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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917441/size-selective-harvesting-of-extracellular-vesicles-for-strategic-analyses-towards-tumor-diagnoses
#1
Chihiro Manri, Takahide Yokoi, Hirokazu Nishida
Extracellular vesicles (EV), typified by exosomes or microvesicles, are expected to be effective diagnostic markers for cancers. The sizes of the vesicles range from 20 to 1000 nm, but the size-dependent variations of the contents of EVs are still poorly understood. We succeeded in the size-selective harvesting of the vesicles by utilizing the molecular weight-dependent characteristics of a variety of polyethylene glycols (PEG) as precipitating reagents and analyzed the antigens displayed on the surfaces of the vesicles and the miRNAs included in the vesicles from each size group...
December 5, 2016: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915342/in-vitro-effects-of-has-2-gene-silencing-on-the-proliferation-and-apoptosis-of-the-mcf-7-human-breast-cancer-cell-line
#2
Hong-Yan Zhang, Feng Liang, Fei Wang, Jian-Wei Zhang, Li Wang, Xi-Gang Kang, Jie Wang, Qi-Liu Duan
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is characterized by a distinct metastatic pattern involving the regional lymph nodes, bone marrow, lung and liver. This study is aimed to investigate the effects of silencing the HAS-2 gene on the proliferation and apoptosis of human breast cancer cells. METHODS: MCF-7 cells were collected and assigned into control, scrambled siRNA and HAS-2- siRNA groups. After transfection, the morphological changes in the MCF-7 cells were observed using phase contrast microscopy...
December 5, 2016: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913286/cytotoxic-activity-of-soy-phytoestrogen-coumestrol-against-human-breast-cancer-mcf-7%C3%A2-cells-insights-into-the-molecular-mechanism
#3
Atif Zafar, Swarnendra Singh, Imrana Naseem
Coumestrol is a phytoestrogen present in soybean products and recognized as potential cancer therapeutic agent against breast cancer. However, the clear molecular mechanism of anticancer-activity of coumestrol in breast carcinoma has not been reported. It is well established that copper levels are elevated in different malignancies. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the copper-dependent cytotoxic action of coumestrol in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells. Results showed that coumestrol inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells, which was prevented by copper chelator neocuproine and ROS scavengers...
November 29, 2016: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909934/current-achievements-and-future-perspectives-of-metronomic-chemotherapy
#4
REVIEW
Adriana Romiti, Rosa Falcone, Michela Roberto, Paolo Marchetti
In recent years, many anticancer drugs have been tested at metronomic dosages for a variety of tumours. Mechanisms of action attributed to metronomic chemotherapy (MCT) include antiangiogenesis, immunomodulation, direct inhibition of tumour growth, effect on tumour initiating cells and the modulation of clonal evolution. An active clinical research, aimed at testing MCT in several cancers, has been conducted over the past 15 years. However, because the majority of available results come from earlier phase II studies, mainly performed in the area of breast cancer (BC), it is clear that there are areas still to be investigated...
December 1, 2016: Investigational New Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905583/intracellular-water-an-overlooked-drug-target-cisplatin-impact-in-cancer-cells-probed-by-neutrons
#5
M P M Marques, A L M Batista de Carvalho, V Garcia Sakai, L Hatter, L A E Batista de Carvalho
The first neutron scattering study on human nucleated cells is reported, addressing the subject of solvent-slaving to a drug by probing intracellular water upon drug exposure. Inelastic and quasi-elastic neutron scattering spectroscopy with isotope labelling was applied for monitoring interfacial water response to the anticancer drug cisplatin, in the low prognosis human metastatic breast cancer cells MDA-MB-231. Optical vibrational data were also obtained for lyophilised cells. Concentration-dependent dynamical changes evidencing a progressive mobility reduction were unveiled between untreated and cisplatin-exposed samples, concurrent with variations in the native organisation of water molecules within the intracellular medium as a consequence of drug action...
