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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455916/mobilisation-kinetics-of-hazardous-elements-in-marine-plastics-subject-to-an-avian-physiologically-based-extraction-test
#1
Andrew Turner
Samples of plastic collected from two beaches in southwest England (n = 185) have been analysed by XRF spectrometry for elements that are hazardous or restricted in synthetic polymers (namely, As, Ba, Br, Cd, Cr, Hg, Pb, Sb and Se). Overall, one or more restricted element was detected in 151 samples, with 15 cases exhibiting non-compliance with respect to the Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) Directive. Twelve plastics that were RoHS-non-compliant were subsequently processed into microplastic-sized fragments and subjected to an avian physiologically-based extraction test (PBET) that simulates the chemical conditions in the gizzard-proventriculus of the northern fulmar...
February 15, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445109/species-specified-voc-emissions-derived-from-a-gridded-study-in-the-pearl-river-delta-china
#2
Ziwei Mo, Min Shao, Ying Liu, Yang Xiang, Ming Wang, Sihua Lu, Jiamin Ou, Junyu Zheng, Meng Li, Qiang Zhang, Xuemei Wang, Liuju Zhong
This study provides a top-down approach to establish an emission inventory of volatile organic compounds (VOC) based on ambient measurements, by combining the box model and positive matrix factorization (PMF) model. Species-specified VOC emissions, source contributions, and spatial distributions are determined based on regional-scale gridded measurements between September 2008 to December 2009 in the Pearl River Delta (PRD), China. The most prevalent anthropogenic species in the PRD was toluene estimated by the box model to be annual emissions of 167...
February 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414330/an-optimized-method-for-the-analysis-of-cyclic-and-linear-siloxanes-and-their-distribution-in-surface-and-core-sediments-from-industrialized-bays-in-korea
#3
Sang-Yoon Lee, Sunggyu Lee, Minkyu Choi, Kurunthachalam Kannan, Hyo-Bang Moon
Environmental contamination by siloxanes is a matter of concern due to their widespread consumption in personal care as well as industrial products and potential toxicity. Nevertheless, methods for simultaneous determination of cyclic and linear siloxanes in sediment are lacking. In this study, we developed an optimized analytical method to determine cyclic and linear siloxanes based on gas chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). This method was applied to determine concentrations of 19 siloxane compounds in surface and core sediments from industrialized bays in Korea to assess contamination status, spatial distribution, and historical trends...
January 27, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353267/bioactive-pyrrole-alkaloids-isolated-from-the-red-sea-marine-sponge-stylissa-carteri
#4
Ashraf N E Hamed, Roland Schmitz, Anja Bergermann, Frank Totzke, Michael Kubbutat, Werner E G Müller, Diaa T A Youssef, Mokhtar M Bishr, Mohamed S Kamel, RuAngelie Edrada-Ebel, Wim Wätjen, Peter Proksch
Fifteen pyrrole alkaloids were isolated from the Red Sea marine sponge Stylissa carteri and investigated for their biological activities. Four of them were dibrominated [(+) dibromophakelline, Z-3-bromohymenialdisine, (±) ageliferin and 3,4-dibromo-1H-pyrrole-2-carbamide], nine compounds were monobrominated [(-) clathramide C, agelongine, (+) manzacidin A, (-) 3-bromomanzacidin D, Z-spongiacidin D, Z-hymenialdisine, 2-debromostevensine, 2-bromoaldisine and 4-bromo-1H-pyrrole-2-carbamide)] and finally, two compounds were non-brominated derivatives viz...
January 20, 2018: Zeitschrift Für Naturforschung. C, A Journal of Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331918/dna-damage-in-marine-rock-oyster-saccostrea-cucullata-exposed-to-environmentally-available-pahs-and-heavy-metals-along-the-arabian-sea-coast
#5
Subhodeep Sarker, Deepti Vashistha, Munmun Saha Sarker, A Sarkar
Molecular biomarkers are used world wide for quick assessment of the immediate effect of environmental pollution on marine ecosystems. Recently, we evaluated oxidative stress responses of marine rock oyster, Saccostrea cucullata impacted due to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) accumulated in their tissues at a few sampling sites along the coast of Goa around the region of the Arabian sea coast, India (Sarkar et al., 2017). Using a combination of partial alkaline unwinding and comet assays, we now report a comprehensive study on the impairment of DNA integrity (DI) in S...
