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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143612/values-preferences-and-current-hepatitis-b-and-c-testing-practices-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-results-of-a-survey-of-end-users-and-implementers
#1
Elena Ivanova Reipold, Alessandra Trianni, Douglas Krakower, Stefano Ongarello, Teri Roberts, Philippa Easterbrook, Claudia Denkinger
BACKGROUND: Access to hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) diagnostics remains a key bottleneck in scale-up of access to HBV and HCV treatment, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) that lack laboratory resources and skilled personnel. To inform the development of World Health Organization (WHO) testing guidelines on who to test and how to test, we performed a "values and preferences" survey of end users and implementers of hepatitis testing in LMICs on current hepatitis B and C testing practices and acceptability of diagnostic approaches, as well as preferences for the future...
November 1, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136556/industry-interests-in-gambling-research-lessons-learned-from-other-forms-of-hazardous-consumption
#2
S Cowlishaw, S L Thomas
Research indicates that the evidential bases for many harm reduction policies targeting hazardous consumptions (including tobacco, alcohol and gambling) have been distorted by commercial industries that derive revenue from such commodities. These distortions are best illustrated by research on tobacco and alcohol, which indicates similar tactics used by industries to determine favourable policy environments through engineering of evidence, among other approaches. Although there is concern that gambling research is similarly vulnerable to commercial interests, the relevant literature lags far behind other fields and the aim of this paper is to increase familiarity with tactics used by industries for influencing research...
November 6, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134069/engaging-rural-australian-communities-in-national-science-week-helps-increase-visibility-for-women-researchers
#3
Margaret C Hardy, Mathilde R Desselle
During a week-long celebration of science, run under the federally supported National Science Week umbrella, the Catch a Rising Star: women in Queensland research (CaRS) programme flew scientists who identify as women to nine regional and remote communities in the Australian State of Queensland. The aim of the project was twofold: first, to bring science to remote and regional communities in a large, economically diverse state; and second, to determine whether media and public engagement provides career advancement opportunities for women scientists...
October 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121787/factors-associated-with-reporting-results-for-pulmonary-clinical-trials-in-clinicaltrials-gov
#4
Isaretta L Riley, L Ebony Boulware, Jie-Lena Sun, Karen Chiswell, Loretta G Que, Monica Kraft, Jamie L Todd, Scott M Palmer, Monique L Anderson
Background/aims The Food and Drug Administration Amendments Act mandates that applicable clinical trials report basic summary results to the ClinicalTrials.gov database within 1 year of trial completion or termination. We aimed to determine the proportion of pulmonary trials reporting basic summary results to ClinicalTrials.gov and assess factors associated with reporting. Methods We identified pulmonary clinical trials subject to the Food and Drug Administration Amendments Act (called highly likely applicable clinical trials) that were completed or terminated between 2008 and 2012 and reported results by September 2013...
November 1, 2017: Clinical Trials: Journal of the Society for Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121349/naringenin-induces-mitochondria-mediated-apoptosis-and-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-by-regulating-mapk-and-akt-signal-transduction-pathways-in-endometriosis-cells
#5
Sunwoo Park, Whasun Lim, Fuller W Bazer, Gwonhwa Song
STUDY QUESTION: Does the flavonoid naringenin inhibit proliferation of human endometriosis cells? SUMMARY ANSWER: Naringenin suppresses proliferation and increases apoptosis via depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in human endometriosis cells. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: For management of endometriosis, hormonal therapy is commonly used to decrease production of estrogens by the ovaries, but that has limitations including undesirable side effects with long-term therapies...
November 7, 2017: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118228/do-published-data-in-trials-assessing-cancer-drugs-reflect-the-real-picture-of-efficacy-and-safety
#6
Jia-Wei Lv, Yu-Pei Chen, Guan-Qun Zhou, Xu Liu, Ying Guo, Yan-Ping Mao, Jun Ma, Ying Sun
Background: The reporting quality of publications is of vital importance to ensure accurate evidence dissemination. This study aimed to compare the consistency of results reporting between the ClinicalTrials.gov results database and the respective matching publications. Methods: We identified 323 phase III/IV cancer drug trials with a randomized controlled design and searched PubMed for publications in a 50% random sample (n=160). Data were extracted independently from ClinicalTrials.gov and publications. A scoring system was applied to determine characteristics associated with reporting quality...
November 2017: Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network: JNCCN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118096/the-sgc-beyond-structural-genomics-redefining-the-role-of-3d-structures-by-coupling-genomic-stratification-with-fragment-based-discovery
#7
REVIEW
Anthony R Bradley, Aude Echalier, Michael Fairhead, Claire Strain-Damerell, Paul Brennan, Alex N Bullock, Nicola A Burgess-Brown, Elisabeth P Carpenter, Opher Gileadi, Brian D Marsden, Wen Hwa Lee, Wyatt Yue, Chas Bountra, Frank von Delft
The ongoing explosion in genomics data has long since outpaced the capacity of conventional biochemical methodology to verify the large number of hypotheses that emerge from the analysis of such data. In contrast, it is still a gold-standard for early phenotypic validation towards small-molecule drug discovery to use probe molecules (or tool compounds), notwithstanding the difficulty and cost of generating them. Rational structure-based approaches to ligand discovery have long promised the efficiencies needed to close this divergence; in practice, however, this promise remains largely unfulfilled, for a host of well-rehearsed reasons and despite the huge technical advances spearheaded by the structural genomics initiatives of the noughties...
