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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821995/expression-of-the-pol-gene-of-human-endogenous-retroviruses-herv-k-and-w-in-leukemia-patients
#1
Massimiliano Bergallo, Paola Montanari, Katia Mareschi, Chiara Merlino, Massimo Berger, Ilaria Bini, Valentina Daprà, Ilaria Galliano, Franca Fagioli
The human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) are a family of endogenous retroviruses that integrated into the germ cell DNA of primates over 30 million years ago. HERV expression seems impaired in several diseases, ranging from autoimmune to neoplastic disorders. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the overall endogenous retroviral transcription profile in bone marrow (BM) samples. A total of 30 paediatric high-risk leukaemia patients (lymphoid and myeloid malignancies) were tested for HERVs virus gene expression...
August 18, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818736/co-option-of-endogenous-viral-sequences-for-host-cell-function
#2
REVIEW
John A Frank, Cédric Feschotte
Eukaryotic genomes are littered with sequences of diverse viral origins, termed endogenous viral elements (EVEs). Here we used examples primarily drawn from mammalian endogenous retroviruses to document how the influx of EVEs has provided a source of prefabricated coding and regulatory sequences that were formerly utilized for viral infection and replication, but have been occasionally repurposed for cellular function. While EVE co-option has benefited a variety of host biological functions, there appears to be a disproportionate contribution to immunity and antiviral defense...
August 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814526/hiv-1-exploits-dynamic-multi-aminoacyl-trna-synthetase-complex-to-enhance-viral-replication
#3
Alice A Duchon, Corine St-Gelais, Nathan Titkemeier, Joshua Hatterschide, Li Wu, Karin Musier-Forsyth
A hallmark of retroviruses such as human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is reverse transcription of genomic RNA to DNA, a process that is primed by cellular tRNAs. HIV-1 recruits human tRNA(Lys3) to serve as the reverse transcription primer via an interaction between lysyl-tRNA synthetase (LysRS) and the HIV-1 Gag polyprotein. LysRS is normally sequestered in a multi-aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase complex (MSC). Previous studies demonstrated that components of the MSC can be mobilized in response to certain cellular stimuli, but how LysRS is redirected from the MSC to viral particles for packaging is unknown...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814524/mutation-of-the-putative-immunosuppressive-domain-of-the-retroviral-envelope-glycoprotein-compromises-infectivity
#4
Urszula Eksmond, Bryony Jenkins, Julia Merkenschlager, Walther Mothes, Jonathan P Stoye, George Kassiotis
The envelope glycoprotein of diverse endogenous and exogenous retroviruses is considered inherently immunosuppressive. Extensive work mapped the immunosuppressive activity to a highly conserved domain, termed the immunosuppressive domain (ISD), in the transmembrane (TM) subunit of the envelope glycoprotein and identified two naturally polymorphic key residues that afford immunosuppressive activity to distinct envelope glycoproteins. Concurrent mutation of these two key residues (E14R and A20F) in the envelope glycoprotein of Friend murine leukemia virus (F-MLV) ISD has been reported to abolish its immunosuppressive activity, without affecting its fusogenicity, and to weaken the ability of the virus to replicate specifically in immunocompetent hosts...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813660/neutralizing-antibody-responses-to-viral-infections-are-linked-to-the-non-classical-mhc-class-ii-gene-h2-ob
#5
Lisa K Denzin, Aly A Khan, Francesca Virdis, Jessica Wilks, Melissa Kane, Helen A Beilinson, Stanislav Dikiy, Laure K Case, Derry Roopenian, Michele Witkowski, Alexander V Chervonsky, Tatyana V Golovkina
Select humans and animals control persistent viral infections via adaptive immune responses that include production of neutralizing antibodies. The precise genetic basis for the control remains enigmatic. Here, we report positional cloning of the gene responsible for production of retrovirus-neutralizing antibodies in mice of the I/LnJ strain. It encodes the beta subunit of the non-classical major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II)-like molecule H2-O, a negative regulator of antigen presentation. The recessive and functionally null I/LnJ H2-Ob allele supported the production of virus-neutralizing antibodies independently of the classical MHC haplotype...
