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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900601/rna-seq-expression-analysis-of-enteric-neuron-cells-with-rotenone-treatment-and-prediction-of-regulated-pathways
#1
Qiang Guan, Xijin Wang, Yanyan Jiang, Lijuan Zhao, Zhiyu Nie, Lingjing Jin
The enteric nervous system (ENS) is involved in the initiation and development of the pathological process of Parkinson's disease (PD). The effect of rotenone on the ENS may trigger the progression of PD through the central nervous system (CNS). In this study, we used RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis to examine differential expression genes (DEGs) and pathways induced by in vitro treatment of rotenone in the enteric nervous cells isolated from rats. We identified 45 up-regulated and 30 down-regulated genes...
November 30, 2016: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882698/the-cellular-and-molecular-basis-of-cnidarian-neurogenesis
#2
REVIEW
Fabian Rentzsch, Michael Layden, Michaël Manuel
Neurogenesis initiates during early development and it continues through later developmental stages and in adult animals to enable expansion, remodeling, and homeostasis of the nervous system. The generation of nerve cells has been analyzed in detail in few bilaterian model organisms, leaving open many questions about the evolution of this process. As the sister group to bilaterians, cnidarians occupy an informative phylogenetic position to address the early evolution of cellular and molecular aspects of neurogenesis and to understand common principles of neural development...
November 23, 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873129/expression-of-dixdc1-and-its-role-in-astrocyte-proliferation-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#3
Hongjian Lu, Rui Jiang, Xuelei Tao, Chengwei Duan, Jie Huang, Wei Huan, Yunfen He, Jianbin Ge, Jianbing Ren
DIX domain containing 1 (Dixdc1), a positive regulator of Wnt signaling pathway, is recently reported to play a role in the neurogenesis. However, the distribution and function of Dixdc1 in the central nervous system (CNS) after brain injury are still unclear. We used an acute traumatic brain injury (TBI) model in adult rats to investigate whether Dixdc1 is involved in CNS injury and repair. Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry showed a time-dependent up-regulation of Dixdc1 expression in ipsilateral cortex after TBI...
November 21, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871306/akirin2-is-essential-for-the-formation-of-the-cerebral-cortex
#4
Peter J Bosch, Leah C Fuller, Carolyn M Sleeth, Joshua A Weiner
BACKGROUND: The proper spatial and temporal regulation of dorsal telencephalic progenitor behavior is a prerequisite for the formation of the highly-organized, six-layered cerebral cortex. Premature differentiation of cells, disruption of cell cycle timing, excessive apoptosis, and/or incorrect neuronal migration signals can have devastating effects, resulting in a number of neurodevelopmental disorders involving microcephaly and/or lissencephaly. Though genes encoding many key players in cortical development have been identified, our understanding remains incomplete...
November 21, 2016: Neural Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868382/research-highlights
#5
(no author information available yet)
In this issue, we highlight work from Ikeda and colleagues identifying a linear ubiquitin E3 ligase in Drosophila, a report from Backman and colleagues on the development of a partial-wave spectroscopic microscopy technique for imaging live cellular nanoarchitecture, and a study from Inestrosa and colleagues showing that Wnt signalling increases glucose uptake and glycolytic rate in neurons.
November 2016: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819330/stathmin-like-4-is-critical-for-the-maintenance-of-neural-progenitor-cells-in-dorsal-midbrain-of-zebrafish-larvae
#6
Meng-Ju Lin, Shyh-Jye Lee
A delicate balance between proliferating and differentiating signals is necessary to ensure proper growth and neuronal specification. By studying the developing zebrafish brain, we observed a specific and dynamic expression of a microtubule destabilizer gene, stathmin-like 4 (stmn4), in the dorsal midbrain region. The expression of stmn4 was mutually exclusive to a pan-neuronal marker, elavl3 that indicates its role in regulating neurogenesis. We showed the knockdown or overexpression of stmn4 resulted in premature neuronal differentiation in dorsal midbrain...