January 11, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330710/glycogen-production-in-marine-cyanobacterial-strain-synechococcus-sp-nkbg-15041c
#6
Amr Badary, Shouhei Takamatsu, Mitsuharu Nakajima, Stefano Ferri, Peter Lindblad, Koji Sode
An important feature offered by marine cyanobacterial strains over freshwater strains is the capacity to grow in seawater, replacing the need for often-limited freshwater. However, there are only limited numbers of marine cyanobacteria that are available for genetic manipulation and bioprocess applications. The marine unicellular cyanobacteria Synechococcus sp. strain NKBG 15041c (NKBG15041c) has been extensively studied. Recombinant DNA technologies are available for this strain, and its genomic information has been elucidated...
January 12, 2018: Marine Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320403/bacillibactin-and-bacillomycin-analogues-with-cytotoxicities-against-human-cancer-cell-lines-from-marine-bacillus-sp-pku-ma00093-and-pku-ma00092
#7
Mengjie Zhou, Fawang Liu, Xiaoyan Yang, Jing Jin, Xin Dong, Ke-Wu Zeng, Dong Liu, Yingtao Zhang, Ming Ma, Donghui Yang
Nonribosomal peptides from marine Bacillus strains have received considerable attention for their complex structures and potent bioactivities. In this study, we carried out PCR-based genome mining for potential nonribosomal peptides producers from our marine bacterial library. Twenty-one "positive" strains were screened out from 180 marine bacterial strains, and subsequent small-scale fermentation, HPLC and phylogenetic analysis afforded Bacillus sp. PKU-MA00092 and PKU-MA00093 as two candidates for large-scale fermentation and isolation...
January 10, 2018: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319806/comparative-genomics-highlights-symbiotic-capacities-and-high-metabolic-flexibility-of-the-marine-genus-pseudovibrio
#8
Dennis Versluis, Bart Nijsse, Mohd Azrul Naim, Jasper J Koehorst, Jutta Wiese, Johannes F Imhoff, Peter J Schaap, Mark W J van Passel, Hauke Smidt, Detmer Sipkema
Pseudovibrio is a marine bacterial genus members of which are predominantly isolated from sessile marine animals, and particularly sponges. It has been hypothesised that Pseudovibrio spp. form mutualistic relationships with their hosts. Here, we studied Pseudovibrio phylogeny and genetic adaptations that may play a role in host colonization by comparative genomics of 31 Pseudovibrio strains, including 25 sponge isolates. All genomes were highly similar in terms of encoded core metabolic pathways, albeit with substantial differences in overall gene content...
January 8, 2018: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316672/aquaculture-soft-coral-lobophytum-crassum-as-a-producer-of-anti-proliferative-cembranoids
#9
Bo-Rong Peng, Mei-Chin Lu, Mohamed El-Shazly, Shwu-Li Wu, Kuei-Hung Lai, Jui-Hsin Su
Our continuous search for marine bioactive secondary metabolites led to the screening of crude extracts from a variety of aquaculture soft corals. The ethyl acetate (EtOAc) extract of Lobophytum crassum showed a distinctive chemical profile that was different from the wild type. It demonstrated significant anti-proliferative activity against Molt 4 leukemia cell with an IC50 value of 1 μg/mL after 24 h. Chemical investigation focusing on the unique peaks in L. crassum profile led to the discovery of a new α-tocopherol crassumtocopherol C (1), and two new cembrane-based diterpenoids culobophylins D (2) and E (3), along with ten known cembranoids (4-13)...
January 7, 2018: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310230/effect-of-salinity-and-ph-on-the-calibration-of-the-extraction-of-pharmaceuticals-from-water-by-passil
#10
Hanna Męczykowska, Piotr Stepnowski, Magda Caban
High salinity and a relatively high pH are two factors characterizing the marine water environment, which is one of the main final reservoirs receiving pharmaceutical residues. The same factors have an undeniable impact on the extraction efficiency and kinetics of uptakes of polar analytes from water by sorbent-based passive sampling techniques. Recently, we presented a novel passive sampling technique, in which ionic liquids are applied as receiving phases for pharmaceutical monitoring in water (the Passive Sampling with Ionic Liquids technique)...
