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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095778/the-pangenome-of-antarctic-pseudoalteromonas-bacteria-evolutionary-and-functional-insights
#1
Emanuele Bosi, Marco Fondi, Valerio Orlandini, Elena Perrin, Isabel Maida, Donatella de Pascale, Maria Luisa Tutino, Ermenegilda Parrilli, Angelina Lo Giudice, Alain Filloux, Renato Fani
BACKGROUND: Pseudoalteromonas is a genus of ubiquitous marine bacteria used as model organisms to study the biological mechanisms involved in the adaptation to cold conditions. A remarkable feature shared by these bacteria is their ability to produce secondary metabolites with a strong antimicrobial and antitumor activity. Despite their biotechnological relevance, representatives of this genus are still lacking (with few exceptions) an extensive genomic characterization, including features involved in the evolution of secondary metabolites production...
January 17, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089692/in-vitro-bioaccessibility-of-the-marine-biotoxins-okadaic-acid-dinophysistoxin-2-and-their-7-o-acyl-fatty-acid-ester-derivatives-in-raw-and-steamed-shellfish
#2
Diana Manita, Ricardo N Alves, Ana Catarina Braga, Fabiola Fogaça, António Marques, Pedro Reis Costa
Okadaic acid (OA), Dinophysistoxins (DTX1 and DTX2) and their acyl-derivatives (DTX3) are marine toxins responsible for the human diarrhetic shellfish poisoning. To date the amount of toxins ingested from consumption of shellfish has been considered equal to the amount of toxins available for uptake by the human body. The aim of this study is to assess the OA, DTX2 and DTX3 fractions released from raw and steamed mussels and cockles into the digestive fluids (bioaccessibility) using a static in vitro digestion model...
January 12, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081159/osmoregulation-in-the-halophilic-bacterium-halomonas-elongata-a-case-study-for-integrative-systems-biology
#3
Viktoria Kindzierski, Silvia Raschke, Nicole Knabe, Frank Siedler, Beatrix Scheffer, Katharina Pflüger-Grau, Friedhelm Pfeiffer, Dieter Oesterhelt, Alberto Marin-Sanguino, Hans-Jörg Kunte
Halophilic bacteria use a variety of osmoregulatory methods, such as the accumulation of one or more compatible solutes. The wide diversity of compounds that can act as compatible solute complicates the task of understanding the different strategies that halophilic bacteria use to cope with salt. This is specially challenging when attempting to go beyond the pathway that produces a certain compatible solute towards an understanding of how the metabolic network as a whole addresses the problem. Metabolic reconstruction based on genomic data together with Flux Balance Analysis (FBA) is a promising tool to gain insight into this problem...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074955/total-synthesis-and-biological-activity-of-dolastatin-16
#4
Loida O Casalme, Arisa Yamauchi, Akinori Sato, Julie G Petitbois, Yasuyuki Nogata, Erina Yoshimura, Tatsufumi Okino, Taiki Umezawa, Fuyuhiko Matsuda
The total synthesis of dolastatin 16, a macrocyclic depsipeptide first isolated from the sea hare Dolabella auricularia as a potential antineoplastic metabolite by Pettit et al., was achieved in a convergent manner. Dolastatin 16 was reported by Tan to exhibit strong antifouling activity, and thus shows promise for inhibiting the attachment of marine benthic organisms such as Amphibalanus amphitrite to ships and submerged artificial structures. Therefore, dolastatin 16 is a potential compound for a new, environmentally friendly antifouling material to replace banned tributyltin-based antifouling paints...
January 11, 2017: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073536/microelectrode-array-mea-platform-as-a-sensitive-tool-to-detect-and-evaluate-ostreopsis-cf-ovata-toxicity
#5
Susanna Alloisio, Valentina Giussani, Mario Nobile, Mariachiara Chiantore, Antonio Novellino
In the last decade, the occurrence of harmful dinoflagellate blooms of the genus Ostreopsis has increased both in frequency and in geographic distribution with adverse impacts on public health and the economy. Ostreopsis species are producers of palytoxin-like toxins (putative palytoxin and ovatoxins) which are among the most potent natural non-protein compounds known to date, exhibiting extreme toxicity in mammals, including humans. Most existing toxicological data are derived from in vivo mouse assay and are related to acute effects of pure palytoxin, without considering that the toxicity mechanism of dinoflagellates can be dependent on the varying composition of complex biotoxins mixture and on the presence of cellular components...
