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Verónica Schiariti, Eileen Fowler, Joline E Brandenburg, Eric Levey, Sarah Mcintyre, Theresa Sukal-Moulton, Sharon L Ramey, Jessica Rose, Susan Sienko, Elaine Stashinko, Laura Vogtle, Robin S Feldman, James I Koenig
To increase the efficiency and effectiveness of clinical research studies, cerebral palsy (CP) specific Common Data Elements (CDEs) were developed through a partnership between the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) and the American Academy of Cerebral Palsy and Developmental Medicine (AACPDM). International experts reviewed existing NINDS CDEs and tools used in studies of children and young people with CP. CDEs were compiled, subjected to internal review, and posted online for external public comment in September 2016...
March 15, 2018: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
Louis M Katz, John J Donnelly, Christopher J Gresens, Jerry A Holmberg, James MacPherson, Peter J K Zacharias, Jean Stanley, Christine Bales
On March 24, 2017, more than 90 experts in blood safety and international development from blood centers, industry, government, and international and nongovernmental organizations gathered in Arlington, Virginia, for the Third International Blood Safety Forum, cosponsored by America's Blood Centers and Global Healing. This report summarizes presentations and major conclusions. The meeting explored ways to increase access to affordable, safe blood for low- and lower-middle-income countries (LMICs) in an era when funding from the US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) and the Global Fund has been redirected from preventing the spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) to diagnosing and treating the 25 million-plus people living with HIV in LMICs...
March 14, 2018: Transfusion
Hiroshi Maeda, Mahin Khatami
For over six decades reductionist approaches to cancer chemotherapies including recent immunotherapy for solid tumors produced outcome failure-rates of 90% (±5) according to governmental agencies and industry. Despite tremendous public and private funding and initial enthusiasm about missile-therapy for site-specific cancers, molecular targeting drugs for specific enzymes such as kinases or inhibitors of growth factor receptors, the outcomes are very bleak and disappointing. Major scientific reasons for repeated failures of such therapeutic approaches are attributed to reductionist approaches to research and infinite numbers of genetic mutations in chaotic molecular environment of solid tumors that are bases of drug development...
March 1, 2018: Clinical and Translational Medicine
Norman Maldonado, Blanca Amalia Llorente, Roberto Magno Iglesias, Diego Escobar
BACKGROUND: By 2016, tobacco industry provided the only illicit trade estimates in Colombia and used these to discourage tax increases since the 1990s. To establish the viability of a threefold hike in the excise tax, policy makers needed unbiased estimates of the illicit cigarette. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the size of illicit cigarette trade in five Colombian cities (63% of the market), analyse characteristics of smokers of illicit cigarettes and compare market share results with one industry-funded survey...
March 14, 2018: Tobacco Control
Pepita Barlow, Paulo Serôdio, Gary Ruskin, Martin McKee, David Stuckler
Critics have long accused food and beverage companies of trying to exonerate their products from blame for obesity by funding organisations that highlight alternative causes. Yet, conclusions about the intentions of food and beverage companies in funding scientific organisations have been prevented by limited access to industry's internal documents. Here we allow the words of Coca-Cola employees to speak about how the corporation intended to advance its interests by funding the Global Energy Balance Network (GEBN)...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Kenneth Munge, Stephen Mulupi, Edwine W Barasa, Jane Chuma
BACKGROUND: Purchasing refers to the process by which pooled funds are paid to providers in order to deliver a set of health care interventions. Very little is known about purchasing arrangements in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), and certainly not in Kenya. This study aimed to critically analyse purchasing arrangements in Kenya, using the National Hospital Insurance Fund (NHIF) as a case study. METHODS: We applied a principal-agent relationship framework, which identifies three pairs of principal-agent relationships (government-purchaser, purchaser-provider, and citizen-purchaser) and specific actions required within them to achieve strategic purchasing...
