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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924538/targeting-trichothecene-biosynthetic-genes
#1
Songhong Wei, Theo van der Lee, Els Verstappen, Marga van Gent, Cees Waalwijk
Biosynthesis of trichothecenes requires the involvement of at least 15 genes, most of which have been targeted for PCR. Qualitative PCRs are used to assign chemotypes to individual isolates, e.g., the capacity to produce type A and/or type B trichothecenes. Many regions in the core cluster (consisting of 12 genes) including intergenic regions have been used as targets for PCR, but the most robust assays are targeted to the tri3 and tri12 genes. Quantitative PCRs, that work across trichothecene-producing members of the Fusarium head blight complex, are described along with procedures to quantify the amount of fungal biomass in wheat samples...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916862/contrasting-roles-of-deoxynivalenol-and-nivalenol-in-host-mediated-interactions-between-fusarium-graminearum-and-sitobion-avenae
#2
Jassy Drakulic, Mohd Haziq Kahar, Olubukola Ajigboye, Toby Bruce, Rumiana V Ray
Fusarium graminearum is the predominant causal species of Fusarium head blight in Europe and North America. Different chemotypes of the species exist, each producing a plethora of mycotoxins. Isolates of differing chemotypes produce nivalenol (NIV) and deoxynivalenol (DON), which differ in toxicity to mammals and plants. However, the effect of each mycotoxin on volatile emissions of plant hosts is not known. Host volatiles are interpreted by insect herbivores such as Sitobion avenae, the English grain aphid, during host selection...
November 30, 2016: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905064/a-mini-survey-of-moulds-and-mycotoxins-in-locally-grown-and-imported-wheat-grains-in-nigeria
#3
Ayotokunbo O Egbontan, Clement G Afolabi, Iyabode A Kehinde, Ololade A Enikuomehin, Chibundu N Ezekiel, Michael Sulyok, Benedikt Warth, Rudolf Krska
A preliminary survey involving limited sample size was conducted to determine the spectrum of moulds and mycotoxins in wheat grains from flour mills and local markets in Nigeria. Fourteen wheat samples were analyzed for moulds using standard mycological methods and for toxic fungal metabolites using a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method. Fusarium (range of incidence 12.5-61.7%) dominated in the wheat grains though species of Aspergillus (range of incidence 2.24-3.86%) were also recovered from the samples...
November 30, 2016: Mycotoxin Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898754/genome-wide-association-mapping-of-fusarium-head-blight-resistance-in-wheat-using-genotyping-by-sequencing
#4
Marcio P Arruda, Patrick Brown, Gina Brown-Guedira, Allison M Krill, Carrie Thurber, Keith R Merrill, Bradley J Foresman, Frederic L Kolb
Fusarium head blight (FHB) is one of the most important wheat ( L.) diseases worldwide, and host resistance displays complex genetic control. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) was performed on 273 winter wheat breeding lines from the midwestern and eastern regions of the United States to identify chromosomal regions associated with FHB resistance. Genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) was used to identify 19,992 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) covering all 21 wheat chromosomes. Marker-trait associations were performed with different statistical models, the most appropriate being a compressed mixed linear model (cMLM) controlling for relatedness and population structure...
March 2016: Plant Genome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888554/a-high-resolution-genetic-map-of-the-cereal-crown-rot-pathogen-fusarium-pseudograminearum-provides-a-near-complete-genome-assembly
#5
Donald M Gardiner, Aurelie H Benfield, Jiri Stiller, Stuart Stephen, Karen Aitken, Chunji Liu, Kemal Kazan
Fusarium pseudograminearum is an important pathogen of wheat and barley, particularly in semi-arid environments. Previous genome assemblies for this organism were based entirely on short read data and are highly fragmented. In this work, a genetic map of F. pseudograminearum has been constructed for the first time based on a mapping population of 178 individuals. The genetic map, along with long read scaffolding of a short read-based genome assembly, was used to give a near complete assembly of the four F. pseudograminearum chromosomes...
