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fusarium wheat or triticum

Cathérine Pauline Herter, Erhard Ebmeyer, Sonja Kollers, Viktor Korzun, Willmar Lukas Leiser, Tobias Würschum, Thomas Miedaner
The dwarfing gene Rht24 on chromosome 6A acts in the wheat population 'Solitär × Bussard', considerably reducing plant height without increasing Fusarium head blight severity and delaying heading stage. The introduction of the Reduced height (Rht)-B1 and Rht-D1 semi-dwarfing genes led to remarkable increases in wheat yields during the Green Revolution. However, their utilization also brings about some unwanted characteristics, including the increased susceptibility to Fusarium head blight. Thus, Rht loci that hold the potential to reduce plant height in wheat without concomitantly increasing Fusarium head blight (FHB) susceptibility are urgently required...
February 21, 2018: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
Julia Weber, Marta Vaclavikova, Gerlinde Wiesenberger, Maximilian Haider, Christian Hametner, Johannes Fröhlich, Franz Berthiller, Gerhard Adam, Hannes Mikula, Philipp Fruhmann
The Fusarium metabolite culmorin (1) is receiving increased attention as an "emerging mycotoxin". It co-occurs with trichothecene mycotoxins and potentially influences their toxicity. Its ecological role and fate in plants is unknown. We synthesized sulfated and glucosylated culmorin conjugates as potential metabolites, which are expected to be formed in planta, and used them as reference compounds. An efficient procedure for the synthesis of culmorin sulfates was developed. Diastereo- and regioselective glucosylation of culmorin (1) was achieved by exploiting or preventing unexpected acyl transfer when using different glucosyl donors...
February 21, 2018: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
Esther Garcia-Cela, Elsa Kiaitsi, Michael Sulyok, Angel Medina, Naresh Magan
Zearalenone (ZEN) contamination from Fusarium graminearum colonization is particularly important in food and feed wheat, especially during post-harvest storage with legislative limits for both food and feed grain. Indicators of the relative risk from exceeding these limits would be useful. We examined the effect of different water activities (aw ; 0.95-0.90) and temperature (10-25 °C) in naturally contaminated and irradiated wheat grain, both inoculated with F. graminearum and stored for 15 days on (a) respiration rate; (b) dry matter losses (DML); (c) ZEN production and (d) relationship between DML and ZEN contamination relative to the EU legislative limits...
February 17, 2018: Toxins
Juan Palazzini, Pablo Roncallo, Renata Cantoro, Maria Chiotta, Nadia Yerkovich, Sofia Palacios, Viviana Echenique, Adriana Torres, María Ramírez, Petr Karlovsky, Sofia Chulze
Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a devastating disease that causes extensive yield and quality losses to wheat and other small cereal grains worldwide. Species within the Fusarium graminearum complex are the main pathogens associated with the disease, F. graminearum sensu stricto being the main pathogen in Argentina. Biocontrol can be used as part of an integrated pest management strategy. Phytohormones play a key role in the plant defense system and their production can be induced by antagonistic microorganisms...
February 20, 2018: Toxins
Chiara Biselli, Paolo Bagnaresi, Primetta Faccioli, Xinkun Hu, Margaret Balcerzak, Maria G Mattera, Zehong Yan, Therese Ouellet, Luigi Cattivelli, Giampiero Valè
Fusarium head blight (FHB), caused by the fungus Fusarium graminearum , represents one of the major wheat diseases worldwide, determining severe yield losses and reduction of grain quality due to the accumulation of mycotoxins. The molecular response associated with the wheat 2DL FHB resistance QTL was mined through a comprehensive transcriptomic analysis of the early response to F. graminearum infection, at 3 days post-inoculation, in spikelets and rachis. The analyses were conducted on two near isogenic lines (NILs) differing for the presence of the 2DL QTL (2-2618, resistant 2DL+ and 2-2890, susceptible null)...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Huiping Liu, Yi Dai, Dawn Chi, Shuai Huang, Haifeng Li, Yamei Duan, Wenguang Cao, Yong Gao, George Fedak, Jianmin Chen
Wheatgrass, Thinopyrum elongatum (2n = 2x = 14, EE), is an important wild relative of wheat with many excellent traits, including resistance to Fusarium head blight (FHB), that can be used for durum wheat improvement. Through hybridization of the durum cultivar "Langdon" with the amphiploid 8801 (AABBEE), a disomic alien addition line (2n = 30) with a pair of Th. elongatum 7E chromosomes was obtained and confirmed using chromosome-specific molecular markers of Th. elongatum and genomic in situ hybridization (GISH)...