May 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056571/compounds-compositions-and-methods-of-agelastatin-alkaloids-patent-evaluation-of-wo2015042239-a1
#6
Takehiko Yoshimitsu, Han W Tun
Agelastatins are a family of tetracyclic alkaloids isolated from marine sponges. The patent examined in this publication covers the chemical synthesis of agelastatins A to F and eight analogues and their therapeutic use against hematologic malignancies. The claim on the chemical synthesis features a novel biomimetic cyclization of a tricyclic precursor, which streamlines scalable access to agelastatins and their analogues. This new synthetic approach can potentially expedite the research on these compounds for therapeutic use against cancers by making them more easily available...
January 5, 2017: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055195/non-targeted-screening-of-halogenated-organic-compounds-in-bottlenose-dolphins-tursiops-truncatus-from-rio-de-janeiro-brazil
#7
Mariana B Alonso, Keith A Maruya, Nathan Gray Dodder, José Lailson-Brito, Alexandre Freitas Azevedo, Elitieri Santos-Neto, João Paulo Machado Torres, Olaf Malm, Eunha Hoh
To catalog the diversity and abundance of halogenated organic compounds (HOCs) accumulating in high trophic marine species from the southwestern Atlantic Ocean, tissue from bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) stranded or incidentally captured along the coast of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, were analyzed by a non-targeted approach based on GC×GC/TOF-MS. A total of 158 individual HOCs from 32 different structural classes were detected in the blubber of 4 adult male T. truncatus. Nearly 90 percent of the detected compounds are not routinely monitored in the environment...
January 5, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034290/marine-algae-as-a-prospective-source-for-antidiabetic-compounds-a-brief-review
#8
S P Unnikrishnan, A M Jayasri
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disorder characterized by chronic hyperglycaemia, which is attributed by several life threatening complications including atherosclerosis, nephropathy, and retinopathy. The current therapies available for the management of DM mainly include oral antidiabetic drugs and insulin injections. However, continuous use of synthetic drugs provides lower healing with many side effects. Therefore, there is an urge for safe and efficient antidiabetic drugs for the management of DM...
December 29, 2016: Current Diabetes Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028206/two-distinct-pools-of-b12-analogs-reveal-community-interdependencies-in-the-ocean
#9
Katherine R Heal, Wei Qin, Francois Ribalet, Anthony D Bertagnolli, Willow Coyote-Maestas, Laura R Hmelo, James W Moffett, Allan H Devol, E Virginia Armbrust, David A Stahl, Anitra E Ingalls
Organisms within all domains of life require the cofactor cobalamin (vitamin B12), which is produced only by a subset of bacteria and archaea. On the basis of genomic analyses, cobalamin biosynthesis in marine systems has been inferred in three main groups: select heterotrophic Proteobacteria, chemoautotrophic Thaumarchaeota, and photoautotrophic Cyanobacteria. Culture work demonstrates that many Cyanobacteria do not synthesize cobalamin but rather produce pseudocobalamin, challenging the connection between the occurrence of cobalamin biosynthesis genes and production of the compound in marine ecosystems...
December 27, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003062/bioactive-compounds-of-marine-dinoflagellate-isolates-from-western-greenland-and-their-phylogenetic-association-within-the-genus-alexandrium
#10
Urban Tillmann, Bernd Krock, Tilman J Alpermann, Allan Cembella
The diversity and biogeography of populations of the toxigenic marine dinoflagellate genus Alexandrium, a major global cause of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), are represented by only a few studies based upon a low number of cultured isolates and remain poorly described in Arctic and sub-Arctic waters. Multiple clonal isolates (n=22) of the Alexandrium tamarense species complex, and a single isolate of A. tamutum, were collected from the water column while on board an oceanographic expedition to the west coast of Greenland...
