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fusarium wheat or triticum

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080216/occurrence-of-mycotoxins-in-wheat-grains-exposed-to-fungicides-on-fusarium-head-blight-control-in-southern-brazil
#1
Leandro N Marques, Ionara R Pizzutti, Ricardo S Balardin, Ingrid D Dos Santos, Jonatan V Dias, Marlon T Stefanello, Pablo T Serafini
Mycotoxins occurrence in wheat grains impose risks to human and animal health. The southern Brazil has favorable weather conditions for Fusarium graminearum infections and consequently for mycotoxins accumulation on grains. The goal of this study was to evaluate the behavior of new wheat commercial genotypes to Fusarium Head Blight (FHB), to control performance of new fungicide formulations and their relationship with mycotoxins concentration in grains. The manly mycotoxin occurrence on wheat grains in southern Brazil was deoxynivalenol (DON)...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part. B, Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064121/characterization-of-fusarium-graminearum-isolates-recovered-from-wheat-samples-from-argentina-by-fourier-transform-infrared-spectroscopy-phenotypic-diversity-and-detection-of-specific-markers-of-aggressiveness
#2
Cecilia B Fígoli, Rodrigo Rojo, Laura A Gasoni, Gisele Kikot, Mariana Leguizamón, Raúl R Gamba, Alejandra Bosch, Teresa M Alconada
Fusarium graminearum is the primary causal agent of Fusarium head blight of wheat in Argentina. This disease affects crop yields and grain quality also reducing the wheat end-use, and causing mycotoxin contamination. The aim of this work was to analyze the phenotypic characteristics associated with phenotypic diversity and aggressiveness of 34 F. graminearum sensu stricto isolates recovered from Argentinean fields in the 2008 growing season using the Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) dried film technology. We applied this technique also to search for spectral specific markers associated with aggressiveness...
December 28, 2016: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988803/trans-glycosylation-capacity-of-a-highly-glycosylated-multi-specific-%C3%AE-glucosidase-from-fusarium-solani
#3
Manel Boudabbous, Ines Ben Hmad, Walid Saibi, Mariem Mssawra, Hafedh Belghith, Ali Gargouri
An extracellular β-glucosidase from Fusaruim solani cultivated on wheat bran was purified by only two chromatographic steps. The purified enzyme exhibited optimal temperature and pH at 60 °C and pH 5, respectively. The purified β-glucosidase behaves as a very large protein due to its high degree of glycosylation. More interestingly, the endoglycosidase H (Endo H) treatment led to 97.55% loss of its initial activity after 24 h of treatment. Besides, the addition of Tunicamycin (nucleoside antibiotic blocking the N-glycosylation first step) during the culture of the fungus affected seriously the glycosylation of the enzyme...
December 17, 2016: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27973454/frequent-occupational-exposure-to-fusarium-mycotoxins-of-workers-in-the-swiss-grain-industry
#4
Hélène Niculita-Hirzel, Gregoire Hantier, Ferdinand Storti, Gregory Plateel, Thierry Roger
Type B trichotecens such as deoxynivalenol (DON), 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-ADON), 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15-ADON), nivalenol (NIV) and zearalenone (ZEN) are mycotoxins contaminating wheat and wheat dust. Mycotoxins are toxic upon ingestion and considered potentially toxic when inhaled. Whereas dietary exposure to mycotoxins is controlled in food, data on occupational exposure by inhalation by grain workers are scarce. The objectives of this study were to determine the incidence of DON, 3-ADON, 15-ADON, NIV and ZEN in aerosols generated during grain harvesting and unloading and the risk of exposure of grain workers...
December 12, 2016: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941094/the-fusarium-crown-rot-pathogen-fusarium-pseudograminearum-triggers-a-suite-of-transcriptional-and-metabolic-changes-in-bread-wheat-triticum-aestivum-l
#5
Jonathan J Powell, Jason Carere, Timothy L Fitzgerald, Jiri Stiller, Lorenzo Covarelli, Qian Xu, Frank Gubler, Michelle L Colgrave, Donald M Gardiner, John M Manners, Robert J Henry, Kemal Kazan
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Fusarium crown rot caused by the fungal pathogen Fusarium pseudograminearum is a disease of wheat and barley, bearing significant economic cost. Efforts to develop effective resistance to this disease have been hampered by the quantitative nature of resistance and a lack of understanding of the factors associated with resistance and susceptibility. Here, we aimed to dissect transcriptional responses triggered in wheat by F. pseudograminearum infection. METHODS: We used an RNA-seq approach to analyse host responses during a compatible interaction and identified >2700 wheat genes differentially regulated after inoculation with F...
