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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666455/projected-effectiveness-and-added-value-of-hiv-vaccination-campaigns-in-south-africa-a-modeling-study
#1
Simon de Montigny, Blythe J S Adamson, Benoît R Mâsse, Louis P Garrison, James G Kublin, Peter B Gilbert, Dobromir T Dimitrov
Promising multi-dose HIV vaccine regimens are being tested in trials in South Africa. We estimated the potential epidemiological and economic impact of HIV vaccine campaigns compared to continuous vaccination, assuming that vaccine efficacy is transient and dependent on immune response. We used a dynamic economic mathematical model of HIV transmission calibrated to 2012 epidemiological data to simulate vaccination with anticipated antiretroviral treatment scale-up in South Africa. We estimate that biennial vaccination with a 70% efficacious vaccine reaching 20% of the sexually active population could prevent 480,000-650,000 HIV infections (13...
April 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664801/the-rectal-cancer-female-sexuality-score-development-and-validation-of-a-scoring-system-for-female-sexual-function-after-rectal-cancer-surgery
#2
Anne Thyø, Katrine J Emmertsen, Søren Laurberg
BACKGROUND: Sexual dysfunction and impaired quality of life is a potential side effect to rectal cancer treatment. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to develop and validate a simple scoring system intended to evaluate sexual function in women treated for rectal cancer. DESIGN: This is a population-based cross-sectional study. SETTINGS: Female patients diagnosed with rectal cancer between 2001 and 2014 were identified by using the Danish Colorectal Cancer Group's database...
April 16, 2018: Diseases of the Colon and Rectum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661698/reproductive-health-care-priorities-and-barriers-to-effective-care-for-lesbian-gay-bisexual-transgender-queer-people-assigned-female-at-birth-a-qualitative-study
#3
Erin Wingo, Natalie Ingraham, Sarah C M Roberts
BACKGROUND: Little research documents the self-identified reproductive health priorities and health care experiences of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer (LGBTQ)-identified individuals who may be in need of services. METHODS: We conducted in-depth interviews with a diverse sample of 39 female-assigned-at-birth individuals (ages 18-44) who also identified as lesbian, bisexual, queer, and/or genderqueer, or transmasculine. Interviews were primarily conducted in person in the Bay Area of California, and Baltimore, Maryland, with 11 conducted remotely with participants in other U...
April 13, 2018: Women's Health Issues: Official Publication of the Jacobs Institute of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661642/an-abstinence-and-safer-sex-intervention-for-adolescents-attending-the-public-sexually-transmitted-infection-clinic-in-singapore
#4
Junice Yi Siu Ng, Roy Kum Wah Chan, Martin Tze-Wei Chio, Raymond Boon Tar Lim, David Koh, Mee Lian Wong
PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a behavioral intervention in increasing secondary abstinence and safer sex among heterosexually active adolescents aged 16-19 years. METHODS: This was a randomized controlled trial conducted at the only national sexually transmitted infection clinic in Singapore. The intervention focused on information giving, motivation, and skills building to abstain or practice safer sex. The outcome measures were self-reported secondary abstinence, consistent condom use, and keeping to one partner in the past 6 months over a 12-month period...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660492/characterization-of-multiple-enolase-ggenes-from-trichomonas-vaginalis-potential-novel-targets-for-drug-and-vaccine-design
#5
Elibeth Mirasol-Meléndez, Luis G Brieba-de Castro, Corina Díaz-Quezada, Marisol López-Hidalgo, Elisa E Figueroa-Angulo, Leticia Ávila-González, Rossana Arroyo-Verástegui, Claudia G Benítez-Cardoza
Trichomonas vaginalis is the protist parasite that causes the most common, non-viral sexually transmitted infection called trichomonosis. Enolase is a moonlighting protein that apart from its canonical function as a glycolytic enzyme, serves as a plasminogen receptor on the cell surface of T. vaginalis and, in consequence, it has been stablished as a virulence factor in this parasite. In the Trichomonas vaginalis sequence database there are nine genes annotated as enolase. In this work, we analyzed these genes as well as their products...