July 18, 2017: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
Jonathan S Wald, Saira N Haque, Stephanie Rizk, Jennifer R Webb, Stephen Brown, Shellery Ebron, Christoph U Lehmann, Mark Frisse, Vanessa A Shorte, Edwin A Lomotan, Barbara A Dailey, Kevin B Johnson
Electronic health record (EHR) use throughout the United States has advanced considerably, but functionality to support the optimal care of children has been slower to develop and deploy. A previous team of experts systematically identified gaps in EHR functionality during collaborative work from 2010 to 2013 that produced the Children's EHR Format (Format), funded under the Children's Health Insurance Program Reauthorization Act of 2009, Public Law 111-3. After that, a team of practitioners, software developers, health policy leaders, and other stakeholders examined the Format's exhaustive list of 547 EHR functional requirements in 26 topic areas and found them to be valuable but in need of further refinement and prioritization...
March 8, 2018: Pediatrics
Sergio I Prada, Victoria E Soto, Tatiana S Andia, Claudia P Vaca, Álvaro A Morales, Sergio R Márquez, Alejandro Gaviria
Background: High pharmaceutical expenditure is one of the main concerns for policymakers worldwide. In Colombia, a middle-income country, outpatient prescription represents over 10% of total health expenditure in the mandatory benefits package (POS), and close to 90% in the complementary government fund (No POS). In order to control expenditure, since 2011, the Ministry of Health introduced price caps on inpatient drugs reimbursements by active ingredient. By 2013, more than 400 different products, covering 80% of public pharmaceutical expenditure were controlled...
2018: Cost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation: C/E
Qing Zhao Ruan, Justin B Cohen, Yoonji Baek, Patrick Bletsis, Arthur R Celestin, Sherise Epstein, Alexandra E M Bucknor, Bernard T Lee
BACKGROUND: Conflict of interest among physicians in the context of private industry funding led to the introduction of the Physician Payments Sunshine Act in 2010. This study examined whether private industry funding correlated with scholarly productivity in the respective subspecialties of plastic surgery and the wider academic plastic surgery community. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Full-time plastic surgeons and their academic attributes were identified via institutional websites...
April 2018: Journal of Surgical Research
Anisha I Patel, Sepideh Dibay Moghadam, Michael Freedman, Aakash Hazari, Min-Lin Fang, Isabel Allen
Taxes on sugary drinks are being implemented to prevent chronic diseases. Sugar-sweetened milk has been exempt from such policies because of its nutritional value. This systematic review sought to examine whether flavored milk consumption was associated with milk and energy intake, and obesity among children. A search of PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane, CINAHL, Web of Science, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and the grey literature was conducted for peer-reviewed publications published before June 6, 2016 that met the following criteria: 1) English-language publications 2) studies of children ages 1 to 18 years, 3) controlled experimental, cohort, case-control, systematic reviews, or meta-analysis studies 4) dependent variable: flavored milk consumption 5) independent variable: weight, weight gain, weight change, body mass index, metabolic syndrome, waist circumference, cholesterol, triglycerides, blood pressure, serum glucose, calories, sugar, or milk consumed...
February 28, 2018: Preventive Medicine
Paul K Drain, Robert A Parker, Marion Robine, King K Holmes
BACKGROUND: Since the site of human subjects research has public health, regulatory, ethical, economic, and social implications, we sought to determine the global distribution and migration of clinical research using an open-access trial registry. METHODS: We obtained individual clinical trial data including location of trial sites, dates of operation, funding source (United States government, pharmaceutical industry, or organization), and clinical study phase (1, 1/2, 2, 2/3, or 3) from ClinicalTrials...
2018: PloS One
Jennifer C Samp, Min J Joo, Glen T Schumock, Gregory S Calip, A Simon Pickard, Todd A Lee
BACKGROUND: With increasing health care costs that have outpaced those of other industries, payers of health care are moving from a fee-for-service payment model to one in which reimbursement is tied to outcomes. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a disease where this payment model has been implemented by some payers, and COPD exacerbations are a quality metric that is used. Under an outcomes-based payment model, it is important for health systems to be able to identify patients at risk for poor outcomes so that they can target interventions to improve outcomes...
March 2018: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
Martina Penazzato, Linda Lewis, Melynda Watkins, Vineet Prabhu, Fernando Pascual, Martin Auton, Wesley Kreft, Sébastien Morin, Marissa Vicari, Janice Lee, David Jamieson, George K Siberry
INTRODUCTION: Despite the coordinated efforts by several stakeholders to speed up access to HIV treatment for children, development of optimal paediatric formulations still lags 8 to 10 years behind that of adults, due mainly to lack of market incentives and technical complexities in manufacturing. The small and fragmented paediatric market also hinders launch and uptake of new formulations. Moreover, the problems affecting HIV similarly affect other disease areas where development and introduction of optimal paediatric formulations is even slower...
