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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694349/control-of-yeast-retrotransposons-mediated-through-nucleoporin-evolution
#1
Paul A Rowley, Kurt Patterson, Suzanne B Sandmeyer, Sara L Sawyer
Yeasts serve as hosts to several types of genetic parasites. Few studies have addressed the evolutionary trajectory of yeast genes that control the stable co-existence of these parasites with their host cell. In Saccharomyces yeasts, the retrovirus-like Ty retrotransposons must access the nucleus. We show that several genes encoding components of the yeast nuclear pore complex have experienced natural selection for substitutions that change the encoded protein sequence. By replacing these S. cerevisiae genes with orthologs from other Saccharomyces species, we discovered that natural sequence changes have affected the mobility of Ty retrotransposons...
April 2018: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689542/abstracts-from-the-2018-conference-on-retroviruses-and-opportunistic-infections-march-4-7-2018-boston-massachusetts
#2
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Topics in Antiviral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684900/generation-of-the-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-hipsc-line-psmi003-a-from-a-patient-affected-by-an-autosomal-recessive-form-of-long-qt-syndrome-type-1
#3
Manuela Mura, Monia Ginevrino, Rita Zappatore, Federica Pisano, Marina Boni, Silvia Castelletti, Lia Crotti, Enza Maria Valente, Peter J Schwartz, Massimiliano Gnecchi
We generated human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) from dermal fibroblasts of a 51years old female patient homozygous for the mutation c.535 G>A p.G179S on the KCNQ1 gene, causing a severe form of autosomal recessive Long QT Syndrome type 1 (AR-LQT1), not associated with deafness. The hiPSCs, generated using four retroviruses each encoding for a reprogramming factor OCT4, SOX2, KLF4, cMYC, are pluripotent and can differentiate into spontaneously beating cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs).
April 6, 2018: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677589/generation-of-the-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-hipsc-line-psmi002-a-from-a-patient-affected-by-the-jervell-and-lange-nielsen-syndrome-and-carrier-of-two-compound-heterozygous-mutations-on-the-kcnq1-gene
#4
Manuela Mura, Yee-Ki Lee, Monia Ginevrino, Rita Zappatore, Federica Pisano, Marina Boni, Federica Dagradi, Lia Crotti, Enza Maria Valente, Peter J Schwartz, Hung-Fat Tse, Massimiliano Gnecchi
We report the generation of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) from dermal fibroblasts of a female patient carrier of the two compound heterozygous mutations c.568 C>T p.R190W (maternal allele), and c.1781 G>A p.R594Q (paternal allele) on the KCNQ1 gene, causing Jervell and Lange-Nielsen Syndrome (JLNS). To obtain hiPSCs, we used the classical approach of the four retroviruses each encoding for a reprogramming factor OCT4, SOX2, KLF4, cMYC. The obtained hiPSC clones display pluripotent stem cell characteristics, and differentiate into spontaneously beating cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs)...
April 7, 2018: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677122/applications-of-the-fiv-model-to-study-hiv-pathogenesis
#5
REVIEW
Craig Miller, Zaid Abdo, Aaron Ericsson, John Elder, Sue VandeWoude
Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a naturally-occurring retrovirus that infects domestic and non-domestic feline species, producing progressive immune depletion that results in an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Much has been learned about FIV since it was first described in 1987, particularly in regard to its application as a model to study the closely related lentivirus, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). In particular, FIV and HIV share remarkable structure and sequence organization, utilize parallel modes of receptor-mediated entry, and result in a similar spectrum of immunodeficiency-related diseases due to analogous modes of immune dysfunction...
April 20, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673190/the-role-of-mirnas-in-virus-mediated-oncogenesis
#6
REVIEW
Zuzana Vojtechova, Ruth Tachezy
To date, viruses are reported to be responsible for more than 15% of all tumors worldwide. The oncogenesis could be influenced directly by the activity of viral oncoproteins or by the chronic infection or inflammation. The group of human oncoviruses includes Epstein–Barr virus (EBV), human papillomavirus (HPV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) or polyomaviruses, and transregulating retroviruses such as HIV or HTLV-1. Most of these viruses express short noncoding RNAs called miRNAs to regulate their own gene expression or to influence host gene expression and thus contribute to the carcinogenic processes...
April 17, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669918/horizontal-transfer-of-retrotransposons-between-bivalves-and-other-aquatic-species-of-multiple-phyla
#7
Michael J Metzger, Ashley N Paynter, Mark E Siddall, Stephen P Goff
The LTR retrotransposon Steamer is a selfish endogenous element in the soft-shell clam genome that was first detected because of its dramatic amplification in bivalve transmissible neoplasia afflicting the species. We amplified and sequenced related retrotransposons from the genomic DNA of many other bivalve species, finding evidence of horizontal transfer of retrotransposons from the genome of one species to another. First, the phylogenetic tree of the Steamer -like elements from 19 bivalve species is markedly discordant with host phylogeny, suggesting frequent cross-species transfer throughout bivalve evolution...
