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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446667/disparate-contributions-of-human-retrovirus-capsid-subdomains-to-gag-gag-oligomerization-virus-morphology-and-particle-biogenesis
#1
Jessica L Martin, Luiza Mendonça, Isaac Angert, Joachim D Mueller, Wei Zhang, Louis M Mansky
The capsid domain (CA) of the retroviral Gag protein is a primary determinant of Gag oligomerization, which is a critical step for immature Gag lattice formation and virus particle budding. Although the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) CA carboxy-terminal domain (CTD) is essential for CA-CA interactions, the CA CTD has been suggested to be largely dispensable for human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) particle biogenesis. To more clearly define the roles of the HTLV-1 CA amino-terminal domain (NTD) and CA CTD in particle biogenesis, we generated and analyzed a panel of Gag proteins with chimeric HIV-1/HTLV-1 CA domains...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446240/molecular-mechanisms-by-which-herv-k-gag-interferes-with-hiv-1-gag-assembly-and-particle-infectivity
#2
Kazuaki Monde, Hiromi Terasawa, Yusuke Nakano, Ferri Soheilian, Kunio Nagashima, Yosuke Maeda, Akira Ono
BACKGROUND: Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs), the remnants of ancient retroviral infections, constitute approximately 8% of human genomic DNA. Since HERV-K Gag expression is induced by HIV-1 Tat in T cells, induced HERV-K proteins could affect HIV-1 replication. Indeed, previously we showed that HERV-K Gag and HIV-1 Gag coassemble and that this appears to correlate with the effect of HERV-K Gag expression on HIV-1 particle release and its infectivity. We further showed that coassembly requires both MA and NC domains, which presumably serve as scaffolding for Gag via their abilities to bind membrane and RNA, respectively...
April 26, 2017: Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445867/the-mir-106a-363xpcl1-mirna-cluster-induces-murine-t-cell-lymphoma-despite-transcriptional-activation-of-the-p27kip1-cell-cycle-inhibitor
#3
Daniel A Kuppers, Thomas M Schmitt, Harry C Hwang, Lavanya Samraj, Bruce E Clurman, Matthew L Fero
The miR-106a~363 cluster encodes 6 miRNAs on the X-chromosome which are abundant in blood cells and overexpressed in a variety of malignancies. The constituent miRNA of miR-106a~363 have functional activities in vitro that are predicted to be both oncogenic and tumor suppressive, yet little is known about their physiological functions in vivo. Mature miR-106a~363 (Mirc2) miRNAs are processed from an intragenic, non-protein encoding gene referred to as Xpcl1 (or Kis2), situated at an X-chromosomal locus frequently targeted by retroviruses in murine lymphomas...
April 7, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444910/characterization-of-porcine-endogenous-retrovirus-expression-in-neonatal-and-adult-pig-pancreatic-islets
#4
Nizar I Mourad, Claire Crossan, Victoria Cruikshank, Linda Scobie, Pierre Gianello
BACKGROUND: Pig islets represent an alternative to the current modes of treatment for patients with diabetes. However, the concerns over pathogen transmission including that of PERV limit their immediate, widespread usage in humans. It has been previously demonstrated that PERV copy number and particularly expression levels can vary considerably between individuals and within different tissues of a single animal. In general, expression levels have been found to be particularly low in the pancreas compared to other porcine tissues suggesting a reduced risk associated with the use of this tissue...
April 26, 2017: Xenotransplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439515/endogenous-retroviruses-with-us-and-against-us
#5
REVIEW
Thomas J Meyer, Jimi L Rosenkrantz, Lucia Carbone, Shawn L Chavez
Mammalian genomes are scattered with thousands of copies of endogenous retroviruses (ERVs), mobile genetic elements that are relics of ancient retroviral infections. After inserting copies into the germ line of a host, most ERVs accumulate mutations that prevent the normal assembly of infectious viral particles, becoming trapped in host genomes and unable to leave to infect other cells. While most copies of ERVs are inactive, some are transcribed and encode the proteins needed to generate new insertions at novel loci...
