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Shu Meng, Qilin Gu, Xiaojie Yang, Jie Lv, Iris Owusu, Gianfranco Matrone, Kaifu Chen, John P Cooke, Longhou Fang
Background -Angiogenesis is integral for embryogenesis, and targeting angiogenesis improves the outcome of many pathological conditions in patients. TBX20 is a crucial transcription factor for embryonic development, and its deficiency is associated with congenital heart disease. However, the role of TBX20 in angiogenesis has not been described. Methods -Loss- and gain-of-function approaches were used to explore the role of TBX20 in angiogenesis both in vitro and in vivo Angiogenesis gene array was used to identify key downstream targets of TBX20...
March 15, 2018: Circulation
Li Chen, Nathchar Naowarojna, Heng Song, Shu Wang, Jianyun Wang, Zixin Deng, Changming Zhao, Pinghua Liu
Ovothiol is a histidine thiol derivative. The biosynthesis of ovothiol involves an extremely efficient trans-sulfuration strategy. The non-heme iron enzyme OvoA catalyzed oxidative coupling be-tween cysteine and histidine is one of the key steps. Besides catalyzing the oxidative coupling between cysteine and histidine, OvoA also catalyzes the oxi-dation of cysteine to cysteine sulfinic acid (cysteine dioxygenase activity). Thus far, very little mecha-nistic information is available for OvoA-catalysis. In this report, we measured the kinetic isotope effect (KIE) in OvoA-catalysis using the isotopically sensitive branching method...
March 15, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Nigel Scrutton, Uzma Choudry, Derren Heyes, Samantha Hardman, Michiyo Sakuma, Igor Sazanovich, Joyce Woodhouse, Eugenio De La Mora, Martin Pederson, Michael Wulff, Martin Weik, Giorgio Schiro
Phytochromes are bilin-containing photoreceptors that are typically sensitive to the red / far-red region of the visible spectrum. Recently phytochromes from certain eukaryotic algae have become attractive targets for optogenetic applications because of their unique ability to respond to multiple wavelengths of light. Here, we have used a combination of time-resolved spectroscopy and structural approaches across picosecond to second timescales to map photochemical mechanisms and structural change in this atypical group of phytochromes...
March 15, 2018: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
F Nici, G Oliviero, A P Falanga, S D'Errico, M Marzano, D Musumeci, D Montesarchio, S Noppen, C Pannecouque, G Piccialli, N Borbone
By combining the ability of short G-rich oligodeoxyribonucleotides (ODNs) containing the sequence 5'CGGA3' to form higher order G-quadruplex (G4) complexes with the tetra-end-linked (TEL) concept to produce aptamers targeting the HIV envelope glycoprotein 120 (gp120), three new TEL-ODNs (1-3) having the sequence 5'CGGAGG3' were synthesized with the aim of studying the effect of G4 dimerization on their anti-HIV activity. Furthermore, in order to investigate the effect of the groups at the 5' position, the 5' ends of 1-3 were left uncapped (1) or capped with either the lipophilic dimethoxytrityl (DMT) (2) or the hydrophilic glucosyl-4-phosphate (3) moieties...
March 15, 2018: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
Atsuo Nishino
Neurobiology in ascidians has made many advances. Ascidians have offered natural advantages to researchers, including fecundity, structural simplicity, invariant morphology, and fast and stereotyped developmental processes. The researchers have also accumulated on this animal a great deal of knowledge, genomic resources, and modern genetic techniques. A recent connectomic analysis has shown an ultimately resolved image of the larval nervous system, whereas recent applications of live imaging and optogenetics have clarified the functional organization of the juvenile nervous system...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Paulino Alvarez, Alexandros Briasoulis
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Immune system activation plays a central role in heart failure progression. Large-scale immune modulatory clinical trials targeting tumor necrosis factor-α and broad spectrum immune modulation have been negative. The objective of this review is to highlight past, present, and what is in the horizon for the immunomodulation in heart failure with a focus of biologics. RECENT FINDINGS: Strategies targeting interleukin-1 pathway are currently undergoing clinical evaluation and data from pilot studies are promising...