December 1, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900359/homozygous-inactivation-of-chek2-is-linked-to-a-familial-case-of-multiple-primary-lung-cancer-with-accompanying-cancers-in-other-organs
#6
Yoji Kukita, Jiro Okami, Noriko Yoneda-Kato, Ikuko Nakamae, Takeshi Kawabata, Masahiko Higashiyama, Junya Kato, Ken Kodama, Kikuya Kato
In clinical practice, there are a number of cancer patients with clear family histories, but the patients lack mutations in known familial cancer syndrome genes. Recent advances in genomic technologies have enhanced the possibility of identifying causative genes in such cases. Two siblings, an elder sister and a younger brother, were found to have multiple primary lung cancers at the age of 60. The former subsequently developed breast cancer and had a history of uterine myoma. The latter had initially developed prostate cancer at the age of 59 and had a history of colon cancer...
November 2016: Cold Spring Harbor Molecular Case Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895032/molecular-pathways-receptor-ectodomain-shedding-in-treatment-resistance-and-monitoring-of-cancer
#7
Miles A Miller, Ryan J Sullivan, Douglas A Lauffenburger
Proteases known as sheddases cleave the extracellular domains of their substrates from the cell surface. The A Disintegrin and Metalloproteinases ADAM10 and ADAM17 are among the most prominent sheddases, being widely expressed in many tissues, frequently over-expressed in cancer, and promiscuously cleaving diverse substrates. It is increasingly clear that the proteolytic shedding of transmembrane receptors impacts pathophysiology and drug response. Receptor substrates of sheddases include the cytokine receptors TNFR1 and IL-6R; the Notch receptors; type-I and -III TGF-β receptors; receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) such as HER2, HER4, and VEGFR2; and in particular, MET and TAM-family RTKs AXL and Mer (MerTK)...
November 28, 2016: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894956/disulfiram-induces-anoikis-and-suppresses-lung-colonization-in-triple-negative-breast-cancer-via-calpain-activation
#8
Ji Young Kim, Nahyun Lee, Yoon-Jae Kim, Youngkwan Cho, Hyunsook An, Eunhye Oh, Tae-Min Cho, Daeil Sung, Jae Hong Seo
Triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC) often exhibit an aggressive phenotype. Disulfiram (DSF) is an approved drug for the treatment of alcohol dependence, but has also been shown to kill TNBC cells in a copper (Cu)-dependent manner. Exactly how this occurs has not been clearly elucidated. We sought to investigate the mechanisms responsible for DSF/Cu-dependent induction of apoptosis and suppression of lung colonization by TNBC cells. DSF/Cu induced anoikis and significantly suppressed cell migration and invasion with negative effects on focal adhesions, coinciding with vimentin breakdown and calpain activation in TNBC cells...
November 25, 2016: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888420/endocan-as-a-prognostic-biomarker-of-triple-negative-breast-cancer
#9
Atsunobu Sagara, Katsuhide Igarashi, Maky Otsuka, Akihiro Kodama, Mutsumi Yamashita, Rei Sugiura, Takeshi Karasawa, Kazuhiko Arakawa, Michiko Narita, Naoko Kuzumaki, Minoru Narita, Yoshinori Kato
PURPOSE: Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) has aggressive characteristics and fewer treatment options than other subtypes. The purpose of this study was to explore prognostic biomarkers for TNBC that can be easily detected from the blood samples. METHODS: MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-231BR, a brain metastatic variant of the human TNBC cell line MDA-MB-231, were used as less and more aggressive models of TNBC, respectively. The extent to which the candidate gene/protein identified by RNA sequencing correlated well with aggressiveness of TNBC and how much protein was detected from the blood of tumor-bearing mice were evaluated...
November 25, 2016: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886642/obesity-and-the-breast-cancer-methylome
#10
REVIEW
William B Coleman
Breast cancer is associated with risk factors such as advancing age and obesity. However, the linkages between these risk factors for breast cancer development and initiation of the disease are not yet clear. Obesity may drive breast cancer development through increases in circulating estrogens in postmenopausal women. Mammary cell susceptibility to neoplastic transformation requires both genetic and epigenetic alterations, including changes in DNA methylation. Obesity is also subject to epigenetic regulation...