April 13, 2018: Parasitology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660018/sexual-assault-and-disabling-ptsd-in-active-duty-service-women
#6
Denise Parnell, Vasudha Ram, Paulette Cazares, Jennifer Webb-Murphy, Melanie Roberson, Shiva Ghaed
Introduction: Sexual assault in the military is a major concern and may result in significant health problems, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Those developing disabling PTSD symptoms may require a disability evaluation. We examined disability evaluation trends for service women with PTSD to better understand characteristics associated with inability to continue Active Duty service. Methods: This is a retrospective review of disability reports and electronic medical records for 322 Active Duty women diagnosed with and treated for PTSD by psychiatrists and psychologists at a large military treatment facility between 2011 and 2014...
April 6, 2018: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659073/online-sexual-activity-involving-webcams-an-overview-of-existing-literature-and-implications-for-sexual-boundary-violations-of-children-and-adolescents
#7
Thula Koops, Arne Dekker, Peer Briken
Despite the relevance of the Internet and its increasing use for sexual purposes, research into online sexual activity (OSA) involving webcams is limited. Aside from positive experiences, OSA may implicate violations of sexual boundaries, reaching from minor issues to serious forms of sexual abuse. To provide a basis for a classification of sexual boundary violations online and a conceptualization of preventive measures, a systematic review of the literature on OSA involving webcams was conducted, resulting in publications from four thematic categories: webcam use in common OSA, psychopathological phenomena, sex work, and crime and indecency (commercial sexual exploitation, trafficking, and sexual boundary violations)...
March 2018: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658841/genetic-structure-of-zymoseptoria-tritici-in-northern-france-at-region-field-plant-and-leaf-layer-scales
#8
Ali Siah, Myriam Bomble, Benoit Tisserant, Thierry Cadalen, Maxime Holvoet, Jean-Louis Hilbert, Patrice Halama, Philippe Lucien Reignault
Population genetic structure of the worldwide-distributed wheat pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici has been extensively studied at large geographical scales, but to a much less extent at small or local spatial scales. A total of 627 single-conidial fungal isolates were sampled from several locations in northern France (Hauts-de-France Region) to assess fungal genetic structure at region, field, plant and leaf layer scales, using highly polymorphic microsatellite markers and mating type idiomorphs. Important and overall similar levels of both gene and genotype diversities (gene diversity values ≥ 0...
April 16, 2018: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655462/obesity-thrombotic-risk-and-inflammation-in-cancer
#9
Benjamín Rubio-Jurado, Luz-Ma-Adriana Balderas-Peña, Eduardo E García-Luna, María G Zavala-Cerna, Carlos Riebeling-Navarro, Pedro A Reyes, Arnulfo H Nava-Zavala
Neoplasms exhibits a high incidence and mortality rates due to their complex and commonly overlapping clinical, biochemical, and morphologic profiles influenced by acquired or inherited molecular abnormalities, cell of origin, and level of differentiation. Obesity appears related to ~20% of cancers including endometrial, esophageal, colorectal, postmenopausal breast, prostate, and renal. Several factors other than obesity, i.e., insulin, insulin-like growth factor, sexual hormones, and adipokines may play a potential role in neoplasia...
2018: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655384/hiv-prevention-strategies-and-risk-of-infection-a-model-based-analysis
#10
A Hahn, R Hinz, T Meyer, U Loderstädt, O Herchenröder, C G Meyer, N G Schwarz, H Frickmann
Risk populations for HIV infections tend to neglect condom use, making alternative preventive approaches necessary. Accordingly, we modelled the risk of sexual HIV transmission for condom use vs. use of rapid diagnostic test (RDT) systems with subsequent exclusion of potential sexual partners with a correctly or falsely positive test from unprotected sex with and without the use of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in a bio-statistical approach. We combined a previously described model of transmission risk for HIV-exposed individuals with a newly suggested model of risk of HIV exposure for sexually active HIV-negative individuals...
