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fusarium wheat or triticum

Maria Buerstmayr, Barbara Steiner, Christian Wagner, Petra Schwarz, Klaus Brugger, Delfina Barabaschi, Andrea Volante, Giampiero Valè, Luigi Cattivelli, Hermann Buerstmayr
The Qfhs.ifa-5A allele, contributing to enhanced Fusarium head blight resistance in wheat, resides in a low recombinogenic region of chromosome 5A close to the centromere. A near isogenic RIL population segregating for the Qfhs.ifa-5A resistance allele was developed and among 3650 lines as few as four recombined within the pericentromeric C-5AS1-0.40 bin, yielding only a single recombination point. Genetic mapping of the pericentromeric region using a recombination dependent approach was thus not successful...
October 11, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
Robert King, Martin Urban, Rebecca P Lauder, Nichola Hawkins, Matthew Evans, Amy Plummer, Kirstie Halsey, Alison Lovegrove, Kim Hammond-Kosack, Jason J Rudd
Pathogenic fungi must extend filamentous hyphae across solid surfaces to cause diseases of plants. However, the full inventory of genes which support this is incomplete and many may be currently concealed due to their essentiality for the hyphal growth form. During a random T-DNA mutagenesis screen performed on the pleomorphic wheat (Triticum aestivum) pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici, we acquired a mutant unable to extend hyphae specifically when on solid surfaces. In contrast "yeast-like" growth, and all other growth forms, were unaffected...
October 11, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
Minglu Gao, Anthony E Glenn, Alex A Blacutt, Scott E Gold
Fungi are absorptive feeders and thus must colonize and ramify through their substrate to survive. In so doing they are in competition, particularly in the soil, with myriad microbes. These microbes use xenobiotic compounds as offensive weapons to compete for nutrition, and fungi must be sufficiently resistant to these xenobiotics. One prominent mechanism of xenobiotic resistance is through production of corresponding degrading enzymes. As typical examples, bacterial β-lactamases are well known for their ability to degrade and consequently confer resistance to β-lactam antibiotics, a serious emerging problem in health care...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Erin Elizabeth Gunnink Troth, Jeffrey A Johnston, Alan T Dyer
Among root pathogens, one of the most documented antagonisms is the suppression of Cochliobolus sativus by Fusarium (roseum) species. Unfortunately, previous studies involved single isolates of each pathogen and thus provided no indication of the spectrum of responses that occur across the respective species. To investigate the variability in interactions between Cochliobolus sativus and Fusarium pseudograminearum, field and greenhouse trials were conducted that included monitoring of spring wheat plant health and monitoring of pathogen populations via quantitative real-time PCR...
September 28, 2017: Phytopathology
Sudharsan Sadhasivam, Malka Britzi, Varda Zakin, Moshe Kostyukovsky, Anatoly Trostanetsky, Elazar Quinn, Edward Sionov
This study aimed to assess the occurrence of toxigenic fungi and mycotoxin contamination in stored wheat grains by using advanced molecular and analytical techniques. A multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) strategy was established for rapid identification of mycotoxigenic fungi, and an improved analytical method was developed for simultaneous multi-mycotoxin determination in wheat grains by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) without the need for any clean-up. The optimized multiplex PCR method was highly specific in detecting fungal species containing species-specific and mycotoxin metabolic pathway genes...
September 25, 2017: Toxins
Jun Yan, Peisen Su, Zhaoran Wei, Eviatar Nevo, Lingrang Kong
In this study we systematically identified and classified PKs in Triticum aestivum, Triticum urartu and Aegilops tauschii. Domain distribution and exon-intron structure analyses of PKs were performed, and we found conserved exon-intron structures within the exon phases in the kinase domain. Collinearity events were determined, and we identified various T. aestivum PKs from polyploidizations and tandem duplication events. Global expression pattern analysis of T. aestivum PKs revealed that some PKs might participate in the signaling pathways of stress response and developmental processes...
September 16, 2017: Plant Molecular Biology
Piao Yang, Yunyun Chen, Huiming Wu, Wenqin Fang, Qifu Liang, Yangling Zheng, Stefan Olsson, Dongmei Zhang, Jie Zhou, Zonghua Wang, Wenhui Zheng
In eukaryotic organisms, the 5-oxoprolinase is one of the six key enzymes in the γ-glutamyl cycle that is involved in the biosynthetic pathway of glutathione (GSH, an antioxidative tripeptide counteracting the oxidative stress). To date, little is known about the biological functions of the 5-oxoprolinase in filamentous phytopathogenic fungi. In this study, we investigated the 5-oxoprolinase in Fusarium graminearum for the first time. In F. graminearum, two paralogous genes (FgOXP1 and FgOXP2) were identified to encode the 5-oxoprolinase while only one homologous gene encoding the 5-oxoprolinase could be found in other filamentous phytopathogenic fungi or Saccharomyces cerevisiae...