November 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807401/alzheimer-disease-crosstalk-between-the-canonical-wnt-beta-catenin-pathway-and-ppars-alpha-and-gamma
#7
REVIEW
Alexandre Vallée, Yves Lecarpentier
The molecular mechanisms underlying the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are still not fully understood. In AD, Wnt/beta-catenin signaling has been shown to be downregulated while the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) gamma (mARN and protein) is upregulated. Certain neurodegenerative diseases share the same Wnt/beta-catenin/PPAR gamma profile, such as bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Conversely, other NDs share an opposite profile, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, multiple sclerosis, and Friedreich's ataxia...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27778356/inhibition-of-wnt-signaling-induces-amyloidogenic-processing-of-app-and-the-production-and-aggregation-of-a%C3%AE-42-peptides
#8
Cheril Tapia-Rojas, Patricia V Burgos, Nibaldo C Inestrosa
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disorder and the most frequent cause of dementia in the aged population. According to the amyloid hypothesis, the amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide plays a key role in the pathogenesis of AD. Aβ is generated from the amyloidogenic processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP) and can aggregate to form oligomers, which have been described as a major synaptotoxic agent in neurons. Dysfunction of Wnt signaling has been linked to increased Aβ formation; however, several other studies have argued against this possibility...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771721/leptin-regulates-tau-phosphorylation-through-wnt-signaling-pathway-in-pc12-cells
#9
Zijuan Zhang, Meixia Guo, Juan Zhang, Caixia Du, Ying Xing
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Leptin, an adipocytokine produced endogenously in the brain, is decreased in Alzheimer's disease(AD) and has also been shown to reduce Aβ levels in vitro and in vivo. Sets of evidence show that leptin reduces Aβ production and tau phosphorylation in neuronal cells and transgenic mice models of AD. Herein, we investigated the signaling pathway activated by leptin, to better understand its mechanism of action. METHODS: Western blotting was performed to assess the levels of phosphor-tau and Bax, RT-PCR to check the mRNA level of Bax...
October 24, 2016: Neuro-Signals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752079/dixdc1-contributes-to-psychiatric-susceptibility-by-regulating-dendritic-spine-and-glutamatergic-synapse-density-via-gsk3-and-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling
#10
P-M Martin, R E Stanley, A P Ross, A E Freitas, C E Moyer, A C Brumback, J Iafrati, K S Stapornwongkul, S Dominguez, S Kivimäe, K A Mulligan, M Pirooznia, W R McCombie, J B Potash, P P Zandi, S M Purcell, S J Sanders, Y Zuo, V S Sohal, B N R Cheyette
Mice lacking DIX domain containing-1 (DIXDC1), an intracellular Wnt/β-catenin signal pathway protein, have abnormal measures of anxiety, depression and social behavior. Pyramidal neurons in these animals' brains have reduced dendritic spines and glutamatergic synapses. Treatment with lithium or a glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) inhibitor corrects behavioral and neurodevelopmental phenotypes in these animals. Analysis of DIXDC1 in over 9000 cases of autism, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia reveals higher rates of rare inherited sequence-disrupting single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) in these individuals compared with psychiatrically unaffected controls...
