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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458070/the-epigenetic-alterations-of-endogenous-retroelements-in-aging
#1
REVIEW
Maurizio Cardelli
Endogenous retroelements, transposons that mobilize through RNA intermediates, include some of the most abundant repetitive sequences of the human genome, such as Alu and LINE-1 sequences, and human endogenous retroviruses. Recent discoveries demonstrate that these mobile genetic elements not only act as intragenomic parasites, but also exert regulatory roles in living cells. The risk of genomic instability represented by endogenous retroelements is normally counteracted by a series of epigenetic control mechanisms which include, among the most important, CpG DNA methylation...
February 16, 2018: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452403/mechanisms-controlling-nucleic-acid-sensing-toll-like-receptors
#2
Kensuke Miyake, Takuma Shibata, Umeharu Ohto, Toshiyuki Shimizu, Shin-Ichiroh Saitoh, Ryutaro Fukui, Yusuke Murakami
Nucleic acid (NA)-sensing Toll-like receptors (TLRs) respond to DNA/RNA derived from pathogens and dead cells. Structural studies have revealed a variety of molecular mechanisms by which TLRs sense NAs. Double-stranded RNA and single-stranded DNA directly bind to TLR3 and TLR9, respectively, whereas TLR7 and 8 bind to nucleosides and oligoribonucleotides derived from RNAs. Activation of ligand-bound TLRs is influenced by the functional status of TLRs. Proteolytic cleavage of NA-sensing TLRs enables ligand-dependent TLR dimerization...
February 14, 2018: International Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447279/regulatory-t-cells-in-retroviral-infections
#3
REVIEW
Kim J Hasenkrug, Claire A Chougnet, Ulf Dittmer
Tight regulation of immune responses is not only critical for preventing autoimmune diseases but also for preventing immunopathological damage during infections in which overactive immune responses may be more harmful for the host than the pathogen itself. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) play a critical role in this regulation, which was discovered using the Friend retrovirus (FV) mouse model. Subsequent FV studies revealed basic biological information about Tregs, including their suppressive activity on effector cells as well as the molecular mechanisms of virus-induced Treg expansion...
February 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445361/a-quasi-steady-state-approximation-to-the-basic-target-cell-limited-viral-dynamics-model-with-a-non-cytopathic-effect
#4
Richard A Cangelosi, Elissa J Schwartz, David J Wollkind
Analysis of previously published target-cell limited viral dynamic models for pathogens such as HIV, hepatitis, and influenza generally rely on standard techniques from dynamical systems theory or numerical simulation. We use a quasi-steady-state approximation to derive an analytic solution for the model with a non-cytopathic effect, that is, when the death rates of uninfected and infected cells are equal. The analytic solution provides time evolution values of all three compartments of uninfected cells, infected cells, and virus...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441061/profiling-of-human-molecular-pathways-affected-by-retrotransposons-at-the-level-of-regulation-by-transcription-factor-proteins
#5
Daniil Nikitin, Dmitry Penzar, Andrew Garazha, Maxim Sorokin, Victor Tkachev, Nicolas Borisov, Alexander Poltorak, Vladimir Prassolov, Anton A Buzdin
Endogenous retroviruses and retrotransposons also termed retroelements (REs) are mobile genetic elements that were active until recently in human genome evolution. REs regulate gene expression by actively reshaping chromatin structure or by directly providing transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs). We aimed to identify molecular processes most deeply impacted by the REs in human cells at the level of TFBS regulation. By using ENCODE data, we identified ~2 million TFBS overlapping with putatively regulation-competent human REs located in 5-kb gene promoter neighborhood (~17% of all TFBS in promoter neighborhoods; ~9% of all RE-linked TFBS)...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440706/a-homozygous-nop14-variant-is-likely-to-cause-recurrent-pregnancy-loss
#6
Toshifumi Suzuki, Mahdiyeh Behnam, Firooze Ronasian, Mansoor Salehi, Masaaki Shiina, Eriko Koshimizu, Atsushi Fujita, Futoshi Sekiguchi, Satoko Miyatake, Takeshi Mizuguchi, Mitsuko Nakashima, Kazuhiro Ogata, Satoru Takeda, Naomichi Matsumoto, Noriko Miyake
Recurrent pregnancy loss is newly defined as more than two consecutive miscarriages. Recurrent pregnancy loss occurs in <5% of total pregnancies. The cause in approximately 40-60% of recurrent pregnancy loss cases remains elusive and must be determined. We investigated two unrelated Iranian consanguineous families with recurrent pregnancy loss. We performed exome sequencing using DNA from a miscarriage tissue and identified a homozygous NOP14 missense variant (c.[136C>G];[136C>G]) in both families...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439385/alv-integration-associated-hypomethylation-at-the-tert-promoter-locus
#7
Gary Lam, Karen Beemon
Avian leukosis virus (ALV) is a simple retrovirus that can induce B-cell lymphoma in chicken(s) and other birds by insertional mutagenesis. The promoter region of telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) has been identified as an important integration site for tumorigenesis. Tumors with TERT promoter integrations are associated with increased TERT expression. The mechanism of this activation is still under investigation. We asked whether insertion of proviral DNA perturbs the epigenome of the integration site and, subsequently, impacts the regulation of neighboring genes...