March 15, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine
Katherine D Hills, Daniela A Oliveira, Nicholas D Cavallaro, Carmen L Gomes, Eric S McLamore
We demonstrate a sensing mechanism for rapid detection of Listeria monocytogenes in food samples using the actuation of chitosan-aptamer nanobrush borders. The bio-inspired soft material and sensing strategy mimic natural symbiotic systems, where low levels of bacteria are selectively captured from complex matrices. To engineer this biomimetic system, we first develop reduced graphene oxide/nanoplatinum (rGO-nPt) electrodes, and characterize the fundamental electrochemical behavior in the presence and absence of chitosan nanobrushes during actuation (pH-stimulated osmotic swelling)...
March 15, 2018: Analyst
Jonas Wietek, Silvia Rodriguez-Rozada, Janine Tutas, Federico Tenedini, Christiane Grimm, Thomas G Oertner, Peter Soba, Peter Hegemann, J Simon Wiegert
A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML and PDF versions of this paper. The error has not been fixed in the paper.
March 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
R W W Brouwer, M C G N van den Hout, C E M Kockx, E Brosens, B Eussen, A de Klein, F Sleutels, W F J van IJcken
Motivation: PCR-based DNA enrichment followed by massively parallel sequencing is a straightforward and cost effective method to sequence genes up to high depth. The full potential of amplicon based sequencing assays is currently not achieved as analysis methods do not take into account the source amplicons of the detected variants. Tracking the source amplicons has the potential to identify systematic biases, enhance variant calling and improve the designs of future assays. Results: We present Nimbus, a software suite for the analysis of amplicon based sequencing data...
March 10, 2018: Bioinformatics
Walhan Alshaer, Nidaa A Ababneh, Mamon Hatmal, Heba Izmirli, Moujab Choukeife, Alaa Shraim, Nour Sharar, Aya Abu-Shiekah, Fadwa Odeh, Abeer Al Bawab, Abdalla Awidi, Said Ismail
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0189558.].
2018: PloS One
Gerd Wallukat, Harald Prüss, Johannes Müller, Ingolf Schimke
Dementia in general and Alzheimer's disease in particular is increasingly seen in association with autoimmunity being causatively or supportively involved in the pathogenesis. Besides classic autoantibodies (AABs) present in dementia patients, there is the new autoantibody class called functional autoantibodies, which is directed against G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs; GPCR-AABs) and are seen as pathogenic players. However, less is known about dementia patients' burden with functional autoantibodies. We present here for the first time a study analyzing the prevalence of GPCR-AABs in patients with different dementia forms such as unclassified, Lewy body, vascular and Alzheimer's dementia...
2018: PloS One
Kyle P Lillis, Kevin J Staley
For over a century, epileptic seizures have been characterized as a state of pathological, hypersynchronous brain activity. Anti-epileptic therapies have been developed largely based on the dogma that the altered brain rhythms result from an overabundance of glutamatergic activity or insufficient GABAergic inhibition. The most effective drugs in use today act to globally decrease excitation, increase inhibition, or decrease all activity. Unfortunately, such broad alterations to brain activity often lead to impactful side effects such as mood disordersdrowsiness, cognitive impairment, and sleep disruption...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
Yang Li, Yanhong Duo, Jiangang Bi, Xiaowei Zeng, Lin Mei, Shiyun Bao, Lisheng He, Aijun Shan, Yue Zhang, Xiaofang Yu
Introduction: MicroRNA-155 (miR-155) is an oncogenic microRNA, which is upregulated in many human cancers including colorectal cancer (CRC). Overexpression of miR-155 has been found to regulate several cancer-related pathways, and therefore, targeting miR-155 may be an effective strategy for cancer therapy. However, effective and safe delivery of anti-miR-155 to tumors remains challenging for the clinical applications of anti-miR-155-based therapeutics. Methods: In this study, we explored the expression of miR-155 and the transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) in CRC tissues and cell lines, and the possible relationship between miR-155 and NF-κB...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Marco Pisanello, Filippo Pisano, Leonardo Sileo, Emanuela Maglie, Elisa Bellistri, Barbara Spagnolo, Gil Mandelbaum, Bernardo L Sabatini, Massimo De Vittorio, Ferruccio Pisanello
Optogenetic control of neural activity in deep brain regions ideally requires precise and flexible light delivery with non-invasive devices. To this end, Tapered Optical Fibers (TFs) represent a versatile tool that can deliver light over either large brain volumes or spatially confined sub-regions, while being sensibly smaller than flat-cleaved optical fibers. In this work, we report on the possibility of further extending light emission length along the taper in the range 0.4 mm-3.0 mm by increasing the numerical aperture of the TFs to NA = 0...
