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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719051/the-binding-mechanism-between-azoles-and-fgcyp51b-sterol-14%C3%AE-demethylase-of-fusarium-graminearum
#1
Hengwei Qian, Meilin Duan, Xiaomei Sun, Mengyu Chi, Ying Zhao, Wenxing Liang, Juan Du, Jinguang Huang, Baodu Li
BACKGROUND: Fusarium graminearum is the main pathogen of Fusarium Head Blight (FHB), a worldwide plant disease and one of the major wheat diseases in China. The control of the FHB is mainly dependent on the application of DMIs fungicides. Fungal sterol 14α-demethylase enzymes (CYP51) are the main target for DMIs fungicides. In order to investigate the binding mechanism between azoles and CYP51B in F.graminearum, the molecular modeling study and biological evaluation were performed. RESULTS: Firstly, the homology model based on the crystal structure of Aspergillus fumigatus was built...
July 18, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703042/genome-wide-association-mapping-of-fusarium-head-blight-resistance-in-spring-wheat-lines-developed-in-the-pacific-northwest-and-cimmyt
#2
Rui Wang, Jianli Chen, James A Anderson, Junli Zhang, Weidong Zhao, Justin Wheeler, Natalie Klassen, Deven R See, Yanhong Dong
Fusarium head blight is a destructive disease of wheat in humid and semi-humid areas of the world. It has emerged in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) in recent years because of changing climate and crop rotation practices. Our objectives in the present study were to identify and characterize QTL associated with FHB resistance in spring wheat lines developed in the PNW and the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT). A total of 170 spring wheat lines were evaluated in field and greenhouse trials in 2015 and 2016...
July 13, 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698485/dynamic-fumonisin-b%C3%A2-production-by-aspergillus-niger-intented-used-in-food-industry-in-china
#3
Xiaomin Han, Hongru Jiang, Jin Xu, Jing Zhang, Fengqin Li
There are a total of 30 strains including 27 strains of Aspergillus niger intended used in Chinese food industry, two strains used as control and one strain isolated from corn for fumonisin (FB) production on 3 media. It was found that FB₂ production by A. niger was function-dependent and highly related to culture media, as well as incubation time. All strains studied were unable to produce FB₁ and FB₃. Almost all strains were found to produce FB₂ on corn, rice and wheat bran. Based on their intended use in the food industry, the higher level of FB₂ producers were strains used for saccharifying enzyme (n = 13) production, followed by organic acid (n = 6), tannase (n = 7) and β-galactosidase (n = 1) production, with the FB₂ mean level of 3553-10,270 μg/kg, 1059-12,036 μg/kg, 3-7 μg/kg and 2-4 μg/kg on corn, 5455-9241 μg/kg, 559-2190 μg/kg, 4-9 μg/kg and 6-10 μg/kg on rice, 5959-7709 μg/kg, 9491-17,339 μg/kg, 8-14 μg/kg and 120-222 μg/kg on wheat bran, respectively...
July 9, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690182/functional-characterization-of-a-soluble-nadph-cytochrome-p450-reductase-from-fusarium-graminearum
#4
Thomas Etzerodt, Karl Wetterhorn, Giuseppe Dionisio, Ivan Rayment
Fusarium head blight is a devastating disease in wheat caused by some fungal pathogens of the Fusarium genus mainly F. graminearum, due to accumulation of toxic trichothecenes. Most of the trichothecene biosynthetic pathway has been mapped, although some proteins of the pathway remain uncharacterized, including an NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase. We subcloned a F. graminearum cytochrome P450 reductase that might be involved in the trichothecene biosynthesis. It was expressed heterologously in E. coli as N-terminal truncated form with an octahistidine tag for purification...
July 6, 2017: Protein Expression and Purification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687998/effects-of-low-to-moderate-levels-of-deoxynivalenol-on-feed-and-water-intake-weight-gain-and-slaughtering-traits-of-broiler-chickens
#5
A Lucke, B Doupovec, P Paulsen, Q Zebeli, J Böhm
The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of low to moderate oral exposure to the Fusarium toxin deoxynivalenol (DON; derived from culture material) on performance, water intake, and carcass parameters of broilers during early and late developmental phases. A total of 160 Ross 308 broilers were randomly allocated to four different feeding groups (n = 40/group) including 0 (control), 2.5, 5, and 10 mg DON/kg wheat-soybean meal-based feed. Three consecutive replicates of the experiment were performed...