February 10, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435919/the-microrna
#8
Shao-Yao Ying, Donald C Chang, Shi-Lung Lin
MicroRNAs (miRNAs), widely distributed, small regulatory RNA genes, target both messenger RNA (mRNA) degradation and suppression of protein translation based on sequence complementarity between the miRNA and its targeted mRNA. Different names have been used to describe various types of miRNA. During evolution, RNA retroviruses or transgenes invaded the eukaryotic genome and were inserted itself in the noncoding regions of DNA, conceivably acting as transposon-like jumping genes, providing defense from viral invasion and fine-tuning of gene expression as a secondary level of gene modulation in eukaryotes...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429034/tetraspanin-blockage-reduces-exosome-mediated-hiv-1-entry
#9
Brian Sims, Anitra L Farrow, Sparkle D Williams, Anju Bansal, Alexandre Krendelchtchikov, Qiana L Matthews
HIV-1 is one of the most studied retroviruses. The role of exosomes in HIV-1 entry and pathogenesis are beginning to be appreciated. Exosomes can incorporate host proteins that are also contained in viruses (e.g., tetraspanins).
February 10, 2018: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426734/inclusion-body-myositis-and-human-immunodeficiency-virus-type-1-a-new-case-report-and-literature-review
#10
Priscille Couture, Edoardo Malfatti, Geneviève Morau, Alexis Mathian, Fleur Cohen-Aubart, Hubert Nielly, Zahir Amoura, Patrick Cherin
Prevalence of muscle disease in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is less than 1% of patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Sporadic inclusion body myositis (IBM) is observed in a few cases of patients infected by retroviruses such as HIV-1. A Caucasian man was diagnosed with HIV when he was 30 years old. The viral load was undetectable and CD4 cell count was 600/mm3 when the diagnosis of inclusion body myositis was confirmed. Histological findings were typical of IBM. The treatment consisted of immunoglobulin therapy for three years without effect...
January 10, 2018: Neuromuscular Disorders: NMD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426337/non-coding-rnas-and-retroviruses
#11
REVIEW
Xu Zhang, Xiancai Ma, Shuliang Jing, Hui Zhang, Yijun Zhang
Retroviruses can cause severe diseases such as cancer and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. A unique feature in the life cycle of retroviruses is that their RNA genome is reverse transcribed into double-stranded DNA, which then integrates into the host genome to exploit the host machinery for their benefits. The metazoan genome encodes numerous non-coding RNAs (ncRNA), which act as key regulators in essential cellular processes such as antiviral response. The development of next-generation sequencing technology has greatly accelerated the detection of ncRNAs from viruses and their hosts...
February 9, 2018: Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425804/systematic-survey-of-non-retroviral-virus-like-elements-in-eukaryotic-genomes
#12
Kirill Kryukov, Mahoko Takahashi Ueda, Tadashi Imanishi, So Nakagawa
Endogenous viral elements (EVEs) are viral sequences that are endogenized in the host cell. Recently, several eukaryotic genomes have been shown to contain EVEs. To improve the understanding of EVEs in eukaryotes, we have developed a system for detecting EVE-like sequences in eukaryotes and conducted a large-scale nucleotide sequence similarity search using all available eukaryotic and viral genome assembly sequences (excluding those from retroviruses) stored in the National Center for Biotechnology Information genome database (as of August 14, 2017)...
February 6, 2018: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425215/friend-virus-limits-adaptive-cellular-immune-responses-by-imprinting-a-maturation-resistant-and-t-helper-type-2-biased-immunophenotype-in-dendritic-cells
#13
Limei Shen, Stefan Tenzer, Moritz Hess, Ute Distler, Ingrid Tubbe, Evelyn Montermann, Simone Schimmer, Ulf Dittmer, Stephan Grabbe, Matthias Bros
The murine Friend virus (FV) retrovirus model has been widely used to study anti-viral immune responses, and virus-induced cancer. Here we analyzed FV immune evasion mechanisms on the level of dendritic cells (DC) essential for the induction of primary adaptive immune responses. Comparative quantitative proteome analysis of FV-infected DC (FV-DC) of different genotypes (BALB/c, C57BL/6) and non-infected DC revealed numerous genotype-independently regulated proteins rergulating metabolic activity, cytoskeletal rearrangements, and antigen processing/presentation...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423611/up-to-date-knowledge-about-the-association-between-multiple-sclerosis-and-the-reactivation-of-human-endogenous-retrovirus-infections
#14
REVIEW
Borros Arneth
BACKGROUND: Although existing studies show that reactivation of the human endogenous retrovirus (HERVs) plays a leading role in multiple sclerosis (MS) progression, the practitioners are yet to establish effective approaches for managing MS without jeopardizing the patients' immune systems. AIM: To provide up-to-date knowledge on the specific roles played by the reactivation of the HERVs in the pathogenesis of MS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic review of 70 peer-reviewed journals accessed via PubMed was conducted...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410005/viral-infections-and-breast-cancer-a-current-perspective
#15
O M Gannon, A Antonsson, I C Bennett, N A Saunders
Sporadic human breast cancer is the most common cancer to afflict women. Since the discovery, decades ago, of the oncogenic mouse mammary tumour virus, there has been significant interest in the potential aetiologic role of infectious agents in sporadic human breast cancer. To address this, many studies have examined the presence of viruses (e.g. papillomaviruses, herpes viruses and retroviruses), endogenous retroviruses and more recently, microbes, as a means of implicating them in the aetiology of human breast cancer...