November 22, 2016: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869446/-oncopathological-aspects-of-brca1-and-brca2-genes-inactivation-in-tumors-of-ovary-fallopian-tube-and-pelvic-peritoneum
#11
Petr Škapa, Pavel Dundr
Ovarian carcinoma represents a heterogeneous group of malignant epithelial tumors which could be divided into two fundamental groups: Type I (endometrioid carcinoma, clear cell carcinoma, low grade serous carcinoma, mucinous carcinoma and more rare seromucinous carcinoma and malignant Brenner tumor) and type II (high grade serous carcinoma - HGSC). HGSC is the most frequent ovarian carcinoma which may be etiologically linked to inactivation of tumor suppressor genes BRCA1/2 and TP53 and differs from type I carcinomas by higher aggressiveness, tendency to peritoneal spread and worse prognosis...
2016: Ceskoslovenská Patologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864353/identification-of-clinically-predictive-metagenes-that-encode-components-of-a-network-coupling-cell-shape-to-transcription-by-image-omics
#12
Heba Z Sailem, Chris Bakal
The associations between clinical phenotypes (tumour grade, survival), and cell phenotypes, such as shape, signalling activity, and gene expression, are the basis for cancer pathology; but the mechanisms explaining these relationships are not always clear. The generation of large datasets containing information regarding cell phenotypes, and clinical data, provides an opportunity to describe these mechanisms. Here we develop an image-omics approach to integrate quantitative cell imaging data, gene expression, and protein-protein interaction data to systematically describe a 'shape-gene network' that couples specific aspects of breast cancer cell shape to signalling and transcriptional events...
November 18, 2016: Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862481/correlation-of-lipidomic-composition-of-cell-lines-and-tissues-of-breast-cancer-patients-using-hydrophilic-interaction-liquid-chromatography-electrospray-ionization-mass-spectrometry-and-multivariate-data-analysis
#13
Eva Cífková, Miroslav Lísa, Roman Hrstka, David Vrána, Jiří Gatěk, Bohuslav Melichar, Michal Holčapek
RATIONALE: The goal of this work is the comparison of differences in the lipidomic compositions of human cell lines derived from normal and cancerous breast tissues, and tumor vs. normal tissues obtained after the surgery of breast cancer patients. METHODS: Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography - electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HILIC/ESI-MS) method using the single internal standard approach and response factors is used for the determination of relative abundances of individual lipid species from 5 lipid classes in total lipid extracts of cell lines and tissues...
November 11, 2016: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857263/the-marginprobe%C3%A2-system-an-innovative-approach-to-reduce-the-incidence-of-positive-margins-found-after-lumpectomy
#14
Sowsina Gola, Susan Doyle-Lindrud
The goal of lumpectomy surgery for breast cancer is to completely remove the tumor and have clear margins, reducing the rates of local recurrence. The MarginProbe® System is a new device that can detect microscopic tumor cells at or close to the margin of the surgical resection intraoperatively, providing the surgeon with the ability to re-excise tissue at the time of surgery, reducing the need for a second surgery to obtain clear margins.
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December 1, 2016: Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845303/new-insights-into-estrogenic-regulation-of-o-6-methylguanine-dna-methyltransferase-mgmt-in-human-breast-cancer-cells-co-degradation-of-er-%C3%AE-and-mgmt-proteins-by-fulvestrant-or-o-6-benzylguanine-indicates-fresh-avenues-for-therapy
#15
Ameya Paranjpe, Nathan I Bailey, Santhi Konduri, George C Bobustuc, Francis Ali-Osman, Mohd A Yusuf, Surendra R Punganuru, Hanumantha Rao Madala, Debasish Basak, Agm Mostofa, Kalkunte S Srivenugopal
Endocrine therapy using estrogen receptor-α (ER-α) antagonists for attenuating horm2one-driven cell proliferation is a major treatment modality for breast cancers. To exploit any DNA repair deficiencies associated with endocrine therapy, we investigated the functional and physical interactions of ER-α with O(6)-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase (MGMT), a unique DNA repair protein that confers tumor resistance to various anticancer alkylating agents. The ER-α -positive breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7, T47D) and ER- negative cell lines (MDAMB-468, MDAMB-231), and established inhibitors of ER-α and MGMT, namely, ICI-182,780 (Faslodex) and O(6)-benzylguanine, respectively, were used to study MGMT- ER interactions...