April 18, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668132/-shtlv-i-ii-seroprevalence-in-blood-donors-of-hospital-pablo-tob%C3%A3-n-uribe-blood-bank-during-the-period-2014-2015
#8
Manuela Muñoz, Santiago Carvalho, Jorge Hernando Donado, Gloria Eugenia Barco, Sergio Jaramillo
INTRODUCTION: The human-T cell lymphotropic virus is a retrovirus with various types known so far. HTLV-I and HTLV-II are of clinically importance as they cause different diseases such as adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma, tropical spastic paraparesis, and human T-lymphotropic virus type I-associated myelopathy (HAM). OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of presumptive and confirmatory reactivity to HTLV-I/II in blood donors of Hospital Pablo Tobón Uribe Blood Bank between 2014 and 2015...
March 15, 2018: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665896/-a-modified-protocol-for-rapid-establishing-mouse-model-with-ph-positive-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia
#9
Na Qi, Xue Wang, Qing-Yun Wu, Zhi-Ling Yan, Lin Wang, Chong Chen, Kai-Lin Xu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate a modified protocol of establishing mouse Ph+ ALL model so as to provide a more convenient and more powerful tool for Ph+ ALL studies. METHODS: Immature B cells from BALB/c mice were transfected with the Mig190 retrovirus and infused into irradiated syngeneic mice. The immunophenotype was identified by flow cytometry, the BCR-ABL was identified by RT-PCR and Western blot. Leukemia cells isolated from sick mice were re-infused into syngeneic mice without irradiation...
April 2018: Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660338/different-molecular-mechanisms-of-htlv-1-and-hiv-ltr-activation-by-tpa
#10
Azhar Jabareen, Manal Salman, Aya Abu-Jaafar, Mahmoud Huleihel
HTLV-1 and HIV-1 are retroviruses involved in different human diseases. However, following infection, these viruses inter into a latent state. Tax and Tat are regarded as trans-activators of HTLV-1 and HIV-1 respectively. As it known, during the latent state the infected cells contain low Tax and Tat protein levels, so the activation of these viruses must be independent of these proteins. Here we focus on exploring the mechanism of activation of these viruses by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), which is a potent activator of protein kinase C (PKC) and considered as a stress-inducing agent...
April 13, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660337/effect-of-betulinic-acid-and-its-ionic-derivatives-on-m-mulv-replication
#11
Jasmine Phillips, Iesha Phillips, Blessing Enya, Hua Zhao, Takayuki Nitta
Murine leukemia virus (MuLV) is a retrovirus known causing leukemia and neurological disorders in mice, and its viral life cycle and pathogenesis have been investigated extensively over the past decades. As a natural antiviral agent, betulinic acid is a pentacyclic triterpenoid that can be found in the bark of several species of plants (particularly the white birch). One of the hurdles for betulinic acid to release its antiviral potency is its poor water solubility. In this study, we synthesized more water-soluble ionic derivatives of betulinic acid, and examined their activities against Moloney MuLV (M-MuLV)...
April 13, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656370/role-of-exosomes-in-human-retroviral-mediated-disorders
#12
REVIEW
Monique Anderson, Fatah Kashanchi, Steven Jacobson
Retroviruses comprise an ancient and varied group of viruses with the unique ability to integrate DNA from an RNA transcript into the genome, a subset of which are able to integrate in humans. The timing of these integrations during human history has dictated whether these viruses have remained exogenous and given rise to various human diseases or have become inseparable from the host genome (endogenous retroviruses). Given the ability of retroviruses to integrate into the host and subsequently co-opt host cellular process for viral propagation, retroviruses have been shown to be closely associated with several cellular processes including exosome formation...
April 14, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642581/remnants-of-an-ancient-deltaretrovirus-in-the-genomes-of-horseshoe-bats-rhinolophidae
#13
Tomáš Hron, Helena Farkašová, Robert J Gifford, Petr Benda, Pavel Hulva, Tamás Görföl, Jan Pačes, Daniel Elleder
Endogenous retrovirus (ERV) sequences provide a rich source of information about the long-term interactions between retroviruses and their hosts. However, most ERVs are derived from a subset of retrovirus groups, while ERVs derived from certain other groups remain extremely rare. In particular, only a single ERV sequence has been identified that shows evidence of being related to an ancient Deltaretrovirus , despite the large number of vertebrate genome sequences now available. In this report, we identify a second example of an ERV sequence putatively derived from a past deltaretroviral infection, in the genomes of several species of horseshoe bats (Rhinolophidae)...
