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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026109/soft-elastomers-with-ionic-liquid-filled-cavities-as-strain-isolating-substrates-for-wearable-electronics
#1
Yinji Ma, Matt Pharr, Liang Wang, Jeonghyun Kim, Yuhao Liu, Yeguang Xue, Rui Ning, Xiufeng Wang, Ha Uk Chung, Xue Feng, John A Rogers, Yonggang Huang
Managing the mechanical mismatch between hard semiconductor components and soft biological tissues represents a key challenge in the development of advanced forms of wearable electronic devices. An ultralow modulus material or a liquid that surrounds the electronics and resides in a thin elastomeric shell provides a strain-isolation effect that enhances not only the wearability but also the range of stretchability in suitably designed devices. The results presented here build on these concepts by (1) replacing traditional liquids explored in the past, which have some nonnegligible vapor pressure and finite permeability through the encapsulating elastomers, with ionic liquids to eliminate any possibility for leakage or evaporation, and (2) positioning the liquid between the electronics and the skin, within an enclosed, elastomeric microfluidic space, but not in direct contact with the active elements of the system, to avoid any negative consequences on electronic performance...
December 27, 2016: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024367/fully-printed-stretchable-thin-film-transistors-and-integrated-logic-circuits
#2
Le Cai, Suoming Zhang, Jinshui Miao, Zhibin Yu, Chuan Wang
This paper reports intrinsically stretchable thin-film transistors (TFTs) and integrated logic circuits directly printed on elastomeric polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrates. The printed devices utilize carbon nanotubes and a type of hybrid gate dielectric comprising PDMS and barium titanate (BaTiO3) nanoparticles. The BaTiO3/PDMS composite simultaneously provides high dielectric constant, superior stretchability, low leakage, as well as good printability and compatibility with the elastomeric substrate. Both TFTs and logic circuits can be stretched beyond 50% strain along either channel length or channel width directions for thousands of cycles while showing no significant degradation in electrical performance...
December 27, 2016: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009903/creep-and-fatigue-resistant-rapid-piezoresistive-responses-of-elastomeric-graphene-coated-carbon-nanotube-aerogels-over-a-wide-pressure-range
#3
Michelle N Tsui, Mohammad F Islam
Lightweight, flexible piezoresistive materials with wide operational pressure ranges are in demand for applications such as human physical activity and health monitoring, robotics, and for functional interfacing between living systems and wearable electronics. Piezoresistivity of many elastomeric foams of polymers and carbon allotropes satisfies much of the required characteristics for these applications except creep and fatigue resistance due to their viscoelasticity, critically limiting the reliability and lifetime of integrated devices...
January 19, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27983777/aging-of-silicon-nanocrystals-on-elastomer-substrates-photoluminescence-effects
#4
Rajib Mandal, Rebecca J Anthony
Nanocrystalline silicon is widely known as an efficient and tunable optical emitter and is attracting great interest for applications such as light-emitting devices (LEDs), electronic displays, sensors, and solar-photovoltaics. To date, however, luminescent silicon nanocrystals have been used exclusively in traditional rigid devices, leaving a gap in knowledge regarding how they behave on elastomeric substrates. The present study shows how the optical and structural/morphological properties of plasma-synthesized silicon nanocrystals (SiNCs) change when they are deposited on stretchable substrates made from polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)...
December 28, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27960462/twistable-and-stretchable-sandwich-structured-fiber-for-wearable-sensors-and-supercapacitors
#5
Changsoon Choi, Jae Myeong Lee, Shi Hyeong Kim, Seon Jeong Kim, Jiangtao Di, Ray H Baughman
Twistable and stretchable fiber-based electrochemical devices having high performance are needed for future applications, including emerging wearable electronics. Weavable fiber redox supercapacitors and strain sensors are here introduced, which comprise a dielectric layer sandwiched between functionalized buckled carbon nanotube electrodes. On the macroscopic scale, the sandwiched core rubber of the fiber acts as a dielectric layer for capacitive strain sensing and as an elastomeric substrate that prevents electrical shorting and irreversible structural changes during severe mechanical deformations...
December 14, 2016: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928107/ultrasonic-monitoring-of-the-setting-of-silicone-elastomeric-impression-materials
#6
Chie Kanazawa, Ryosuke Murayama, Tetsuya Furuichi, Arisa Imai, Shunichi Suda, Hiroyasu Kurokawa, Toshiki Takamizawa, Masashi Miyazaki
This study used an ultrasonic measurement device to monitor the setting behavior of silicone elastomeric impression materials, and the influence of temperature on setting behavior was determined. The ultrasonic device consisted of a pulser-receiver, transducers, and an oscilloscope. The two-way transit time through the mixing material was divided by two to account for the down-and-back travel path; then it was multiplied by the sonic velocity. Analysis of variance and the Tukey honest significant difference test were used...
