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Fernando Pastor
The renaissance of cancer immunotherapy is, nowadays, a reality. In the near future, it will be very likely among the first-line treatments for cancer patients. There are several different approaches to modulate the immune system to fight against tumor maladies but, so far, monoclonal antibodies may currently be the most successful immuno-tools used to that end. The number of ongoing clinical trials with monoclonal antibodies has been increasing exponentially over the last few years upon the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval of the first immune-checkpoint blockade antibodies...
October 24, 2016: Pharmaceuticals
Saswat Mohapatra, Abhijit Saha, Prasenjit Mondal, Batakrishna Jana, Subhajit Ghosh, Atanu Biswas, Surajit Ghosh
Microtubule dynamics play a crucial role in cancer cell division. Various drugs are developed to target microtubule. Although a few of them show potential in treatment of cancer, but success rate is limited due to their poor bioavailability and lack of specificity. Thus, development of highly bioavailable and target specific anticancer drug is extremely necessary. To address these key issues, here, a combination of approaches such as development of a dodecapeptide-docetaxel nanoassembly targeted to tubulin and MUC1 (mucin 1, cell surface associated glycoprotein) targeting oligonucleotide aptamer conjugated liposome for delivering peptide-docetaxel nanoassembly into the breast cancer cell have been demonstrated...
October 26, 2016: Advanced Healthcare Materials
Jing Liu, Meirong Cui, Li Niu, Hong Zhou, Shusheng Zhang
Graphene composite connected with hemin and gold nanoparticles showing better performance for hydrogen peroxide decomposition compared that of three components alone or duplex hybrid complex. Our previous studies showed that, the morphology of the Au nanoparticles may greatly influence the catalytic activity of graphene-family peroxidase mimetic. Recently, interestingly we found that Au nanoflower could in-situ grow and form on the surface of Hemin/RGO. And the prickly morphology of this Au nanoflower brought higher catalytic ability with enhanced kinetic parameter than traditional Au nanoparticles which showed smooth surface on the surface of graphene...
October 25, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
Ameneh Zare-Shahabadi, Akram Ataei, Nima Rezaei
Through selective activation/inhibition or dissection of neuronal circuits, optogenetic tools have raised hopes for a better understanding of neuropsychiatric mechanisms and therapeutic targets for various disorders. Although, overcoming serious limitations resultin from conventional neuronal circuit study, this method has its own imperfections, such as optogenetic modulation of neural activity, using an internal, animal-generated, light source. In this review, limitations of external light delivery systems and possible approaches for using internal light sources in laboratory animals and perhaps, human being, are being addressed...
October 22, 2016: Life Sciences
Robert T Dauchy, Melissa A Wren-Dail, Aaron E Hoffman, John P Hanifin, Benjamin Warfield, George C Brainard, Steven M Hill, Victoria P Belancio, Erin M Dauchy, David E Blask
Regular cycles of exposure to light and dark control pineal melatonin production and temporally coordinate circadian rhythms of metabolism and physiology in mammals. Previously we demonstrated that the peak circadian amplitude of nocturnal blood melatonin levels of rats were more than 6-fold higher after exposure to cool white fluorescent (CWF) light through blue-tinted (compared with clear) rodent cages. Here, we evaluated the effects of light-phase exposure of rats to white light-emitting diodes (LED), which emit light rich in the blue-appearing portion of the visible spectrum (465-485 nm), compared with standard broadspectrum CWF light, on melatonin levels during the subsequent dark phase and on plasma measures of metabolism and physiology...
2016: Comparative Medicine
Kanishka Senarath, Kasun Ratnayake, Praneeth Siripurapu, John L Payton, Ajith Karunarathne
Current assays to measure the activation of G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) and G proteins are time consuming, indirect and expensive. Therefore, an efficient method which directly measures the ability of a ligand to govern GPCR-G protein interactions can help understand the molecular underpinnings of the associated signaling. A live cell imaging based approach is presented here to directly measure ligand-induced GPCR and G protein activity in real time. The number of active GPCRs governs G protein heterotrimer (αβγ) dissociation, thereby controlling the concentration of free βγ subunits...
October 25, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
Yi Li, Han Hao, Hai-Lin Zhang, Xiao-Na DU
Chronic pain represents a major clinical issue which so far is still in shortage of selective and effective treatment. Multiple components are involved in the pain processing, including peripheral, spinal and supraspinal levels of the nervous system. The core to fight the pain problem effectively is to have a good understanding of nociceptive mechanism and the neurobiology of pain perception. Optogenetic technique allows selective activation of subpopulation neurons and provides possibility for better understanding of complex pathway and modulation mechanism in nervous system...