April 10, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642384/tracking-the-continuous-evolutionary-processes-of-an-endogenous-retrovirus-of-the-domestic-cat-erv-dc
#14
REVIEW
Junna Kawasaki, Kazuo Nishigaki
An endogenous retrovirus (ERV) is a remnant of an ancient retroviral infection in the host genome. Although most ERVs have lost their viral productivity, a few ERVs retain their replication capacity. In addition, partially inactivated ERVs can present a potential risk to the host via their encoded virulence factors or the generation of novel viruses by viral recombination. ERVs can also eventually acquire a biological function, and this ability has been a driving force of host evolution. Therefore, the presence of an ERV can be harmful or beneficial to the host...
April 6, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626931/who-needs-this-junk-or-genomic-dark-matter
#15
REVIEW
O I Podgornaya, D I Ostromyshenskii, N I Enukashvily
Centromeres (CEN), pericentromeric regions (periCEN), and subtelomeric regions (subTel) comprise the areas of constitutive heterochromatin (HChr). Tandem repeats (TRs or satellite DNA) are the main components of HChr forming no less than 10% of the mouse and human genome. HChr is assembled within distinct structures in the interphase nuclei of many species - chromocenters. In this review, the main classes of HChr repeat sequences are considered in the order of their number increase in the sequencing reads of the mouse chromocenters (ChrmC)...
April 2018: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624743/absence-of-interaction-between-porcine-endogenous-retrovirus-and-porcine-cytomegalovirus-in-pig-to-baboon-renal-xenotransplantation-in-vivo
#16
Jay A Fishman, David H Sachs, Kazuhiko Yamada, Robert A Wilkinson
BACKGROUND: Studies of xenotransplantation from swine have identified porcine viruses as potential barriers to clinical trials. The biology of these viruses has not been extensively investigated in the in vivo xeno-environment. Enhancement of viral gene expression by viral and cellular factors acting in trans has been demonstrated for certain viruses, including bidirectional interactions between human herpesviruses and endogenous (HERV) and exogenous (HIV) retroviruses. Both porcine cytomegalovirus (PCMV) and porcine endogenous retrovirus (PERV) infections have been identified in xenografts from swine...
April 6, 2018: Xenotransplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624084/recent-developments-in-interferon-based-therapies-for-multiple-sclerosis
#17
Laura Dumitrescu, Cris S Constantinescu, Radu Tanasescu
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic and disabling immune-mediated disease of the central nervous system. Beta-interferons are the first approved and still the most widely used first-line disease-modifying treatment in MS. Areas covered: Here we focus on recent developments in pharmacology and delivery systems of beta-interferons, and discuss their place within current state of the art therapeutic approaches. We briefly review the clinical trials for classical and PEGylated formulations, emphasizing effectiveness, safety concerns, and tolerability...
April 6, 2018: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623074/retroviral-rna-dimerization-from-structure-to-functions
#18
REVIEW
Noé Dubois, Roland Marquet, Jean-Christophe Paillart, Serena Bernacchi
The genome of the retroviruses is a dimer composed by two homologous copies of genomic RNA (gRNA) molecules of positive polarity. The dimerization process allows two gRNA molecules to be non-covalently linked together through intermolecular base-pairing. This step is critical for the viral life cycle and is highly conserved among retroviruses with the exception of spumaretroviruses. Furthermore, packaging of two gRNA copies into viral particles presents an important evolutionary advantage for immune system evasion and drug resistance...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618650/siv-mac239-vif-and-human-apobec3b-interactions-resemble-those-between-hiv-1-vif-and-human-apobec3g
#19
Jiayi Wang, Nadine M Shaban, Allison M Land, William L Brown, Reuben S Harris
Several members of the APOBEC3 DNA cytosine deaminase family can potently inhibit Vif-deficient HIV-1 by catalyzing cytosine deamination in viral cDNA and impeding reverse transcription. HIV-1 counteracts restriction with the virally encoded Vif protein, which targets relevant APOBEC3 proteins for proteasomal degradation. HIV-1 Vif is optimized for degrading the restrictive human APOBEC3 repertoire and, in general, lentiviral Vif proteins specifically target the restricting APOBEC3 enzymes of each host species...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616102/hepa1-6-fluc-cell-line-with-the-stable-expression-of-firefly-luciferase-retains-its-primary-properties-with-promising-bioluminescence-imaging-ability
#20
Yasha Li, Mengnan Liu, Jiejie Cui, Ke Yang, Li Zhao, Mengjia Gong, Yi Wang, Yun He, Tongchuan He, Yang Bi
Reliable animal models are required for the in vivo study of the molecular mechanisms and effects of chemotherapeutic drugs in hepatocarcinoma. In vivo tracing techniques based on firefly luciferase (FLuc) may optimize the non-invasive monitoring of experimental animals. The present study established a murine Hepa1-6-FLuc cell line that stably expressed a retrovirus-delivered FLuc protein gene. The cell morphology, proliferation, migration and invasion ability of Hepa1-6-FLuc cells were the same as that of the Hepa1-6 cells, and thus is suitable to replace Hepa1-6 cells in the construction of hepatocarcinoma animal models...
May 2018: Oncology Letters
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