221178/cytotoxic-stress-induces-transfer-of-mitochondria-associated-human-endogenous-retroviral-rna-and-proteins-between-cancer-cells
#3
David Díaz-Carballo, Jacqueline Klein, Ali H Acikelli, Camilla Wilk, Sahitya Saka, Holger Jastrow, Gunther Wennemuth, Phillip Dammann, Urs Giger-Pabst, Veria Khosrawipour, Joachim Rassow, Mikalai Nienen, Dirk Strumberg
About 8 % of the human genome consists of human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs), which are relicts of ancient exogenous retroviral infections incurred during evolution. Although the majority of HERVs have functional gene defects or epigenetic modifications, many of them are still able to produce retroviral proteins that have been proposed to be involved in cellular transformation and cancer development. We found that, in chemo-resistant U87RETO glioblastoma cells, cytotoxic stress induced by etoposide promotes accumulation and large-scale fission of mitochondria, associated with the detection of HERV-WE1 (syncytin-1) and HERV-FRD1 (syncytin-2) in these organelles...
November 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218082/functional-characterization-of-cxcr4-in-mediating-the-expression-of-protein-c-system-in-experimental-ulcerative-colitis
#4
Xuhong Lin, Huichao Wang, Yuxia Li, Jingnan Yang, Ruilin Yang, Dandan Wei, Junjie Zhang, Desheng Yang, Bin Wang, Xuequn Ren, Guanchang Cheng
The present study aimed to explore the role of CXCR4 and protein C system (PCS) in the experimental ulcerative colitis (UC). The expression of CXCR3, CCR10, and CXCR4 in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis mouse model was measured by immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis. In vitro studies with microvascular endothelial cells (MVECs) were performed. The expression of endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR) and thrombomodulin (TM) were detected by RT-PCR and western blot analysis. Activities of protein C (PC), protein S (PS), activated PC (APC) were evaluated in cells pre-treated with JNK inhibitor SP600125 and c-Jun silencing...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217824/soluble-tau-has-devastating-effects-on-the-structural-plasticity-of-hippocampal-granule-neurons
#5
M Bolós, N Pallas-Bazarra, J Terreros-Roncal, J R Perea, J Jurado-Arjona, J Ávila, M Llorens-Martín
Tau is a neuronal microtubule-associated protein with countless physiological functions. Although the detrimental effects of insoluble aggregated Tau have been widely studied, recent evidence supports the notion that soluble Tau (composed mostly of monomers and dimers) is also toxic for neurons. Here we evaluated the long-term impact of a single stereotaxic injection of human soluble Tau on hippocampal granule neurons in mice. At the ultrastructural level, soluble Tau reduced the number of afferent synapses and caused a dramatic depletion of synaptic vesicles both in afferent and efferent synapses...
December 8, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217690/re-positioning-of-somatic-golgi-apparatus-is-essential-for-the-dendritic-establishment-of-adult-born-hippocampal-neurons
#6
Sneha Rao, Gregory W Kirschen, Joanna Szczurkowska, Adrian Di Antonio, Jia Wang, Shaoyu Ge, Maya Shelly
New dentate granule cells are continuously generated, and integrate into the pre-existing hippocampal network in the adult brain. How an adult-born neuron with initially simple spindle-like morphology develops into a complex dentate granule cell (DGC), consisting of a single apical dendrite with further branches, remains largely unknown. Here, using retroviruses to birth-date and manipulate newborn neurons, we examined initial dendritic formation, and possible underlying mechanisms. We found that GFP-expressing newborn cells began to establish a DGC-like morphology at around 7 days after birth, with a primary dendrite pointing to the molecular layer, but at this stage, with several neurites in the neurogenic zone...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213273/targeting-trim5%C3%AE-in-hiv-cure-strategies-for-the-crispr-cas9-era
#7
Daryl Anne Victoria Weatherley, Michael Terence Boswell, Sarah L Rowland-Jones
In the past decade, studies of innate immune activity against HIV-1 and other retroviruses have revealed a powerful array of host factors that can attack the virus at various stages of its life cycle in human and primate cells, raising the prospect that these antiviral factors could be manipulated in immunotherapeutic strategies for HIV infection. This has not proved straightforward: while HIV accessory genes encode proteins that subvert or destroy many of these restriction factors, others, such as human TRIM5α show limited potency against HIV-1...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211501/viral-subversion-of-apobec3s-lessons-for-anti-tumor-immunity-and-tumor-immunotherapy
#8
Faezeh Borzooee, Mahdi Asgharpour, Emma Quinlan, Michael D Grant, Mani Larijani
APOBEC3s (A3) are endogenous DNA-editing enzymes that are expressed in immune cells including T lymphocytes. A3s target and mutate the genomes of retroviruses that infect immune tissues such as the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Therefore, A3s were classically defined as host anti-viral innate immune factors. In contrast, we and others showed that A3s can also benefit the virus by mediating escape from adaptive immune recognition and drugs. Crucially, whether A3-mediated mutations help or hinder HIV, is not up to chance...