January 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002965/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-anti-trypanosoma-cruzi-activity-of-new-arylamine-mannich-base-type-derivatives
#11
Elsa Moreno-Viguri, Carmen Jiménez-Montes, Rubén Martín-Escolano, Mery Santivañez-Veliz, Alvaro Martin-Montes, Amaya Azqueta, Marina Jimenez-Lopez, Salvador Zamora Ledesma, Nuria Cirauqui, Adela López de Ceráin, Clotilde Marín, Manuel Sánchez-Moreno, Silvia Pérez-Silanes
Chagas disease is a neglected tropical disease with 6-7 million people infected worldwide, and there is no effective treatment. Therefore, there is an urgent need to continue researching in order to discover novel therapeutic alternatives. We present a series of arylaminoketone derivatives as means of identifying new drugs to treat Chagas disease in the acute phase with greater activity, less toxicity, and a larger spectrum of action than that corresponding to the reference drug benznidazole. Indexes of high selectivity found in vitro formed the basis for later in vivo assays in BALB/c mice...
December 22, 2016: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000560/ligand-based-pharmacophore-modeling-and-extended-bioactivity-prediction-for-salinosporamide-a-b-and-c-from-marine-actinomycetes-salinispora-tropica
#12
Kesavan Dineshkumar, Aparna Vasudevan, Waheeta Hopper
Actinomycetes are microorganisms producing structurally unique secondary metabolites with pharmaceutically essential bioactivities. Salinispora is an obligate marine actinomycete which produces structurally varied and unique secondary metabolites. There is plenty of scope for the development of drugs out of these novel compounds isolated from Salinispora. Salinosporamides A, B and C are secondary metabolites identified from Salinispora. Anticancer, antibacterial and anti-protozoa activity have been shown in previous studies, which make them interesting subjects for further extended biological activity prediction...
December 15, 2016: Combinatorial Chemistry & High Throughput Screening
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997756/evidence-of-molybdenum-association-with-particulate-organic-matter-under-sulfidic-conditions
#13
T W Dahl, A Chappaz, J Hoek, C J McKenzie, S Svane, D E Canfield
The geochemical behavior of molybdenum (Mo) in the oceans is closely linked to the presence of sulfide species in anoxic environments, where Fe availability may play a key role in the Mo scavenging. Here, we show that Mo(VI) is reduced in the presence of particulate organic matter (represented by sulfate-reducing bacteria). Molybdenum was immobilized at the surface of both living cells and dead/lysed cells, but not in cell-free control experiments. Experiments were carried out at four different Mo concentrations (0...
December 20, 2016: Geobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986731/characterization-of-a-novel-cadmium-resistance-determinant-in-listeria-monocytogenes
#14
Cameron Parsons, Sangmi Lee, Victor Jayeola, Sophia Kathariou
: Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen that can cause severe disease (listeriosis) in susceptible individuals. It is ubiquitous in the environment and often exhibits resistance to heavy metals. One of the determinants that enables Listeria to tolerate exposure to cadmium is the cadAC efflux system, with CadA being a P-type ATPase. Three different cadA genes (designated cadA1-cadA3) have previously been characterized in L. monocytogenes A novel putative cadmium resistance gene (cadA4) was recently identified through whole genome sequencing, but experimental confirmation for its involvement in cadmium resistance is lacking...
December 16, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986312/suspended-sediment-in-a-high-arctic-river-an-appraisal-of-flux-estimation-methods
#15
Pernille Ladegaard-Pedersen, Charlotte Sigsgaard, Aart Kroon, Jakob Abermann, Kirstine Skov, Bo Elberling
Quantifying fluxes of water, sediment and dissolved compounds through Arctic rivers is important for linking the glacial, terrestrial and marine ecosystems and to quantify the impact of a warming climate. The quantification of fluxes is not trivial. This study uses a 8-years data set (2005-2012) of daily measurements from the high-Artic Zackenberg River in Northeast Greenland to estimate annual suspended sediment fluxes based on four commonly used methods: M1) is the discharge weighted mean and uses direct measurements, while M2-M4) are one uncorrected and two bias corrected rating curves extrapolating a continuous concentration trace from measured values...
