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fusarium wheat or triticum

Qili Zhu, Ling Sun, Jiajie Lian, Xuli Gao, Lei Zhao, Mingyu Ding, Jing Li, Yuancun Liang
Phospholipase C (PLC) is an important phospholipid hydrolase that plays critical roles in various biological processes in eukaryotic cells. To elucidate the functions of PLC in morphogenesis and pathogenesis in Fusarium graminearum, deletion mutants were constructed of all six FgPLC genes identified in this study. Deletion of FgPLC1, but not the other five FgPLC genes, affected hyphal growth and conidiation. The FgPLC1 deletion mutant (Δplc1) also was defective in conidium germination and germ tube growth...
October 21, 2016: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
Nidhi Rawat, Michael O Pumphrey, Sixin Liu, Xiaofei Zhang, Vijay K Tiwari, Kaori Ando, Harold N Trick, William W Bockus, Eduard Akhunov, James A Anderson, Bikram S Gill
Fusarium head blight (FHB), caused by Fusarium graminearum, is a devastating disease of wheat and barley that leads to reduced yield and mycotoxin contamination of grain, making it unfit for human consumption. FHB is a global problem, with outbreaks in the United States, Canada, Europe, Asia and South America. In the United States alone, total direct and secondary economic losses from 1993 to 2001 owing to FHB were estimated at $7.67 billion. Fhb1 is the most consistently reported quantitative trait locus (QTL) for FHB resistance breeding...
October 24, 2016: Nature Genetics
Tomasz Góral, Halina Wiśniewska, Piotr Ochodzki, Dorota Walentyn-Góral
Resistance to Fusarium head blight in 32 winter triticale and 34 winter wheat accessions was evaluated. Triticale and wheat were sown in field experiments in two locations. At the time of flowering, heads were inoculated with three Fusarium culmorum isolates. Fusarium head blight index was scored and after the harvest percentage of Fusarium damaged kernels was assessed. Grain was analysed for type B trichothecenes (deoxynivalenol and derivatives, nivalenol) and zearalenone (ZEN) content. The average Fusarium head blight indexes were 28...
October 18, 2016: Toxins
Cameron S Gordon, Nandhakishore Rajagopalan, Eddy P Risseeuw, Marci Surpin, Fraser J Ball, Carla J Barber, Leann M Buhrow, Shawn M Clark, Jonathan E Page, Chris D Todd, Suzanne R Abrams, Michele C Loewen
Abscisic acid (ABA) is a well-characterized plant hormone, known to mediate developmental aspects as well as both abiotic and biotic stress responses. Notably, the exogenous application of ABA has recently been shown to increase susceptibility to the fungal pathogen Fusarium graminearum, the causative agent of Fusarium head blight (FHB) in wheat and other cereals. However roles and mechanisms associated with ABA's modulation of pathogen responses remain enigmatic. Here the identification of putative ABA receptors from available genomic databases for Triticum aestivum (bread wheat) and Brachypodium distachyon (a model cereal) are reported...
2016: PloS One
Elisabeth Varga, Gerlinde Wiesenberger, Philipp Fruhmann, Alexandra Malachová, Thomas Svoboda, Marc Lemmens, Gerhard Adam, Franz Berthiller
Trichothecenes are a class of structurally diverse mycotoxins with more than 200 naturally occurring compounds. Previously, a new compound, pentahydroxyscirpene (PHS), was reported as a byproduct of a nivalenol producing Fusarium strain, IFA189. PHS contains a hydroxy group at C-8 instead of the keto group of type B trichothecenes. In this work, we demonstrate that IFA189 belongs to the species Fusarium kyushuense using molecular tools. Production of PHS in vitro was also observed for several isolates of other Fusarium species producing nivalenol...
October 14, 2016: Toxins
Angelica Giancaspro, Stefania L Giove, Daniela Zito, A Blanco, Agata Gadaleta
Fusarium head blight (scab) is one of the most widespread and damaging diseases of wheat, causing grain yield and quality losses and production of harmful mycotoxins. Development of resistant varieties is hampered by lack of effective resistance sources in the tetraploid wheat primary gene pool. Here we dissected the genetic basis of resistance in a new durum wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum) Recombinant inbred lines (RILs) population obtained by crossing an hexaploid resistant line and a durum susceptible cultivar...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Alessandra Quarantin, Anika Glasenapp, Wilhelm Schäfer, Francesco Favaron, Luca Sella
The genome of Fusarium graminearum, a necrotrophic fungal pathogen causing Fusarium head blight (FHB) disease of wheat, barley and other cereal grains, contains five genes putatively encoding for proteins with a cerato-platanin domain. Cerato-platanins are small secreted cysteine-rich proteins possibly localized in the fungal cell walls and also contributing to the virulence. Two of these F. graminearum proteins (FgCPP1 and FgCPP2) belong to the class of SnodProt proteins which exhibit phytotoxic activity in the fungal pathogens Botrytis cinerea and Magnaporthe grisea...
