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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632161/endogenous-retroviral-insertions-indicate-a-secondary-introduction-of-domestic-sheep-lineages-to-the-caucasus-and-central-asia-between-the-bronze-and-iron-age
#1
Oskar Schroeder, Norbert Benecke, Kai Frölich, Zuogang Peng, Kai Kaniuth, Leonid Sverchkov, Sabine Reinhold, Andrey Belinskiy, Arne Ludwig
Sheep were one of the first livestock species domesticated by humans. After initial domestication in the Middle East they were spread across Eurasia. The modern distribution of endogenous Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus insertions in domestic sheep breeds suggests that over the course of millennia, successive introductions of improved lineages and selection for wool quality occurred in the Mediterranean region and most of Asia. Here we present a novel ancient DNA approach using data of endogenous retroviral insertions in Bronze and Iron Age domestic sheep from the Caucasus and Pamir mountain areas...
June 20, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627735/genetic-alterations-in-adult-t-cell-leukemia-lymphoma
#2
REVIEW
Yasunori Kogure, Keisuke Kataoka
Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) is a peripheral T-cell neoplasm with a dismal prognosis, caused by human T-cell leukemia virus type-1 (HTLV-1) retrovirus. A long latency period from HTLV-1 infection to ATL onset suggests that not only HTLV-1 proteins, such as Tax and HBZ, but also additional genetic and/or epigenetic events are required for ATL development. Although many studies have demonstrated the biological functions of viral genes, alterations of cellular genes associated with ATL have not been fully investigated...
June 19, 2017: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622858/a-novel-avian-retrovirus-associated-with-lymphocytoma-isolated-from-a-local-chinese-flock-induced-significantly-reduced-growth-and-immune-suppression-in-spf-chickens
#3
Xiaoping Wu, Jinrong Zhao, Yukun Zeng, Yijian Wu, Quanxi Wang, Baocheng Wu, Yifan Huang
Avian Leukosis Viruses (ALVs) are associated with neoplasias, immune suppression and reduced performance in chicken flocks. In the present study, a naturally occurring recombinant strain of ALV (FJ15HT0) was isolated from an infected flock of Chinese "Hetian" chickens, and was subsequently identified as an exogenous ALV by immuno-fluorescence assay (IFA), PCR and following entire proviral DNA nucleotide sequencing. This isolate is revealed as a novel recombinant virus, lacking viral oncogenes, with the gp85 (93...
June 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622345/the-infection-staging-and-profile-of-genotypic-distribution-and-drug-resistance-mutation-among-the-human-immunodeficiency-virus-1-infected-blood-donors-from-five-chinese-blood-centers-2012-2014
#4
Peibin Zeng, Yu Liu, Miao He, Jingxing Wang, Sheila Keating, Wei Mao, Mei Huang, Hongli Ma, Weilan He, Xinhong Bi, Dan Liao, Michael Busch, Paul Ness, Jing Liu, Hua Shan
The increasing complexity and diversity of the human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) infections challenge the disease control and anti-retrovirus treatment in China. The infection stages and molecular characteristics of HIV-1 from infected Chinese blood donors were examined to shed light on the HIV genotype distribution and the status of drug resistance mutations (DRMs) in the changing HIV epidemic in China. Western blot (WB) confirmed HIV-1 positive plasma samples were collected from blood donors at five Chinese blood centers from April 16, 2012, through June 30, 2014...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608127/downregulation-of-histone-methyltransferase-ehmt2-in-cd4-t-cells-may-protect-htlv-1-infected-individuals-against-ham-tsp-development
#5
Camila Schoueri Colaço, Adriano Reis de Matos, Martha Silva Estrêla, Maurício Cristiano Rocha-Júnior, Kátia Kaori Otaguiri, Evandra Strazza Rodrigues, Osvaldo Massaiti Takayanagui, Dimas Tadeu Covas, Simone Kashima, Fabio Pittella Silva, Rodrigo Haddad
Approximately 5% of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1)-infected individuals will develop one of the HTLV-1-related diseases, such as HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) or adult T-cell leukemia. However, the mechanisms responsible for the appearance of symptoms have not been fully clarified. It is believed that viral factors, host genetic and epigenetic mechanisms are implicated in this process. Studies have shown the involvement of histone methyltransferases in retrovirus infection, but no study observed their expression in HTLV-1-infected patients...
June 12, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605635/expression-of-herv-k108-envelope-interferes-with-hiv-1-production
#6
Sandra N Terry, Lara Manganaro, Alvaro Cuesta-Dominguez, Daria Brinzevich, Viviana Simon, Lubbertus C F Mulder
The human endogenous retroviruses (HERV)-K of the HML-2 group include full-length or near full-length elements encoding functional proteins, and are classified as type-1 or type-2 (type-1 has a deletion in the 5' end of the env gene). Because proteins of different retroviruses can interact, we hypothesized that HERV-K envelope (Env) could influence HIV-1 replication. Here we describe the negative effect of envelope expression of certain type-2 HERV-Ks on HIV-1 production. All HIV-1 and SIV strains tested were susceptible to various degrees to inhibition by the HERV-K108 envelope...