December 13, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27983471/endothiovibrio-diazotrophicus-gen-nov-sp-nov-a-novel-nitrogen-fixing-sulfur-oxidizing-gammaproteobacterium-isolated-from-a-salt-marsh
#16
Dennis A Bazylinski, Viviana Morillo, Christopher T Lefèvre, Nathan Viloria, Bradley L Dubbels, Timothy J Williams
A novel non-phototrophic, marine, sulfur-oxidizing bacterium, strain S-1T, was isolated from a coastal salt marsh in Massachusetts, USA. Cells are Gram-negative vibrios motile by means of a single polar unsheathed flagellum. Strain S-1T is an obligate microaerophile with limited metabolic capacity. It grows chemolithoautotrophically utilizing sulfide and thiosulfate as electron donors, converting these compounds to sulfate, and the Calvin-Benson-Bassham cycle for carbon fixation. Cells of strain S-1T did not grow on any of a large number of organic carbon sources and there is no evidence for chemoorganoheterotrophic growth...
December 15, 2016: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979695/potential-of-marine-natural-products-against-drug-resistant-fungal-viral-and-parasitic-infections
#17
REVIEW
Usama Ramadan Abdelmohsen, Srikkanth Balasubramanian, Tobias A Oelschlaeger, Tanja Grkovic, Ngoc B Pham, Ronald J Quinn, Ute Hentschel
Antibiotics have revolutionised medicine in many aspects, and their discovery is considered a turning point in human history. However, the most serious consequence of the use of antibiotics is the concomitant development of resistance against them. The marine environment has proven to be a very rich source of diverse natural products with significant antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antiparasitic, antitumour, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and immunomodulatory activities. Many marine natural products (MNPs)-for example, neoechinulin B-have been found to be promising drug candidates to alleviate the mortality and morbidity rates caused by drug-resistant infections, and several MNP-based anti-infectives have already entered phase 1, 2, and 3 clinical trials, with six approved for usage by the US Food and Drug Administration and one by the EU...
December 12, 2016: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966721/integrated-discovery-of-foxo1-dna-stabilizers-from-marine-natural-products-to-restore-chemosensitivity-to-anti-egfr-based-therapy-for-metastatic-lung-cancer
#18
Yingjia Sun, Xinghao Ai, Jingwen Hou, Xiangyun Ye, Ruijun Liu, Shengping Shen, Ziming Li, Shun Lu
The transcription factor forkhead box O1 (FOXO1) negatively regulates activated EGFR signaling by turning on the gene expression of tumor suppressor Kruppel-like factor 6. Here, we propose that the chemosensitivity to anti-EGFR-based lung cancer therapy can be restored by stabilization of the FOXO1-DNA complex architecture using small-molecule marine natural medicines. A synthetic protocol that integrates computational ligand-protein-DNA binding analysis and an experimental fluorescence binding assay was applied against a large library of structurally diverse, drug-like marine natural products to discover novel stabilizers of DNA-bound FOXO1 conformation...
December 14, 2016: Molecular BioSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941599/marine-algae-as-a-potential-source-for-anti-obesity-agents
#19
REVIEW
Chu Wan-Loy, Phang Siew-Moi
Obesity is a major epidemic that poses a worldwide threat to human health, as it is also associated with metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Therapeutic intervention through weight loss drugs, accompanied by diet and exercise, is one of the options for the treatment and management of obesity. However, the only approved anti-obesity drug currently available in the market is orlistat, a synthetic inhibitor of pancreatic lipase. Other anti-obesity drugs are still being evaluated at different stages of clinical trials, while some have been withdrawn due to their severe adverse effects...
December 7, 2016: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27938857/aneurinifactin-a-new-lipopeptide-biosurfactant-produced-by-a-marine-aneurinibacillus-aneurinilyticus-sbp-11-isolated-from-gulf-of-mannar-purification-characterization-and-its-biological-evaluation
#20
Shanmugasundaram Senthil Balan, C Ganesh Kumar, Singaram Jayalakshmi
Biosurfactants are microbial-derived amphiphilic molecules having hydrophobic and hydrophilic moieties produced by bacteria, fungi, yeasts and algae and are extracellular or cell wall-associated compounds. In an ongoing survey for bioactive microbial metabolites from microbes isolated from diverse ecological niches, a new lipopeptide biosurfactant was identified from a marine bacterium; Aneurinibacillus aneurinilyticus strain SBP-11, which was isolated from a marine diversity hotspot, Gulf of Mannar, India...
January 2017: Microbiological Research
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