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Alexander Blanke, Manuel Pinheiro, Peter J Watson, Michael J Fagan
Insect head shapes are remarkably variable but the influences of these changes on biomechanical performance are unclear. Among "basal" winged insects, such as dragonflies, mayflies, earwigs, and stoneflies, some of the most prominent anatomical changes are the general mouthpart orientation, eye size and the connection of the endoskeleton to the head. Here, we assess these variations as well as differing ridge and sclerite configurations using modern engineering methods including multibody dynamics modelling and finite element analysis in order to quantify and compare the influence of anatomical changes on strain in particular head regions and the whole head...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Narayanan Raghupathy, Kwangbom Choi, Matthew J Vincent, Glen L Beane, Keith Sheppard, Steven C Munger, Ron Korstanje, Fernando Pardo-Manual de Villena, Gary A Churchill, Alfonso Valencia
Motivation: Allele-specific expression (ASE) refers to the differential abundance of the allelic copies of a transcript. RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) can provide quantitative estimates of ASE for genes with transcribed polymorphisms. When short-read sequences are aligned to a diploid transcriptome, readmapping ambiguities confound our ability to directly count reads. Multi-mapping reads aligning equally well to multiple genomic locations, isoforms, or alleles can comprise the majority (>85%) of reads...
February 12, 2018: Bioinformatics
Katie Weihbrecht, Wesley A Goar, Calvin S Carter, Val C Sheffield, Seongjin Seo
Nephronophthisis-related ciliopathies (NPHP-RC) are a group of disorders that present with end-stage renal failure in childhood/adolescence, kidney cysts, retinal degeneration, and cerebellar hypoplasia. One disorder that shares clinical features with NPHP-RC is Bardet-Biedl Syndrome (BBS). Serologically defined colon cancer antigen 8 (SDCCAG8; also known as NPHP10 and BBS16) is an NPHP gene that is also associated with BBS. To better understand the patho-mechanisms of NPHP and BBS caused by loss of SDCCAG8 function, we characterized an SDCCAG8 mouse model (Sdccag8Tn(sb-Tyr)2161B...
2018: PloS One
Woo Hyeon Lim, Seung Hong Choi, Roh-Eul Yoo, Koung Mi Kang, Tae Jin Yun, Ji-Hoon Kim, Chul-Ho Sohn
OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the possibility of accelerated gadolinium accumulation in irradiated brain parenchyma where the blood-brain barrier was weakened. METHODS: From January 2010 to June 2015, 44 patients with supratentorial glioblastoma were retrospectively identified who underwent pre- and post-radiation brain MR imaging, including R1 mapping. The mean dose of administered gadobutrol (Gadovist, Bayer, Germany) was 5.1 vials. Regions of interest (ROIs) were drawn around tumors that were located within 50-100% iso-dose lines of maximum radiation dose...
2018: PloS One
Ernest Baskin
This article tests low cost interventions to increase influenza vaccination rates. By changing an email announcement sent out to employees in 2014 (n > 30,000), the following interventions are tested: incentives, attention to the negative impacts of not get vaccinated, and showing a map to the vaccination centers at the end of the email announcement. Only the map condition helped increase influenza vaccination rates. The use of low-cost interventions can improve influenza vaccination rates though not all interventions work as well as others in the field...
2018: PloS One
Pablo M Rusjan, Dunja Knezevic, Isabelle Boileau, Junchao Tong, Romina Mizrahi, Alan A Wilson, Sylvain Houle
[11C]CURB is a novel irreversible radioligand for imaging fatty acid amide hydrolase in the human brain. In the present work, we validate an algorithm for generating parametric map images of [11C]CURB acquired with a high resolution research tomograph (HRRT) scanner. This algorithm applies the basis function method on an irreversible two-tissue compartment model (k4 = 0) with arterial input function, i.e., BAFPIC. Monte Carlo simulations are employed to assess bias and variability of the binding macroparameters (Ki and λk3) as a function of the voxel noise level and the range of basis functions...