2017: Frontiers in Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437635/three-cysteine-residues-of-slc52a1-a-receptor-for-the-porcine-endogenous-retrovirus-a-perv-a-play-a-critical-role-in-cell-surface-expression-and-infectivity
#6
Winston Colon-Moran, Takele Argaw, Carolyn A Wilson
Porcine endogenous retrovirus-A (PERV-A), a gammaretrovirus, infects human cells in vitro, thus raising the potential risk of cross-species transmission in xenotransplantation. Two members of the solute carrier family 52 (SLC52A1 and SLC52A2) are PERV-A receptors. Site-directed mutagenesis of the cDNA encoding SLC52A1 identified that only one of two putative glycosylation signals is occupied by glycans. In addition, we showed that glycosylation of SLC52A1 is not necessary for PERV-A receptor function. We also identified that at a minimum, three cysteine residues are sufficient for SLC52A1 cell surface expression...
April 20, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436273/proteome-analysis-of-sheep-b-lymphocytes-in-the-course-of-bovine-leukemia-virus-induced-leukemia
#7
Michal Reichert
Presented are the results of a study of the expression pattern of different proteins in the course of bovine leukemia virus-induced leukemia in experimental sheep and I discuss how the obtained data may be useful in gaining a better understanding of the pathogenesis of the disease, diagnosis, and for the selection of possible therapeutic targets. In cattle, the disease is characterized by life-long persistent lymphocytosis leading to leukemia/lymphoma in about 5% of infected animals. In sheep, as opposed to cattle, the course of the disease is always fatal and clinical symptoms usually occur within a three-year period after infection...
January 1, 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435696/highlights-from-the-24-th-conference-on-retroviruses-and-opportunistic-infections-13-16-february-2017-seattle-washington-usa
#8
EDITORIAL
Trevor A Crowell, Hermione Lyall, Eva Malatinkova, Sanjay Bhagani, Denise Hsu, Donn J Colby, Christina Polyak, Christina Psomas, Andrew Hill, Esther N Gathogo, Wim Trypsteen, Linos Vandekerckhove, Sabine Kinloch
From the 13th to 16th February 2017, researchers from around the world convened for the 24th annual Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI) at the Washington State Convention Center in Seattle, Washington. The conference was organised by the International Antiviral Society-USA (IAS-USA) in partnership with the CROI Foundation. The conference included over 1000 oral and poster presentations of peer-reviewed original research as well as lectures and symposia featuring insights from leading basic, translational and clinical researchers...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Virus Eradication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429755/opossum-apobec1-is-a-dna-mutator-with-retrovirus-and-retroelement-restriction-activity
#9
Terumasa Ikeda, Mayuko Shimoda, Diako Ebrahimi, John L VandeBerg, Reuben S Harris, Atsushi Koito, Kazuhiko Maeda
APOBEC3s (A3s) are single-stranded DNA cytosine deaminases that provide innate immune defences against retroviruses and mobile elements. A3s are specific to eutherian mammals because no direct homologs exist at the syntenic genomic locus in metatherian (marsupial) or prototherian (monotreme) mammals. However, the A3s in these species have the likely evolutionary precursors, the antibody gene deaminase AID and the RNA/DNA editing enzyme APOBEC1 (A1). Here, we used cell culture-based assays to determine whether opossum A1 restricts the infectivity of retroviruses including human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and the mobility of LTR/non-LTR retrotransposons...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427179/comprehensive-mapping-of-the-effects-of-azacitidine-on-dna-methylation-repressive-permissive-histone-marks-and-gene-expression-in-primary-cells-from-patients-with-mds-and-mds-related-disease
#10
Magnus Tobiasson, Hani Abdulkadir, Andreas Lennartsson, Shintaro Katayama, Francesco Marabita, Ayla De Paepe, Mohsen Karimi, Kaarel Krjutskov, Elisabet Einarsdottir, Michael Grövdal, Monika Jansson, Asmaa Ben Azenkoud, Lina Corddedu, Sören Lehmann, Karl Ekwall, Juha Kere, Eva Hellström-Lindberg, Johanna Ungerstedt
Azacitidine (Aza) is first-line treatment for patients with high-risk myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), although its precise mechanism of action is unknown. We performed the first study to globally evaluate the epigenetic effects of Aza on MDS bone marrow progenitor cells assessing gene expression (RNA seq), DNA methylation (Illumina 450k) and the histone modifications H3K18ac and H3K9me3 (ChIP seq). Aza induced a general increase in gene expression with 924 significantly upregulated genes but this increase showed no correlation with changes in DNA methylation or H3K18ac, and only a weak association with changes in H3K9me3...