October 4, 2016: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Jonathan J Powell, Timothy L Fitzgerald, Jiri Stiller, Paul J Berkman, Donald M Gardiner, John M Manners, Robert J Henry, Kemal Kazan
Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is an allopolyploid species containing three ancestral genomes. Therefore, three homoeologous copies exist for the majority of genes in the wheat genome. Whether different homoeologs are differentially expressed (homoeolog expression bias) in response to biotic and abiotic stresses is poorly understood. In this study, we applied a RNA-seq approach to analyze homoeolog-specific global gene expression patterns in wheat during infection by the fungal pathogen Fusarium pseudograminearum, which causes crown rot disease in cereals...
October 13, 2016: Plant Biotechnology Journal
Karl M Wetterhorn, Sean A Newmister, Rachell K Caniza, Mark Busman, Susan Patricia McCormick, Franz Berthiller, Gerhard Adam, Ivan Rayment
Fusarium head blight is a plant disease with significant agricultural and health impacts which affects cereal crops such as wheat, barley, and maize, and is characterized by reduced grain yield and the accumulation of trichothecene mycotoxins such as deoxynivalenol (DON). Studies have identified trichothecene production as a virulence factor in Fusarium graminearum, and have linked DON resistance to the ability to form DON-3-O-glucoside in wheat. Here, the structures of a deoxynivalenol:UDP-glucosyltransferase (Os79) from Oryza sativa are reported in complex with UDP in an open conformation, in complex with UDP in a closed conformation, and in complex with UDP-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose and trichothecene at 1...
October 7, 2016: Biochemistry
Miroslava Cuperlovic-Culf, NandhaKishore Rajagopalan, Dan Tulpan, Michele C Loewen
Fusarium head blight (FHB), primarily caused by Fusarium graminearum, is a devastating disease of wheat. Partial resistance to FHB of several wheat cultivars includes specific metabolic responses to inoculation. Previously published studies have determined major metabolic changes induced by pathogens in resistant and susceptible plants. Functionality of the majority of these metabolites in resistance remains unknown. In this work we have made a compilation of all metabolites determined as selectively accumulated following FHB inoculation in resistant plants...
September 30, 2016: Metabolites
Haruhisa Suga, Koji Kageyama, Masafumi Shimizu, Misturo Hyakumachi
Members of the Fusarium graminearum species complex (Fg complex or FGSC) are the primary pathogens causing Fusarium head blight in wheat and barley worldwide. A natural pathogenicity mutant (strain 0225022) was found in a sample of the Fg complex collected in Japan. The mutant strain did not induce symptoms in wheat spikes beyond the point of inoculation and did not form perithecia. No segregation of phenotypic deficiencies occurred in the progenies of a cross between the mutant and a fully pathogenic wild-type strain, which suggested that a single genetic locus controlled both traits...
September 27, 2016: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
Jin Cai, Shan Wang, Tao Li, Guorong Zhang, Guihua Bai
Fusarium head blight (FHB), caused by Fusarium graminearum Schwabe, is a devastating disease in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Use of host resistance is one of the most effective strategies to minimize the disease damage. Haiyanzhong (HYZ) is a Chinese wheat landrace that shows a high level of resistance to FHB spread within a spike (type II resistance). To map the quantitative trait loci (QTLs) in HYZ and identify markers tightly linked to the QTLs for FHB resistance, a population of 172 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) from a cross between HYZ and Wheaton (FHB susceptible) was genotyped using simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) derived from genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS), and evaluated for percentage of symptomatic spikelets (PSSs) per spike in three greenhouse experiments...
2016: PloS One
Silvio Tundo, Michela Janni, Ilaria Moscetti, Giulia Mandalà, Daniel Savatin, Ann Blechl, Francesco Favaron, Renato D'Ovidio
Fusarium Head Blight (FHB) caused by Fusarium graminearum is one of the most destructive fungal diseases of wheat worldwide. The pathogen infects the spike at flowering time and causes severe yield losses, deterioration of grain quality, and accumulation of mycotoxins. The understanding of the precise means of pathogen entry and colonization of floral tissue is crucial to providing effective protection against FHB. Polygalacturonase inhibiting proteins (PGIPs) are cell wall proteins that inhibit the activity of polygalacturonases (PGs), a class of pectin-depolymerizing enzymes secreted by microbial pathogens, including Fusaria...