August 15, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811640/a-reciprocal-interaction-between-%C3%AE-catenin-and-osterix-in-cementogenesis
#6
Hwajung Choi, Tak-Heun Kim, Siqin Yang, Jeong-Chae Lee, Hyung-Keun You, Eui-Sic Cho
Although accumulating evidence indicates that both β-catenin and osterix (Osx) are essential for bone and tooth development, few studies have investigated the interaction of these two key proteins in the context of cementogenesis. In this study, we used transgenic mice with constitutively active β-catenin and inactive Osx in the dental mesenchyme to address this question. We found that cementoblasts with constitutively active β-catenin require Osx to produce excessive cellular cementum, and that ablation of Osx prevents this abnormal accumulation...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809399/evidence-for-newly-generated-interneurons-in-the-basolateral-amygdala-of-adult-mice
#7
D J Jhaveri, A Tedoldi, S Hunt, R Sullivan, N R Watts, J M Power, P F Bartlett, P Sah
New neurons are continually generated from the resident populations of precursor cells in selective niches of the adult mammalian brain such as the hippocampal dentate gyrus and the olfactory bulb. However, whether such cells are present in the adult amygdala, and their neurogenic capacity, is not known. Using the neurosphere assay, we demonstrate that a small number of precursor cells, the majority of which express Achaete-scute complex homolog 1 (Ascl1), are present in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) of the adult mouse...
August 15, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808269/delivery-of-large-transgene-cassettes-by-foamy-virus-vector
#8
Nathan Paul Sweeney, Jinhong Meng, Hayley Patterson, Jennifer E Morgan, Myra McClure
Viral vectors are effective tools in gene therapy, but their limited packaging capacity can be restrictive. Larger clinically-relevant vectors are needed. Foamy viruses have the largest genomes among mammalian retroviruses and their vectors have shown potential for gene therapy in preclinical studies. However, the effect of vector genome size on titre has not been determined. We inserted increasing lengths of the dystrophin open reading frame in a foamy virus vector and quantified packaged vector RNA and integrated DNA...
August 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798348/fas-ligand-mediated-cytotoxicity-of-cd4-t-cells-during-chronic-retrovirus-infection
#9
Anna Malyshkina, Elisabeth Littwitz-Salomon, Kathrin Sutter, Gennadiy Zelinskyy, Sonja Windmann, Simone Schimmer, Annette Paschen, Hendrik Streeck, Kim J Hasenkrug, Ulf Dittmer
CD4+ helper T cells and cytotoxic CD8+ T cells are key players for adaptive immune responses against acute infections with retroviruses. Similar to textbook knowledge the most important function of CD4+ T cells during an acute retrovirus infection seems to be their helper function for other immune cells. Whereas there was no direct anti-viral activity of CD4+ T cells during acute Friend Virus (FV) infection, they were absolutely required for the control of chronic infection. During chronic FV infection a population of activated FV-specific CD4+ T cells did not express cytotoxic molecules, but Fas Ligand that can induce Fas-induced apoptosis in target cells...
August 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798043/inactivation-of-porcine-endogenous-retrovirus-in-pigs-using-crispr-cas9
#10
Dong Niu, Hong-Jiang Wei, Lin Lin, Haydy George, Tao Wang, I-Hsiu Lee, Hong-Ye Zhao, Yong Wang, Yinan Kan, Ellen Shrock, Emal Lesha, Gang Wang, Yonglun Luo, Yubo Qing, Deling Jiao, Heng Zhao, Xiaoyang Zhou, Shouqi Wang, Hong Wei, Marc Güell, George M Church, Luhan Yang
Xenotransplantation is a promising strategy to alleviate the shortage of organs for human transplantation. In addition to the concern on pig-to-human immunological compatibility, the risk of cross-species transmission of porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERVs) has impeded the clinical application of this approach. Earlier, we demonstrated the feasibility of inactivating PERV activity in an immortalized pig cell line. Here, we confirmed that PERVs infect human cells, and observed the horizontal transfer of PERVs among human cells...