September 16, 2017: Current Genetics
Jagdeep Kaur, Dilip Shah, John Fellers
Leaf rust (LR) and Fusarium head blight (FHB) caused by Puccinia triticina and Fusarium graminearum, respectively, are among the most damaging fungal diseases challenging wheat production worldwide. Genetic resistance in combination with fungicide application has been the most widely employed approach to combat these fungal pathogens. Alternative approaches that could augment current practices are needed for the control of these devastating pathogens. To that end, we have recently shown that the extracellular expression of antifungal defensin MtDEF4...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Agnès E Ricroch
In European countries, wheat occupies the largest crop area with high yielding production. France, a major producer and exporter in Europe, ranks the fifth producer worldwide. Biotic stresses are European farmers' major challenges (fungal and viral diseases, and insect pests) followed by abiotic ones such as drought and grain protein composition. During the last 40 years, 1136 scientific articles on biotech wheat were published by USA followed by China, Australia, Canada, and European Union with the UK. European research focuses on pests and diseases resistances using widely marker-assisted selection (MAS)...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Dipak Sharma-Poudyal, Daniel Schlatter, Chuntao Yin, Scot Hulbert, Timothy Paulitz
In the dryland Pacific Northwest wheat cropping systems, no-till is becoming more prevalent as a way to reduce soil erosion and fuel inputs. Tillage can have a profound effect on microbial communities and soilborne fungal pathogens, such as Rhizoctonia. We compared the fungal communities in long-term no-till (NT) plots adjacent to conventionally tilled (CT) plots, over three years at two locations in Washington state and one location in Idaho, US. We used pyrosequencing of the fungal ITS gene and identified 422 OTUs after rarefication...
2017: PloS One
Wuyun Lv, Chunyan Wang, Nan Yang, Yawei Que, Nicholas J Talbot, Zhengyi Wang
Autophagy is a conserved cellular recycling and trafficking pathway in eukaryotic cells and has been reported to be important in the virulence of a number of microbial pathogens. Here, we report genome-wide identification and characterization of autophagy-related genes (ATGs) in the wheat pathogenic fungus Fusarium graminearum. We identified twenty-eight genes associated with the regulation and operation of autophagy in F. graminearum. Using targeted gene deletion, we generated a set of 28 isogenic mutants...
September 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
Vijai Bhadauria, Lucia Popescu
Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is one of the top three global food security crops. Fusarium head blight is one of the major constraints in sustainable wheat production and resistance to the disease is polygenic. This review provides an overview of recent efforts in mapping these genes/loci with the objective to aid marker-assisted selection breeding.
September 8, 2017: Current Issues in Molecular Biology
Simon G Edwards
A survey was conducted to determine the concentration of fusarium mycotoxins in UK oats over three seasons (2006-2008). One hundred oat samples were collected each year at harvest, together with agronomic details, and analysed for ten fusarium mycotoxins. The incidence and concentration of most fusarium mycotoxins, including deoxynivalenol and zearalenone, were relatively low in oats compared to values previously reported for wheat. HT-2 toxin (HT2) and T-2 toxin (T2) levels were relatively high with an overall combined (HT2+T2) mean of 450 μg kg(-1) for 2006-2008...
September 4, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
Xiaotang Di, Lingxue Cao, Richard K Hughes, Nico Tintor, Mark J Banfield, Frank L W Takken
Plant pathogens employ effector proteins to manipulate their hosts. Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (Fol), the causal agent of tomato wilt disease, produces effector protein Avr2. Besides being a virulence factor, Avr2 triggers immunity in I-2 carrying tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Fol strains that evade I-2 recognition carry point mutations in Avr2 (e.g. Avr2(R45H) ), but retain full virulence. Here we investigate the virulence function of Avr2 and determine its crystal structure. Transgenic tomato and Arabidopsis expressing either wild-type ΔspAvr2 (deleted signal-peptide) or the ΔspAvr2(R45H) variant become hypersusceptible to fungal, and even bacterial infections, suggesting that Avr2 targets a conserved defense mechanism...
August 31, 2017: New Phytologist
Tomasz Kulik, Kinga Stuper-Szablewska, Katarzyna Bilska, Maciej Buśko, Anna Ostrowska-Kołodziejczak, Dariusz Załuski, Juliusz Perkowski
Plant-derived compounds for reducing the mycotoxin load in food and feed have become a rapidly developing research field of importance for plant breeding efforts and in the search for natural fungicides. In this study, toxigenic strains of Fusarium culmorum and F. graminearum sensu stricto were exposed to sinapic acid on solid YES media at levels close to those reported in wheat bran. Fusaria produced phenolic acids, whose accumulation was decreased by exogenous sinapic acid. Strains exposed to the lowest doses of sinapic acid showed more efficient reduction of phenolic acid production than fungi kept at higher concentrations of this compound...