February 9, 2018: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
Pan-Pan Lu, Tai-Fei Yu, Wei-Jun Zheng, Ming Chen, Yong-Bin Zhou, Jun Chen, You-Zhi Ma, Ya-Jun Xi, Zhao-Shi Xu
Bax inhibitor-1 (BI-1) is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident cell death suppressor evolutionarily conserved in eukaryotes. The ability of BI-1 to inhibit the biotic and abiotic stresses have been well-studied in Arabidopsis, while the functions of wheat BI-1 are largely unknown. In this study, the wheat BI-1 gene TaBI-1.1 was isolated by an RNA-seq analysis of Fusarium graminearum (Fg)-treated wheat. TaBI-1.1 expression was induced by a salicylic acid (SA) treatment and down-regulated by an abscisic acid (ABA) treatment...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Esther Garcia-Cela, Elisavet Kiaitsi, Angel Medina, Michael Sulyok, Rudolf Krska, Naresh Magan
Changes in environmental stress impact on secondary metabolite (SM) production profiles. Few studies have examined targeted SM production patterns in relation to interacting environmental conditions in stored cereals. The objectives were to examine the effect of water activity (aw; 0.95-0.90) x temperature (10-25 °C) on SM production on naturally contaminated stored wheat and that inoculated with Fusarium graminearum. Samples were analysed using Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) on (a) total number of known SMs, (b) their concentrations and (c) changes under environmental stress...
January 29, 2018: Toxins
Lanfei Zhao, Xin Ma, Peisen Su, Wenyang Ge, Hongyan Wu, Xiuxiu Guo, Anfei Li, Hongwei Wang, Lingrang Kong
TaUGT5: can reduce the proliferation and destruction of F. graminearum and enhance the ability of FHB resistance in wheat. Deoxynivalenol (DON) is one of the most important toxins produced by Fusarium species that enhances the spread of the pathogen in the host. As a defense, the UDP-glycosyltransferase (UGT) family has been deduced to transform DON into the less toxic form DON-3-O-glucoside (D3G), but the specific gene member in wheat that is responsible for Fusarium head blight (FHB) resistance has been little investigated and proved...
January 25, 2018: Plant Cell Reports
Valheria Castiblanco, Hilda Elena Castillo, Thomas Miedaner
Fusarium culmorum is one of the species causing Fusarium head blight (FHB) in cereals in Europe. We aimed to investigate the association between the nucleotide diversity of ten F. culmorum candidate genes and field ratings of aggressiveness in winter rye. A total of 100 F. culmorum isolates collected from natural infections were phenotyped for FHB at two locations and two years. Variance components for aggressiveness showed significant isolate and isolate-by-environment variance, as expected for quantitative host-pathogen interactions...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
Enrico Rolli, Laura Righetti, Gianni Galaverna, Michele Suman, Chiara Dall'Asta, Renato Bruni
A model was set up to elucidate the uptake, translocation and metabolic fate of zearalenone (ZEN) in durum wheat. After treatment with ZEN, roots and shoots were profiled with LC-HRMS. A comprehensive description of in planta ZEN biotransformation and a biotechnological evaluation of the model were obtained. Up to 200 µg ZEN were removed by each plantlet after 14 days. Most ZEN and its masked forms were retained in roots, while minimal amounts were detected in leaves. Sixty-two chromatographic peaks were obtained, resulting in 7 putative phase I and 18 putative phase II metabolites...
January 25, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Ersilia Alexa, Renata Maria Sumalan, Corina Danciu, Diana Obistioiu, Monica Negrea, Mariana-Atena Poiana, Cristian Rus, Isidora Radulov, Georgeta Pop, Cristina Dehelean
The current study aimed to investigate the chemical composition and the synergistic potential of two essential oils (EOs), as obtained from Salvia officinalis L. (SEO), and Thymus vulgaris L. (TEO). The antifungal potential was tested in vitro against Fusarium graminearum (Fg 06_17), the herbicidal effect was studied using weed seeds of Amaranthus retroflexus (ARET), Chenopodium album (CALB), Echinochloa crus-galli (EGAL), but also wheat seeds (WS) of the Lovrin variety and tomato seeds Saint-Pierre of the variety...
January 16, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Salme Timmusk, Gulaim Seisenbaeva, Lawrence Behers
A novel use of nanotitania (TNs) as agents in the nanointerface interaction between plants and colonization of growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) is presented. The effectiveness of PGPRs is related to the effectiveness of the technology used for their formulation. TNs produced by the Captigel patented SolGel approach, characterized by the transmission and scanning electron microscopy were used for formulation of the harsh environment PGPR strains. Changes in the biomass of wheat seedlings and in the density of single and double inoculants with and without TNs were monitored during two weeks of stress induced by drought salt and by the pathogen Fusarium culmorum...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Cecile Levasseur-Garcia
Each year, mycotoxins cause economic losses of several billion US dollars worldwide. Consequently, methods must be developed, for producers and cereal manufacturers, to detect these toxins and to comply with regulations. Chromatographic reference methods are time consuming and costly. Thus, alternative methods such as infrared spectroscopy are being increasingly developed to provide simple, rapid, and nondestructive methods to detect mycotoxins. This article reviews research conducted over the last eight years into the use of near-infrared and mid-infrared spectroscopy to monitor mycotoxins in corn, wheat, and barley...