August 10, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794032/recombinant-origins-of-pathogenic-and-nonpathogenic-mouse-gammaretroviruses-of-polytropic-host-range
#11
Devinka Bamunusinghe, Qingping Liu, Ronald Plishka, Michael A Dolan, Matthew Skorski, Andrew J Oler, Venkat R K Yedavalli, Alicia Buckler-White, Janet W Hartley, Christine A Kozak
Ecotropic, xenotropic and polytropic mouse leukemia viruses (E-, X-, P-MLVs) exist in mice as infectious viruses and endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) inserted into mouse chromosomes. All 3 MLV subgroups are linked to leukemogenesis, which involves generation of recombinants with polytropic host range. Although P-MLVs are deemed to be the proximal agents of disease induction, few biologically characterized infectious P-MLVs have been sequenced for comparative analysis. We analyzed the complete genomes of 16 naturally occurring infectious P-MLVs, 12 of which were typed for pathogenic potential...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794025/retrovirus-based-virus-like-particle-immunogenicity-and-its-modulation-by-toll-like-receptor-activation
#12
Fabien Pitoiset, Thomas Vazquez, Beatrice Levacher, Djamel Nehar-Belaid, Nicolas Dérian, James Vigneron, David Klatzmann, Bertrand Bellier
Retrovirus-derived virus-like particles (VLPs) are particularly interesting vaccine platforms as they trigger efficient humoral and cellular immune responses and can be used to display heterologous antigens. In this study, we characterized the intrinsic immunogenicity of VLPs and investigated their possible adjuvantization by incorporation of toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands. We designed a non-coding single-stranded RNA (ncRNA) that could be encapsidated by VLPs and induce TLR7/8-signaling. We found that VLPs efficiently induce in vitro dendritic cell activation, which can be improved by ncRNA encapsidation (ncRNAVLPs)...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793904/the-impact-of-p53-on-the-early-stage-replication-of-retrovirus
#13
Michaela Kinnetz, Faris Alghamdi, Michael Racz, Wenwei Hu, Binshan Shi
BACKGROUND: The function of p53 in cancer biology has been studied extensively, but its role in anti-retrovirus infection has been elusive for many years. The restriction of retrovirus early stage replication by p53 was investigated in this study. METHOD: VSV-G pseudotyped retrovirus with GFP reporter gene was used to infect both HCT116 p53(+/+) cells and its isogenic p53 knockout HCT116 p53(-/-) cells. The infection was detected by flow cytometry. Reverse transcription products were quantified by real time PCR...
August 9, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790329/kdm4b-mediated-reduction-of-h3k9me3-and-h3k36me3-levels-improves-somatic-cell-reprogramming-into-pluripotency
#14
Jingwei Wei, Jisha Antony, Fanli Meng, Paul MacLean, Rebekah Rhind, Götz Laible, Björn Oback
Correct reprogramming of epigenetic marks is essential for somatic cells to regain pluripotency. Repressive histone (H) lysine (K) methylation marks are known to be stable and difficult to reprogram. In this study, we generated transgenic mice and mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) for the inducible expression of KDM4B, a demethylase that removes H3 K9 and H3K36 trimethylation (me3) marks (H3K9/36me3). Upon inducing Kdm4b, H3K9/36me3 levels significantly decreased compared to non-induced controls. Concurrently, H3K9me1 levels significantly increased, while H3K9me2 and H3K27me3 remained unchanged...
August 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783123/iron-oxidative-damage-and-ferroptosis-in-rhabdomyosarcoma
#15
REVIEW
Alessandro Fanzani, Maura Poli
Recent data have indicated a fundamental role of iron in mediating a non-apoptotic and non-necrotic oxidative form of programmed cell death termed ferroptosis that requires abundant cytosolic free labile iron to promote membrane lipid peroxidation. Different scavenger molecules and detoxifying enzymes, such as glutathione (GSH) and glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4), have been shown to overwhelm or exacerbate ferroptosis depending on their expression magnitude. Ferroptosis is emerging as a potential weapon against tumor growth since it has been shown to potentiate cell death in some malignancies...