2018: PloS One
Sunniva Katharina Thode, Ewelina Rojek, Mikolaj Kozlowski, Rafi Ahmad, Peik Haugen
Siderophores are small molecules synthesized and secreted by bacteria and fungi to scavenge iron. Extracellular ferri-siderohores are recognized by cognate receptors on the cell surface for transport over membranes. Several siderophore systems from Vibrionaceae representatives are known and well understood, e.g., the molecular structure of the siderophore, the biosynthesis gene cluster and pathway, and the gene expression pattern. Less is known about how these systems are distributed among the ~140 Vibrionaceae species, and which evolutionary processes contributed to the present-day distribution...
2018: PloS One
Júlia Alves Menezes, Ulisses Confalonieri, Ana Paula Madureira, Isabela de Brito Duval, Rhavena Barbosa Dos Santos, Carina Margonari
Vulnerability, understood as the propensity to be adversely affected, has attained importance in the context of climate change by helping to understand what makes populations and territories predisposed to its impacts. Conditions of vulnerability may vary depending on the characteristics of each territory studied-social, environmental, infrastructural, public policies, among others. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate what makes the municipalities of the state of Amazonas, Brazil, vulnerable to climate change in the context of the largest tropical forest in the world, and which regions of the State are the most susceptible...
2018: PloS One
Matthew B Applegate, Darren Roblyer
Frequency-domain diffuse optical spectroscopy (FD-DOS) is an established technique capable of determining optical properties and chromophore concentrations in biological tissue. Most FD-DOS systems use either manually positioned, handheld probes or complex arrays of source and detector fibers to acquire data from many tissue locations, allowing for the generation of 2D or 3D maps of tissue. Here, we present a new method to rapidly acquire a wide range of source-detector (SD) separations by mechanically scanning a single SD pair...
February 15, 2018: Optics Letters
Hsuan-Hao Lu, Ogaga D Odele, Daniel E Leaird, Andrew M Weiner
Frequency-to-time mapping (FTM) is a technique used to mirror the spectral shape of an optical waveform in the time domain. The regular approach, based on the far-field condition, requires large amounts of dispersion for successful mapping. However, when the far-field condition is insurmountable for achieving a desired temporal profile, another technique, termed near-field FTM, can be employed to assist with the mapping. For the first time, we demonstrate a shaper-assisted near-field FTM using entangled photon pairs...
February 15, 2018: Optics Letters
Cesar E Garcia-Ortiz, Rodolfo Cortes, Robin Orejel, Raul Hernandez-Aranda, Israel Martínez-López, Félix Aguilar, Victor Coello
Thin films are key elements in the current development of nanotechnology, and their characterization has become an essential task. In this Letter, we report on a technique to reconstruct full 3D maps of dielectric thin films using the scattered light of decoupled surface plasmon polaritons. Patterned magnesium fluoride thin films were fabricated, and their 3D thickness map was fully reconstructed with high (<1 nm) precision. This technique can be applied and easily adjusted to identify inhomogeneities in wide areas (mm2-cm2) of dielectric samples with subnanometer precision, or to characterize the fabrication processes involved in the preparation of patterned multilayered systems...
February 15, 2018: Optics Letters
Di Mo, Ran Wang, Ning Wang, Tian Lv, Ke-Shu Zhang, Yi-Rong Wu
We present a three-dimensional (3D) imaging method for long-range spinning targets. This method acquires multi-angle two-dimensional (2D) images of spinning targets by the inverse synthetic aperture lidar (ISAL) imaging technique. The 3D distribution of the scattering coefficients of a target has a mapping relationship with the series of 2D images. This mapping is analyzed, and a 3D Hough transform is used to implement inverse mapping. The parameter space of the Hough transform is the estimation of the 3D distribution of the scattering coefficients...
February 15, 2018: Optics Letters
Patrick Ferrand, Arthur Baroni, Marc Allain, Virginie Chamard
Following the recent establishment of the formalism of vectorial ptychography [Opt. Lett.40, 5144 (2015)OPLEDP0146-959210.1364/OL.40.005144], first measurements, to the best of our knowledge, are reported in the optical range, demonstrating the capability of the proposed method to map the four parameters of the Jones matrix of an anisotropic specimen, and therefore to quantify a wide range of optical material properties, including power transmittance, optical path difference, diattenuation, retardance, and fast-axis orientation...