March 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298140/improving-marine-ecosystem-models-with-biochemical-tracers
#11
Heidi R Pethybridge, C Anela Choy, Jeffrey J Polovina, Elizabeth A Fulton
Empirical data on food web dynamics and predator-prey interactions underpin ecosystem models, which are increasingly used to support strategic management of marine resources. These data have traditionally derived from stomach content analysis, but new and complementary forms of ecological data are increasingly available from biochemical tracer techniques. Extensive opportunities exist to improve the empirical robustness of ecosystem models through the incorporation of biochemical tracer data and derived indices, an area that is rapidly expanding because of advances in analytical developments and sophisticated statistical techniques...
January 3, 2018: Annual Review of Marine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288907/effect-of-pomegranate-based-marinades-on-the-microbiological-chemical-and-sensory-quality-of-chicken-meat-a-metabolomics-approach
#12
Anastasia E Lytou, George-John E Nychas, Efstathios Z Panagou
Pomegranate juice is a product with enhanced functional properties that could be used as an alternative to traditional marination ingredients and effectively retard microbial growth along with providing an improved sensory result. In this study, two pomegranate based marinades were prepared for the marination of chicken breast fillets and the marinated samples were aerobically stored at 4 and 10°C for 9days. Raw, non-marinated chicken samples were used as control. Levels of total viable counts (TVC), Pseudomonas spp...
December 21, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278384/marine-cryptophytes-are-great-sources-of-epa-and-dha
#13
Elina Peltomaa, Matthew D Johnson, Sami J Taipale
Microalgae have the ability to synthetize many compounds, some of which have been recognized as a source of functional ingredients for nutraceuticals with positive health effects. One well-known example is the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), which are essential for human nutrition. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are the two most important long-chain omega-3 (ω-3) PUFAs involved in human physiology, and both industries are almost exclusively based on microalgae. In addition, algae produce phytosterols that reduce serum cholesterol...
December 26, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258236/lc-ms-ms-detection-of-karlotoxins-reveals-new-variants-in-strains-of-the-marine-dinoflagellate-karlodinium-veneficum-from-the-ebro-delta-nw-mediterranean
#14
Bernd Krock, Julia A Busch, Urban Tillmann, Francisco García-Camacho, Asterio Sánchez-Mirón, Juan J Gallardo-Rodríguez, Lorenzo López-Rosales, Karl B Andree, Margarita Fernández-Tejedor, Matthias Witt, Allan D Cembella, Allen R Place
A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed for the detection and quantitation of karlotoxins in the selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode. This novel method was based upon the analysis of purified karlotoxins (KcTx-1, KmTx-2, 44-oxo-KmTx-2, KmTx-5), one amphidinol (AM-18), and unpurified extracts of bulk cultures of the marine dinoflagellate Karlodinium veneficum strain CCMP2936 from Delaware (Eastern USA), which produces KmTx-1 and KmTx-3. The limit of detection of the SRM method for KmTx-2 was determined as 2...
December 18, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242669/crustacean-zooplankton-release-copious-amounts-of-dissolved-organic-matter-as-taurine-in-the-ocean
#15
Elisabeth L Clifford, Dennis A Hansell, Marta M Varela, Mar Nieto-Cid, Gerhard J Herndl, Eva Sintes
Taurine (Tau), an amino acid-like compound, is present in almost all marine metazoans including crustacean zooplankton. It plays an important physiological role in these organisms and is released into the ambient water throughout their life cycle. However, limited information is available on the release rates by marine organisms, the concentrations and turnover of Tau in the ocean. We determined dissolved free Tau concentrations throughout the water column and its release by abundant crustacean mesozooplankton at two open ocean sites (Gulf of Alaska and North Atlantic)...
