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Hirra Hussain, David I Fisher, Robert G Roth, W Mark Abbott, Manuel Alejandro Carballo-Amador, Jim Warwicker, Alan J Dickson
Due in part to the needs of the biopharmaceutical industry, there has been an increased drive to generate high quality recombinant proteins in large amounts. However, achieving high yields can be a challenge as the novelty and increased complexity of new targets often makes them 'difficult-to-express'. This study aimed to define the molecular features that restrict the production of a model 'difficult-to-express' recombinant protein, Tissue Inhibitor Metalloproteinase-3 (TIMP-3). Building from experimental data, computational approaches were used to rationalise the re-design of this recombinant target to generate a chimera with enhanced secretion...
June 22, 2018: FEBS Letters
Natalie Douglas, Jennifer Brush, Michelle Bourgeois
The current mandate for person-centered care throughout the health care system, and especially in the nursing home industry, requires that speech-language pathologists ensure that the services they provide to elders with dementia are skilled, person centered, and relevant to positive overall health outcomes. Guidelines developed by the Association Montessori International Advisory Board for Montessori for Aging and Dementia are one avenue toward such skilled and person-centered services. The purpose of this article is to provide clinicians with practical strategies for guiding their assessment, goal writing, and intervention plans to meet the expectations of a person-centered approach to services for elders with dementia, using the Montessori approach as a philosophical guide...
July 2018: Seminars in Speech and Language
Ambika Mathur, Christine S Chow, Andrew L Feig, Heidi Kenaga, Judith A Moldenhauer, Nisansala S Muthunayake, Mathew L Ouellett, Laura E Pence, Victoria Straub
The Broadening Experiences in Scientific Experiences (BEST) program at Wayne State University was designed to increase doctoral students' awareness of multiple employment sectors beyond academia, improve their knowledge of transferable skills required to succeed in any career path, provide opportunities to explore diverse career paths, and gain in-depth knowledge about those paths using experiential learning opportunities. We devised a three-phase program that ranged from providing students with a broad introduction to multiple career opportunities to immersive experiential learning in a specific career sector...
2018: PloS One
Xiaofei Li, Sarah Zito, Michelle Sinclair, Clive J C Phillips
China is the world's biggest livestock producer, and has a rapidly expanding intensive livestock production in response to growing demand. The large size of the country and geographical dispersion of the livestock production systems means that animals are often transported long distances to slaughter. This study investigated perceptions of animal welfare issues by stakeholders in the Chinese transport and slaughter industry using utility scores and adaptive conjoint analysis. An initial workshop for experts in this field identified key concerns; these were then included in a questionnaire, which was distributed electronically to stakeholders...
2018: PloS One
Xiangquan Liu, Jingying Wu, Wenyan Shi, Wenhua Shi, Hekun Liu, Xiaonan Wu
BACKGROUND Lead (Pb) is a widely used metal in modern industry and is regarded as a health hazard. Although lead-induced genotoxicity has been confirmed, the direct evidence that lead induces genotoxicity in human cells and its related mechanisms has not been fully elucidated. In this study, for the first time, we evaluated the genotoxicity induced by lead in human lymphoblastoid TK6 cells. MATERIAL AND METHODS The TK6 cells were incubated with various concentrations of Pb(Ac)2 for 6 h, 12 h, or 24 h. Cell viability was detected by CCK8 assay...
June 22, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
M Gabarrón, O Babur, J M Soriano-Disla, A Faz, J A Acosta
Pyrite ash is a residue from the roasting of pyrite ores to obtain sulphuric acid used in the fertiliser industry and its production is widely extended worldwide. The mismanagement of this waste may result in environmental and health damages due to its physico-chemical characteristics. The main objective of this study was to examine the physico-chemical and mineralogical composition of roasted pyrite ash from an abandoned fertiliser company, and to evaluate the environmental risk caused by the wind and water dispersion of metals posed by this waste...
June 18, 2018: Chemosphere
Minling Gao, Yu Liu, Youming Dong, Zhengguo Song
Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is a commonly used, artificially-synthesized, industrial chemical that can be released into the soil. However, to date, there is no comprehensive study on the effects of DEHP on photosynthesis, induction of reactive oxygen species, and response of the antioxidant defense system in wheat plants growing in DEHP contaminated soil. This study was conducted to address this gap in knowledge. Our results showed that after application of 10, 20, and 40 mg/kg DEHP, photosynthetic parameters, fluorescence parameters, and chlorophyll content of wheat leaves at seedling, jointing, and booting stages decreased, while the intercellular carbon dioxide concentration increased...