December 10, 2016: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27938326/whole-genome-sequencing-and-comparative-genomics-of-closely-related-fusarium-head-blight-fungi-fusarium-graminearum-f-meridionale-and-f-asiaticum
#6
Sean Walkowiak, Owen Rowland, Nicolas Rodrigue, Rajagopal Subramaniam
BACKGROUND: The Fusarium graminearum species complex is composed of many distinct fungal species that cause several diseases in economically important crops, including Fusarium Head Blight of wheat. Despite being closely related, these species and individuals within species have distinct phenotypic differences in toxin production and pathogenicity, with some isolates reported as non-pathogenic on certain hosts. In this report, we compare genomes and gene content of six new isolates from the species complex, including the first available genomes of F...
December 9, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929076/aphids-transform-and-detoxify-the-mycotoxin-deoxynivalenol-via-a-type-ii-biotransformation-mechanism-yet-unknown-in-animals
#7
N De Zutter, K Audenaert, N Arroyo-Manzanares, M De Boevre, C Van Poucke, S De Saeger, G Haesaert, G Smagghe
Biotransformation of mycotoxins in animals comprises phase I and phase II metabolisation reactions. For the trichothecene deoxynivalenol (DON), several phase II biotransformation reactions have been described resulting in DON-glutathiones, DON-glucuronides and DON-sulfates made by glutathione-S-transferases, uridine-diphosphoglucuronyl transferases and sulfotransferases, respectively. These metabolites can be easily excreted and are less toxic than their free compounds. Here, we demonstrate for the first time in the animal kingdom the conversion of DON to DON-3-glucoside (DON-3G) via a model system with plant pathogenic aphids...
December 8, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924538/targeting-trichothecene-biosynthetic-genes
#8
Songhong Wei, Theo van der Lee, Els Verstappen, Marga van Gent, Cees Waalwijk
Biosynthesis of trichothecenes requires the involvement of at least 15 genes, most of which have been targeted for PCR. Qualitative PCRs are used to assign chemotypes to individual isolates, e.g., the capacity to produce type A and/or type B trichothecenes. Many regions in the core cluster (consisting of 12 genes) including intergenic regions have been used as targets for PCR, but the most robust assays are targeted to the tri3 and tri12 genes. Quantitative PCRs, that work across trichothecene-producing members of the Fusarium head blight complex, are described along with procedures to quantify the amount of fungal biomass in wheat samples...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916862/contrasting-roles-of-deoxynivalenol-and-nivalenol-in-host-mediated-interactions-between-fusarium-graminearum-and-sitobion-avenae
#9
Jassy Drakulic, Mohd Haziq Kahar, Olubukola Ajigboye, Toby Bruce, Rumiana V Ray
Fusarium graminearum is the predominant causal species of Fusarium head blight in Europe and North America. Different chemotypes of the species exist, each producing a plethora of mycotoxins. Isolates of differing chemotypes produce nivalenol (NIV) and deoxynivalenol (DON), which differ in toxicity to mammals and plants. However, the effect of each mycotoxin on volatile emissions of plant hosts is not known. Host volatiles are interpreted by insect herbivores such as Sitobion avenae, the English grain aphid, during host selection...
November 30, 2016: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905064/a-mini-survey-of-moulds-and-mycotoxins-in-locally-grown-and-imported-wheat-grains-in-nigeria
#10
Ayotokunbo O Egbontan, Clement G Afolabi, Iyabode A Kehinde, Ololade A Enikuomehin, Chibundu N Ezekiel, Michael Sulyok, Benedikt Warth, Rudolf Krska
A preliminary survey involving limited sample size was conducted to determine the spectrum of moulds and mycotoxins in wheat grains from flour mills and local markets in Nigeria. Fourteen wheat samples were analyzed for moulds using standard mycological methods and for toxic fungal metabolites using a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method. Fusarium (range of incidence 12.5-61.7%) dominated in the wheat grains though species of Aspergillus (range of incidence 2.24-3.86%) were also recovered from the samples...