June 9, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598793/croi-2017-highlights-of-advances-in-viral-hepatitis-and-liver-fibrosis
#7
Anne F Luetkemeyer, David L Wyles
At the 2017 Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI) in Seattle, Washington, hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection was a major focus in the context of HIV-associated liver disease. Well-tolerated direct-acting antiviral (DAA) regimens have enabled effective treatment of the populations that are hardest to cure, including those with decompensated cirrhosis, and many studies examined the impact of HCV cure on hepatitis and extrahepatic outcomes. Scaling up access to DAA, and the impact that their universal availability can have on reducing prevalence were key topics...
May 2017: Topics in Antiviral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598792/croi-2017-complications-and-comorbidities-of-hiv-disease-and-its-treatment
#8
Judith S Currier, Diane V Havlir
Complications of HIV disease remained a major focus at the 2017 Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI), and included studies focused on noncommunicable chronic diseases (eg, cardiovascular disease, obesity, bone disease, and malignancies) and opportunistic infections (Mycobacterium tuberculosis and cryptococcosis). Progress in identifying predictors of specific complications as well as interventions for the prevention and treatment of these comorbidities are summarized below.
May 2017: Topics in Antiviral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598791/croi-2017-neurologic-complications-of-hiv-infection
#9
Serena S Spudich, Beau M Ances
The brain is a major target for HIV infection and is a potential viral reservoir even in virologically well-controlled HIV-infected individuals. Data presented at the 2017 Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI) suggested that during early HIV infection, CD4+ T cells in the meninges and choroid plexus serve as an important early site of HIV infection in the central nervous system (CNS), with brain macrophages and microglial cells becoming an important source of viral replication with advancing disease...
May 2017: Topics in Antiviral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598790/croi-2017-advances-in-antiretroviral-therapy
#10
Joyce Jones, Barbara S Taylor, Hong-Van Tieu, Timothy J Wilkin
The 2017 Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI) featured exciting preclinical data on investigational antiretroviral agents with good in vitro efficacy and long half-lives. Investigational medications, including bictegravir, demonstrated excellent efficacy and tolerability, as did dual-agent therapy with dolutegravir paired with rilpivirine or with lamivudine. Dolutegravir monotherapy proved inadvisable due to virologic failure and resistance. The gap between high- and low-income settings along the HIV care continuum is narrowing, with Zimbabwe, Malawi, and Zambia approaching the 90-90-90 targets established by the joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), whereas communities in the Southern United States are falling behind...
May 2017: Topics in Antiviral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598789/croi-2017-hiv-epidemic-trends-and-advances-in-prevention
#11
Albert Y Liu, Susan P Buchbinder
At the 2017 Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI), trends in the HIV epidemic were highlighted, with decreasing HIV incidence reported across several countries, although key groups remain underdiagnosed and undertreated. In the United States, men who have sex with men (MSM) continue to comprise the largest number of new and undiagnosed HIV infections, with rising incidence in MSM 25 to 34 years old and Latino MSM. Phylogenetics are being used to identify rapidly growing HIV transmission clusters, which can inform prevention efforts...
May 2017: Topics in Antiviral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598788/croi-2017-basic-science-review
#12
Mario Stevenson
The Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI) continues to be the preeminent gathering for HIV/AIDS researchers. It provides a forum in which investigators involved in all aspects of research on HIV/AIDS and related conditions can present and be updated on the latest scientific developments in the field. In 2017, basic research continued to be strongly represented at the conference. Most of the presentations focused on mechanisms of viral persistence in the face of effective antiretroviral therapy as well as approaches to measuring viral reservoirs and intervening in those reservoirs...
May 2017: Topics in Antiviral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596939/undifferentiated-pleomorphic-sarcoma-and-the-importance-of-considering-the-oncogenic-and-immune-suppressant-role-of-the-human-t-cell-lymphotropic-virus-type-1-a-case-report
#13
Sergio Lupo, Carolina Berini, Camila Cánepa, Eduardo Santini Araujo, Mirna Biglione
INTRODUCTION: Soft-tissue sarcomas account for 0.7% of all malignant tumors, with an incidence rate of 3 per 100,000 persons/year. The undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma (UPS) with giant cells, a high grade tumor of soft tissue, is very unusual, especially in young adults before the age of 40. Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a human retrovirus, classified as group 1 human carcinogens by The International Agency for Research on Cancer, that causes an aggressive malignancy known as adult T-cell lymphoma/leukemia and a progressive chronic inflammatory neurological disease named HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP)...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595633/effects-of-mechanical-stimulation-on-the-reprogramming-of-somatic-cells-into-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#14
Young Mi Kim, Yun Gyeong Kang, So Hee Park, Myung-Kwan Han, Jae Ho Kim, Ji Won Shin, Jung-Woog Shin
BACKGROUND: Mechanical stimuli play important roles in the proliferation and differentiation of adult stem cells. However, few studies on their effects on induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have been published. METHODS: Human dermal fibroblasts were seeded onto flexible membrane-bottom plates, and infected with retrovirus expressing the four reprogramming factors OCT4, SOX2, KLF, and c-MYC (OSKM). The cells were subjected to equiaxial stretching (3% or 8% for 2, 4, or 7 days) and seeded on feeder cells (STO)...