October 18, 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733613/alcohol-regulates-bk-surface-expression-via-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling
#11
Cristina Velázquez-Marrero, Alexandra Burgos, José O García, Stephanie Palacio, Héctor G Marrero, Alexandra Bernardo, Juliana Pérez-Laspiur, Marla Rivera-Oliver, Garrett Seale, Steven N Treistman
: It has been suggested that drug tolerance represents a form of learning and memory, but this has not been experimentally established at the molecular level. We show that a component of alcohol molecular tolerance (channel internalization) from rat hippocampal neurons requires protein synthesis, in common with other forms of learning and memory. We identify β-catenin as a primary necessary protein. Alcohol increases β-catenin, and blocking accumulation of β-catenin blocks alcohol-induced internalization in these neurons...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27709799/neurotrophic-factor-%C3%AE-1-a-key-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-dependent-anti-proliferation-factor-and-erk-sox9-activated-inducer-of-embryonic-neural-stem-cell-differentiation-to-astrocytes-in-neurodevelopment
#12
Prabhuanand Selvaraj, Lan Xiao, Cheol Lee, Saravana R K Murthy, Niamh X Cawley, Malcolm Lane, Istvan Merchenthaler, Sohyun Ahn, Y Peng Loh
Embryonic neurodevelopment involves inhibition of proliferation of multipotent neural stem cells (NSCs) followed by differentiation into neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes to form the brain. We have identified a new neurotrophic factor, NF-α1, which inhibits proliferation and promotes differentiation of NSC/progenitors derived from E13.5 mouse cortex. Inhibition of proliferation of these cells was mediated through negatively regulating the Wnt pathway and decreasing β-catenin. NF-α1 induced differentiation of NSCs to astrocytes by enhancing Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (GFAP) expression through activating the ERK1/2-Sox9 signaling pathway...
October 6, 2016: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27709494/identification-of-noncanonical-wnt-receptors-required-for-wnt-3a-induced-early-differentiation-of-human-neural-stem-cells
#13
Nora Bengoa-Vergniory, Irantzu Gorroño-Etxebarria, Inmaculada López-Sánchez, Michele Marra, Pierluigi Di Chiaro, Robert Kypta
Wnt proteins preferentially activate either β-catenin-dependent or β-catenin-independent signals, but the activity of a particular Wnt also depends on cellular context and receptor availability. We previously reported that Wnt-3a induces neural differentiation of human embryonic stem cell-derived neural stem cells (NSCs) in a β-catenin-independent manner by activating a signal involving JNK and the AP-1 family member ATF-2. Here, we report the results of a gene silencing approach to identify the Wnt receptors that mediate this response to Wnt-3a...
October 5, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27703002/activation-of-wnt-signaling-in-cortical-neurons-enhances-glucose-utilization-through-glycolysis
#14
Pedro Cisternas, Paulina Salazar, Carmen Silva-Alvarez, L Felipe Barros, Nibaldo C Inestrosa
The Wnt signaling pathway is critical for a number of functions in the central nervous system, including regulation of the synaptic cleft structure and neuroprotection against injury. Deregulation of Wnt signaling has been associated with several brain pathologies, including Alzheimer`s disease. In recent years, it has been suggested that the Wnt pathway might act as a central integrator of metabolic signals from peripheral organs to the brain, which would represent a new role for Wnt signaling in cell metabolism...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27699411/rapid-dynamic-activation-of-m%C3%A3-ller-glial-stem-cell-responses-in-zebrafish
#15
Christopher J Sifuentes, Jung-Woong Kim, Anand Swaroop, Pamela A Raymond
Purpose: Zebrafish neurons regenerate from Müller glia following retinal lesions. Genes and signaling pathways important for retinal regeneration in zebrafish have been described, but our understanding of how Müller glial stem cell properties are regulated is incomplete. Mammalian Müller glia possess a latent neurogenic capacity that might be enhanced in regenerative therapies to treat degenerative retinal diseases. Methods: To identify transcriptional changes associated with stem cell properties in zebrafish Müller glia, we performed a comparative transcriptome analysis from isolated cells at 8 and 16 hours following an acute photic lesion, prior to the asymmetric division that produces retinal progenitors...