November 30, 2016: Mycotoxin Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898754/genome-wide-association-mapping-of-fusarium-head-blight-resistance-in-wheat-using-genotyping-by-sequencing
#11
Marcio P Arruda, Patrick Brown, Gina Brown-Guedira, Allison M Krill, Carrie Thurber, Keith R Merrill, Bradley J Foresman, Frederic L Kolb
Fusarium head blight (FHB) is one of the most important wheat ( L.) diseases worldwide, and host resistance displays complex genetic control. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) was performed on 273 winter wheat breeding lines from the midwestern and eastern regions of the United States to identify chromosomal regions associated with FHB resistance. Genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) was used to identify 19,992 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) covering all 21 wheat chromosomes. Marker-trait associations were performed with different statistical models, the most appropriate being a compressed mixed linear model (cMLM) controlling for relatedness and population structure...
March 2016: Plant Genome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888554/a-high-resolution-genetic-map-of-the-cereal-crown-rot-pathogen-fusarium-pseudograminearum-provides-a-near-complete-genome-assembly
#12
Donald M Gardiner, Aurelie H Benfield, Jiri Stiller, Stuart Stephen, Karen Aitken, Chunji Liu, Kemal Kazan
Fusarium pseudograminearum is an important pathogen of wheat and barley, particularly in semi-arid environments. Previous genome assemblies for this organism were based entirely on short read data and are highly fragmented. In this work, a genetic map of F. pseudograminearum has been constructed for the first time based on a mapping population of 178 individuals. The genetic map, along with long read scaffolding of a short read-based genome assembly, was used to give a near complete assembly of the four F. pseudograminearum chromosomes...
November 26, 2016: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866226/high-accuracy-of-predicting-hybrid-performance-of-fusarium-head-blight-resistance-by-mid-parent-values-in-wheat
#13
Thomas Miedaner, Albert W Schulthess, Manje Gowda, Jochen C Reif, C Friedrich H Longin
Mid-parent values of Fusarium head blight (FHB) resistance tested across several locations are a good predictor of hybrid performance caused by a preponderance of additive gene action in wheat. Hybrid breeding is intensively discussed as one solution to boost yield and yield stability including an enhanced biotic stress resistance. Our objectives were to investigate (1) the heterosis for Fusarium head blight (FHB) resistance, (2) the importance of general (GCA) vs. specific combining ability (SCA) for FHB resistance, and (3) the possibility to predict the FHB resistance of the hybrids by the parental means...
November 19, 2016: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858103/validating-the-prediction-accuracies-of-marker-assisted-and-genomic-selection-of-fusarium-head-blight-resistance-in-wheat-using-an-independent-sample
#14
Yong Jiang, Albert Wilhelm Schulthess, Bernd Rodemann, Jie Ling, Jörg Plieske, Sonja Kollers, Erhard Ebmeyer, Viktor Korzun, Odile Argillier, Gunther Stiewe, Martin W Ganal, Marion S Röder, Jochen C Reif
Compared with independent validation, cross-validation simultaneously sampling genotypes and environments provided similar estimates of accuracy for genomic selection, but inflated estimates for marker-assisted selection. Estimates of prediction accuracy of marker-assisted (MAS) and genomic selection (GS) require validations. The main goal of our study was to compare the prediction accuracies of MAS and GS validated in an independent sample with results obtained from fivefold cross-validation using genomic and phenotypic data for Fusarium head blight resistance in wheat...
November 17, 2016: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855933/mycotoxin-and-fungicide-residues-in-wheat-grains-from-fungicide-treated-plants-measured-by-a-validated-lc-ms-method
#15
Suzane Rickes da Luz, Paulo Cesar Pazdiora, Leandro José Dallagnol, Giniani Carla Dors, Fábio Clasen Chaves
Wheat (Triticum aestivum) is an annual crop, cultivated in the winter and spring and susceptible to several pathogens, especially fungi, which are managed with fungicides. It is also one of the most consumed cereals, and can be contaminated by mycotoxins and fungicides. The objective of this study was to validate an analytical method by LC-MS for simultaneous determination of mycotoxins and fungicide residues in wheat grains susceptible to fusarium head blight treated with fungicides, and to evaluate the relationship between fungicide application and mycotoxin production...