April 15, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653033/organometallic-conjugates-of-the-drug-sulfadoxine-for-combatting-antimicrobial-resistance
#11
Peter J Sadler, Prinessa Chellan, Vicky Avery, Sandra Duffy, James Triccas, Gayathri Nagalingam, Christina Tam, Luisa Cheng, Jenny Liu, Kirkwood Land, Guy Clarkson, Isolda Romero
Fourteen novel arene RuII, and cyclopentadienyl (Cpx) RhIII and IrIII complexes containing an N,N'-chelated pyridylimino- or quinolylimino ligand functionalized with the antimalarial drug sulfadoxine have been synthesized and characterized, including three by x-ray crystallography. Rhodium and iridium complexes exhibited potent antiplasmodial activity with IC50 values of 0.10 - 2.0 µM in either all, or one of the three Plasmodium falciparum assays (3D7 chloroquine sensitive, Dd2 chloroquine resistant and NF54 sexual late stage gametocytes), but were only moderately active towards Trichomonas vaginalis...
April 13, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652900/g%C3%AE-camp-pka-pathway-positively-regulates-pigmentation-chaetoglobosin-a-biosynthesis-and-sexual-development-in-chaetomium-globosum
#12
Yang Hu, Xiaoran Hao, Longfei Chen, Oren Akhberdi, Xi Yu, Yanjie Liu, Xudong Zhu
Sensing the environmental signals, the canonical Gα-cAMP/PKA pathway modulates mycelial growth and development, and negatively regulates some secondary metabolism in filamentous fungi, e.g. aflatoxin in Aspergillus nidulans. Here we report the characterization of this signaling pathway in Chaetomium globosum, a widely spread fungus known for synthesizing abundant secondary metabolites, e.g. chaetoglobosin A (ChA). RNAi-mediated knockdown of a putative Gα-encoding gene gna-1, led to plural changes in phenotype, e...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650061/comparison-of-sperm-motility-subpopulation-structure-among-wild-anadromous-and-farmed-male-atlantic-salmon-salmo-salar-parr-using-a-casa-system
#13
Carina Caldeira, Almudena García-Molina, Anthony Valverde, Daznia Bompart, Megan Hassane, Patrick Martin, Carles Soler
Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) is an endangered freshwater species that needs help to recover its wild stocks. However, the priority in aquaculture is to obtain successful fertilisation and genetic variability to secure the revival of the species. The aims of the present work were to study sperm subpopulation structure and motility patterns in wild anadromous males and farmed male Atlantic salmon parr. Salmon sperm samples were collected from wild anadromous salmon (WS) and two generations of farmed parr males...
April 13, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649936/barriers-to-cervical-screening-and-interest-in-self-sampling-among-women-who-actively-decline-screening
#14
Kirsty F Bennett, Jo Waller, Amanda J Chorley, Rebecca A Ferrer, Jessica B Haddrell, Laura Av Marlow
Objectives Understanding why some women actively decline cervical screening could contribute to tailored intervention development. We explored reasons for non-participation in cervical screening among women who had made an active decision not to attend in the future. We also explored interest in human papillomavirus self-sampling. Methods In a population-based survey of women in Great Britain, home-based computer-assisted interviews were carried out with screening eligible women. Women reported their intention to attend for screening when next invited...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Medical Screening
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649106/mosh-syndrome-male-obesity-secondary-hypogonadism-clinical-assessment-and-possible-therapeutic-approaches
#15
Antonino De Lorenzo, Annalisa Noce, Eleonora Moriconi, Tiziana Rampello, Giulia Marrone, Nicola Di Daniele, Valentina Rovella
Male obesity secondary hypogonadism (MOSH) impairs fertility, sexual function, bone mineralization, fat metabolism, cognitive function, deteriorates muscle mass and alters body composition. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the effect of dietary intervention and physical activity on the MOSH patient's hormonal profile after a 10% weight loss compared to baseline. Fourteen male patients were enrolled. Hormonal, lipid, glycemic profiles and body composition were determined at baseline and after a 10% weight loss...