November 26, 2016: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866226/high-accuracy-of-predicting-hybrid-performance-of-fusarium-head-blight-resistance-by-mid-parent-values-in-wheat
#6
Thomas Miedaner, Albert W Schulthess, Manje Gowda, Jochen C Reif, C Friedrich H Longin
Mid-parent values of Fusarium head blight (FHB) resistance tested across several locations are a good predictor of hybrid performance caused by a preponderance of additive gene action in wheat. Hybrid breeding is intensively discussed as one solution to boost yield and yield stability including an enhanced biotic stress resistance. Our objectives were to investigate (1) the heterosis for Fusarium head blight (FHB) resistance, (2) the importance of general (GCA) vs. specific combining ability (SCA) for FHB resistance, and (3) the possibility to predict the FHB resistance of the hybrids by the parental means...
November 19, 2016: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858103/validating-the-prediction-accuracies-of-marker-assisted-and-genomic-selection-of-fusarium-head-blight-resistance-in-wheat-using-an-independent-sample
#7
Yong Jiang, Albert Wilhelm Schulthess, Bernd Rodemann, Jie Ling, Jörg Plieske, Sonja Kollers, Erhard Ebmeyer, Viktor Korzun, Odile Argillier, Gunther Stiewe, Martin W Ganal, Marion S Röder, Jochen C Reif
Compared with independent validation, cross-validation simultaneously sampling genotypes and environments provided similar estimates of accuracy for genomic selection, but inflated estimates for marker-assisted selection. Estimates of prediction accuracy of marker-assisted (MAS) and genomic selection (GS) require validations. The main goal of our study was to compare the prediction accuracies of MAS and GS validated in an independent sample with results obtained from fivefold cross-validation using genomic and phenotypic data for Fusarium head blight resistance in wheat...
November 17, 2016: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855933/mycotoxin-and-fungicide-residues-in-wheat-grains-from-fungicide-treated-plants-measured-by-a-validated-lc-ms-method
#8
Suzane Rickes da Luz, Paulo Cesar Pazdiora, Leandro José Dallagnol, Giniani Carla Dors, Fábio Clasen Chaves
Wheat (Triticum aestivum) is an annual crop, cultivated in the winter and spring and susceptible to several pathogens, especially fungi, which are managed with fungicides. It is also one of the most consumed cereals, and can be contaminated by mycotoxins and fungicides. The objective of this study was to validate an analytical method by LC-MS for simultaneous determination of mycotoxins and fungicide residues in wheat grains susceptible to fusarium head blight treated with fungicides, and to evaluate the relationship between fungicide application and mycotoxin production...
April 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854268/deoxynivalenol-and-its-modified-forms-are-there-major-differences
#9
Arash Alizadeh, Saskia Braber, Peyman Akbari, Aletta Kraneveld, Johan Garssen, Johanna Fink-Gremmels
Considering the diverse toxic effects of the Fusarium toxin deoxynivalenol (DON), its common occurrence in wheat-based products, and its stability during processing, DON constitutes an increasing health concern for humans and animals. In addition to the parent compound DON, human and animal exposure encompasses the acetylated fungal metabolites 3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol (3ADON) and 15-acetyl-deoxynivalenol (15ADON) as well as the plant-derived DON-glucoside (DON3G) and the bacterial product de-epoxy-DON (DOM-1)...
November 16, 2016: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853184/temporal-dynamics-population-characterization-and-mycotoxins-accumulation-of-fusarium-graminearum-in-eastern-china
#10
Jian-Bo Qiu, Jing-Tao Sun, Ming-Zheng Yu, Jian-Hong Xu, Jian-Rong Shi
Trichothecene genotype composition, mycotoxin production, genetic diversity, and population structure were analyzed, using 185 Fusarium strains collected from wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) throughout the Jiangsu province during 1976, 1983, 1998, 2006, and 2014. The results showed that 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3ADON) was consistently the predominant type in this region over 40 years, and the nivalenol (NIV) type has emerged since 1998. Long-term rotation of wheat and rice (Oryza sativa L.), rather than fungicide application, crop fitness, or weather conditions, might be the main cause of this phenomenon...