December 6, 2017: International Reviews of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210109/xenotransplantation-back-to-the-future
#9
REVIEW
Raphael P H Meier, Yannick D Muller, Alexandre Balaphas, Philippe Morel, Manuel Pascual, Jörg D Seebach, Leo H Buhler
The field of xenotransplantation has fluctuated between great optimism and doubts over the last 50 years. The initial clinical attempts were extremely ambitious but faced technical and ethical issues that prompted the research community to go back to preclinical studies. Important players left the field due to perceived xenozoonotic risks and the lack of progress in pig-to-non-human-primate transplant models. Initial apparently unsurmountable issues appear now to be possible to overcome due to progress of genetic engineering, allowing the generation of multiple-xenoantigen knockout pigs that express human transgenes and the genome-wide inactivation of porcine endogenous retroviruses...
December 5, 2017: Transplant International: Official Journal of the European Society for Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209326/retroviruses-as-myeloid-cell-riders-what-natural-human-siglec-1-knockouts-tell-us-about-pathogenesis
#10
Javier Martinez-Picado, Paul J McLaren, Amalio Telenti, Nuria Izquierdo-Useros
Myeloid cells initiate immune responses and are crucial to control infections. In the case of retroviruses, however, myeloid cells also promote pathogenesis by enabling viral dissemination; a process extensively studied in vitro using human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). This viral hijacking mechanism does not rely on productive myeloid cell infection but requires HIV-1 capture via Siglec-1/CD169, a receptor expressed on myeloid cells that facilitates the infection of bystander target cells. Murine retroviruses are also recognized by Siglec-1, and this interaction is required for robust retroviral infection in vivo...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208424/evolutionary-studies-on-the-betaretrovirus-rerv-h-in-the-leporidae-family-reveal-an-endogenization-in-the-ancestor-of-oryctolagus-bunolagus-and-pentalagus-at-9-million-years-ago
#11
Patricia de Sousa-Pereira, Joana Abrantes, Hanna-Mari Baldauf, Pedro José Esteves
RERV-H was first identified in human tissues and mistaken for a human exogenous retrovirus. However, the integration sites carried by this virus showed that it was instead a European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) endogenous retrovirus. The first clones retrieved from European rabbit samples represented defective proviruses, although estimation of proviral copy numbers found in the European rabbit genome ranged from hundreds to thousands. Screening for the presence of RERV-H showed the absence of the virus in two other lagomorphs, pika (Ochotona) and hares (Lepus), which diverged from rabbits about 35 and 12 million years ago, respectively...
December 2, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203150/retroviral-and-lentiviral-safety-analysis-of-gene-modified-t-cell-products-and-infused-hiv-and-oncology-patients
#12
Katherine T Marcucci, Julie K Jadlowsky, Wei-Ting Hwang, Megan Suhoski-Davis, Vanessa E Gonzalez, Irina Kulikovskaya, Minnal Gupta, Simon F Lacey, Gabriela Plesa, Anne Chew, J Joseph Melenhorst, Bruce L Levine, Carl H June
Replication-competent retrovirus/lentivirus (RCR/L) and insertional oncogenesis are potential safety risks with integrating viruses in gene-modified cell therapies. As such, the Food and Drug Administration guidances outline RCR/L-monitoring methods throughout the entire gene therapy treatment cycle. We present data for 17 vector lots, 375 manufactured T cell products, and 308 patients post-infusion across both HIV and oncology indications, showing no evidence of RCR/L. Given our data, a Poisson probability model estimates that a single patient, or a group of patients, would need to be followed for at least 52...
October 20, 2017: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202119/enrichment-of-retroviral-sequences-in-brain-tissue-from-patients-with-severe-demyelinating-diseases
#13
J D Kriesel, P J Bhetariya, B K Chan, T Wilson, K F Fischer
Background: Our group has used deep sequencing to identify viral RNA signatures in human brain specimens. We have previously used this method to detect HSV1, GBV-C, and measles virus sequence in brain tissue from deceased donors. Deep sequencing was performed on brain specimens from a cohort of patients who died with progressive forms of MS, revealing evidence of increased expression of some human endogenous retrovirus (HERV) domains. Objectives: Identify RNA sequences and new antigens involved in the pathogenesis of MS...
August 2017: Journal of Emerging Diseases and Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199607/transposable-elements-human-endogenous-retroviruses-in-cancer
#14
Muhammad Imran Qadir, Muhammad Usman, Muhammad Sajid Hamid Akash
Transposable elements (TEs) have shown a great significance in regulatory elements research, being responsible for different types of cancers. They are divided into three classes on the basis of their mode of transposition, structural properties, and their homology with DNA sequence. In evaluating their role in cancers and other pathologies, researchers have found extensive evidence of their involvement. TEs can also be used as genetic markers for cancers and help in identifying potential therapeutic targets...