July 7, 2017: Mycotoxin Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676631/rna-editing-of-the-amd1-gene-is-important-for-ascus-maturation-and-ascospore-discharge-in-fusarium-graminearum
#6
Shulin Cao, Yi He, Chaofeng Hao, Yan Xu, Hongchang Zhang, Chenfang Wang, Huiquan Liu, Jin-Rong Xu
Ascospores are the primary inoculum in the wheat scab fungus Fusarium graminearum that was recently shown to have sexual stage-specific A-to-I RNA editing. One of the genes with premature-stop-codons requiring A-to-I editing to encode full-length functional proteins is AMD1 that encodes a protein with a major facilitator superfamily (MFS) domain. Here, we characterized the functions of AMD1 and its UAG to UGG editing event. The amd1 deletion mutant was normal in growth and conidiation but defective in ascospore discharge due to the premature breakdown of its ascus wall in older perithecia, which is consistent with the specific expression of AMD1 at later stages of sexual development...
July 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665481/the-pkr-regulatory-subunit-of-pka-is-involved-in-regulating-growth-sexual-and-asexual-development-and-pathogenesis-in-fusarium-graminearum
#7
Chaoqun Li, Yonghui Zhang, Huan Wang, Lingfeng Chen, Ju Zhang, Manli Sun, Jin-Rong Xu, Chenfang Wang
Fusarium graminearum is a causal agent of the wheat scab disease and a producer of deoxynivalenol (DON) mycotoxins. Treatment with exogenous cAMP increased its DON production. To better understand the role of the cAMP-PKA pathway in F. graminearum, in this study we functionally characterized the PKR gene encoding the regulatory subunit of PKA. Mutants deleted of PKR were viable but had severe defects in growth, conidiation, and plant infection. The pkr mutant produced compact colonies with shorter aerial hyphae that were increased in the number of nuclei in hyphal compartments...
June 30, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664519/poly-%C3%AE-glutamic-acid-productivity-of-bacillus-subtilis-bse1-has-positive-function-in-motility-and-biocontrol-against-fusarium-graminearum
#8
Luyao Wang, Ning Wang, Dandan Mi, Yuming Luo, Jianhua Guo
In this study, we investigate the relationship between γ-PGA productivity and biocontrol capacity of Bacillus subtilis BsE1; one bacterial isolate displayed 62.14% biocontrol efficacy against Fusarium root rot. The γ-PGA yield assay, motility assay, wheat root colonization assay, and biological control assay were analysed in different γ-PGA yield mutants of BsE1. The pgsB (PGA-synthase-CapB gene) deleted mutant of BsE1 reduced γ-PGA yield and exhibited apparent decline of in vitro motile ability. Deletion of pgsB impaired colonizing capacity of BsE1 on wheat root in 30 days, also lowered biocontrol efficacies from 62...
July 2017: Journal of Microbiology / the Microbiological Society of Korea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656363/cytogenetic-mapping-of-a-major-locus-for-resistance-to-fusarium-head-blight-and-crown-rot-of-wheat-on-thinopyrum-elongatum-7el-and-its-pyramiding-with-valuable-genes-from-a-th-ponticum-homoeologous-arm-onto-bread-wheat-7dl
#9
Carla Ceoloni, Paola Forte, Ljiljana Kuzmanović, Silvio Tundo, Ilaria Moscetti, Pasquale De Vita, Maria Elena Virili, Renato D'Ovidio
A major locus for resistance to different Fusarium diseases was mapped to the most distal end of Th. elongatum 7EL and pyramided with Th. ponticum beneficial genes onto wheat 7DL. Perennial Triticeae species of the Thinopyrum genus are among the richest sources of valuable genes/QTL for wheat improvement. One notable and yet unexploited attribute is the exceptionally effective resistance to a major wheat disease worldwide, Fusarium head blight, associated with the long arm of Thinopyrum elongatum chromosome 7E (7EL)...
June 27, 2017: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654215/the-fgsrp1-sr-protein-gene-is-important-for-plant-infection-and-pre-mrna-processing-in-fusarium-graminearum
#10
Yimei Zhang, Xuli Gao, Manli Sun, Huiquan Liu, Jin-Rong Xu
The versatile functions of SR (serine/arginine-rich) proteins in pre-mRNA splicing and processing are modulated by reversible phosphorylation. Previous studies showed that FgPrp4, the only protein kinase among spliceosome components, is important for intron splicing and the FgSrp1 SR protein is phosphorylated at five conserved sites in Fusarium graminearum. In this study, we showed that the Fgsrp1 deletion mutant rarely produced conidia and caused only limited symptoms on wheat heads and corn silks. Deletion of FgSRP1 also reduced ascospore ejection and deoxynivalenol (DON) production...