October 25, 2016: Sheng Li Xue Bao: [Acta Physiologica Sinica]
Sunny C Y Jeng, Hedy H Y Chan, Evan P Booy, Sean A McKenna, Peter J Unrau
The effective tracking and purification of biological RNAs and RNA protein complexes is currently challenging. One promising strategy to simultaneously address both of these problems is to develop high-affinity RNA aptamers against taggable small molecule fluorophores. RNA Mango is a 39-nucleotide, parallel-stranded G-quadruplex RNA aptamer motif that binds with nanomolar affinity to a set of thiazole orange (TO1) derivatives while simultaneously inducing a 10(3)-fold increase in fluorescence. We find that RNA Mango has a large increase in its thermal stability upon the addition of its TO1-Biotin ligand...
October 24, 2016: RNA
Samuel A Sakyi, Samuel Yaw Aboagye, Isaac Darko Otchere, Albert M Liao, Thomas G Caltagirone, Dorothy Yeboah-Manu
BACKGROUND: Buruli ulcer (BU) is a subcutaneous skin disease listed among the neglected tropical diseases by the World Health Organization (WHO). Early case detection and management is very important to reduce morbidity and the accompanied characteristic disfiguring nature of BU. Since diagnosis based on clinical evidence can lead to misdiagnosis, microbiological confirmation is essential to reduce abuse of drugs; since the anti-mycobacterial drugs are also used for TB treatment. The current WHO gold standard PCR method is expensive, requires infrastructure and expertise are usually not available at the peripheral centers where BU cases are managed...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Yu Zhang, Yifei Lu, Feng Wang, Sai An, Yujie Zhang, Tao Sun, Jianhua Zhu, Chen Jiang
Inflammation has been reported as one significant hallmark of breast cancer in relation to tumor development, metastasis, and invasion. The bradykinin receptor 1 (B1R) is highly expressed on inflammatory breast tumor cells thus providing a promising targeting site for tumor recognition and sufficient receptor mediated endocytosis. In this study, the authors evaluate the targeting efficiency of l-form and d-form [des-Arg(10) ]kallidin both in vitro and in vivo. To further improve the drug delivery efficiency, the authors establish a dandelion like nanoparticle by combining the polymeric drug conjugates and aptamer complex together...
October 24, 2016: Small
Ziwen Dai, Qi Gao, Man Ching Cheung, Hoi Man Leung, Terrence Chi Kong Lau, Hanadi F Sleiman, King Wai Chiu Lai, Pik Kwan Lo
We develop a versatile recognition system based on 3D triangular-shaped DNA nanotubes by integrating three different aptamer sequences along the three edges. This would allow multiple binding activities to be combined into a single system. The versatility of this nanotube platform can also provide a framework for spatial orientation and positioning of different aptamer-binding ligands in a 'pea-pod' architecture.
October 24, 2016: Nanoscale
Jie Wang, Haijing Shen, Xiaoxia Hu, Yan Li, Zhihao Li, Jinfan Xu, Xiufeng Song, Haibo Zeng, Quan Yuan
For the water remediation techniques based on adsorption, the long-standing contradictories between selectivity and multiple adsorbability, as well as between affinity and recyclability, have put it on weak defense amid more and more severe environment crisis. Here, a pollutant-targeting hydrogel scavenger is reported for water remediation with both high selectivity and multiple adsorbability for several pollutants, and with strong affinity and good recyclability through rationally integrating the advantages of multiple functional materials...
March 2016: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
Ismail Ocsoy, Nuran Isiklan, Sena Cansiz, Nalan Özdemir, Weihong Tan
Aptamer-functionalized magnetic graphene oxide conjugates loaded with indocyanine green (ICG) dye, or Apt@ICG@mGO, have been successfully developed for dual-targeted photothermal and photodynamic therapy. In general, a drug or its carrier or their dosage can be imprtant important issues in terms of toxicity. However, in this system, each component used is quite safe, biocompatibe and clean. For instance, ICG, a Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved near-infrared (NIR) dye, serves as both a photothermal and photodynamic agent...