October 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27694995/chd8-mediates-cortical-neurogenesis-via-transcriptional-regulation-of-cell-cycle-and-wnt-signaling
#16
Omer Durak, Fan Gao, Yea Jin Kaeser-Woo, Richard Rueda, Anthony J Martorell, Alexi Nott, Carol Y Liu, L Ashley Watson, Li-Huei Tsai
De novo mutations in CHD8 are strongly associated with autism spectrum disorder, but the basic biology of CHD8 remains poorly understood. Here we report that Chd8 knockdown during cortical development results in defective neural progenitor proliferation and differentiation that ultimately manifests in abnormal neuronal morphology and behaviors in adult mice. Transcriptome analysis revealed that while Chd8 stimulates the transcription of cell cycle genes, it also precludes the induction of neural-specific genes by regulating the expression of PRC2 complex components...
November 2016: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27692691/targeted-methylation-sequencing-reveals-dysregulated-wnt-signaling-in-parkinson-disease
#17
Lusi Zhang, Jie Deng, Qian Pan, Yan Zhan, Jian-Bing Fan, Kun Zhang, Zhuohua Zhang
Parkinson disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative movement disorder. Both environmental and genetic factors play important roles in PD etiology. A number of environmental toxins cause parkinsonism in human and animal models. Genetic studies of rare early onset familial PD cases resulted in identification of disease-linked mutations in multiple genes. Nevertheless, the potential interaction between environment and genetics in PD pathogenesis remains largely unknown. We hypothesized that environmental factors induce abnormal epigenetic regulation that is involved in the pathogenesis of both familial and sporadic PD...
May 13, 2016: Journal of Genetics and Genomics, Yi Chuan Xue Bao
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27688915/wnt5a-increases-the-glycolytic-rate-and-the-activity-of-the-pentose-phosphate-pathway-in-cortical-neurons
#18
Pedro Cisternas, Paulina Salazar, Carmen Silva-Álvarez, L Felipe Barros, Nibaldo C Inestrosa
In the last few years, several reports have proposed that Wnt signaling is a general metabolic regulator, suggesting a role for this pathway in the control of metabolic flux. Wnt signaling is critical for several neuronal functions, but little is known about the correlation between this pathway and energy metabolism. The brain has a high demand for glucose, which is mainly used for energy production. Neurons use energy for highly specific processes that require a high energy level, such as maintaining the electrical potential and synthesizing neurotransmitters...
2016: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27683908/inhibition-of-yap-taz-activity-in-spinal-cord-suppresses-neuropathic-pain
#19
Ni Xu, Ming-Zheng Wu, Xue-Ting Deng, Ping-Chuan Ma, Ze-Hua Li, Lei Liang, Meng-Fan Xia, Dong Cui, Duan-Duan He, Yuan Zong, Zhong Xie, Xue-Jun Song
UNLABELLED: Neuropathic pain, often caused by nerve injury, is a major clinical challenge. Mechanisms that underlie neuropathic pain remain elusive and effective medications are limited. Numerous investigations of pain mechanisms have focused on alterations and phenotypic switches of the nociceptive transmitters and modulators, as well as on their receptors and downstream signaling pathways that have already exerted roles in the pain processes of mature nervous systems. We have demonstrated recently that nerve injury may elicit neuronal alterations that recapitulate events occurring during development...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27681429/wnt-regulates-proliferation-and-neurogenic-potential-of-m%C3%A3-ller-glial-cells-via-a-lin28-let-7-mirna-dependent-pathway-in-adult-mammalian-retinas
#20
Kai Yao, Suo Qiu, Lin Tian, William D Snider, John G Flannery, David V Schaffer, Bo Chen
In cold-blooded vertebrates such as zebrafish, Müller glial cells (MGs) readily proliferate to replenish lost retinal neurons. In mammals, however, MGs lack regenerative capability as they do not spontaneously re-enter the cell cycle unless the retina is injured. Here, we show that gene transfer of β-catenin in adult mouse retinas activates Wnt signaling and MG proliferation without retinal injury. Upstream of Wnt, deletion of GSK3β stabilizes β-catenin and activates MG proliferation. Downstream of Wnt, β-catenin binds to the Lin28 promoter and activates transcription...
September 27, 2016: Cell Reports
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