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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449351/long-term-plasticity-of-corticostriatal-synapses-is-modulated-by-pathway-specific-co-release-of-opioids-through-kappa-opioid-receptors
#1
Sarah L Hawes, Armando G Salinas, David M Lovinger, Kim T Blackwell
Synaptic plasticity in striatum adjusts behaviour adaptively during skill learning, or maladaptively in the case of addiction. Just as dopamine plays a critical role in synaptic plasticity underlying normal skill learning and addiction, endogenous and exogenous opiates also modulate learning and addiction-related striatal plasticity. Though the role of opioid receptors in long-term depression in striatum has been characterized, their effect on long-term potentiation (LTP) remains unknown. In particular, direct pathway (Dopamine D1 Receptor containing; D1R) - spiny projection neurons (SPNs) co-release the opioid neuropeptide dynorphin, which acts at presynaptic kappa opioid receptors (KORs) on dopaminergic afferents and can negatively regulate dopamine release...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449095/role-of-cc-cytokines-in-spatial-arrangement-of-the-inner-cell-mass-of-the-bovine-embryo
#2
Verónica M Negrón-Pérez, Dorianmarie Vargas-Franco, Peter J Hansen
The process of spatial rearrangement of cells of the inner cell mass (ICM) that are destined to become hypoblast is not well understood. The observation that the chemokine CCL24 and several other genes involved in chemokine signaling are expressed more in the ICM than the trophectoderm of the bovine embryo resulted in the hypothesis that CCL24 participates in spatial organization of the ICM. Temporally, expression of CCL24 in the bovine embryo occurs coincident with blastocyst formation: transcript abundance was low until the late morula stage, peaked in the blastocyst at Day 7 of development and declined by Day 9...
April 25, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448969/synthetic-switchable-enzymes
#3
Vic Norris, Sergey N Krylov, Pratul K Agarwal, Glenn J White
The construction of switchable, radiation-controlled, aptameric enzymes - "swenzymes" - is, in principle, feasible. We propose a strategy to make such catalysts from 2 (or more) aptamers each selected to bind specifically to one of the substrates in, for example, a 2-substrate reaction. Construction of a combinatorial library of candidate swenzymes entails selecting a set of a million aptamers that bind one substrate and a second set of a million aptamers that bind the second substrate; the aptamers in these sets are then linked pairwise by a linker, thus bringing together the substrates...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448610/characterization-and-expression-analysis-of-galnts-in-developing-strongylocentrotus-purpuratus-embryos
#4
Amber L Famiglietti, Zheng Wei, Thomas M Beres, Adina L Milac, Duy T Tran, Divya Patel, Robert C Angerer, Lynne M Angerer, Lawrence A Tabak
Mucin-type O-glycosylation is a ubiquitous posttranslational modification in which N-Acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) is added to the hydroxyl group of select serine or threonine residues of a protein by the family of UDP-GalNAc:Polypeptide N-Acetylgalactosaminyltransferases (GalNAc-Ts; EC 2.4.1.41). Previous studies demonstrate that O-glycosylation plays essential roles in protein function, cell-cell interactions, cell polarity and differentiation in developing mouse and Drosophila embryos. Although this type of protein modification is highly conserved among higher eukaryotes, little is known about this family of enzymes in echinoderms, basal deuterostome relatives of the chordates...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448133/design-of-novel-exendin-based-dual-glucagon-like-peptide-1-glp-1-glucagon-receptor-agonists
#5
Andreas Evers, Torsten Haack, Martin Lorenz, Martin Bossart, Ralf Elvert, Bernd Henkel, Siegfried Stengelin, Michael Kurz, Maike Glien, Angela Dudda, Katrin Lorenz, Dieter Kadereit, Michael Wagner
Dual activation of the glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and glucagon receptor has the potential to lead to a novel therapy principle for the treatment of diabesity. Here, we report a series of novel peptides with dual activity on these receptors that were discovered by rational design. Based on sequence analysis and structure-based design, structural elements of glucagon were engineered into the selective GLP-1 receptor agonist exendin-4, resulting in hybrid peptides with potent dual GLP-1/glucagon receptor activity...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448033/hydrolysis-of-a-ni-schiff-base-complex-using-conditions-suitable-for-retention-of-acid-labile-protecting-groups