2017: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198909/hiv-1-drug-resistance-before-initiation-or-re-initiation-of-first-line-antiretroviral-therapy-in-low-income-and-middle-income-countries-a-systematic-review-and-meta-regression-analysis
#15
Ravindra K Gupta, John Gregson, Neil Parkin, Hiwot Haile-Selassie, Amilcar Tanuri, Liliana Andrade Forero, Pontiano Kaleebu, Christine Watera, Avelin Aghokeng, Nicholus Mutenda, Janet Dzangare, San Hone, Zaw Zaw Hang, Judith Garcia, Zully Garcia, Paola Marchorro, Enrique Beteta, Amalia Giron, Raph Hamers, Seth Inzaule, Lisa M Frenkel, Michael H Chung, Tulio de Oliveira, Deenan Pillay, Kogie Naidoo, Ayesha Kharsany, Ruthiran Kugathasan, Teresa Cutino, Gillian Hunt, Santiago Avila Rios, Meg Doherty, Michael R Jordan, Silvia Bertagnolio
BACKGROUND: Pretreatment drug resistance in people initiating or re-initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) containing non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) might compromise HIV control in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). We aimed to assess the scale of this problem and whether it is associated with the intiation or re-initiation of ART in people who have had previous exposure to antiretroviral drugs. METHODS: This study was a systematic review and meta-regression analysis...
November 30, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198467/using-crispr-to-inactivate-endogenous-retroviruses-in-pigs-an-important-step-toward-safe-xenotransplantation
#16
Michael J Ross, P Toby Coates
Xenotransplantation could theoretically provide an unlimited supply of organs for patients living with end-stage kidney disease and other end-stage organ failure, but severe rejection and concerns about possible transmission of zoonotic infections remain important obstacles. In a recent study, investigators used CRISPR-cas9 to generate genetically modified pigs in which all endogenous retroviruses were inactivated. This approach may address one important barrier to the feasibility of clinical trials of xenotransplantation...
November 29, 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197389/foamy-virus-zoonotic-infections
#17
Delia M Pinto-Santini, Carolyn R Stenbak, Maxine L Linial
BACKGROUND: Foamy viruses (FV) are ancient complex retroviruses that differ from orthoretroviruses such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and murine leukemia virus (MLV) and comprise a distinct subfamily of retroviruses, the Spumaretrovirinae. FV are ubiquitous in their natural hosts, which include cows, cats, and nonhuman primates (NHP). FV are transmitted mainly through saliva and appear nonpathogenic by themselves, but they may increase morbidity of other pathogens in coinfections...
December 2, 2017: Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196678/resolving-kangaroo-phylogeny-and-overcoming-retrotransposon-ascertainment-bias
#18
William G Dodt, Susanne Gallus, Matthew J Phillips, Maria A Nilsson
Reconstructing phylogeny from retrotransposon insertions is often limited by access to only a single reference genome, whereby support for clades that do not include the reference taxon cannot be directly observed. Here we have developed a new statistical framework that accounts for this ascertainment bias, allowing us to employ phylogenetically powerful retrotransposon markers to explore the radiation of the largest living marsupials, the kangaroos and wallabies of the genera Macropus and Wallabia. An exhaustive in silico screening of the tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii) reference genome followed by experimental screening revealed 29 phylogenetically informative retrotransposon markers belonging to a family of endogenous retroviruses...
December 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196608/rhesus-monkey-trim5alpha-spry-domain-contributes-to-ap-1-activation
#19
Lei Na, Yan-Dong Tang, Cuihui Wang, Cong Liu, Xiaojun Wang
TRIM5α is an important host restriction factor which could potently block retrovirus infection. The SPRY domain of TRIM5α mediates post-entry restriction by recognition of and binding to the retroviral capsid. Human TRIM5α also functions as an innate immune sensor to activate AP-1 and NF-κB signaling, which subsequently restrict virus replication. Previous studies have shown that the AP-1 and NF-κB signaling activation relies on the RING motif of TRIM5α. In this study, we have demonstrated that the SPRY domain is essential for rhesus macaca TRIM5α to activate AP-1, but not NF-κB signaling...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187540/a-general-model-for-retroviral-capsid-pattern-recognition-by-trim5-proteins
#20
Jonathan M Wagner, Devin E Christensen, Akash Bhattacharya, Daria M Dawidziak, Marcin D Roganowicz, Yueping Wan, Ruth A Pumroy, Borries Demeler, Dmitri N Ivanov, Barbie K Ganser-Pornillos, Wesley I Sundquist, Owen Pornillos
Restriction factors are intrinsic cellular defense proteins that have evolved to block microbial infections. Retroviruses such as HIV-1 are restricted by TRIM5 proteins, which recognize the viral capsid shell that surrounds, organizes, and protects the viral genome. TRIM5α uses a SPRY domain to bind capsids with low intrinsic affinity (KD >1 mM), and therefore requires higher-order assembly into a hexagonal lattice to generate sufficient avidity for productive capsid recognition. TRIMCyp, on the other hand, binds HIV-1 capsids through a cyclophilin A domain, which has a well-defined binding site and higher (KD ∼10 μM) affinity for isolated capsid subunits...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Virology
keyword
keyword
11880
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"