September 27, 2016: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Walaa K Mousa, Charles Shearer, Victor Limay-Rios, Cassie L Ettinger, Jonathan A Eisen, Manish N Raizada
The ancient African crop, finger millet, has broad resistance to pathogens including the toxigenic fungus Fusarium graminearum. Here, we report the discovery of a novel plant defence mechanism resulting from an unusual symbiosis between finger millet and a root-inhabiting bacterial endophyte, M6 (Enterobacter sp.). Seed-coated M6 swarms towards root-invading Fusarium and is associated with the growth of root hairs, which then bend parallel to the root axis, subsequently forming biofilm-mediated microcolonies, resulting in a remarkable, multilayer root-hair endophyte stack (RHESt)...
2016: Nature Microbiology
Yu Zhang, Tao Gao, Wenyong Shao, Zhitian Zheng, Mingguo Zhou, Changjun Chen
Septins are a highly conserved family of GTP-binding proteins that contribute to many cellular and metabolic functions including cell polarity, cytokinesis, cell morphogenesis and pathogenesis. In this study, we characterized the septins FaCdc3 and FaCdc12 in the filamentous fungus F. asiaticum. The functions of FaCdc3 and FaCdc12 were evaluated by constructing deletion mutants of FaCdc3 and FaCdc12, designated ΔFaCdc3-5 and ΔFaCdc12-71, respectively. The deletion mutants exhibited a reduced rate of mycelial growth, increased aerial hyphae formation, irregularly shaped hyphae, reduced conidiation and a lack of sexual reproduction in wheat kernels...
September 26, 2016: Molecular Plant Pathology
A Kheiri, S A Moosawi Jorf, A Malihipour, H Saremi, M Nikkhah
Fusarium head blight (FHB) disease caused by Fusarium graminearum is one of the most important diseases of wheat in humid and warm areas. This disease significantly reduces yield as well as seed quality. The aim of this work was to evaluate the possibility of control of FHB by chitosan (CS) and chitosan nanoparticles (CS/NPs). In vitro, the application of various concentrations of CS and CS/NPs showed significant inhibition of both radial mycelial growth and number of colonies formed against F. graminearum...
September 21, 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Imen Zalila-Kolsi, Afif Ben Mahmoud, Hacina Ali, Sameh Sellami, Zina Nasfi, Slim Tounsi, Kaïs Jamoussi
Bacillus species are attractive due to their potential use in the biological control of fungal diseases. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain BLB369, Bacillus subtilis strain BLB277, and Paenibacillus polymyxa strain BLB267 were isolated and identified using biochemical and molecular (16S rDNA, gyrA, and rpoB) approaches. They could produce, respectively, (iturin and surfactin), (surfactin and fengycin), and (fusaricidin and polymyxin) exhibiting broad spectrum against several phytopathogenic fungi. In vivo examination of wheat seed germination, plant height, phenolic compounds, chlorophyll, and carotenoid contents proved the efficiency of the bacterial cells and the secreted antagonist activities to protect Tunisian durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L...
November 2016: Microbiological Research
Juan M Palazzini, Christopher A Dunlap, Michael J Bowman, Sofía N Chulze
Bacillus subtilis RC 218 was originally isolated from wheat anthers as a potential antagonist of Fusarium graminearum, the causal agent of Fusarium head blight (FHB). It was demonstrated to have antagonist activity against the plant pathogen under in vitro and greenhouse assays. The current study extends characterizing B. subtilis RC 218 with a field study and genome sequencing. The field study demonstrated that B. subtilis RC 218 could reduce disease severity and the associated mycotoxin (deoxynivalenol) accumulation, under field conditions...
November 2016: Microbiological Research
Udaykumar Kage, Shailesh Karre, Ajjamada C Kushalappa, Curt McCartney
Fusarium head blight (FHB) resistance in wheat is considered to be polygenic in nature. Cell wall fortification is one of the best resistance mechanisms in wheat against Fusarium graminearum which causes FHB. Metabolomics approach in our study led to the identification of a wide array of resistance related (RR) metabolites, among which hydroxycinnamic acid amides (HCAAs), such as, coumaroylagmatine and coumaroylputrescine were the highest fold-change RR metabolites in the rachis of a resistant near-isogenic line (NIL-R) upon F...
September 24, 2016: Plant Biotechnology Journal
Noemie Prat, Camille Guilbert, Ursa Prah, Elisabeth Wachter, Barbara Steiner, Thierry Langin, Olivier Robert, Hermann Buerstmayr
The QTL Fhb1 was successfully introgressed and validated in three durum wheat populations. The novel germplasm and the QTL detected will support improvement of Fusarium resistance in durum wheat. Durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) is particularly susceptible to Fusarium head blight (FHB) and breeding for resistance is hampered by limited genetic variation within this species. To date, resistant sources are mainly available in a few wild relative tetraploid wheat accessions. In this study, the effect of the well-known hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L...
September 23, 2016: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
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