November 17, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844244/metabolo-transcriptome-profiling-of-barley-reveals-induction-of-chitin-elicitor-receptor-kinase-gene-hvcerk1-conferring-resistance-against-fusarium-graminearum
#11
Shailesh Karre, Arun Kumar, Dhananjay Dhokane, Ajjamada C Kushalappa
We report plausible disease resistance mechanisms induced by barley resistant genotype CI89831 against Fusarium head blight (FHB) based on metabolo-transcriptomics approach. We identified HvCERK1 as a candidate gene for FHB resistance, which is functional in resistant genotype CI9831 but non-functional in susceptible cultivars H106-371 and Zhedar-2. For the first time, we were able to show a hierarchy of regulatory genes that regulated downstream biosynthetic genes that eventually produced resistance related metabolites that reinforce the cell walls to contain the pathogen progress in plant...
November 14, 2016: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835660/two-fgleu2-genes-with-different-roles-in-leucine-biosynthesis-and-infection-related-morphogenesis-in-fusarium-graminearum
#12
Xin Liu, Qi Han, Jian Wang, Xin Wang, Jianhong Xu, Jianrong Shi
3-isopropylmalate dehydrogenase (IPMD) encoded by LEU2 is a key enzyme in leucine (Leu) biosynthetic pathway. Analysis of the genome sequence of Fusarium graminearum revealed two paralogous LEU2 genes (designated as FgLEU2A and FgLEU2B) in this fungus and the deduced amino acid sequences of FgLeu2A and FgLeu2B share 45% identity. Targeted disruption of individual FgLEU2A/B gene in F. graminearum assigned a more crucial role of FgLeu2A in Leu biosynthesis as disruption of FgLEU2A resulted in mutant (ΔFgLeu2A-10) that was Leu-auxotrophic and could not grow in minimal medium limited for amino acids, whereas FgLEU2B deletion mutant ΔFgLeu2B-2 was morphologically indistinguishable from the wild type strain PH-1...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815916/towards-the-development-of-innovative-multi-mycotoxin-reference-materials-as-promising-metrological-tool-for-emerging-and-regulated-mycotoxin-analyses
#13
E K Tangni, P Debongnie, B Huybrechts, F Van Hove, A Callebaut
The interest in LC-MS/MS multi-mycotoxin methods unveiled an urgent need for multi-mycotoxin reference material. A multi-fusariotoxin, including deoxynivalenol (DON); zearalenone (ZEN); T-2 toxin (T-2); HT-2 toxin (HT-2); enniatin A, A1, B, and B1 (ENNs); and beauvericin (BEA), contaminated wheat flour was obtained by inoculation Fusarium spp. strains. The candidate material has successfully passed the homogeneity test and submitted to an international interlaboratory study achieved by 19 laboratories from 11 countries using their routine analytical method...
November 4, 2016: Mycotoxin Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790188/fusarium-head-blight-resistance-qtl-in-the-spring-wheat-cross-kenyon-86ismn-2137
#14
Curt A McCartney, Anita L Brûlé-Babel, George Fedak, Richard A Martin, Brent D McCallum, Jeannie Gilbert, Colin W Hiebert, Curtis J Pozniak
Fusarium head blight (FHB), caused by Fusarium graminearum, is a very important disease of wheat globally. Damage caused by F. graminearum includes reduced grain yield, reduced grain functional quality, and results in the presence of the trichothecene mycotoxin deoxynivalenol in Fusarium-damaged kernels. The development of FHB resistant wheat cultivars is an important component of integrated management. The objective of this study was to identify QTL for FHB resistance in a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population of the spring wheat cross Kenyon/86ISMN 2137...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788422/protein-glutathionylation-protects-wheat-triticum-aestivum-var-sonalika-against-fusarium-induced-oxidative-stress
#15
Subhalaxmi Mohapatra, Bhabatosh Mittra
Fusarium induced oxidative stress could be recovered by reversible protein oxidative modification through the process of glutathionylation in co-stressed (low-dose (50 μM) Cd(2+) pre-treatment followed by Fusarium inoculation) wheat seedlings. Co-stressed seedlings showed low disease severity index as compared to Fusarium infected seedlings. A reduced level of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and carbonyl contents due to irreversible protein oxidation were observed in co-stressed seedlings as compared to Fusarium infected seedlings...