February 28, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420154/mechanisms-of-ltr-retroelement-transposition-lessons-from-drosophila-melanogaster
#11
REVIEW
Lidia Nefedova, Alexander Kim
Long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons occupy a special place among all mobile genetic element families. The structure of LTR retrotransposons that have three open reading frames is identical to DNA forms of retroviruses that are integrated into the host genome. Several lines of evidence suggest that LTR retrotransposons share a common ancestry with retroviruses and thus are highly relevant to understanding mechanisms of transposition. Drosophila melanogaster is an exceptionally convenient model for studying the mechanisms of retrotransposon movement because many such elements in its genome are transpositionally active...
April 16, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419107/characterization-of-a-transgenic-mouse-model-exhibiting-spontaneous-lung-adenocarcinomas-with-a-metastatic-phenotype
#12
Hsuen-Wen Chang, Zih-Miao Lin, Min-Ju Wu, Li-Yu Wang, Yen-Hung Chow, Shih Sheng Jiang, Hui-Ju Ch'ang, Vincent Hs Chang
Developing lung cancer in mouse models that display similarities of both phenotype and genotype will undoubtedly provide further and better insights into lung tumor biology. Moreover, a high degree of pathophysiological similarity between lung tumors from mouse models and their human counterparts will make it possible to use these mouse models for preclinical tests. Ovine pulmonary adenocarcinomas (OPAs) present the same symptoms as adenocarcinomas in humans and are caused by a betaretrovirus. OPAs have served as an exquisite model of carcinogenesis for human lung adenocarcinomas...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415995/type-i-interferon-signaling-is-required-for-the-apobec3-rfv3-dependent-neutralizing-antibody-response-but-not-innate-retrovirus-restriction
#13
Bradley S Barrett, Michael S Harper, Sean T Jones, Kejun Guo, Karl J Heilman, Ross M Kedl, Kim J Hasenkrug, Mario L Santiago
BACKGROUND: APOBEC3/Rfv3 restricts acute Friend retrovirus (FV) infection and promotes virus-specific neutralizing antibody (NAb) responses. Classical Rfv3 studies utilized FV stocks containing lactate-dehydrogenase elevating virus (LDV), a potent type I interferon inducer. Previously, we showed that APOBEC3 is required for the anti-FV activity of exogenous IFN-alpha treatment. Thus, type I interferon receptor (IFNAR) signaling may be required for the APOBEC3/Rfv3 response. RESULTS: To test if the APOBEC3/Rfv3 response is dependent on type I IFN signaling, we infected IFNAR knockout versus IFNAR/APOBEC3 double-knockout mice with FV/LDV or LDV-free FV, and evaluated acute FV infection and subsequent NAb titers...
April 17, 2017: Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415618/circular-rna-alterations-are-involved-in-resistance-to-avian-leukosis-virus-subgroup-j-induced-tumor-formation-in-chickens
#14
Xinheng Zhang, Yiming Yan, Xiaoya Lei, Aijun Li, Huanmin Zhang, Zhenkai Dai, Xinjian Li, Weiguo Chen, Wencheng Lin, Feng Chen, Jingyun Ma, Qingmei Xie
Avian leukosis virus subgroup (ALV-J) is an oncogenic neoplasm-inducing retrovirus that causes significant economic losses in the poultry industry. Recent studies have demonstrated circular RNAs (circRNAs) are implicated in pathogenic processes; however, no research has indicated circRNAs are involved in resistance to disease. In this study, over 1800 circRNAs were detected by circRNA sequencing of liver tissues from ALV-J-resistant (n = 3) and ALV-J-susceptible chickens (n = 3). 32 differentially expressed circRNAs were selected for analyzing including 12 upregulated in ALV-J-resistant chickens and 20 upregulated in ALV-J-susceptible chickens, besides, the top five microRNAs (miRNAs) for 12 upregulated circRNAs in ALV-J-resistant chickens were analyzed...
