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marine based compounds

Rene M Boiteau, Daniel R Mende, Nicholas J Hawco, Matthew R McIlvin, Jessica N Fitzsimmons, Mak A Saito, Peter N Sedwick, Edward F DeLong, Daniel J Repeta
Nearly all iron dissolved in the ocean is complexed by strong organic ligands of unknown composition. The effect of ligand composition on microbial iron acquisition is poorly understood, but amendment experiments using model ligands show they can facilitate or impede iron uptake depending on their identity. Here we show that siderophores, organic compounds synthesized by microbes to facilitate iron uptake, are a dynamic component of the marine ligand pool in the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean. Siderophore concentrations in iron-deficient waters averaged 9 pM, up to fivefold higher than in iron-rich coastal and nutrient-depleted oligotrophic waters, and were dominated by amphibactins, amphiphilic siderophores with cell membrane affinity...
December 1, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Lawrence R Walker, Malak M Tfaily, Jared B Shaw, Nancy J Hess, Ljiljana Paša-Tolić, David W Koppenaal
Under iron-limiting conditions, bacteria produce low molecular mass Fe(iii) binding molecules known as siderophores to sequester the Fe(iii), along with other elements, increasing their bioavailability. Siderophores are thought to influence iron cycling and biogeochemistry in both marine and terrestrial ecosystems and hence the need for rapid, confident characterization of these compounds has increased. In this study, the type of siderophores produced by two marine bacterial species, Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 and Vibrio cyclitrophicus 1F53, were characterized by use of a newly developed 21 T Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometer (FTICR MS) with direct injection electrospray ionization...
December 1, 2016: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
Nancy Weiland-Bräuer, Daniela Langfeldt, Ruth A Schmitz
The marine environment covers more than 70 % of the world's surface. Marine microbial communities are highly diverse and have evolved during extended evolutionary processes of physiological adaptations under the influence of a variety of ecological conditions and selection pressures. They harbor an enormous diversity of microbes with still unknown and probably new physiological characteristics. In the past, marine microbes, mostly bacteria of microbial consortia attached to marine tissues of multicellular organisms, have proven to be a rich source of highly potent bioactive compounds, which represent a considerable number of drug candidates...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Hee-Young Kim, In-Seok Lee, Jeong-Eun Oh
The occurrence trends and effects of 30 human and veterinary pharmaceuticals, including antibiotics, anthelmintics, anti-inflammatory drugs, and β-blockers, in the marine environment, with a focus on seawater, sediment, cultured fish, and their feed collected from coastal and fish farm areas in the southern sea of Korea, were investigated. The concentrations of total pharmaceuticals in coastal area seawater (mean: 533ng/L) were higher than those in fish farm seawater (mean: 300ng/L), while the opposite trend (coastal area: 136ng/gdrywt<fish farm area; 195ng/gdrywt) was observed for sediment samples...
November 25, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Petr Masner, Barbora Javůrková, Luděk Bláha
The present study demonstrates development of a rapid testing protocol based on a small portable luminometer using flash kinetic assessment of bacterial bioluminescence. The laboratory comparisons based on six model organic toxicants and two metals showed significant correlations between responses of freshwater bacteria Photorhabdus luminescens and standard marine bacterial species Vibrio fisheri. While P. luminescens was less sensitive in standard arrangements, the responses of both organisms were comparable in the newly introduced portable luminometer setup...
November 26, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Maria Luz Lopez-Rodriguez, Nagore I Marin-Ramos, Carmen Piñar, Henar Vazquez-Villa, Mar Martín-Fontecha, Angel Gonzalez, Angeles Canales, Sergio Algar, Paloma P Mayo, Jesús Jimenez-Barbero, Consuelo Gajate, Faustino Mollinedo, Leonardo Pardo, Silvia Ortega-Gutierrez, Alma Viso
Despite more than three decades of intense effort, no anti-Ras therapies have reached clinical application. Contributing to this failure has been an underestimation of Ras complexity and a dearth of structural information. In this regard, recent studies have revealed the highly dynamic character of Ras surface and the existence of transient pockets suitable for small-molecule binding, opening new possibilities for the development of Ras modulators. In this work we describe a novel Ras inhibitor (compound 12) that selectively impairs mutated Ras activity in a reversible manner without significantly affecting wild-type Ras, reduces the Ras-GTP levels, inhibits the activation of the MAPK pathway, and exhibits a remarkable cytotoxic activity in Ras-driven cellular models...