June 27, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647118/screening-of-wheat-endophytes-as-biological-control-agents-against-fusarium-head-blight-using-two-different-in-vitro-tests
#11
Morgane Comby, Marie Gacoin, Mathilde Robineau, Fanja Rabenoelina, Sébastien Ptas, Joëlle Dupont, Camille Profizi, Fabienne Baillieul
In order to find biological control agents (BCAs) for the management of Fusarium head blight (FHB), a major disease on wheat crops worldwide, 86 microorganisms isolated from inner tissues of wheat plants were discriminated for their ability to inhibit the growth of Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium culmorum by in vitro dual culture assays. A group of 22 strains appeared very effective to inhibit F. graminearum (inhibition of 30-51%) and they were also globally effective in controlling F. culmorum (inhibition of 15-53%)...
September 2017: Microbiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643581/a-white-paper-on-global-wheat-health-based-on-scenario-development-and-analysis
#12
Serge Savary, Annika Djurle, Jonathan Yuen, Andrea Ficke, Vittorio Rossi, Paul Esker, Jose M Fernandes, Emerson Del Ponte, Jatindra Kumar, Laurence V Madden, Pierce A Paul, Neil McRoberts, Pawan Kumar Singh, Laurent Huber, Claude Pope de Vallavieille, Sébastien Saint-Jean, Laetitia Willocquet
Scenario analysis constitutes a useful approach to synthesize knowledge and derive hypotheses in the case of complex systems which are documented with mainly qualitative or very diverse information. In this article, a framework for scenario analysis is designed and then, applied to global wheat health within a timeframe from today to 2050. Scenario analysis entails the choice of settings, the definition of scenarios of change, and the analysis of outcomes of these scenarios in the chosen settings. Three idealized agrosystems, representing a large fraction of the global diversity of wheat-based agrosystems, are considered, which represent the settings of the analysis...
June 23, 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633506/role-of-glucagon-like-peptide-1and-gastric-inhibitory-peptide-in-anorexia-induction-following-oral-exposure-to-the-trichothecene-mycotoxin-deoxynivalenol-vomitoxin
#13
Hui Jia, Wen-Da Wu, Xi Lu, Jie Zhang, Cheng-Hua He, Hai-Bin Zhang
Deoxynivalenol (DON), which is a Type B trichothecene mycotoxin produced by Fusarium, frequently contaminates cereal staples, such as wheat, barley and corn. DON threatens animal and human health by suppressing food intake and impairing growth. While anorexia induction in mice exposed to DON has been linked to the elevation of the satiety hormones cholecystokinin (CCK) and peptide YY3-36(PYY3-36) in plasma, the effects of DON on the release of other satiety hormones, such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP), have not been established...
June 19, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612272/geographic-distribution-of-phylogenetic-species-of-the-fusarium-graminearum-species-complex-and-their-8-ketotrichothecene-chemotypes-on-wheat-spikes-in-iran
#14
Mostafa Abedi-Tizaki, Doustmorad Zafari
Isolates of the Fusarium graminearum species complex (FGSC, n = 446) were collected from wheat spikes from northern and western regions of Iran with a history of Fusarium head blight (FHB) occurrences. The trichothecene mycotoxin genotypes/chemotypes, the associated phylogenetic species, and geographical distribution of these isolates were analyzed. Two phylogenetic species, Fusarium asiaticum and F. graminearum, were identified and were found to belong to sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) groups V and I...
August 2017: Mycotoxin Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604626/presence-of-enniatins-and-beauvericin-in-romanian-wheat-samples-from-raw-material-to-products-for-direct-human-consumption
#15
Oana Stanciu, Cristina Juan, Doina Miere, Felicia Loghin, Jordi Mañes
In this study, a total of 244 wheat and wheat-based products collected from Romania were analyzed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in order to evaluate the presence of four enniatins (ENs; i.e., ENA, ENA1, ENB, and ENB1) and beauvericin (BEA). For the wheat samples, the influence of agricultural practices was assessed, whereas the results for the wheat-based products were used to calculate the estimated daily intake of emerging mycotoxins through wheat consumption for the Romanian population...
