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clear cell breast cancer

S Wang, Z Zou, X Luo, Y Mi, H Chang, D Xing
Liver receptor homolog-1 (LRH1) has been shown to promote tumor proliferation and development. However, the functions of LRH1 in mediating cancer cells chemoresistance are still not clear. Here, we found LRH1 levels were significantly elevated in primary breast cancer tissues in patients who developed early recurrence. Similarly, adriamycin (ADR)-resistant breast cancer cell lines also exerted high LRH1 expression. Indeed, overexpression of LRH1 attenuated cytotoxicity of chemotherapeutic drugs ADR and cisplatin (DDP) in breast cancer cells in vitro and in nude mice tumor model...
March 16, 2018: Oncogene
Masumeh Sanaei, Fraidoon Kavoosi, Ali Valiani, Mohamed Amin Ghobadifar
Background: One of the main causes of mortality is hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) which accounts for the third leading cause of deaths and one in forty deaths worldwide. The flavonoids, natural antioxidant compounds, account for a major group of polyphenolic compounds. One of the major isoflavones in soybean is genistein (GE) which can inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis. Isoflavones, major type of phenolic materials, derived from dietary plants and medicinal herbs play a significant role in cancer prevention and treatment...
2018: International Journal of Preventive Medicine
Karan Lal, Travis J Morrell, Michael Cunningham, Patrick OʼDonnell, Nikki A Levin, Kristine M Cornejo
Cutaneous mixed tumor (chondroid syringoma) is the cutaneous counterpart of pleomorphic adenoma of salivary glands, comprised of both epithelial and mesenchymal components. Malignant transformation is exceptionally rare, with only a few cases reported. We report a case of a malignant cutaneous mixed tumor in an 86-year-old white man who presented with a pink indurated plaque on his left scapula. He had a history of nonmelanoma skin cancers, a stage IB malignant melanoma of a lower extremity and Gleason 4 + 3 prostate cancer treated with brachytherapy, external beam irradiation, and bicalutamide...
March 6, 2018: American Journal of Dermatopathology
Takeshi Kotake, Masakazu Toi
There have been numerous clinical trials of CDK4/6 inhibitors performed on various carcinomas including breast cancer. One such inhibitor tested and which has ongoing clinical trials for breast cancer is abemaciclib. Abemaciclib is a molecular-targeted agent that targets basic cell cycle regulatory mechanisms. Areas covered: This review discusses the available clinical data and ongoing clinical trials of abemaciclib in breast cancer. Expert opinion: Abemaciclib has demonstrated a clear anti-tumour effect and manageable toxicity against HR-positive, HER2-negative breast cancer in many clinical trials and is expected to be an important standard therapy...
March 9, 2018: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Fiona Griffin, Laure Marignol
Melatonin is an endogenous hormone primirarily known for its action on the circadian rhythms. But preclinical studies are reporting both its radioprotective and radiosensitising properties, possibly mediated through an interaction between melatonin and the regulation of estrogens. Melatonin pre-treatment prior to ionising radiation was associated with a decrease in cell proliferation and an increase in p53 mRNA expression, leading to an increase in the radiosensitivity of breast cancer cells. At the same time, a decrease in radiation- induced side effects was described in breast cancer patients and in rodent models...
March 9, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Biology
Bo Wang, XueBin Zhang, Wei Wang, ZhiZhong Zhu, Fan Tang, Dong Wang, Xi Liu, Hao Zhuang, XiaoLing Yan
Purpose: Forkhead box K2 (FOXK2) is a member of the forkhead box family of transcription factors. Recently, researchers discovered that overexpression of FOXK2 inhibits the proliferation and metastasis of breast cancer, non-small cell lung cancer, and colorectal cancer, and is related to the clinical prognosis. However, in hepatocellular carcinoma, FOXK2 results in the opposite phenotypes. Currently, the contribution of FOXK2 to glioma pathogenesis is not clear. Patients and methods: We evaluated the expression of FOXK2 in 151 glioma patients using immunohistochemistry assays...
2018: OncoTargets and Therapy
Xiao Zheng, Wen Kang, Huihui Liu, Shanyu Guo
It is abundantly clear that tumor-derived parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP), receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) are central contributors in promoting osteolytic process of breast carcinoma bone metastasis. Forcusing on this molecular basis, the study was undertaken to explore the inhibition effects of total flavonoids from Scutellaria barbata D. Don (TF-SB) on human breast carcinoma bone metastasis. MDA-MB-231 cells and nude mouse models of breast cancer bone metastasis were given TF-SB in different concentrations...