November 8, 2017: Essays in Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117333/oleic-acid-stimulation-of-motility-of-human-extravillous-trophoblast-cells-is-mediated-by-stearoyl-coa-desaturase-1-activity
#8
Changwon Yang, Whasun Lim, Fuller W Bazer, Gwonhwa Song
STUDY QUESTION: Do fatty acids regulate development and motility of human extravillous trophoblast cells (EVTs)? SUMMARY ANSWER: Oleic acid is a promising lipid molecule that has beneficial effects on motility and development of human EVTs. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Fatty acid uptake into trophoblast cells is important for maintaining cellular events during pregnancy, but the molecular mechanisms of action of various fatty acids, including trans fatty acids, saturated fatty acids and monounsaturated fatty acids, in EVT cell lines are not clear...
November 1, 2017: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116189/tobacco-papers-and-tobacco-industry-ties-in-regulatory-toxicology-and-pharmacology
#9
Clayton Velicer, Gideon St Helen, Stanton A Glantz
We examined the relationship between the tobacco industry and the journal Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology (RTP) using the Truth Tobacco Industry Documents Library and internet sources. We determined the funding relationships, and categorised the conclusions of all 52 RTP papers on tobacco or nicotine between January 2013 and June 2015, as "positive", "negative" or "neutral" for the tobacco industry. RTP's editor, 57% (4/7) of associate editors and 37% (14/38) of editorial board members had worked or consulted for tobacco companies...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Public Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107078/randomised-controlled-trial-of-honey-versus-mupirocin-to-decolonise-patients-with-nasal-colonisation-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-and-the-lessons-learned
#10
Toney Thomas Poovelikunnel, Georgina Gethin, Damodar Solanki, Elaine McFadden, Mary Codd, Hilary Humphreys
AIM: To describe the learning experience from a randomised controlled trial (RCT) comparing the efficacy of medical-grade honey (MGH) with mupirocin 2% for the eradication of nasal methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). METHODS: Patients colonised in the nose with MRSA and age ≥18 years were recruited. Participants received either one or two courses of MGH or mupirocin 2%, three times per day for five consecutive days. RESULTS: The proportion of patients who were decolonised after one or two courses of treatment was not significantly different between MGH (18/42; 42...
October 26, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103430/promise-progress-and-pitfalls-in-the-search-for-central-nervous-system-biomarkers-in-neuroimmunological-diseases-a-role-for-cerebrospinal-fluid-immunophenotyping
#11
Bibiana Bielekova, Michael R Pranzatelli
Biomarkers are central to the translational medicine strategic focus, though strict criteria need to be applied to their designation and utility. They are one of the most promising areas of medical research, but the "biomarker life-cycle" must be understood to avoid false-positive and false-negative results. Molecular biomarkers will revolutionize the treatment of neurological diseases, but the rate of progress depends on a bold, visionary stance by neurologists, as well as scientists, biotech and pharmaceutical industries, funding agencies, and regulators...
August 2017: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100042/trends-in-breast-imaging-an-analysis-of-21years-of-formal-scientific-abstracts-at-the-radiological-society-of-north-america
#12
Samantha L Heller, Abbas Charlie, James S Babb, Linda Moy, Yiming Gao
PURPOSE: To capture shifts in breast imaging through 21years of scientific meeting abstracts. MATERIALS AND METHODS: RSNA meeting programs (1995-2015) were searched to identify breast imaging scientific oral abstracts. Abstract year, author gender and degree, country, state, study design, modality, topic, funding and disclosures were recorded. Spearman correlation was performed. RESULTS: There was an increase in %women first authors (rs=0...
October 28, 2017: Clinical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098119/process-review-for-development-of-quantitative-risk-analyses-for-transboundary-animal-disease-to-pathogen-free-territories
#13
REVIEW
Jonathan Miller, Ken Burton, Joe Fund, Adrian Self
Outbreaks of transboundary animal diseases (TADs) have the potential to cause significant detriment to animal, human, and environmental health; severe economic implications; and national security. Challenges concerning data sharing, model development, decision support, and disease emergence science have recently been promoted. These challenges and recommendations have been recognized and advocated in the disciplines intersecting with outbreak prediction and forecast modeling regarding infectious diseases. To advance the effective application of computation and risk communication, analytical products ought to follow a collaboratively agreed common plan for implementation...