March 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412826/prevalence-of-human-t-lymphotropic-virus-type-1-htlv-1-infection-in-patients-with-hematologic-disorders-and-non-hematologic-malignancies-in-a-tertiary-referral-hospital
#15
Hasan Jalaeikhoo, Mosayeb Soleymani, Mohsen Rajaeinejad, Manoutchehr Keyhani
BACKGROUND: Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) was the first retrovirus identified in human. The current evidence is quite scarce regarding the potential role of HTLV-1 in pathogenesis of hematologic disorders and non-hematologic malignancies. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of HTLV-1 infection in patients with hematologic disorders and non-hematologic malignancies. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 505 cases of definite diagnosis of hematologic disorders including malignancies as well as non-malignant disorders such as polycythemia and myelofibrosis and non-hematologic malignancies referred to the hematology and medical oncology ward at Army Hospital 501 from January 2015 to January 2016...
April 2017: Archives of Iranian Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410613/evaluation-of-six-serological-elisa-kits-available-in-italy-as-screening-tests-for-equine-infectious-anaemia-surveillance
#16
Roberto Nardini, Gian Luca Autorino, Charles J Issel, R Frank Cook, Ida Ricci, Raffaele Frontoso, Francesca Rosone, Maria Teresa Scicluna
BACKGROUND: ELISAs are known to have a higher diagnostic sensitivity than the agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) when employed for serological diagnosis of equine infectious anaemia (EIA). For this purpose, an "in-house" and five commercial ELISAs available in Italy were assessed by the National Reference Centre for EIA for their analytic specificity (Sp); precocity, defined as capability of detecting first antibodies produced during a new infection; precision based on repeatability and reproducibility, estimated from the coefficient of variation (CV); accuracy, estimated from multiple K and relative Sp and sensitivity (Se)...
April 14, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406354/human-endogenous-retroviruses-and-multiple-sclerosis-causation-association-or-after-effect
#17
Elena Morandi, Rachael E Tarlinton, Radu Tanasescu, Bruno Gran
From the early days of MS discovery, infections have been proposed as a possible cause of the disease. In the last three decades, an association between human endogenous retrovirus expression and MS has been further investigated and confirmed. Nevertheless, the role of such retroviruses in the disease needs clarification. In this review, we introduce MSRV/HERV-W and describe its association with MS. We then summarize the evidence for the involvement of MSRV/HERV-W in the aetiology and progression of MS and its possible role as biomarker and drug target...
April 1, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403667/a-computational-model-for-predicting-transmembrane-regions-of-retroviruses
#18
Ze Liu, Hongqiang Lv, Jiuqiang Han, Ruiling Liu
Transmembrane region (TR) is a conserved region of transmembrane (TM) subunit in envelope (env) glycoprotein of retrovirus. Evidences have shown that TR is responsible for anchoring the env glycoprotein on the lipid bilayer and substitution of the TR for a covalently linked lipid anchor abrogates fusion. However, universal software could not achieve sufficient accuracy as TM in env also has several motifs such as signal peptide, fusion peptide and immunosuppressive domain composed largely of hydrophobic residues...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398634/ski-regulates-smads-and-taz-signaling-to-suppress-lung-cancer-progression
#19
Mian Xie, Xiaojun Wu, Jinjun Zhang, Jiexia Zhang, Xiangxiang Li
Ski, the transforming protein of the avian Sloan-Kettering retrovirus, displays both pro-oncogenic and anti-oncogenic activities in human cancer. The mechanisms underlying these conflicting observations have not been fully understood. Herein, we investigated the mechanism underlying the tumor suppressor activity of Ski. To investigate the effect of Ski re-activation on TGF-β and Hippo/TAZ pathway, we measured its effect on the endogenous Smad target genes (PAI-1 and P15(INK4B) ) and TAZ target gene CTGF. The results revealed that Ski exerted its inhibitory activity in TGF-β1/Smad signaling pathway...
April 11, 2017: Molecular Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398238/ltr-retrotransposons-from-bdelloid-rotifers-capture-additional-orfs-shared-between-highly-diverse-retroelement-types
#20
Fernando Rodriguez, Aubrey W Kenefick, Irina R Arkhipova
Rotifers of the class Bdelloidea, microscopic freshwater invertebrates, possess a highlydiversified repertoire of transposon families, which, however, occupy less than 4% of genomic DNA in the sequenced representative Adineta vaga. We performed a comprehensive analysis of A. vaga retroelements, and found that bdelloid long terminal repeat (LTR)retrotransposons, in addition to conserved open reading frame (ORF) 1 and ORF2 corresponding to gag and pol genes, code for an unusually high variety of ORF3 sequences...
April 11, 2017: Viruses
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