August 7, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782559/trap-seq-an-rna-sequencing-based-pipeline-for-the-identification-of-gene-trap-insertions-in-mammalian-cells
#16
Cristina Mayor-Ruiz, Orlando Dominguez, Oscar Fernandez-Capetillo
The development of haploid mammalian cell lines, coupled to next-generation sequencing, has recently facilitated forward genetic screenings in mammals. For mutagenesis, retrovirus- or transposon-based gene traps are frequently used. Current methods to map gene-trap insertions are based on inverse or splinkerette PCR, which despite their efficacy are prone to artifacts and do not provide information on expression of the targeted gene. Here, we describe a new RNA sequencing-based method (Trap(Seq)) to map gene-trap insertions...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781951/ifitm1-suppresses-expression-of-human-endogenous-retroviruses-in-human-embryonic-stem-cells
#17
Yudong Fu, Zhongcheng Zhou, Hua Wang, Peng Gong, Renpeng Guo, Jinmiao Wang, Xinyi Lu, Feng Qi, Lin Liu
Interferon-induced transmembrane protein 1 (IFITM1), a member of the IFITM protein family, is a component of a multimeric complex involved in the transduction of antiproliferation and cell adhesion signals. IFITM1 is thought to play a role in antiproliferation and immune surveillance, and has been shown to restrict infection by numerous viruses. It is highly expressed in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) but its role in hESCs remains to be elucidated. In this study, knockout of IFITM1 mediated by CRISPR/Cas9 in hESCs did not affect self-renewal, pluripotency, telomerase activity or telomeres...
August 2017: FEBS Open Bio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774724/human-endogenous-retrovirus-herv-k-hml-2-env-expression-is-not-associated-with-markers-of-immunosenescence
#18
Saara Marttila, Tapio Nevalainen, Juulia Jylhävä, Laura Kananen, Marja Jylhä, Antti Hervonen, Mikko Hurme
Ageing of the human immune system, or immunosenescence, is characterised by distinct changes in the proportion of the various cell types, e.g., increase of the CD14+ monocytic cells, decrease of CD19+ B lymphocytes, and changes in T cell subpopulations, namely increase of CD4+ and CD8+ cells which have lost the costimulatory CD28 antigen. Currently, it is believed that the lifelong antigenic burden may be one of the inducers of immunosenescence. Thus far, only one exogenous stimulus, cytomegalovirus infection, has shown to be a major factor in this respect...
August 1, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774407/the-virological-aspects-of-hepatitis-b
#19
REVIEW
Zina S Valaydon, Stephen A Locarnini
Human hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a hepatotropic virus that is responsible for a significant burden of disease, causing liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma. It is a small DNA virus with a replication strategy that is similar to that of a retrovirus. HBV is prone to mutagenesis and under the influence of diverse selection pressures, has evolved into a pool of quasispecies, genotypes and mutants, which confers a significant survival advantage. The genome is small, circular, and compact but has a complex replication strategy...
June 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770217/dairy-cows-naturally-infected-with-bovine-leukemia-virus-exhibit-abnormal-b-and-t-cell-phenotypes-after-primary-and-secondary-exposures-to-keyhole-limpet-hemocyanin
#20
Meredith C Frie, Kelly R B Sporer, Oscar J Benitez, Joseph C Wallace, Casey J Droscha, Paul C Bartlett, Paul M Coussens
Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is a retrovirus that is highly prevalent in US dairy herds: over 83% are BLV infected and the within-herd infection rate can be almost 50% on average. While BLV is known to cause lymphosarcomas, only 5% or fewer infected cattle will develop lymphoma; this low prevalence of cancer has historically not been a concern to dairy producers. However, more recent research has found that BLV(+) cows without lymphoma produce less milk and have shorter lifespans than uninfected herdmates. It has been hypothesized that BLV infection interferes with normal immune function in infected cattle, and this could lead to reduced dairy production...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
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