June 14, 2018: Chemosphere
Mohammad M Hassan, Christopher M Carr
The effluent discharged by the textile dyehouses has a seriously detrimental effect on the aquatic environment. Some dyestuffs produce toxic decomposition products and the metal complex dyes release toxic heavy metals to watercourses. Of the dyes used in the textile industry, effluents containing reactive dyes are the most difficult to treat because of their high water-solubility and poor absorption into the fibers. A range of treatments has been investigated for the decolorization of textile effluent and the adsorption seems to be one of the cheapest, effective and convenient treatments...
June 14, 2018: Chemosphere
Alessia Giannetto, Tiziana Cappello, Sabrina Oliva, Vincenzo Parrino, Giuseppe De Marco, Salvatore Fasulo, Angela Mauceri, Maria Maisano
Copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) are widely used in various industrial applications, i.e. semiconductor devices, batteries, solar energy converter, gas sensor, microelectronics, heat transfer fluids, and have been recently recognized as emerging pollutants of increasing concern for human and marine environmental health. Therefore, the toxicity of CuO NPs needs to be thoroughly understood. In this study, we evaluated the potential role of oxidative stress in CuO NP toxicity by exploring the molecular response of Arbacia lixula embryos to three CuO NP concentrations (0...
June 14, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Balázs E Helga, Christoph A O Schmid, Ioana Feher, Dorina Podar, Paul-Marian Szatmari, Olivian Marincaş, Zoltan R Balázs, Peter Schröder
Current physical or chemical methods used for remediation of soils contaminated with hexachlocyclohexane (HCH), leave behind significant levels of pollutants. Given the compound's volatility and persistence in the environment, sites contaminated with HCH remain a concern for the population living in nearby areas. By making use of both the recovery capacity and the pollutant uptake ability of spontaneously growing vegetation, our study aimed to identify native plant species able to cover and moreover take up the HCH left at a former lindane production unit in Turda, Romania...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Luciana P Mazur, Maria A P Cechinel, Selene M A Guelli U de Souza, Rui A R Boaventura, Vítor J P Vilar
The discharge of inadequately treated or untreated industrial wastewaters has greatly contributed to the release of contaminants into the environment, including toxic metals. Toxic metals are persistent and bioaccumulative, being their removal from wastewaters prior to release into water bodies of great concern. Literature reports the use of brown marine macroalgae for toxic metals removal from aqueous solutions as an economic and eco-friendly technique, even when applied to diluted solutions. Minor attention has been given to the application of this technique in the treatment of real wastewaters, which present a complex composition that can compromise the biosorption performance...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Seema Negi, Shashi Kala Singh, Sanjay Kumar, Subodh Kumar, Rakesh K Tyagi
Pregnane & Xenobiotic Receptor (PXR) is one of the 48 members of the ligand-modulated transcription factors belonging to nuclear receptor superfamily. Though PXR is now well-established as a 'xenosensor', regulating the central detoxification and drug metabolizing machinery, it has also emerged as a key player in several metabolic disorders. This makes PXR attractive to both, researchers and pharmaceutical industry since clinical success of small drug molecules can be pre-evaluated on PXR platform. At the early stages of drug discovery, cell-based assays are used for high-throughput screening of small molecules...
June 19, 2018: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
Katsuhide Fujita, Seiji Take, Ryotaro Tani, Junko Maru, Sawae Obara, Shigehisa Endoh
Graphene and related materials (GRMs) have unique optical and thermal characteristics and are expected to be adopted for industrial applications. However, there are concerns with respect to their safety to human health. To conduct cytotoxicity and mutagenicity assessments, exfoliated graphene (EGr) dispersed in Tween-20® was diluted in cell culture medium. Rat alveolar macrophage viability significantly decreased after 24 h exposure to 1 and 10 μg/mL EGr. No significant levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species were detected in the 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescin diacetate assay after 24 h of exposure to EGr...