October 17, 2016: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788144/rna-seq-revealed-differences-in-transcriptomes-between-3adon-and-15adon-populations-of-fusarium-graminearum-in-vitro-and-in-planta
#16
Krishna D Puri, Changhui Yan, Yueqiang Leng, Shaobin Zhong
Fusarium graminearum is the major causal agent of Fusarium head blight (FHB) in barley and wheat in North America. The fungus not only causes yield loss of the crops but also produces harmful trichothecene mycotoxins [Deoxynivalenol (DON) and its derivatives-3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3ADON) and 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15ADON), and nivalenol (NIV)] that contaminate grains. Previous studies showed a dramatic increase of 3ADON-producing isolates with higher aggressiveness and DON production than the 15ADON-producing isolates in North America...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777035/the-phospholipase-c-fgplc1-is-involved-in-regulation-of-development-pathogenicity-and-stress-responses-in-fusarium-graminearum
#17
Qili Zhu, Ling Sun, Jiajie Lian, Xuli Gao, Lei Zhao, Mingyu Ding, Jing Li, Yuancun Liang
Phospholipase C (PLC) is an important phospholipid hydrolase that plays critical roles in various biological processes in eukaryotic cells. To elucidate the functions of PLC in morphogenesis and pathogenesis in Fusarium graminearum, deletion mutants were constructed of all six FgPLC genes identified in this study. Deletion of FgPLC1, but not the other five FgPLC genes, affected hyphal growth and conidiation. The FgPLC1 deletion mutant (Δplc1) also was defective in conidium germination and germ tube growth...
December 2016: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776114/wheat-fhb1-encodes-a-chimeric-lectin-with-agglutinin-domains-and-a-pore-forming-toxin-like-domain-conferring-resistance-to-fusarium-head-blight
#18
Nidhi Rawat, Michael O Pumphrey, Sixin Liu, Xiaofei Zhang, Vijay K Tiwari, Kaori Ando, Harold N Trick, William W Bockus, Eduard Akhunov, James A Anderson, Bikram S Gill
Fusarium head blight (FHB), caused by Fusarium graminearum, is a devastating disease of wheat and barley that leads to reduced yield and mycotoxin contamination of grain, making it unfit for human consumption. FHB is a global problem, with outbreaks in the United States, Canada, Europe, Asia and South America. In the United States alone, total direct and secondary economic losses from 1993 to 2001 owing to FHB were estimated at $7.67 billion. Fhb1 is the most consistently reported quantitative trait locus (QTL) for FHB resistance breeding...
October 24, 2016: Nature Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27763547/higher-fusarium-toxin-accumulation-in-grain-of-winter-triticale-lines-inoculated-with-fusarium-culmorum-as-compared-with-wheat
#19
Tomasz Góral, Halina Wiśniewska, Piotr Ochodzki, Dorota Walentyn-Góral
Resistance to Fusarium head blight in 32 winter triticale and 34 winter wheat accessions was evaluated. Triticale and wheat were sown in field experiments in two locations. At the time of flowering, heads were inoculated with three Fusarium culmorum isolates. Fusarium head blight index was scored and after the harvest percentage of Fusarium damaged kernels was assessed. Grain was analysed for type B trichothecenes (deoxynivalenol and derivatives, nivalenol) and zearalenone (ZEN) content. The average Fusarium head blight indexes were 28...
October 18, 2016: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755583/characterization-of-triticum-aestivum-abscisic-acid-receptors-and-a-possible-role-for-these-in-mediating-fusairum-head-blight-susceptibility-in-wheat
#20
Cameron S Gordon, Nandhakishore Rajagopalan, Eddy P Risseeuw, Marci Surpin, Fraser J Ball, Carla J Barber, Leann M Buhrow, Shawn M Clark, Jonathan E Page, Chris D Todd, Suzanne R Abrams, Michele C Loewen
Abscisic acid (ABA) is a well-characterized plant hormone, known to mediate developmental aspects as well as both abiotic and biotic stress responses. Notably, the exogenous application of ABA has recently been shown to increase susceptibility to the fungal pathogen Fusarium graminearum, the causative agent of Fusarium head blight (FHB) in wheat and other cereals. However roles and mechanisms associated with ABA's modulation of pathogen responses remain enigmatic. Here the identification of putative ABA receptors from available genomic databases for Triticum aestivum (bread wheat) and Brachypodium distachyon (a model cereal) are reported...
2016: PloS One
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