#6
Cory A Bontrager, Tanner J Geibel, George A Lengyel
Unnatural amino acids, amino acids containing side-chain functionalities not commonly seen in nature, are increasingly found in synthetic peptide sequences. Synthesis of some unnatural amino acids often includes the use of a precursor consisting of a Schiff-base stabilized by a nickel cation. Unnatural side-chains can be installed on an amino acid backbone found in this Schiff-base complex. The resulting unnatural amino acid can then be isolated from this complex using hydrolysis of the Schiff-base, typically by employing reflux in strongly acidic solution...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446765/three-dimensional-modeling-of-single-stranded-dna-hairpins-for-aptamer-based-biosensors
#7
Iman Jeddi, Leonor Saiz
Aptamers consist of short oligonucleotides that bind specific targets. They provide advantages over antibodies, including robustness, low cost, and reusability. Their chemical structure allows the insertion of reporter molecules and surface-binding agents in specific locations, which have been recently exploited for the development of aptamer-based biosensors and direct detection strategies. Mainstream use of these devices, however, still requires significant improvements in optimization for consistency and reproducibility...
April 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446682/smartphone-controlled-optogenetically-engineered-cells-enable-semiautomatic-glucose-homeostasis-in-diabetic-mice
#8
REVIEW
Jiawei Shao, Shuai Xue, Guiling Yu, Yuanhuan Yu, Xueping Yang, Yu Bai, Sucheng Zhu, Linfeng Yang, Jianli Yin, Yidan Wang, Shuyong Liao, Sanwei Guo, Mingqi Xie, Martin Fussenegger, Haifeng Ye
With the increasingly dominant role of smartphones in our lives, mobile health care systems integrating advanced point-of-care technologies to manage chronic diseases are gaining attention. Using a multidisciplinary design principle coupling electrical engineering, software development, and synthetic biology, we have engineered a technological infrastructure enabling the smartphone-assisted semiautomatic treatment of diabetes in mice. A custom-designed home server SmartController was programmed to process wireless signals, enabling a smartphone to regulate hormone production by optically engineered cells implanted in diabetic mice via a far-red light (FRL)-responsive optogenetic interface...
April 26, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445812/portable-aptamer-biosensor-of-platelet-derived-growth-factor-bb-using-a-personal-glucose-meter-with-triply-amplified
#9
Lu Hong, Fu Zhou, Dongmin Shi, Xiaojun Zhang, Guangfeng Wang
Sensitive and rapid detection of platelet-derived growth factor BB (PDGF-BB), a cancer-related protein, could help early diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of cancers. Although some methods have been developed to detect PDGF-BB, few can provide quantitative results using an affordable and portable device that is suitable for home use or field application. In this work, we report the first use of a portable kind of personal glucose meter (PGM) combining a catalytic and molecular beacon (CAMB) system with a cation exchange reaction (CX reaction) for ultrasensitive PDGF-BB assay...
April 19, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445807/rewiring-brain-circuits-to-block-cataplexy-in-murine-models-of-narcolepsy
#10
REVIEW
Meng Liu, Carlos Blanco-Centurion, Priyattam J Shiromani
Narcolepsy was first identified almost 130 years ago, but it was only 15 years ago that it was identified as a neurodegenerative disease linked to a loss of orexin neurons in the brain. It is unclear what causes the orexin neurons to die, but our strategy has been to place the gene for orexin into surrogate neurons in the validated mouse models of narcolepsy, and test whether it can block narcolepsy symptoms, such as cataplexy. In both the orexin knockout and the orexin-ataxin-3 mouse models of narcolepsy we have found that cataplexy can be blocked if the surrogate neurons are part of the circuit responsible for cataplexy...