August 28, 2017: Toxins
Fuguo Xing, Haibo Yao, Yang Liu, Xiaofeng Dai, Robert L Brown, Deepak Bhatnagar
Mycotoxins are the foremost naturally occurring contaminants of food products such as corn, peanuts, tree nuts, and wheat. As the secondary metabolites, mycotoxins are mainly synthesized by many species of the genera Aspergillus, Fusarium and Penicillium, and are considered highly toxic and carcinogenic to humans and animals. Most mycotoxins are detected and quantified by analytical chemistry-based methods. While mycotoxigenic fungi are usually identified and quantified by biological methods. However, these methods are time-consuming, laborious, costly, and inconsistent because of the variability of the grain-sampling process...
August 28, 2017: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Wei-Jie He, Limin Zhang, Shu-Yuan Yi, Xue-Ling Tang, Qing-Song Yuan, Mao-Wei Guo, Ai-Bo Wu, Bo Qu, He-Ping Li, Yu-Cai Liao
Degradation of toxins by microorganisms is a promising approach for detoxification of agricultural products. Here, a bacterial strain, Sphingomonas S3-4, that has the ability to degrade the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) was isolated from wheat fields. Incubation of Fusarium-infected wheat grains with S3-4 completely eliminated DON. In S3-4 DON is catabolized into compounds with no detectable phytotoxicity, 3-oxo-DON and 3-epi-DON, via two sequential reactions. Comparative analysis of genome sequences from two DON-degrading strains, S3-4 and Devosia D17, and one non-DON-degrading strain, Sphingobium S26, combined with functional screening of a S3-4 genomic BAC library led to the discovery that a novel aldo/keto reductase superfamily member, AKR18A1, is responsible for oxidation of DON into 3-oxo-DON...
August 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
Jens Laurids Sørensen, Aurelie H Benfield, Rasmus Dam Wollenberg, Klaus Westphal, Reinhard Wimmer, Mikkel Rank Nielsen, Kristian Fog Nielsen, Jason Carere, Lorenzo Covarelli, Giovanni Beccari, Jonathan Powell, Takafumi Yamashino, Herbert Kogler, Teis Esben Sondergaard, Donald Max Gardiner
The fungal pathogen Fusarium pseudograminearum causes important diseases of wheat and barley. During a survey of secondary metabolites produced by this fungus, a novel class of cytokinins, herein termed Fusarium cytokinins, was discovered. Cytokinins are known for their growth promoting and anti-senescence activities and the production of a cytokinin mimic by what was once considered a necrotrophic pathogen that promotes cell death and senescence challenges the simple view that this pathogen invades its hosts by employing a barrage of lytic enzymes and toxins...
August 12, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
Maria Chiara Paccanaro, Luca Sella, Carla Castiglioni, Francesca Giacomello, Ana Lilia Martínez-Rocha, Renato D'Ovidio, Wilhelm Schäfer, Francesco Favaron
Endo-polygalacturonases (PGs) and xylanases have been shown to play an important role during pathogenesis of some fungal pathogens of dicot plants, while their role in monocot pathogens is less defined. Pg1 and xyr1 genes of the wheat pathogen Fusarium graminearum encode the main PG and the major regulator of xylanase production, respectively. Single- and double-disrupted mutants for these genes were obtained to assess their contribution to fungal infection. Compared with wild-type strain, the ∆pg mutant showed a nearly abolished PG activity, slight reduced virulence on soybean seedlings, but no significant difference in disease symptoms on wheat spikes; the ∆xyr mutant was strongly reduced in xylanase activity and moderately reduced in cellulase activity but was as virulent as wild type on both soybean and wheat plants...
November 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Susanne Vogelgsang, Tomke Musa, Irene Bänziger, Andreas Kägi, Thomas D Bucheli, Felix E Wettstein, Matias Pasquali, Hans-Rudolf Forrer
To assess the occurrence of Fusarium toxins in wheat in Switzerland, an eight-year survey was conducted by analysing a total of 686 harvest samples from growers using LC-MS/MS. Between 2007 and 2010, 527 samples were obtained from 17 cantons. Between 2011 and 2014, 159 samples were collected from the canton Berne. The most frequent toxins detected were deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZEA) and nivalenol (NIV). The overall mean DON content in all samples was 607 µg/kg, and 11% exceeded the European limit for unprocessed cereals for foodstuffs (1250 µg/kg)...
August 9, 2017: Toxins
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