June 19, 2018: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
Haijiao Wang, Wenqian Liu, Feng Shi, Lei Huang, Jiazhang Lian, Liang Qu, Jin Cai, Zhinan Xu
Cellular metabolic networks should be carefully balanced using metabolic engineering to produce the desired products at the industrial scale. As the precursor for the biosynthesis of the neurotransmitter serotonin, 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) is effective in treating a variety of diseases, such as depression, fibromyalgia, obesity, and cerebellar ataxia. Due to the lack of an efficient synthetic method, commercial production of 5-HTP is only achieved by extracting from the seeds of Griffonia Smplicifolia. This study reports efficient microbial production of 5-HTP via metabolically engineered Escherichia coli...
June 19, 2018: Metabolic Engineering
Bruno V L Siqueira, Cássia M Sakuragui, Bruno E Soares, Danilo R de Oliveira
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Brazilian plant species used in folk medicine have acquired several popular names related to commercial medicines in recent decades. This fact has directly effect to the medicalization process. AIM OF THE STUDY: Evaluate the rise of medicalized popular names of medicinal plants in Brazil. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Medicalized popular names of medicinal plants were recorded from 273 ethnobotanical articles in eleven scientific journals published between 1980 and 2017...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Paula Mirella Gomes Barbosa, Tobias Pereira de Morais, Cinthia Aparecida de Andrade Silva, Flávia Regina da Silva Santos, Nayara Fernanda Lisbo Garcia, G G Fonseca, Rodrigo Simões Ribeiro Leite, Marcelo Fossa da Paz
Invertases are used for several purposes; one among these is the production of fructooligosaccharides. The aim of this study was to biochemically characterize invertase from industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae CAT-1 and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa isolated from Cerrado soil. The optimum pH and temperature were 4.0 and 70 °C for Rhodotorula mucilaginosa invertase and 4.5 and 50 °C for Saccharomyces cerevisiae invertase. The pH and thermal stability from 3.0 to 10.5 and 75 °C for R. mucilaginosa invertase, respectively...
June 22, 2018: Preparative Biochemistry & Biotechnology
Jan David, Zacharias Steinmetz, Jiri Kucerik, Gabriele Ellen Schaumann
The use of plastic materials in daily life, industry, and agriculture can cause soil pollution with plastic fragments down to the micrometer scale, i.e. microplastics. Quantitative assessment of microplastics in soil samples is so far limited. Until now, microplastics' analyses in soil require laborious sample cleanup and are mostly restricted to qualitative assessments. In this study, we applied thermogravimetry-mass spectrometry (TGA-MS) in order to develop a method for the direct quantitative analysis of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) without further sample pretreatment...
June 22, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
F Peter Guengerich, Francis K Yoshimoto
Many oxidation-reduction (redox) enzymes, particularly oxygenases, have roles in reactions that make and break C-C bonds. The list includes cytochrome P450 and other heme-based monooxygenases, heme-based dioxygenases, nonheme iron mono- and dioxygenases, flavoproteins, radical S-adenosylmethionine enzymes, copper enzymes, and peroxidases. Reactions involve steroids, intermediary metabolism, secondary natural products, drugs, and industrial and agricultural chemicals. Many C-C bonds are formed via either (i) coupling of diradicals or (ii) generation of unstable products that rearrange...
June 22, 2018: Chemical Reviews
Patricia Lopez, Jon Mabe, Guillermo Miró, Leire Etxeberria
Lubricant and hydraulic fluid ageing impacts the performance of the machines, gears, transmissions or automatisms where they are being used. This manuscript describes the work accomplished for bringing an innovative measurement concept for analysing the physical- chemical properties of these fluids, to a real industrial product ready to be integrated into different industrial equipment. The steps taken to deal with uncertainties and evolving requirements while progressing in the sensor development are described, covering the stages of theoretical formulation of the problem, optical and fluidic simulations, sensor prototype development and tests...
June 22, 2018: Sensors
Andrea F Afonso, Olívia R Pereira, Mónica Válega, Artur M S Silva, Susana M Cardoso
Thymus plants are marketed for diverse usages because of their pleasant odor, as well as high nutritional value and wealth of health-promoting phytochemicals. In this study, Thymus zygis , Thymus pulegioides , and Thymus fragrantissimus grown under organic cultivation regime were characterized regarding nutrients and phenolic compounds. In addition, the antioxidant and antibacterial properties of these species were screened. The plants were particularly notable for their high K/Na ratio, polyunsaturated fatty acids content and low omega-6/omega-3 fatty acids ratios, which are valuable features of a healthy diet...
June 22, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
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