February 15, 2018: Optics Letters
Anya V Grozhik, Samie R Jaffrey
Messenger RNA (mRNA) and long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) can be subjected to a variety of post-transcriptional modifications that markedly influence their fate and function. This concept of 'epitranscriptomic' modifications and the understanding of their function has been driven by new technologies for transcriptome-wide mapping of modified nucleotides using next-generation sequencing. Mapping technologies have successfully documented the location and prevalence of several modified nucleotides in the transcriptome...
February 14, 2018: Nature Chemical Biology
Petr V Sergiev, Nikolay A Aleksashin, Anastasia A Chugunova, Yury S Polikanov, Olga A Dontsova
Methylation of nucleotides in ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) is a ubiquitous feature that occurs in all living organisms. Identification of all enzymes responsible for rRNA methylation, as well as mapping of all modified rRNA residues, is now complete for a number of model species, such as Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Recent high-resolution structures of bacterial ribosomes provided the first direct visualization of methylated nucleotides. The structures of ribosomes from various organisms and organelles have also lately become available, enabling comparative structure-based analysis of rRNA methylation sites in various taxonomic groups...
February 14, 2018: Nature Chemical Biology
Franziska Taubert, Rico Fischer, Jürgen Groeneveld, Sebastian Lehmann, Michael S Müller, Edna Rödig, Thorsten Wiegand, Andreas Huth
Remote sensing enables the quantification of tropical deforestation with high spatial resolution. This in-depth mapping has led to substantial advances in the analysis of continent-wide fragmentation of tropical forests. Here we identified approximately 130 million forest fragments in three continents that show surprisingly similar power-law size and perimeter distributions as well as fractal dimensions. Power-law distributions have been observed in many natural phenomena such as wildfires, landslides and earthquakes...
February 14, 2018: Nature
Radka Symonová, W Mike Howell
To understand the cytogenomic evolution of vertebrates, we must first unravel the complex genomes of fishes, which were the first vertebrates to evolve and were ancestors to all other vertebrates. We must not forget the immense time span during which the fish genomes had to evolve. Fish cytogenomics is endowed with unique features which offer irreplaceable insights into the evolution of the vertebrate genome. Due to the general DNA base compositional homogeneity of fish genomes, fish cytogenomics is largely based on mapping DNA repeats that still represent serious obstacles in genome sequencing and assembling, even in model species...
February 14, 2018: Genes
Fabio Dell'Acqua, Gianni Cristian Iannelli, Marco A Torres, Mario L V Martina
Cash crops are agricultural crops intended to be sold for profit as opposed to subsistence crops, meant to support the producer, or to support livestock. Since cash crops are intended for future sale, they translate into large financial value when considered on a wide geographical scale, so their production directly involves financial risk. At a national level, extreme weather events including destructive rain or hail, as well as drought, can have a significant impact on the overall economic balance. It is thus important to map such crops in order to set up insurance and mitigation strategies...
February 14, 2018: Sensors
Laura Ruotsalainen, Martti Kirkko-Jaakkola, Jesperi Rantanen, Maija Mäkelä
The long-term objective of our research is to develop a method for infrastructure-free simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) and context recognition for tactical situational awareness. Localization will be realized by propagating motion measurements obtained using a monocular camera, a foot-mounted Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU), sonar, and a barometer. Due to the size and weight requirements set by tactical applications, Micro-Electro-Mechanical (MEMS) sensors will be used. However, MEMS sensors suffer from biases and drift errors that may substantially decrease the position accuracy...
February 14, 2018: Sensors
Tyrone Sherwin, Mikala Easte, Andrew Tzer-Yeu Chen, Kevin I-Kai Wang, Wenbin Dai
Location-aware services are one of the key elements of modern intelligent applications. Numerous real-world applications such as factory automation, indoor delivery, and even search and rescue scenarios require autonomous robots to have the ability to navigate in an unknown environment and reach mobile targets with minimal or no prior infrastructure deployment. This research investigates and proposes a novel approach of dynamic target localisation using a single RF emitter, which will be used as the basis of allowing autonomous robots to navigate towards and reach a target...
February 14, 2018: Sensors
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