March 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Akram Norouzi, Hadi Ravan, Abbas Mohammadi, Elyas Hosseinzadeh, Mahdieh Norouzi, Tahereh Fozooni
The development of powerful techniques to detect cancer cells at early stages plays a notable role in diagnosing and prognosing cancer patients and reducing mortality. This paper reports on a novel functional DNA nanoassembly capable of detecting cancer cells based on structural DNA nanotechnology. DNA nanoassemblies were constructed by the self-assembly of a DNA concatemer to a plenty of sticky-ended three-way junctions. While an aptamer moiety guided the nanoassembly to the target cancer cell, the peroxidase-mimicking DNAzymes embedded in the nanoassemblies were used as the sensing element to produce colorimetric signals...
August 9, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
Sajal Shrivastava, Won-Il Lee, Nae-Eung Lee
A critical unmet need in the diagnosis of bacterial infections, which remain a major cause of human morbidity and mortality, is the detection of scarce bacterial pathogens in a variety of samples in a rapid and quantitative manner. Herein, we demonstrate smartphone-based detection of Staphylococcus aureus in a culture-free, rapid, quantitative manner from minimally processed liquid samples using aptamer-functionalized fluorescent magnetic nanoparticles. The tagged S. aureus cells were magnetically captured in a detection cassette, and then fluorescence was imaged using a smartphone camera with a light-emitting diode as the excitation source...
March 6, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Hua Lin, Jonathan Z Long, Alexander M Roche, Katrin J Svensson, Florence Dou, Mi Ra Chang, Timothy Strutzenberg, Claudia Ruiz, Michael D Cameron, Scott J Novick, Charles M Berdan, Sharon Louie, Daniel K Nomura, Bruce M Spiegelman, Patrick R Griffin, Theodore M Kamenecka
N-acyl amino acids directly bind mitochondria and function as endogenous uncouplers of UCP1-independent respiration. We found that administration of N-acyl amino acids to mice improves glucose homeostasis and increases energy expenditure indicating that this pathway might be useful for treating obesity and associated disorders. We report the full account of the synthesis and mitochondrial uncoupling bioactivity of lipidated N-acyl amino acids and their unnatural analogs. Unsaturated fatty acid chains of medium length and neutral amino acid head groups are required for optimal uncoupling activity on mammalian cells...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Cher-Pheng Ooi, Terry K Smith, Eva Gluenz, Nadina Vasileva Wand, Sue Vaughan, Gloria Rudenko
The predominant secretory cargo of bloodstream form Trypanosoma brucei is Variant Surface Glycoprotein (VSG), comprising ~10% total protein and forming a dense protective layer. Blocking VSG translation using Morpholino oligonucleotides triggered a precise pre-cytokinesis arrest. We investigated the effect of blocking VSG synthesis on the secretory pathway. The number of Golgi decreased, particularly in post-mitotic cells, from 3.5 ± 0.6 to 2.0 ± 0.04 per cell. Similarly, the number of ER exit sites (ERES) in post-mitotic cells dropped from (3...
March 13, 2018: Traffic
Matthew C B Tsilimigras, Raad Z Gharaibeh, Michael Sioda, Laura Gray, Anthony A Fodor, Mark Lyte
OBJECTIVE: Animal models are frequently used to examine stress response but experiments seldom include females. The connection between the microbiota-gut-brain axis and behavioral stress response is investigated here using a mixed-sex mouse cohort. METHODS: CF-1 mice underwent alternating days of restraint and forced swim for 19 days (Male N=8, Female N=8) with matching numbers of control animals at which point the 16S rRNA genes of gut microbiota were sequenced...
March 12, 2018: Psychosomatic Medicine
Jiafang Xu, Liwen Li, Jinxiang Liu, Xiaopu Wang, Youguo Yan, Jun Zhang
The inhibition properties of kinetic hydrate inhibitor (KHI) molecules on the dynamic growth of a hydrate/water interface are investigated by using molecular dynamics simulations. The shape of the hydrate interface is transformed from laminar to funnel by PVCaps. Results indicate that the inhibition effects not only depend on the adsorption capacity which was believed to determine inhibition, but also on the fact that PVCaps must have some non-binding-hydrate sites that don't tend to combine with hydrate. By observing the time evolution of the distance between each component of PVCaps and hydrate, the heterocyclic ring of PVCaps mainly contributes to adsorption and can preferentially adjust itself to come into contact with a hydrate semi-large-cage...
March 13, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
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