April 23, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443032/fatty-acid-binding-protein-11a-is-required-for-brain-vessel-integrity-in-zebrafish
#11
Jie Zhang, Jialing Qi, Shuilong Wu, Lijiao Peng, Yunwei Shi, Jinxian Yang, Zhenhua Yin, Yu Gao, Chengniu Wang, Jie Gong, Haijun Zhang, Jingjing Zhang, Dong Liu
The monolayer of endothelial cells (ECs) lining the intima of all blood vessel wall forms a semipermeable barrier that regulates tissue-fluid homeostasis, transport of nutrients, and migration of blood cells across the barrier. A number of signaling pathways and molecules mediate endothelial permeability, which plays important roles in a variety of the physiological and pathological conditions. Fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs) are able to bind various hydrophobic molecules, such as long-chain fatty acids, prostaglandins and eicosanoids...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442946/optogenetic-rescue-of-locomotor-dysfunction-and-dopaminergic-degeneration-caused-by-alpha-synuclein-and-eko-genes
#12
Cheng Qi, Scott Varga, Soo-Jin Oh, C Justin Lee, Daewoo Lee
α-Synuclein (α-Syn) is a small presynaptic protein and its mutant forms (e.g. A53T) are known to be directly associated with Parkinson's disease (PD). Pathophysiological mechanisms underlying α-Syn-mediated neurodegeneration in PD still remain to be explored. However, several studies strongly support that overexpression of mutant α-Syn causes reduced release of dopamine (DA) in the brain, and contributes to motor deficits in PD. Using a favorable genetic model Drosophila larva, we examined whether reduced DA release is enough to induce key PD symptoms (i...
April 2017: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442945/pulse-train-stimulation-of-primary-somatosensory-cortex-blocks-pain-perception-in-tail-clip-test
#13
Soohyun Lee, Eunjin Hwang, Dongmyeong Lee, Jee Hyun Choi
Human studies of brain stimulation have demonstrated modulatory effects on the perception of pain. However, whether the primary somatosensory cortical activity is associated with antinociceptive responses remains unknown. Therefore, we examined the antinociceptive effects of neuronal activity evoked by optogenetic stimulation of primary somatosensory cortex. Optogenetic transgenic mice were subjected to continuous or pulse-train optogenetic stimulation of the primary somatosensory cortex at frequencies of 15, 30, and 40 Hz, during a tail clip test...
April 2017: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442904/anti-fgfr1-aptamer-tagged-superparamagnetic-conjugates-for-anticancer-hyperthermia-therapy
#14
Przemysław M Jurek, Konrad Zabłocki, Urszula Waśko, Maciej P Mazurek, Jacek Otlewski, Filip Jeleń
Compounds that recognize and strongly bind to molecular targets are one of the cornerstones of modern pharmaceutics. Work has been ongoing for the past 25 years on the therapeutic use of aptamers, nucleic acid molecules, whose three-dimensional structure is the result of interactions between complementary base pairs. The aptamers selection methods allow the oligonucleotides which bind the molecular target in its native environment to be quickly isolated from a large library of random oligonucleotides. The possibilities presented for aptamers in the field of targeted therapy require the application of effective carriers to counter the renal clearance effect and/or functional cargo to exert therapeutic action if the aptamer is only used as a targeting moiety...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442309/a-universal-colorimetry-for-nucleic-acids-and-aptamer-specific-ligands-detection-based-on-dna-hybridization-amplification
#15
Shuang Li, Xinxin Shang, Jia Liu, Yujie Wang, Yingshu Guo, Jinmao You
We present a universal amplified-colorimetric for detecting nucleic acid targets or aptamer-specific ligand targets based on gold nanoparticle-DNA (GNP-DNA) hybridization chain reaction (HCR). The universal arrays consisted of capture probe and hairpin DNA-GNP. First, capture probe recognized target specificity and released the initiator sequence. Then dispersed hairpin DNA modified GNPs were cross-linked to form aggregates through HCR events triggered by initiator sequence. As the aggregates accumulate, a significant red-to purple color change can be easily visualized by the naked eye...