November 25, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
Xiang Wang, Yanqiu Huang, Yanqing Sheng, Pei Su, Yan Qiu, Caihuan Ke, Danqing Feng
Mussels are major fouling organisms causing serious technical and economic problems. In this study, antifouling activity towards mussel was found in three compounds isolated from a marine bacterium associated with the sea anemone Haliplanella sp.. This bacterial strain, called PE2 was identified as Vibrio alginolyticus using morphology, biochemical tests and phylogenetic analysis based on sequences of 16S rRNA and four housekeeping genes (rpoD, gyrB, rctB and toxR). Three small-molecule compounds (indole, 3-formylindole and cyclo (Pro-Leu)) were purified from the ethyl acetate extract of V...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
Marvin Dörries, Lars Wöhlbrand, Michael Kube, Richard Reinhardt, Ralf Rabus
BACKGROUND: Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) are key players of the carbon- and sulfur-cycles in the sediments of the world's oceans. Habitat relevant SRBs are often members of the Desulfosarcina-Desulfococcus clade belonging to the deltaproteobacterial family of Desulfobacteraceae. Despite this environmental recognition, their molecular (genome-based) physiology and their potential to contribute to organic carbon mineralization as well as to adapt to changing environmental conditions have been scarcely investigated...
November 15, 2016: BMC Genomics
Raúl García Salcedo, Carlos Olano, Rogelio Fernández, Alfredo F Braña, Carmen Méndez, Fernando de la Calle, José A Salas
BACKGROUND: Antitumor compounds PM100117 and PM100118 are glycosylated polyketides derived from the marine actinobacteria Streptomyces caniferus GUA-06-05-006A. The organization and characterization of the PM100117/18 biosynthesis gene cluster has been recently reported. RESULTS: Based on the preceding information and new genetic engineering data, we have outlined the pathway by which PM100117/18 are glycosylated. Furthermore, these genetic engineering experiments have allowed the generation of novel PM100117/18 analogues...
November 9, 2016: Microbial Cell Factories
Shivankar Agrawal, Alok Adholeya, Sunil K Deshmukh
Marine biodiversity is recognized by a wide and unique array of fascinating structures. The complex associations of marine microorganisms, especially with sponges, bryozoans, and tunicates, make it extremely difficult to define the biosynthetic source of marine natural products or to deduce their ecological significance. Marine sponges and tunicates are important source of novel compounds for drug discovery and development. Majority of these compounds are nitrogen containing and belong to non-ribosomal peptide (NRPs) or mixed polyketide-NRP natural products...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Rachele Rossi, Carmela Dell'Aversano, Bernd Krock, Patrizia Ciminiello, Isabella Percopo, Urban Tillmann, Vittorio Soprano, Adriana Zingone
Azadinium dexteroporum is the first species of the genus described from the Mediterranean Sea and it produces different azaspiracids (AZA). The aims of this work were to characterize the toxin profile of the species and gain structural information on azaspiracids produced by the A. dexteroporum strain SZN-B848 isolated from the Gulf of Naples. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analyses were carried out on three MS systems having different ion source geometries (ESI, TurboIonSpray®, ESI ION MAX) and different MS analyzers operating either at unit resolution or at high resolution, namely a hybrid triple quadrupole-linear ion trap (Q-Trap MS), a time of flight (TOF MS), and a hybrid linear ion trap Orbitrap XL Fourier transform mass spectrometer (LTQ Orbitrap XL FTMS)...
November 7, 2016: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Maria Maansson, Nikolaj G Vynne, Andreas Klitgaard, Jane L Nybo, Jette Melchiorsen, Don D Nguyen, Laura M Sanchez, Nadine Ziemert, Pieter C Dorrestein, Mikael R Andersen, Lone Gram
Microorganisms are a rich source of bioactives; however, chemical identification is a major bottleneck. Strategies that can prioritize the most prolific microbial strains and novel compounds are of great interest. Here, we present an integrated approach to evaluate the biosynthetic richness in bacteria and mine the associated chemical diversity. Thirteen strains closely related to Pseudoalteromonas luteoviolacea isolated from all over the Earth were analyzed using an untargeted metabolomics strategy, and metabolomic profiles were correlated with whole-genome sequences of the strains...
May 2016: MSystems
Jon Andoni Sánchez, Amparo Alfonso, Ines Rodriguez, Eva Alonso, José Manuel Cifuentes, Roberto Bermudez, Mostafa E Rateb, Marcel Jaspars, Wael E Houssen, Rainer Ebel, Jioji Tabudravu, Luís M Botana
The modulation of the immune system can have multiple applications such as cancer treatment, and a wide type of processes involving inflammation where the potent chemotactic agent cyclophilin A (Cyp A) is implicated. The Porifera phylum, in which Spongionella is encompassed, is the main producer of marine bioactive compounds. Four secondary metabolites obtained from Spongionella (Gracilin H, A, L, and Tetrahydroaplysulphurin-1) were described to hit Cyp A and to block the release of inflammation mediators. Based on these results, some role of Spongionella compounds on other steps of the signaling pathway mediated by this chemotactic agent can be hypothesized...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
Frances J Alexander, Catherine K King, Amanda J Reichelt-Brushett, Peter L Harrison
The risk of a major marine fuel spill in Antarctic waters is increasing, yet there are currently no standard or suitable response methods under extreme Antarctic conditions. Fuel dispersants may present a possible solution, however little data exist on the toxicity of dispersants or fuels to Antarctic species, thereby preventing informed management decisions. Larval development toxicity tests using 3 life history stages of the Antarctic sea urchin Sterechinus neumayeri were completed to assess the toxicity of physically dispersed, chemically dispersed and dispersant only water accommodated fractions of an intermediate fuel oil (IFO 180) and the chemical dispersant Slickgone NS...