2017: BioResearch Open Access
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097589/united-nations-global-compact-an-inroad-into-the-un-and-reputation-boost-for-the-tobacco-industry
#14
Yvette van der Eijk, Patricia A McDaniel, Stanton A Glantz, Stella A Bialous
BACKGROUND: The United Nations Global Compact (UNGC), a UN initiative to engage corporations in supporting the UN's mission, sets out principles that companies should follow for more ethical business practices. Since its inception in 2000, at least 13 tobacco companies, subsidiaries and tobacco industry affiliates joined the UNGC. In a September 2017 integrity review, the UNGC Board excluded from UNGC participation companies who derive revenue from tobacco production or manufacturing...
November 2, 2017: Tobacco Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096421/glucocorticosteroids-for-people-with-alcoholic-hepatitis
#15
REVIEW
Chavdar S Pavlov, Daria L Varganova, Giovanni Casazza, Emmanuel Tsochatzis, Dimitrinka Nikolova, Christian Gluud
BACKGROUND: Alcoholic hepatitis is a form of alcoholic liver disease, characterised by steatosis, necroinflammation, fibrosis, and potential complications to the liver disease. Typically, alcoholic hepatitis presents in people between 40 and 50 years of age. Alcoholic hepatitis can be resolved if people abstain from drinking, but the risk of death will depend on the severity of the liver damage and abstinence from alcohol. Glucocorticosteroids are used as anti-inflammatory drugs for people with alcoholic hepatitis...
November 2, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092033/the-welfare-implications-of-public-healthcare-financing-a-macro-micro-simulation-analysis-of-uganda
#16
Judith Kabajulizi, Marcus R Keogh-Brown, Richard D Smith
Studies on global health and development suggest that there is a strong correlation between the burden of disease and a country's level of income. Poorer countries tend to suffer more deaths from preventable causes such as communicable, maternal, perinatal and nutritional conditions, compared with high-income countries. In low-income countries, the government health expenditure share in the general government budget is low and out-of-pocket payments for healthcare relatively high. They also rely heavily on external resources for health funding, yet sustainability of external resource flows is not guaranteed...
December 1, 2017: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081924/proposed-changes-to-the-reimbursement-of-pharmaceuticals-and-medical-devices-in-poland-and-their-impact-on-market-access-and-the-pharmaceutical-industry
#17
Karolina Badora, Aleksandra Caban, Cécile Rémuzat, Claude Dussart, Mondher Toumi
In Poland, two proposed amendments to the reimbursement act are currently in preparation; these are likely to substantially change the pricing and reimbursement landscape for both drugs and medical devices. Proposed changes include: alignment of medical device reimbursement with that of pharmaceuticals; relaxing the strict reimbursement criteria for ultra-orphan drugs; establishment of an additional funding category for vaccines; introduction of compassionate use, and a simplified reimbursement pathway for well-established off-label indications; appreciation of manufacturers' innovation and research and development efforts by creating a dedicated innovation budget; introduction of a mechanism preventing excessive parallel import; prolonged duration of reimbursement decisions and reimbursement lists; and increased flexibility in defining drug programmes...
2017: Journal of Market Access & Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062948/design-and-construction-of-synthetic-microbial-consortia-in-china
#18
REVIEW
Ming-Zhu Ding, Hao Song, En-Xu Wang, Yue Liu, Ying-Jin Yuan
The rapid development of synthetic biology enables the design, construction and optimization of synthetic microbial consortia to achieve specific functions. In China, the "973" project-"Design and Construction of Microbial Consortia" was funded by the National Basic Research Program of China in January 2014. It was proposed to address the fundamental challenges in engineering natural microbial consortia and reconstructing microbial consortia to meet industrial demands. In this review, we will introduce this "973" project, including the significance of microbial consortia, the fundamental scientific issues, the recent research progresses, and some case studies about synthetic microbial consortia in the past two and a half years...
December 2016: Synthetic and Systems Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062528/strengthening-international-patient-advocacy-perspectives-on-patient-involvement-in-hta-within-the-htai-patient-and-citizen-involvement-interest-group-commentary
#19
EDITORIAL
Janet L Wale, Anna Mae Scott, Neil Bertelsen, Nick Meade
PLAIN LANGUAGE SUMMARY: Health Technology Assessment (HTA) is an evidence-based decision-making process, focusing on evaluating health technologies for funding within a healthcare system. 'Health technologies' include medications, medical devices, diagnostics, medical procedures and services. Health Technology Assessment international (HTAi) is a global society for those who produce, use, participate in, or encounter HTA. The HTAi Secretariat supports special interest groups within HTAi...
2017: Res Involv Engagem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059401/completeness-of-reporting-of-adverse-events-in-trials-of-maintenance-immunosuppression-in-kidney-transplantation-a-systematic-review
#20
Martin Howell, Reichelle Yeo, Allison Tong, Jonathan C Craig, Kirsten Howard, Germaine Wong
Background: Decision-making regarding immunosuppression after transplantation relies on robust evidence on the benefits and harms of available drugs. We aimed to evaluate the reporting of adverse events (AEs) in trials of maintenance immunosuppression in kidney transplantation. Methods: We conducted a systematic review of published randomized controlled trials of maintenance immunosuppression following kidney transplantation in the Cochrane Kidney and Transplant Register (January 2003-December 2015)...
September 1, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
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