February 27, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Gillian E Hanley, Jessica N McAlpine, Dianne Miller, David Huntsman, Kasmintan A Schrader, C Blake Gilks, Gillian Mitchell
BACKGROUND: Identifying female carriers of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations is imperative for prevention of ovarian cancer and breast cancer. There are five major histologic subtypes of ovarian cancer and high grade serous cancer (the most common) is reported in 75-100% of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. We examined histology-based referral to the Hereditary Cancer Program following an educational prevention campaign recommending BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation screening for all high-grade serous cancer patients...
March 5, 2018: BMC Cancer
Songlin Liu, Yunhong Tang, Maomao Yan, Weixi Jiang
Breast cancer has been emerging as a most common threat among women, thus many efforts were made to find drugs for fighting breast cancer. So far, PI3K (Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase) inhibitors have been believed to be effective drugs until frequent resistance emerged. Recently, PI3K H1047R mutation has been reported to sensitize breast cancer cells to PI3K inhibition by aspirin. Considering aspirin activates AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinase) simultaneously, it is possible that AMPK activators and PI3K inhibitors can synergistically inhibit breast cancers...
March 5, 2018: Investigational New Drugs
Ayaka Okamoto, Tomohiro Asai, Yusuke Hirai, Kosuke Shimizu, Hiroyuki Koide, Tetsuo Minamino, Naoto Oku
Triple-negative breast cancer is one of intractable cancers that are not sensitive to the treatment with existing molecular-targeted drugs. Recently, there has been much interest in RNA interference-mediated treatment of triple-negative breast cancer. In the present study, we have developed lipid nanoparticles encapsulating siRNA (LNP-siRNA) decorated with an Fab' antibody against heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (αHB-EGF LNP-siRNA). αHB-EGF LNP-siRNA targeting polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) was prepared and evaluated for its anticancer effect using MDA-MB-231 human triple-negative breast cancer cells overexpressing HB-EGF on their cell surface...
March 5, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
Qiu Wu, Paul W Needs, Yalong Lu, Paul A Kroon, Daoyuan Ren, Xingbin Yang
This study was designed to investigate the tumor-inhibitory effects of quercetin (Que) and its water-soluble metabolites, quercetin-3'-sulfate (Q3'S) and quercetin-3-glucuronide (Q3G), as well as to make the molecular mechanism and structure-antitumor relationship clear. It was found that Que, Q3'S, and Q3G could inhibit the growth of human breast cancer MCF-7 cells in a dose-dependent manner, with the IC50 values of 23.1, 27.6, and 73.2 μM, respectively, and their anticancer effect was ranked as Que > Q3'S > Q3G...
March 2, 2018: Food & Function
Maria Sol Brassesco, Julia Alejandra Pezuk, Karina Bezerra Salomao, Gabriela Molinari Roberto, Carlos Alberto Scrideli, Luiz Gonzaga Tone
Over the last decade, the inhibition of PLK1 has proven potent antiproliferative activity in vitro. However, the effectiveness of most synthetic targeted drugs has not translated into clinics. Herein, we investigated the in vitro effects of two second-generation PLK1 inhibitors BI 6727 and GSK461364 in breast cancer cell lines as monotherapy or in combination with other drugs or ionizing radiation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Cell survival was analyzed through XTT®, clonogenicity and caspase-3 activation assays were also studied, and drug interactions analyzed through a nonlinear regression of a sigmoid dose response model...
February 28, 2018: Anti-cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
Victoria Obermoser, Daniel Baecker, Carina Schuster, Valentin Braun, Brigitte Kircher, Ronald Gust
[(Prop-2-ynyl)-2-acetoxybenzoate]dicobalthexacarbonyl (Co-ASS), an organometallic derivative of the irreversible cyclooxygenase-1/2 (COX-1/2) inhibitor acetylsalicylic acid (ASS), demonstrated high growth-inhibitory potential against various tumor cell lines and inhibition of both COX isoenzymes. With the objective of increasing the selectivity for COX-2, we introduced a chlorine substituent in position 3, 4, 5, or 6 of the ASS moiety, respectively. Increased COX-2 selectivity is desirable as this isoenzyme is predominantly related to the development of cancer and abnormal tissue growth...
March 1, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Hamid Maadi, Babak Nami, Junfeng Tong, Gina Li, Zhixiang Wang
BACKGROUND: Targeted therapy with trastuzumab has become a mainstay for HER2-positive breast cancer without a clear understanding of the mechanism of its action. While many mechanisms have been suggested for the action of trastuzumab, most of them are not substantiated by experimental data. It has been suggested that trastuzumab functions by inhibiting intracellular signaling initiated by HER2, however, the data are very controversial. A major issue is the different cellular background of various breast cancer cells lines used in these studies...