February 2018: Journal of the International AIDS Society
Muhammad Rashid, Akbar Haroon, Muhmmad Imran Rashid, Saeed Khalid, Ahmad Liaquat, Abdullah Saghir, Shehzad Wasim, Islam Saher, Farooqi Shahid
The dairy industry in Pakistan is booming and investors are anxious to fund dairy farms that are using high milk producing (exotic) cattle breeds such as Holsteins that are not native to the country. Unfortunately, the benefits of increased milk production do not provide resistance to pathogens present in regions where the exotic breeds are introduced. Therefore, the current study was conducted to evaluate the economic impact of Theileria annulata on a commercial Holstein dairy farm in the District of Ranjanpur, in the Province of Punjab, Pakistan...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Parasitology
Alain Goossens, Anne Osbourn, Franck Michoux, Søren Bak
TriForC is an innovative EU-funded collaborative project that has established an integrative pipeline for the exploitation of plant triterpenes for commercialization in agriculture and pharmacology. We discuss the main outcomes of TriForC and reflect on its potential long-term impact and on the importance of EU projects for science, industry, and society.
February 23, 2018: Trends in Plant Science
Naga Venkata Pothineni, Ajoe John Kattoor, Swathi Kovelamudi, Satish Kenchaiah
BACKGROUND: Heart failure (HF) is a major global health problem. Clinical trials test efficacy, effectiveness, and safety of novel and emerging therapies in HF. We sought to determine the salient features of ongoing interventional clinical trials in HF. METHODS: We accessed registry of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and International Clinical Trials Registry Platform of the World Health Organization on January 1, 2017 and extracted pertinent information on current HF clinical trials for systematic review...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Cardiac Failure
Huilin Tang, Weilong Shi, Shuangshuang Fu, Tiansheng Wang, Suodi Zhai, Yiqing Song, Jiali Han
Current evidence about the association between pioglitazone and bladder cancer risk remains conflict. We aimed to assess the risk of bladder cancer associated with the use of pioglitazone and identify modifiers that affect the results. We systematically searched PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials from inception to 25 August 2016 for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies that evaluated the association between pioglitazone and bladder cancer risk. Conventional and cumulative meta-analyses were used to calculate the odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI)...
February 24, 2018: Cancer Medicine
Patrick Louchouarn, Shaya M Seward, Gerard Cornelissen, Hans Peter H Arp, Kevin M Yeager, Robin Brinkmeyer, Peter H Santschi
Sediments from a waste pit in Houston Ship Channel (HSC) were characterized using a number of molecular markers of natural organic matter fractions (e.g., pyrogenic carbon residues, PAHs, lignins), in addition to dioxins, in order to test the hypothesis that the dispersal and mobility of dioxins from the waste pit in the San Jacinto River is minimal. Station SG-6, sampled at the site of the submerged waste pit, had the highest dioxin/furan concentrations reported for the Houston Ship Channel/Galveston Bay (HSC/GB) system (10,000-46,000 pg/g), which translated into some of the highest reported World Health Organization Toxic Equivalents (TEQs: 2000-11,000 pg/g) in HSC sediments...
February 20, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Julio A Ramirez
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The primary challenges in the field of clinical research include a lack of support within existing infrastructure, insufficient number of clinical research training programs and a paucity of qualified mentors. Most medical centers offer infrastructure support for investigators working with industry sponsors or government-funded clinical trials, yet there are a significant amount of clinical studies performed in the field of pneumonia which are observational studies...
February 20, 2018: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
Jordan W Francheville, Robin Rankin, Jeremy Beck, Connie Hoare, Stefanie Materniak, Greg German, Lisa Barrett, Natalie Bunimov-Wall, Daniel Smyth
INTRODUCTION: The availability of curative hepatitis C therapies has created an opportunity to improve treatment delivery and access. Local providers, government, industry, and community groups in Prince Edward Island developed an innovative province-wide care model. Our goal was to describe the first year of program implementation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Using a communitybased prospective observational study design, all chronic hepatitis C referrals received from April 2015 to April 2016 were recorded in a database...
February 13, 2018: Annals of Hepatology
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