February 14, 2018: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408457/the-pathogenic-role-of-mef2d-ss18-fusion-gene-in-b-cell-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia
#16
Ming Zhang, Dongdong Mao, Weina Zhang
B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) is characterized by various fusion genes resulted from chromosome translocations, and MEF2D related fusions are recently identified in a B-ALL subtype with relatively worse survival. In this study, we investigated the pathogenic role of MEF2D-SS18 fusion in B-ALL. The recombinant retrovirus and lentivirus plasmids containing the MEF2D-SS18 transcript were constructed for functional studies. Immuno-fluorescent staining presented the nuclear localization of MEF2D-SS18...
February 2, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407373/spumaretroviruses-updated-taxonomy-and-nomenclature
#17
REVIEW
Arifa S Khan, Jochen Bodem, Florence Buseyne, Antoine Gessain, Welkin Johnson, Jens H Kuhn, Jacek Kuzmak, Dirk Lindemann, Maxine L Linial, Martin Löchelt, Magdalena Materniak-Kornas, Marcelo A Soares, William M Switzer
Spumaretroviruses, commonly referred to as foamy viruses, are complex retroviruses belonging to the subfamily Spumaretrovirinae, family Retroviridae, which naturally infect a variety of animals including nonhuman primates (NHPs). Additionally, cross-species transmissions of simian foamy viruses (SFVs) to humans have occurred following exposure to tissues of infected NHPs. Recent research has led to the identification of previously unknown exogenous foamy viruses, and to the discovery of endogenous spumaretrovirus sequences in a variety of host genomes...
February 1, 2018: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406082/survival-time-and-effect-of-selected-predictor-variables-on-survival-in-owned-pet-cats-seropositive-for-feline-immunodeficiency-and-leukemia-virus-attending-a-referral-clinic-in-northern-italy
#18
Eva Spada, Roberta Perego, Elena Assunta Sgamma, Daniela Proverbio
Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukemia virus (FeLV) are among the most important feline infectious diseases worldwide. This retrospective study investigated survival times and effects of selected predictor factors on survival time in a population of owned pet cats in Northern Italy testing positive for the presence of FIV antibodies and FeLV antigen. One hundred and three retrovirus-seropositive cats, 53 FIV-seropositive cats, 40 FeLV-seropositive cats, and 10 FIV+FeLV-seropositive cats were included in the study...
February 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29401298/the-effects-of-nutrient-restriction-on-mrna-expression-of-endogenous-retroviruses-interferon-tau-and-pregnancy-specific-protein-b-during-the-establishment-of-pregnancy-in-beef-heifers
#19
K J McLean, M S Crouse, M R Crosswhite, N Negrin Pereira, C R Dahlen, P P Borowicz, L P Reynolds, A K Ward, B W Neville, J S Caton
We hypothesize that syncytin-Rum1, bovine endogenous retrovirus-K1 (BERV-K1), pregnancy specific protein-B (PSP-B), and interferon-τ (IFN-τ) will be influenced by maternal nutrient restriction and be differentially expressed during key stages (d 16, 34, and 50) of the establishment of gestation when fed to meet industry standards. Commercial crossbred heifers (n = 49) were maintained on a total mixed ration and supplemented with dried distillers grains with solubles. All heifers were subject to 5-d CO-Synch + CIDR estrus synchronization protocol...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29388098/expression-of-exogenous-genes-in-murine-primary-b-cells-and-b-cell-lines-using-retroviral-vectors
#20
Zhiyong Yang, Christopher D C Allen
B cells, after activation, can undergo class-switch recombination and somatic hypermutation of their immunoglobulin genes, and can differentiate into memory cells and plasma cells. Expressing genes in altered versions in primary B cells and B cell lines is an important approach to understanding how B cell receptor signaling leads to B cell activation and differentiation. Recombinant retrovirus-based transduction is the most efficient method to deliver exogenous genes for expression in B cells. In this chapter, we describe streamlined protocols for using recombinant retroviral vectors to transduce both murine primary B cells and B cell lines...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
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