March 1, 2018: BMC Cancer
Philip J Coates, Rudolf Nenutil, Jitka Holcakova, Marta Nekulova, Jan Podhorec, Marek Svoboda, Borivoj Vojtesek
The TP63 gene encodes two major protein variants that differ in their N-terminal sequences and have opposing effects. In breast, ΔNp63 is expressed by immature stem/progenitor cells and mature myoepithelial/basal cells and is a characteristic feature of basal-like triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs). The expression and potential role of TAp63 in the mammary gland and breast cancers is less clear, partly due to the lack of studies that employ p63 isoform-specific antibodies. We used immunohistochemistry with ΔNp63-specific or TAp63-specific monoclonal antibodies to investigate p63 isoforms in 236 TNBCs...
February 27, 2018: Virchows Archiv: An International Journal of Pathology
Samantha J Van Nest, Leah M Nicholson, Lindsay DeVorkin, Alexandre G Brolo, Julian J Lum, Andrew Jirasek
Radiation therapy plays a crucial role in the management of breast cancer. However, current standards of care have yet to accommodate patient-specific radiation sensitivity. Raman spectroscopy is promising for applications in radiobiological studies and as a technique for personalized radiation oncology, since it can detect spectral changes in irradiated tissues. In this study, we used established Raman spectroscopic approaches to investigate the biochemical nature and temporal evolution of spectral changes in human breast adenocarcinoma xenografts after in vivo irradiation...
February 23, 2018: Radiation Research
Yujing Gao, Hongning Ma, Chanchan Gao, Ye Lv, XueHua Chen, Rongrong Xu, Miao Sun, Xinrui Liu, Xiaohong Lu, Xiuying Pei, Pu Li
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is one of the most frequent malignancies and the second leading cause of cancer-related mortality in women. MicroRNAs play a key role in breast cancer development and progression. microRNA(miR)-8084 has been observed an aberrant expression in breast cancer. However, the functions and regulatory axes of miR-8084, particularly in breast cancer, were not entirely clear. METHODS: miR-8084 expression in breast cancer were investigated in a GEO dataset by in silico analysis and in 42 paired tumor tissues by qPCR...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
Vanessa Rodríguez-Fanjul, Elena López-Torres, M Antonia Mendiola, Ana María Pizarro
Gold(III) compounds have received increasing attention in cancer research. Three gold complexes of general formula [AuIII L]Cl, where L is benzil bis(thiosemicarbazonate), compound 1, benzil bis(4-methyl-3-thiosemicarbazonate), compound 2, or benzil bis(4-cyclohexyl-3-thiosemicarbazonate), compound 3, have been synthesized and fully characterized, including the X-ray crystal structure of compound 3, confirming square-planar geometry around the gold(III) centre. Compound 1 showed moderate cytotoxicity and accumulation in MCF7 breast cancer cells but did not inhibit thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) activity and did not induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) production...
February 10, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Kanchan Chauhan, Juan M Hernandez-Meza, Ana G Rodríguez-Hernández, Karla Juarez-Moreno, Prakhar Sengar, Rafael Vazquez-Duhalt
BACKGROUND: Tamoxifen is the standard endocrine therapy for breast cancers, which require metabolic activation by cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYP). However, the lower and variable concentrations of CYP activity at the tumor remain major bottlenecks for the efficient treatment, causing severe side-effects. Combination nanotherapy has gained much recent attention for cancer treatment as it reduces the drug-associated toxicity without affecting the therapeutic response. RESULTS: Here we show the modular design of P22 bacteriophage virus-like particles for nanoscale integration of virus-driven enzyme prodrug therapy and photodynamic therapy...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Nanobiotechnology
Divya Nedungadi, Anupama Binoy, Nanjan Pandurangan, Sanjay Pal, Bipin G Nair, Nandita Mishra
An α, β-unsaturated carbonyl compound of ginger, 6-Shogaol (6S), induced extensive cytoplasmic vacuolation and cell death in breast cancer cell (MDA-MB-231) and non-small lung cancer (A549) cells. In the presence of autophagic inhibitors the cells continued to exhibit cytoplasmic vacuolation and cell death clearly distinguishing it from the classic autophagic process. 6S induced death did not exhibit the characteristic apoptotic features like caspase cleavage, phosphatidyl serine exposure and DNA fragmentation...
February 17, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
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