April 12, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648989/analysis-of-sexual-problems-in-men-with-psoriasis
#16
Marta Wojciechowska-Zdrojowy, Adam Reich, Jacek C Szepietowski, Adam Wojciechowski
INTRODUCTION: Psoriasis may have negative impact on many aspects of patient life. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of psoriasis on erectile dysfunction and other sexual problems in men with psoriasis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 76 men aged between 20 and 66 years (mean 43.9±13.2 years) were enrolled. Psoriasis severity assessed according to PASI ranged from 2.0 to 49.8 points (mean 15.1±10.3 points). All patients were asked to complete International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5), Beck's Depression Inventory and Dermatology Life Quality Index...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648965/influence-of-the-perceived-infidelity-of-online-sexual-activities-osa-on-osa-experiences-among-chinese-heterosexual-individuals-in-committed-relationships
#17
Diandian Li, Lijun Zheng
Previous studies have revealed that many individuals in settled relationships engage in online sexual activities (OSAs). Considering this, this study examined the influence the perceived infidelity of OSA has on the OSA experiences of individuals in such committed relationships. OSAs involve viewing sexually explicit material, seeking sexual partners, cybersex, and flirting. Taking these specific activities, we measured perceived infidelity concerning OSAs by asking our participants (N = 301) to select either "yes" or "no" in regard to whether they believed each constituted an infidelity...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648594/active-case-finding-for-communicable-diseases-in-prison-settings-increasing-testing-coverage-and-uptake-among-the-prison-population-in-the-european-union-european-economic-area
#18
Lara Tavoschi, Hilde Vroling, Giordano Madeddu, Sergio Babudieri, Roberto Monarca, Marije Vonk Noordegraaf-Schouten, Netta Beer, Joana Gomes Dias, Éamonn O'Moore, Dagmar Hedrich, Anouk Oordt-Speets
Prison populations are disproportionally affected by communicable diseases when compared with the general community because of a complex mix of socioeconomic determinants and environmental factors. Tailored and adequate health care provision in prisons has the potential to reach vulnerable and underserved groups and address their complex needs. We investigated the available evidence on modalities and effectiveness of active case-finding interventions in prisons by searching PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library for records on prison and active case finding with no language limit...
April 10, 2018: Epidemiologic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29645315/cell-and-molecular-mechanisms-behind-diet-induced-hypothalamic-inflammation-and-obesity
#19
REVIEW
Yenniffer Ávalos, Bredford Kerr, Manuel Maliqueo, Mauricio Dorfman
Diet-induced obesity (DIO) is associated with chronic, low-grade inflammation in the hypothalamus, a key regulator of energy homeostasis. Current studies have revealed the involvement of different cell types as well as cell and molecular mechanisms that contribute to diet-induced hypothalamic inflammation (DIHI) and DIO. Since the discovery that high-fat diet and saturated fatty acids (SFAs) increase the expression of hypothalamic cytokines prior to weight gain, research has focused on understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying these changes, and what the role of inflammation in the obesity pathogenesis...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644435/sexual-health-in-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis-and-the-association-between-physical-fitness-and-sexual-function-a-cross-sectional-study
#20
Thomas Ernst Dorner, Carolin Berner, Sandra Haider, Igor Grabovac, Thomas Lamprecht, Karl Heinrich Fenzl, Ludwig Erlacher
The aim of this study was to examine sexual health in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and to analyse factors associated with sexual health with a focus on physical fitness. One hundred RA patients aged between 18 and 65 years were included in a cross-sectional study. Handgrip strength and knee extensor strength were measured with a dynamometer, and physical performance with the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB). Fifty-four patients, mean age 47.8 (SD 10.6) years, 61% female, answered a questionnaire about sexual health...
April 11, 2018: Rheumatology International
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