April 22, 2017: Analytical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441340/selection-characterization-and-interaction-studies-of-a-dna-aptamer-for-the-detection-of-bifidobacterium-bifidum
#16
Lujun Hu, Linlin Wang, Wenwei Lu, Jianxin Zhao, Hao Zhang, Wei Chen
A whole-bacterium-based SELEX (Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment) procedure was adopted in this study for the selection of an ssDNA aptamer that binds to Bifidobacterium bifidum. After 12 rounds of selection targeted against B. bifidum, 30 sequences were obtained and divided into seven families according to primary sequence homology and similarity of secondary structure. Four FAM (fluorescein amidite) labeled aptamer sequences from different families were selected for further characterization by flow cytometric analysis...
April 25, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440619/collagen-membranes-with-ribonuclease-inhibitors-for-long-term-stability-of-electrochemical-aptamer-based-sensors-employing-rna
#17
Mirelis Santos-Cancel, Ryan J White
Electrochemical aptamer-based (E-AB) sensors offer advantageous analytical detection abilities on account of their rapid response time (sec to min), specificity to a target, and selectivity to function in complex media. Ribonucleic acid (RNA) aptamers employed in this class of sensor offer favorable binding characteristics resulting from the ability of RNA to form stable tertiary folds aided by long-range intermolecular interactions. As a result, RNA aptamers can fold into more complex three-dimensional structures than their DNA counterparts, and consequently, exhibit better binding ability to target analytes...
April 25, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440314/the-peripheral-blood-proteome-signature-of-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis-is-distinct-from-normal-and-is-associated-with-novel-immunological-processes
#18
David N O'Dwyer, Katy C Norman, Meng Xia, Yong Huang, Stephen J Gurczynski, Shanna L Ashley, Eric S White, Kevin R Flaherty, Fernando J Martinez, Susan Murray, Imre Noth, Kelly B Arnold, Bethany B Moore
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive and fatal interstitial pneumonia. The disease pathophysiology is poorly understood and the etiology remains unclear. Recent advances have generated new therapies and improved knowledge of the natural history of IPF. These gains have been brokered by advances in technology and improved insight into the role of various genes in mediating disease, but gene expression and protein levels do not always correlate. Thus, in this paper we apply a novel large scale high throughput aptamer approach to identify more than 1100 proteins in the peripheral blood of well-characterized IPF patients and normal volunteers...
April 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439099/optogenetic-silencing-of-a-corticotropin-releasing-factor-pathway-from-the-central-amygdala-to-the-bed-nucleus-of-the-stria-terminalis-disrupts-sustained-fear
#19
A Asok, A Draper, A F Hoffman, J Schulkin, C R Lupica, J B Rosen
The lateral central nucleus of the amygdala (CeAL) and the dorsolateral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNSTDL) coordinate the expression of shorter- and longer-lasting fears, respectively. Less is known about how these structures communicate with each other during fear acquisition. One pathway, from the CeAL to the BNSTDL, is thought to communicate via corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), but studies have yet to examine its function in fear learning and memory. Thus, we developed an adeno-associated viral-based strategy to selectively target CRF neurons with the optogenetic silencer archaerhodopsin tp009 (CRF-ArchT) to examine the role of CeAL CRF neurons and projections to the BNSTDL during the acquisition of contextual fear...
April 25, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438982/the-histaminergic-system-is-involved-in-psychological-stress-induced-hyperthermia-in-rats
#20
Battuvshin Lkhagvasuren, Takakazu Oka
The histaminergic system modulates numerous physiological functions such as wakefulness, circadian rhythm, feeding, and thermoregulation. However, it is not yet known if this system is also involved in psychological stress-induced hyperthermia (PSH) and, if so, which histamine (H) receptor subtype mediates the effect. Therefore, we investigated the effects of pretreatments with intraperitoneal injections of mepyramine (an H1 receptor inverse agonist), cimetidine (an H2 receptor antagonist), and ciproxifan (an H3 receptor inverse agonist) on cage-exchange stress-induced hyperthermia (a model of PSH) by monitoring core body temperature (Tc) during both light (10:00 am-12:00 pm) and dark (10:00 pm-12:00 am) phases in conscious, freely moving rats...
April 2017: Physiological Reports
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