2016: RSC Advances
Lei Mei, Guizhi Zhu, Liping Qiu, Cuichen Wu, Huapei Chen, Hao Liang, Sena Cansiz, Yifan Lv, Xiaobing Zhang, Weihong Tan
Cancer chemotherapy has been impeded by side effects and multidrug resistance (MDR) partially caused by drug efflux from cancer cells, which call for targeted drug delivery systems additionally able to circumvent MDR. Here we report multifunctional DNA nanoflowers (NFs) for targeted drug delivery to both chemosensitive and MDR cancer cells and circumvent MDR in both leukemia and breast cancer cell models. NFs are self-assembled via liquid crystallization of DNA generated by Rolling Circle Replication, during which NFs are incorporated with aptamers for specific cancer cell recognition, fluorophores for bioimaging, and Doxorubicin (Dox)-binding DNA for drug delivery...
November 2015: Nano Research
Chun Xu, Sabine Krabbe, Jan Gründemann, Paolo Botta, Jonathan P Fadok, Fumitaka Osakada, Dieter Saur, Benjamin F Grewe, Mark J Schnitzer, Edward M Callaway, Andreas Lüthi
Memories about sensory experiences are tightly linked to the context in which they were formed. Memory contextualization is fundamental for the selection of appropriate behavioral reactions needed for survival, yet the underlying neuronal circuits are poorly understood. By combining trans-synaptic viral tracing and optogenetic manipulation, we found that the ventral hippocampus (vHC) and the amygdala, two key brain structures encoding context and emotional experiences, interact via multiple parallel pathways...
October 18, 2016: Cell
Jing Wang, Haisheng Liu, Changbei Ma, Jun Wang, Linxiu Zhong, Kefeng Wu
We have developed a label-free assay for the detection of DNA polymerase activity based on a thrombin-binding aptamer (TBA) G-quadruplex. In the presence of DNA polymerase, the 3'-OH termini of the hairpin substrate are immediately elongated to replace the TBA, which can be recognized quickly by the ThT dye and results in an increase of fluorescence. This method is highly sensitive with a detection limit of 0.1 U/mL. It is simple and cost-effective without any requirement of labeling with a fluorophore-quencher pair...
October 19, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Probes
Tahereh Zargar, Taghi Khayamian, Mohammad T Jafari
A selective thin-film microextraction based on aptamer immobilized on cellulose paper was used as a paper spray ionization source for ion mobility spectrometry (PSI-IMS), for the first time. In this method, the paper is not only used as an ionization source but also it is utilized for the selective extraction of analyte, based on immobilized aptamer. This combination integrates both sample preparation and analyte ionization in a Whatman paper. To that end, an appropriate sample introduction system with a novel design was constructed for the paper spray ionization source...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Meng Chen, Ning Gan, You Zhou, Tianhua Li, Qing Xu, Yuting Cao, Yinji Chen
An ultrasensitive electrochemical aptasensor for simultaneous detection of oxytetracycline (OTC) and kanamycin (KAN) has been developed based on metal ions doped metal organic frame materials (MOFs) as signal tracers and RecJf exonuclease-catalyzed targets recycling amplification. The aptasensor consists of capture beads (the anti-single-stranded DNA Antibody, as anti-ssDNA Ab, labeled on Dynabeads) and nanoscale MOF (NMOF) based signal tracers (simplified as Apts-MNM, the NMOF labeled with metal ions and the aptamers)...
December 1, 2016: Talanta
Jiamian Wang, Jie Song, Xiuyun Wang, Shuo Wu, Yanqiu Zhao, Pinchen Luo, Changgong Meng
A label-free ratiometric fluorescence aptasensor has been developed for the rapid and sensitive detection of cocaine in complex biofluids. The fluorescent aptasensor is composed of a non-labeled GC-38 cocaine aptamer which serves as a basic sensing unit and two fluorophores, 2-amino-5,6,7-trimethyl-1,8-naphthyridine (ATMND) and SYBR Green I (SGI) which serves as a signal reporter and a build-in reference, respectively. The detection principle is based on a specific cocaine mediated ATMND displacement reaction and the corresponding change in the fluorescence ratio of ATMND to SGI...
December 1, 2016: Talanta
R Rapini, A Cincinelli, G Marrazza
In this work, we propose an electrochemical DNA aptasensor for sensitive multidetection of acetamiprid based on a competitive format and disposable screen-printed arrays. To improve the sensitivity of the aptasensor, polyaniline film and gold nanoparticles were progressively electrodeposited on the graphite screen-printed electrode surface by cyclic voltammetry. Gold nanoparticles were then employed as platform for thiol-tethered DNA aptamer immobilization. Different acetamiprid solutions containing a fixed amount of biotinylated complementary oligonucleotide sequence by DNA aptasensor arrays were analyzed...
December 1, 2016: Talanta
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