September 2016: Journal of Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843624/the-european-society-for-medical-oncology-magnitude-of-clinical-benefit-scale-in-daily-practice-a-single-institution-real-life-experience-at-the-medical-university-of-vienna
#16
Barbara Kiesewetter, Markus Raderer, Günther G Steger, Rupert Bartsch, Robert Pirker, Sabine Zöchbauer-Müller, Gerald Prager, Michael Krainer, Matthias Preusser, Manuela Schmidinger, Christoph C Zielinski
BACKGROUND: The European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) Magnitude of Clinical Benefit Scale (MCBS) has been designed to stratify the therapeutic benefit of a certain drug registered for the treatment of cancer. However, though internally validated, this tool has not yet been evaluated for its feasibility in the daily practice of a major center of medical oncology. METHODS: The practicability of the MCBS for advanced oncological diseases at the Clinical Division of Oncology, Medical University of Vienna, which constitutes one of the largest oncological centres in Europe, was analysed in a three-step approach...
2016: ESMO Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842504/epcam-as-multi-tumour-target-for-near-infrared-fluorescence-guided-surgery
#17
P B A A van Driel, M C Boonstra, H A J M Prevoo, M van de Giessen, T J A Snoeks, Q R J G Tummers, S Keereweer, R A Cordfunke, A Fish, J D H van Eendenburg, B P F Lelieveldt, J Dijkstra, C J H van de Velde, P J K Kuppen, A L Vahrmeijer, C W G M Löwik, C F M Sier
BACKGROUND: Evaluation of resection margins during cancer surgery can be challenging, often resulting in incomplete tumour removal. Fluorescence-guided surgery (FGS) aims to aid the surgeon to visualize tumours and resection margins during surgery. FGS relies on a clinically applicable imaging system in combination with a specific tumour-targeting contrast agent. In this study EpCAM (epithelial cell adhesion molecule) is evaluated as target for FGS in combination with the novel Artemis imaging system...
November 14, 2016: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832183/tumor-cell-derived-exosomes-from-the-prostate-cancer-cell-line-tramp-c1-impair-osteoclast-formation-and-differentiation
#18
Terese Karlsson, Marie Lundholm, Anders Widmark, Emma Persson
Skeletal metastatic disease is a deleterious consequence of dissemination of tumor cells from numerous primary sites, such as prostate, lung and breast. Skeletal metastases are still incurable, resulting in development of clinical complications and decreased survival for cancer patients with metastatic disease. During the last decade, tumor cell-derived microvesicles have been identified and suggested to be involved in cancer disease progression. Whether cancer exosomes are involved in tumor and bone cell interactions in the metastatic site is still, however, a rather unexplored field...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822407/exosomes-mediate-micrornas-transfer-in-breast-cancer-chemoresistance-regulation
#19
REVIEW
Juliana Carvalho Santos, Marcelo Lima Ribeiro, Luis Otávio Sarian, Manoela Marques Ortega, Sophie Françoise Derchain
Breast cancer is the most common and fatal type of cancer in women worldwide due to the metastatic process and resistance to treatment. Despite advances in molecular knowledge, little is known regarding resistance to chemotherapy. One highlighted aspect is the DNA damage response (DDR) pathway that is activated upon genotoxic damage, controlling the cell cycle arrest or DNA repair activation. Recently, studies have showed that cancer stem cells (CSCs) could promote chemoresistance through DDR pathway. Furthermore, it is known that the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) can generate cells with CSCs characteristics and therefore regulate the chemoresistance process...
2016: American Journal of Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27820834/ccl2-ccr2-regulates-the-tumor-microenvironment-in-her-2-neu-driven-mammary-carcinomas-in-mice
#20
Xuguang Chen, Yunyue Wang, David Nelson, Sara Tian, Erin Mulvey, Bhumi Patel, Ilaria Conti, Juan Jaen, Barrett J Rollins
Chronic inflammation is a hallmark of cancer. Inflammatory chemokines, such as C-C chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2), are often present in tumors but their roles in cancer initiation and maintenance are not clear. Here we report that CCL2 promotes mammary carcinoma development in a clinically relevant murine model of breast cancer. Targeted disruption of Ccl2 slowed the growth of activated Her2/neu-driven mammary tumors and prolonged host survival. Disruption of Ccl2 was associated with a decrease in the development and mobilization of endothelial precursor cells (EPCs) which can contribute to tumor neovascularization...
2016: PloS One
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