December 6, 2016: Dental Materials Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918289/a-bioreactor-with-an-electro-responsive-elastomeric-membrane-for-mimicking-intestinal-peristalsis
#7
Daniele Cei, Joana Costa, Giulia Gori, Gabriele Frediani, Claudio Domenici, Federico Carpi, Arti Ahluwalia
This study describes an actuated bioreactor which mimics the pulsatile contractile motion of the intestinal barrier using electro-responsive elastomers as smart materials that undergo deformation upon electrical stimulation. The device consists of an annular dielectric elastomer actuator working as a radial artificial muscle able to rhythmically contract and relax a central cell culture well. The bioreactor maintained up to 4 h of actuation at a frequency of 0.15 Hz and a strain of 8%-10%, to those of the cyclic contraction and relaxation of the small intestine...
December 5, 2016: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856307/mechanoresponsive-materials-for-drug-delivery-harnessing-forces-for-controlled-release
#8
REVIEW
Julia Wang, Jonah A Kaplan, Yolonda L Colson, Mark W Grinstaff
Mechanically-activated delivery systems harness existing physiological and/or externally-applied forces to provide spatiotemporal control over the release of active agents. Current strategies to deliver therapeutic proteins and drugs use three types of mechanical stimuli: compression, tension, and shear. Based on the intended application, each stimulus requires specific material selection, in terms of substrate composition and size (e.g., macrostructured materials and nanomaterials), for optimal in vitro and in vivo performance...
November 14, 2016: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809475/elastomeric-light-emitting-polymer-enhanced-by-interpenetrating-networks
#9
Huier Gao, Si Chen, Jiajie Liang, Qibing Pei
Conjugated polymers containing long-chain alkyl side groups for solubility are generally unstretchable: large strain induces crack formation, fracture, or plastic deformation. When the polymers are stretched to reorient the conjugated chains along the stretching direction, high dichroic ratio is observed both for absorption of the ground state and radiative decay of the excited state. Here an interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) approach is reported to impart elastomeric deformability to a conjugated polymer...
November 30, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761525/a-simple-check-valve-for-microfluidic-point-of-care-diagnostics
#10
C S Ball, R F Renzi, A Priye, R J Meagher
Check valves are often essential components in microfluidic devices, enabling automated sample processing for diagnostics at the point of care. However, there is an unmet need for a check valve design that is compatible with rigid thermoplastic devices during all stages of development-from initial prototyping with a laser cutter to final production with injection molding. Here, we present simple designs for a passive, normally closed check valve that is manufactured from commonly available materials with a CO2 laser and readily integrated into prototype and production thermoplastic devices...
November 1, 2016: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749848/tunable-window-device-based-on-micro-wrinkling-of-nanometric-zinc-oxide-thin-film-on-elastomer
#11
Milan Shrestha, Gih-Keong Lau
This Letter presents a tunable window device based on microscopic wrinkling of a transparent elastomeric surface. "Crack-free" microscopic wrinkling of a 50-nm ZnO thin film is possible on a highly adhesive acrylic elastomer membrane (VHB 4910) upon partial release from a large radial pre-stretch of membrane. This ZnO-based tunable window device demonstrates reversible tunability between transparent and translucent states. At zero compression with a flat surface, the device is transparent with a 93% in-line transmittance at 550-nm wavelength...
October 1, 2016: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748597/renewable-solid-electrodes-in-microfluidics-recovering-the-electrochemical-activity-without-treating-the-surface
#12
Carlos A Teixeira, Gabriela F Giordano, Maisa B Beltrame, Luis C S Vieira, Angelo L Gobbi, Renato S Lima
The contamination, passivation, or fouling of the detection electrodes is a serious problem undermining the analytical performance of electroanalytical devices. The methods to regenerate the electrochemical activity of the solid electrodes involve mechanical, physical, or chemical surface treatments that usually add operational time, complexity, chemicals, and further instrumental requirements to the analysis. In this paper, we describe for the first time a reproducible method for renewing solid electrodes whenever their morphology or composition are nonspecifically changed without any surface treatment...
November 15, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27735061/spallation-of-small-particles-from-peristaltic-pump-tube-segments
#13
Yi Liu, Monica Faria, Edward Leonard
In most extracorporeal filtration devices such as hemodialysis a peristaltic pump is used to circulate blood. Pump function requires the repeated compression of an elastomeric tube from which particles may be shed into the circulatory system, a process called spallation. Earlier studies are likely to have missed the large number of small particles (<2 µm in diameter) that appear. The present study uses more modern equipment that detects and sizes particles down to 0.6 µm. As polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tubing is commonly used for this process, a series of studies was conducted on three different types to study its spallation characteristics, along with a co-extruded PVC/polyurethane tubing known for its enhanced biocompatibility properties...