April 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854268/deoxynivalenol-and-its-modified-forms-are-there-major-differences
#16
Arash Alizadeh, Saskia Braber, Peyman Akbari, Aletta Kraneveld, Johan Garssen, Johanna Fink-Gremmels
Considering the diverse toxic effects of the Fusarium toxin deoxynivalenol (DON), its common occurrence in wheat-based products, and its stability during processing, DON constitutes an increasing health concern for humans and animals. In addition to the parent compound DON, human and animal exposure encompasses the acetylated fungal metabolites 3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol (3ADON) and 15-acetyl-deoxynivalenol (15ADON) as well as the plant-derived DON-glucoside (DON3G) and the bacterial product de-epoxy-DON (DOM-1)...
November 16, 2016: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853184/temporal-dynamics-population-characterization-and-mycotoxins-accumulation-of-fusarium-graminearum-in-eastern-china
#17
Jian-Bo Qiu, Jing-Tao Sun, Ming-Zheng Yu, Jian-Hong Xu, Jian-Rong Shi
Trichothecene genotype composition, mycotoxin production, genetic diversity, and population structure were analyzed, using 185 Fusarium strains collected from wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) throughout the Jiangsu province during 1976, 1983, 1998, 2006, and 2014. The results showed that 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3ADON) was consistently the predominant type in this region over 40 years, and the nivalenol (NIV) type has emerged since 1998. Long-term rotation of wheat and rice (Oryza sativa L.), rather than fungicide application, crop fitness, or weather conditions, might be the main cause of this phenomenon...
November 17, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844244/metabolo-transcriptome-profiling-of-barley-reveals-induction-of-chitin-elicitor-receptor-kinase-gene-hvcerk1-conferring-resistance-against-fusarium-graminearum
#18
Shailesh Karre, Arun Kumar, Dhananjay Dhokane, Ajjamada C Kushalappa
We report plausible disease resistance mechanisms induced by barley resistant genotype CI89831 against Fusarium head blight (FHB) based on metabolo-transcriptomics approach. We identified HvCERK1 as a candidate gene for FHB resistance, which is functional in resistant genotype CI9831 but non-functional in susceptible cultivars H106-371 and Zhedar-2. For the first time, we were able to show a hierarchy of regulatory genes that regulated downstream biosynthetic genes that eventually produced resistance related metabolites that reinforce the cell walls to contain the pathogen progress in plant...
November 14, 2016: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835660/two-fgleu2-genes-with-different-roles-in-leucine-biosynthesis-and-infection-related-morphogenesis-in-fusarium-graminearum
#19
Xin Liu, Qi Han, Jian Wang, Xin Wang, Jianhong Xu, Jianrong Shi
3-isopropylmalate dehydrogenase (IPMD) encoded by LEU2 is a key enzyme in leucine (Leu) biosynthetic pathway. Analysis of the genome sequence of Fusarium graminearum revealed two paralogous LEU2 genes (designated as FgLEU2A and FgLEU2B) in this fungus and the deduced amino acid sequences of FgLeu2A and FgLeu2B share 45% identity. Targeted disruption of individual FgLEU2A/B gene in F. graminearum assigned a more crucial role of FgLeu2A in Leu biosynthesis as disruption of FgLEU2A resulted in mutant (ΔFgLeu2A-10) that was Leu-auxotrophic and could not grow in minimal medium limited for amino acids, whereas FgLEU2B deletion mutant ΔFgLeu2B-2 was morphologically indistinguishable from the wild type strain PH-1...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815916/towards-the-development-of-innovative-multi-mycotoxin-reference-materials-as-promising-metrological-tool-for-emerging-and-regulated-mycotoxin-analyses
#20
E K Tangni, P Debongnie, B Huybrechts, F Van Hove, A Callebaut
The interest in LC-MS/MS multi-mycotoxin methods unveiled an urgent need for multi-mycotoxin reference material. A multi-fusariotoxin, including deoxynivalenol (DON); zearalenone (ZEN); T-2 toxin (T-2); HT-2 toxin (HT-2); enniatin A, A1, B, and B1 (ENNs); and beauvericin (BEA), contaminated wheat flour was obtained by inoculation Fusarium spp. strains. The candidate material has successfully passed the homogeneity test and submitted to an international interlaboratory study achieved by 19 laboratories from 11 countries using their routine analytical method...
November 4, 2016: Mycotoxin Research
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