June 8, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593618/rig-i-a-multifunctional-protein-beyond-a-pattern-recognition-receptor
#15
REVIEW
Xiao-Xiao Xu, Han Wan, Li Nie, Tong Shao, Li-Xin Xiang, Jian-Zhong Shao
It was widely known that retinoic acid inducible gene I (RIG-I) functions as a cytosolic pattern recognition receptor that initiates innate antiviral immunity by detecting exogenous viral RNAs. However, recent studies showed that RIG-I participates in other various cellular activities by sensing endogenous RNAs under different circumstances. For example, RIG-I facilitates the therapy resistance and expansion of breast cancer cells and promotes T cell-independent B cell activation through interferon signaling activation by recognizing non-coding RNAs and endogenous retroviruses in certain situations...
June 8, 2017: Protein & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592067/-combination-of-pp242-and-dasatinib-suppresses-the-progression-of-acute-myeloid-leukemia-in-a-mouse-model
#16
Y H Qu, H T Liu, F C He
Objective: To establish the acute myeloid leukemia (AML) mouse model, and to preliminarily investigate the efficiency of dasatinib, a tryosine kinase inhibitor, and PP242, an inhibitor of PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway in the development of AML. Methods: The lineage(-) (Lin(-)) cells of C57BL/6J were transduced with retrovirus carrying MSCV-MLL-AF9-IRES-GFP fusion gene. The transduced cells were transplanted into lethally irradiated recipient mice to induce AML, and then the AML mouse model were established...
May 30, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589743/rapid-and-sensitive-insulated-isothermal-pcr-for-point-of-need-feline-leukaemia-virus-detection
#17
Rebecca P Wilkes, Eman Anis, Dawn Dunbar, Pei-Yu A Lee, Yun-Long Tsai, Fu-Chun Lee, Hsiao-Fen G Chang, Hwa-Tang T Wang, Elizabeth M Graham
Objectives Feline leukaemia virus (FeLV), a gamma retrovirus, causes diseases of the feline haematopoietic system that are invariably fatal. Rapid and accurate testing at the point-of-need (PON) supports prevention of virus spread and management of clinical disease. This study evaluated the performance of an insulated isothermal PCR (iiPCR) that detects proviral DNA, and a reverse transcription (RT)-iiPCR that detects both viral RNA and proviral DNA, for FeLV detection at the PON. Methods Mycoplasma haemofelis, feline coronavirus, feline herpesvirus, feline calicivirus and feline immunodeficiency virus were used to test analytical specificity...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589355/germinal-center-formation-with-retrovirally-transduced-b-cells-for-determining-the-role-of-specific-molecules-in-vivo
#18
Rinako Nakagawa
Retrovirus-mediated gene transfer has become a powerful tool to investigate roles of specific molecules in B cells, due to its efficiency and expeditiousness. This technology is applicable to activated B cells in order to determine effects of a gene of interest during germinal center (GC) reactions in combination with adoptive transfer. To achieve this, B cells derived from SWHEL mice expressing hen egg lysozyme (HEL)-specific B cell receptors (BCR) are stimulated with HEL antigen in vivo and then with anti-CD40 antibody ex vivo...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589117/xmrv-and-public-health-the-retroviral-genome-is-not-a-suitable-template-for-diagnostic-pcr-and-its-association-with-myalgic-encephalomyelitis-chronic-fatigue-syndrome-appears-unreliable
#19
Simona Panelli, Lorenzo Lorusso, Alessandro Balestrieri, Giuseppe Lupo, Enrica Capelli
A few years ago, a highly significant association between the xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) and myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS), a complex debilitating disease of poorly understood etiology and no definite treatment, was reported in Science, raising concern for public welfare. Successively, the failure to reproduce these findings, and the suspect that the diagnostic PCR was vitiated by laboratory contaminations, led to the retraction of the paper. Notwithstanding, XMRV continued to be the subject of researches and public debates...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574960/conference-on-retroviruses-and-opportunistic-infections-2017-highlights
#20
Kristin N Harper
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 19, 2017: AIDS
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