November 2017: Limnology and Oceanography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234065/volatile-and-bioactive-compounds-in-opercula-from-muricidae-molluscs-supports-their-use-in-ceremonial-incense-and-traditional-medicines
#16
Bijayalakshmi Devi Nongmaithem, Peter Mouatt, Joshua Smith, David Rudd, Michael Russell, Caroline Sullivan, Kirsten Benkendorff
Muricidae molluscs are the source of a valuable purple dye that was traded as a luxury item in the Mediterranean region and by the late Byzantine was reserved for royalty and priests. Less well known is the use of muricid opercula in sacred incense and traditional medicines, although they are still used as rare ingredients today. This study provides the first chemical assessment of opercula from Muricidae, based on several traditional preparation procedures. Chemical analysis of opercula smoke revealed aromatic phenols, which act as fragrance stabilisers and produce a "medicinal" odour...
December 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229817/comparative-transcriptomics-as-a-guide-to-natural-product-discovery-and-biosynthetic-gene-cluster-functionality
#17
Gregory C A Amos, Takayoshi Awakawa, Robert N Tuttle, Anne-Catrin Letzel, Min Cheol Kim, Yuta Kudo, William Fenical, Bradley S Moore, Paul R Jensen
Bacterial natural products remain an important source of new medicines. DNA sequencing has revealed that a majority of natural product biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) maintained in bacterial genomes have yet to be linked to the small molecules whose biosynthesis they encode. Efforts to discover the products of these orphan BGCs are driving the development of genome mining techniques based on the premise that many are transcriptionally silent during normal laboratory cultivation. Here, we employ comparative transcriptomics to assess BGC expression among four closely related strains of marine bacteria belonging to the genus Salinispora The results reveal that slightly more than half of the BGCs are expressed at levels that should facilitate product detection...
December 11, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211005/isolation-of-petrocidin-a-a-new-cytotoxic-cyclic-dipeptide-from-the-marine-sponge-derived-bacterium-streptomyces-sp-sbt348
#18
Cheng Cheng, Eman M Othman, Helga Stopper, RuAngelie Edrada-Ebel, Ute Hentschel, Usama Ramadan Abdelmohsen
A new cyclic dipeptide, petrocidin A (1), along with three known compounds-2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid (2), 2,3-dihydroxybenzamide (3), and maltol (4)-were isolated from the solid culture of Streptomyces sp. SBT348. The strain Streptomyces sp. SBT348 had been prioritized in a strain collection of 64 sponge-associated actinomycetes based on its distinct metabolomic profile using liquid chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The absolute configuration of all α-amino acids was determined by HPLC analysis after derivatization with Marfey's reagent and comparison with commercially available reference amino acids...
December 6, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209860/identification-of-inhibitory-compounds-against-singapore-grouper-iridovirus-infection-by-cell-viability-based-screening-assay-and-droplet-digital-pcr
#19
Kuntong Jia, Yongming Yuan, Wei Liu, Lan Liu, Qiwei Qin, Meisheng Yi
Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV) is one of the major causative agents of fish diseases and has caused significant economic losses in the aquaculture industry. There is currently no commercial vaccine or effective antiviral treatment against SGIV infection. Annually, an increasing number of small molecule compounds from various sources have been produced, and many are proved to be potential inhibitors against viruses. Here, a high-throughput in vitro cell viability-based screening assay was developed to identify antiviral compounds against SGIV using the luminescent-based CellTiter-Glo reagent in cultured grouper spleen cells by quantificational measurement of the cytopathic effects induced by SGIV infection...
December 5, 2017: Marine Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209282/identification-and-analysis-of-novel-inhibitors-against-ns3-helicase-and-ns5b-rna-dependent-rna-polymerase-from-hepatitis-c-virus-1b-con1
#20
Na Yang, Chaomin Sun, Lixin Zhang, Jianguo Liu, Fuhang Song
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) leads to severe liver diseases, including liver fibrosis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Non-structural protein 3 helicase (NS3h) and non-structural protein 5B RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (NS5B) are involved in the replication of HCV RNA genome, and have been proved to be excellent targets for discovery of direct-acting antivirals. In this study, two high-throughput screening systems, fluorescence polarization (FP)-based ssDNA binding assay and fluorescence intensity (FI)-based dsRNA formation assay, were constructed to identify candidate NS3h and NS5B inhibitors, respectively...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
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