June 12, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597241/biocontrol-of-the-toxigenic-plant-pathogen-fusarium-culmorum-by-soil-fauna-in-an-agroecosystem
#16
Friederike Meyer-Wolfarth, Stefan Schrader, Elisabeth Oldenburg, Joachim Weinert, Joachim Brunotte
In 2011 and 2013, a field experiment was conducted in a winter wheat field at Adenstedt (northern Germany) to investigate biocontrol and interaction effects of important members of the soil food web (Lumbricus terrestris, Annelida; Folsomia candida, Collembola and Aphelenchoides saprophilus, Nematoda) on the phytopathogenic fungus Fusarium culmorum in wheat straw. Therefore, soil fauna was introduced in mesocosms in defined numbers and combinations and exposed to either Fusarium-infected or non-infected wheat straw...
August 2017: Mycotoxin Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587179/screening-of-deoxynivalenol-producing-strains-and-elucidation-of-possible-toxigenic-molecular-mechanism
#17
Xiangfeng Zheng, Xiaoli Zhang, Lina Zhao, Maurice T Apaliya, Qiya Yang, Wei Sun, Xiaoyun Zhang, Hongyin Zhang
In this study, seven strains of Fusarium graminearum were isolated from wheat, of which six were identified to produce deoxynivalenol and the production of deoxynivalenol was assessed. F. graminearum strain Fg1 was noted to produce 1.0 μg/g deoxynivalenol during the incubation period in the Czapek yeast broth, while none was detected in F. graminearum strain Fg2. Hence, the differences in proteomes and transcriptomes of Fg1 and Fg2 were compared to analyze the mechanism underlying deoxynivalenol production...
June 1, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573418/rising-atmospheric-co2-concentration-may-imply-higher-risk-of-fusarium-mycotoxin-contamination-of-wheat-grains
#18
Szilvia Bencze, Katalin Puskás, Gyula Vida, Ildikó Karsai, Krisztina Balla, Judit Komáromi, Ottó Veisz
Increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration not only has a direct impact on plants but also affects plant-pathogen interactions. Due to economic and health-related problems, special concern was given thus in the present work to the effect of elevated CO2 (750 μmol mol(-1)) level on the Fusarium culmorum infection and mycotoxin contamination of wheat. Despite the fact that disease severity was found to be not or little affected by elevated CO2 in most varieties, as the spread of Fusarium increased only in one variety, spike grain number and/or grain weight decreased significantly at elevated CO2 in all the varieties, indicating that Fusarium infection generally had a more dramatic impact on the grain yield at elevated CO2 than at the ambient level...
August 2017: Mycotoxin Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555151/molecular-cytogenetic-characterization-of-two-triticum-secale-thinopyrum-trigeneric-hybrids-exhibiting-superior-resistance-to-fusarium-head-blight-leaf-rust-and-stem-rust-race-ug99
#19
Yi Dai, Yamei Duan, Huiping Liu, Dawn Chi, Wenguang Cao, Allen Xue, Yong Gao, George Fedak, Jianmin Chen
Fusarium head blight (FHB), leaf rust, and stem rust are the most destructive fungal diseases in current world wheat production. The diploid wheatgrass, Thinopyrum elongatum (Host) Dewey (2n = 2x = 14, EE) is an excellent source of disease resistance genes. Two new Triticum-Secale-Thinopyrum trigeneric hybrids were derived from a cross between a hexaploid triticale (X Triticosecale Wittmack, 2n = 6x = 42, AABBRR) and a hexaploid Triticum trititrigia (2n = 6x = 42, AABBEE), were produced and analyzed using genomic in situ hybridization and molecular markers...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525967/candidate-gene-based-association-mapping-in-fusarium-culmorum-for-field-quantitative-pathogenicity-and-mycotoxin-production-in-wheat
#20
Valheria Castiblanco, Jose J Marulanda, Tobias Würschum, Thomas Miedaner
BACKGROUND: Quantitative traits are common in nature, but quantitative pathogenicity has received only little attention in phytopathology. In this study, we used 100 Fusarium culmorum isolates collected from natural field environments to assess their variation for two quantitative traits, aggressiveness and deoxynivalenol (DON) production on wheat plants grown in four different field environments (location-year combinations). Seventeen Fusarium graminearum pathogenicity candidate genes were assessed for their effect on the aggressiveness and DON production of F...
May 19, 2017: BMC Genetics
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