November 4, 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Qing-Xiang Cao, Jun-Hua Wei, Rong Deng, Gong-Kan Feng, Xiao-Feng Zhu, Wen-Jian Lan, Hou-Jin Li
Two new pyripyropenes, 13-dehydroxy-1,11-deacetylpyripyropene A (1) and 1-deacetylpyripyropene A (2), together with six known compounds, were isolated from a marine fungus Fusarium lateritium 2016F18-1 which was associated with the sponge Phyllospongia foliascens. Their structures were established mainly based on NMR and MS data. Their cytotoxic activities against human cancer cells CNE1, CNE2, HONE1, SUNE1, GLC82 and HL7702 were evaluated. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
November 2, 2016: Chemistry & Biodiversity
Jaime Rodríguez, Carlos Jiménez, María Blanco, Guillermo Tarazona, Rogelio Fernández, Carmen Cuevas
Lanesoic acid (1) was isolated and characterized from Theonella sp. during PharmaMar's ongoing program to study cytotoxic substances from marine sources. Its planar structure, elucidated by spectral analysis (NMR, IR, UV, and MS), possesses an unusual skeleton containing a tetrahydropyrimidine cation that is stabilized as a zwitterion by an internal carboxylate counterion. The stereostructure of 1 was deduced from ROESY-NOESY, J-based configurational analysis (JBCA), and density functional theory (DFT) computational calculations fitted using the recently published DP4+ parameter...
November 1, 2016: Organic Letters
Eva Alonso, Rebeca Alvariño, Marta Leirós, Jioji N Tabudravu, Klaus Feussner, Miriam A Dam, Mostafa E Rateb, Marcel Jaspars, Luis M Botana
Makaluvamines are pyrroloiminoquinones isolated from Zyzzya sponges. Until now, they have been described as topoisomerase II inhibitors with cytotoxic effects in diverse tumor cell lines. In the present work, seven makaluvamines were tested in several antioxidant assays in primary cortical neurons and neuroblastoma cells. Among the alkaloids studied, makaluvamine J was the most active in all the assays. This compound was able to reduce the mitochondrial damage elicited by the well-known stressor H₂O₂. The antioxidant properties of makaluvamine J are related to an improvement of the endogenous antioxidant defenses of glutathione and catalase...
October 27, 2016: Marine Drugs
Mae Sexauer Gustin, Ashley M Pierce, Jiaoyan Huang, Matthieu B Miller, Heather A Holmes, S Marcela Loria-Salazar
The spatial distribution of chemical compounds and concentration of reactive mercury (RM), defined as the sum of gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM) and <3 μm particulate bound mercury (PBM), are poorly characterized. The objective of this study was to understand the chemistry, concentration, and spatial and temporal distribution of GOM at adjacent locations (12 km apart) with a difference in elevation of ∼1000 m. Atmospheric GOM measurements were made with passive and active samplers using membranes, and at one location, a Tekran mercury measurement system was used...
November 1, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
A Marchand, N Crepin, I Roulland, F Semence, V Domergue, F Zal, V Polard, A Coquerel
Manipulation of blood and blood components is prohibited in sports by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). This includes the use of blood substitutes to increase oxygen transport, like hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers (HBOCs), which are compounds derived from hemoglobin. Despite their medical interest, the first generation of HBOCs had serious adverse effects and was abandoned. However, new studies are now exploiting the properties of marine worm hemoglobins, which circulate as giant extracellular complexes with high oxygen-binding capacities...
October 27, 2016: Drug Testing and Analysis
Carolina de Los Reyes, María J Ortega, Azahara Rodríguez-Luna, Elena Talero, Virginia Motilva Sánchez, Eva Zubia
Isochrysis galbana is a marine microalga rich in PUFAs that is widely used as feed in aquaculture and more recently investigated for its potential in food applications and as source of bioactive compounds. In this study, the biomass obtained from cultures of I. galbana has been investigated to determine its content in glycosylglycerides and glycosylceramides. By using NMR, UPLC-MS/MS, and fatty acid profiles, the structures of ten monogalactosyldiacylglycerols (MGDGs 1-10) and nine digalactosyldiacylglycerols (DGDGs 11-19) have been established...
October 27, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
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