October 13, 2016: Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717071/a-stretchable-multicolor-display-and-touch-interface-using-photopatterning-and-transfer-printing
#14
Shuo Li, Bryan N Peele, Chris M Larson, Huichan Zhao, Robert F Shepherd
An intrinsically soft and stretchable multicolor display and touch interface is reported. Red, green, and blue pixels are formed separately by photopatterning transition-metal-doped ZnS embedded in silicone gels and transfer printing onto an elastomeric dielectric sheet. The device shows stable illumination while being stretched up to 200% area strain or under different deformation modalities. It also introduces capabilities for dynamic colorations and multipoint capacitive touch sensing.
September 22, 2016: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27683240/protein-crystallization-in-an-actuated-microfluidic-nanowell-device
#15
Bahige G Abdallah, Shatabdi Roy-Chowdhury, Raimund Fromme, Petra Fromme, Alexandra Ros
Protein crystallization is a major bottleneck of structure determination by X-ray crystallography, hampering the process by years in some cases. Numerous matrix screening trials using significant amounts of protein are often applied, while a systematic approach with phase diagram determination is prohibited for many proteins that can only be expressed in small amounts. Here, we demonstrate a microfluidic nanowell device implementing protein crystallization and phase diagram screening using nanoscale volumes of protein solution per trial...
2016: Crystal Growth & Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27670953/stretchable-materials-for-robust-soft-actuators-towards-assistive-wearable-devices
#16
Gunjan Agarwal, Nicolas Besuchet, Basile Audergon, Jamie Paik
Soft actuators made from elastomeric active materials can find widespread potential implementation in a variety of applications ranging from assistive wearable technologies targeted at biomedical rehabilitation or assistance with activities of daily living, bioinspired and biomimetic systems, to gripping and manipulating fragile objects, and adaptable locomotion. In this manuscript, we propose a novel two-component soft actuator design and design tool that produces actuators targeted towards these applications with enhanced mechanical performance and manufacturability...
September 27, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27619387/outpatient-multimodal-intravenous-analgesia-in-patients-undergoing-day-case-surgery-description-of-a-three-year-experience
#17
Magdalena Serra, Roser Vives, Montserrat Cañellas, Josep Planell, Joan Carles Oliva, Carmen Colilles, Caridad Pontes
BACKGROUND: The use of elastomeric devices for ambulatory intravenous pain treatment in Major Ambulatory Surgery (MAS) has been described to improve postoperative pain management. The objective of the study was to describe the first 3 years experience of the use of elastomeric devices for ambulatory intravenous pain treatment in MAS implemented at our site since 2010. METHODS: Data were retrieved from the medical records for all patients who, between January 2010 and March 2014, underwent surgical procedures at the ambulatory surgical centre at our hospital and were prescribed a home-based continuous intravenous analgesia...
September 13, 2016: BMC Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27571339/solvent-assisted-gel-printing-for-micropatterning-thin-organic-inorganic-hybrid-perovskite-films
#18
Beomjin Jeong, Ihn Hwang, Sung Hwan Cho, Eui Hyuk Kim, Soonyoung Cha, Jinseong Lee, Han Sol Kang, Suk Man Cho, Hyunyong Choi, Cheolmin Park
While tremendous efforts have been made for developing thin perovskite films suitable for a variety of potential photoelectric applications such as solar cells, field-effect transistors, and photodetectors, only a few works focus on the micropatterning of a perovskite film which is one of the most critical issues for large area and uniform microarrays of perovskite-based devices. Here we demonstrate a simple but robust method of micropatterning a thin perovskite film with controlled crystalline structure which guarantees to preserve its intrinsic photoelectric properties...
September 27, 2016: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27571166/flexible-and-stretchable-piezoelectric-sensor-with-thickness-tunable-configuration-of-electrospun-nanofiber-mat-and-elastomeric-substrates
#19
Suk-Hee Park, Han Bit Lee, Si Mo Yeon, Jeanho Park, Nak Kyu Lee
Here, we developed highly sensitive piezoelectric sensors in which flexible membrane components were harmoniously integrated. An electrospun nanofiber mat of poly(vinylidenefluoride-co-trifluoroethylene) was sandwiched between two elastomer sheets with sputtered electrodes as an active layer for piezoelectricity. The developed sensory system was ultrasensitive in response to various microscale mechanical stimuli and able to perceive the corresponding deformation at a resolution of 1 μm. Owing to the highly flexible and resilient properties of the components, the durability of the device was sufficiently stable so that the measuring performance could still be effective under harsh conditions of repetitive stretching and folding...
September 21, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27547485/mechanics-and-thermal-management-of-stretchable-inorganic-electronics
#20
Jizhou Song, Xue Feng, Yonggang Huang
Stretchable electronics enables lots of novel applications ranging from wearable electronics, curvilinear electronics to bio-integrated therapeutic devices that are not possible through conventional electronics that is rigid and flat in nature. One effective strategy to realize stretchable electronics exploits the design of inorganic semiconductor material in a stretchable format on an elastomeric substrate. In this review, we summarize the advances in mechanics and thermal management of stretchable electronics based on inorganic semiconductor materials...
March 2016: National Science Review
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