January 10, 2018: Toxins
Yi He, Xu Zhang, Yu Zhang, Dawood Ahmad, Lei Wu, Peng Jiang, Hongxiang Ma Ma
Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a destructive fungal disease in wheat worldwide. Efforts have been carried out to combat this disease, and the PFT (pore-forming toxin-like) gene at the quantitative trait locus (QTL) Fhb1 was isolated and found to confer resistance to FHB in Sumai 3. In this study, we characterized PFT in 348 wheat accessions. Four haplotypes of PFT were identified. The wild haplotype of PFT had higher resistance than other haplotypes and explained 13.8% of phenotypic variation in FHB resistance by association analysis...
January 9, 2018: Phytopathology
Jongguk Lim, Giyoung Kim, Changyeun Mo, Kyoungmin Oh, Geonseob Kim, Hyeonheui Ham, Seongmin Kim, Moon S Kim
Fusarium is a common fungal disease in grains that reduces the yield of barley and wheat. In this study, a near infrared reflectance spectroscopic technique was used with a statistical prediction model to rapidly and non-destructively discriminate grain samples contaminated with Fusarium. Reflectance spectra were acquired from hulled barley, naked barley, and wheat samples contaminated with Fusarium using near infrared reflectance (NIR) spectroscopy with a wavelength range of 1175-2170 nm. After measurement, the samples were cultured in a medium to discriminate contaminated samples...
January 2, 2018: Sensors
Valentina Spanic, Tihana Marcek, Ivan Abicic, Bojan Sarkanj
Fusarium head blight is a destructive disease of cereals worldwide. The aim of this research was to study the effect of heavy Fusarium infection with Fusarium culmorum and biosynthesis of mycotoxins on different wheat varieties during malting by setting up field trials with control and Fusarium-inoculated treatments at the Agricultural Institute Osijek. The highest occurrence of Fusarium mycotoxins was expectedly recorded in susceptible variety in grain and malt (3247 and 1484 µg kg-1 for deoxynivalenol (DON), 735 and 1116 µg kg-1 for 3-acetyl deoxynivalenol (3-ADON), 37 and 233 µg kg-1 for zearalenone (ZEN), respectively)...
December 27, 2017: Toxins
Luca Piemontese, Maria Cristina Messia, Emanuele Marconi, Luisa Falasca, Rosanna Zivoli, Lucia Gambacorta, Giancarlo Perrone, Michele Solfrizzo
Deoxynivalenol (DON) is an important mycotoxin produced by several species of Fusarium. It occurs often in wheat grain and is frequently associated with significant levels of its modified form DON-3-glucoside (DON-3-Glc). Ozone (O3) is a powerful disinfectant and oxidant, classified as GRAS (Generally Recognised As Safe), that reacts easily with specific compounds including the mycotoxins aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, trichothecenes and zearalenone. It degrades DON in aqueous solution and can be effective for decontamination of grain...
December 26, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
Hengwei Qian, Juan Du, Mengyu Chi, Xiaomei Sun, Wenxing Liang, Jinguang Huang, Baodu Li
BACKGROUND: Fusarium graminearum is the main pathogen of Fusarium Head Blight (FHB), a worldwide plant disease and one of the most significant wheat diseases in China. Demethylation inhibitor (DMI) fungicides, such as tebuconazole (TEC), are widely used to control FHB, but long-term use leads to low efficacy against FHB. Earlier studies showed that DMI resistance is associated with the fungal sterol 14α-demethylase (CYP51) gene, and that point mutations in the CYP51 gene are the primary mechanism of resistance to DMI fungicides...
December 23, 2017: Pest Management Science
Florian Walder, Klaus Schlaeppi, Raphaël Wittwer, Alain Y Held, Susanne Vogelgsang, Marcel G A van der Heijden
Fusarium head blight, caused by fungi from the genus Fusarium, is one of the most harmful cereal diseases, resulting not only in severe yield losses but also in mycotoxin contaminated and health-threatening grains. Fusarium head blight is caused by a diverse set of species that have different host ranges, mycotoxin profiles and responses to agricultural practices. Thus, understanding the composition of Fusarium communities in the field is crucial for estimating their impact and also for the development of effective control measures...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
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