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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336212/simulated-microgravity-impairs-cardiac-autonomic-neurogenesis-from-neural-crest-cells
#1
Konstantinos E Hatzistergos, Zhijie Jiang, Krystalenia Valasaki, Lauro M Takeuchi, Wayne Balkan, Preethi Atluri, Dieter Saur, Barbara Seidler, Nicholas Tsinoremas, Darcy DiFede, Joshua M Hare
Microgravity-induced alterations in the autonomic nervous system (ANS) contribute to derangements in both the mechanical and electrophysiologic function of the cardiovascular system, leading to severe symptoms in humans following space travel. Because the ANS forms embryonically from neural crest progenitors (NCs), we hypothesized that microgravity can impair NC derived cardiac structures. Accordingly, we conducted in vitro simulated microgravity experiments employing NC genetic lineage-tracing in mice with cKitCreERT2/+, Isl1nLacZ and Wnt1-Cre reporter alleles...
January 16, 2018: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335507/highly-conserved-molecular-pathways-including-wnt-signaling-promote-functional-recovery-from-spinal-cord-injury-in-lampreys
#2
Paige E Herman, Angelos Papatheodorou, Stephanie A Bryant, Courtney K M Waterbury, Joseph R Herdy, Anthony A Arcese, Joseph D Buxbaum, Jeramiah J Smith, Jennifer R Morgan, Ona Bloom
In mammals, spinal cord injury (SCI) leads to dramatic losses in neurons and synaptic connections, and consequently function. Unlike mammals, lampreys are vertebrates that undergo spontaneous regeneration and achieve functional recovery after SCI. Therefore our goal was to determine the complete transcriptional responses that occur after SCI in lampreys and to identify deeply conserved pathways that promote regeneration. We performed RNA-Seq on lamprey spinal cord and brain throughout the course of functional recovery...
January 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327199/glycogen-synthase-kinase-3%C3%AE-regulates-equilibrium-between-neurogenesis-and-gliogenesis-in-rat-model-of-parkinson-s-disease-a-crosstalk-with-wnt-and-notch-signaling
#3
Sonu Singh, Akanksha Mishra, Sachi Bharti, Virendra Tiwari, Jitendra Singh, Parul, Shubha Shukla
Neurogenesis involves generation of functional newborn neurons from neural stem cells (NSCs). Insufficient formation or accelerated degeneration of newborn neurons may contribute to the severity of motor/nonmotor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the functional role of adult neurogenesis in PD is yet not explored and whether glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) affects multiple steps of adult neurogenesis in PD is still unknown. We investigated the possible underlying molecular mechanism of impaired adult neurogenesis associated with PD...
January 11, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326891/role-of-exercise-on-molecular-mechanisms-in-the-regulation-of-antidepressant-effects
#4
REVIEW
Hyo-Jun Lee, Seung-Soo Baek
Regular exercise reduces depressive-like behavior activation. In this study, we look for exact roles of exercise on molecular and neuronal mechanisms for antidepressant action by studying the hippocampal neuroplasticity and proliferation. Increased hippocampal neurogenesis with exercise has potential significance for depression. Exercise promotes brain health in the molecular levels in the hippocampus and also affects behavior in a similar way to chronic antidepressant treatment. Wingless (Wnt) and frizzled signaling system plays an important role in cell proliferation, growth, and differentiation during development...
December 2017: Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321317/the-wnt-signaling-pathway-is-differentially-expressed-during-the-bovine-herpesvirus-1-latency-reactivation-cycle-evidence-that-two-protein-kinases-associated-with-neuronal-survival-akt3-and-bone-morphogenetic-protein-receptor-2-are-expressed-at-higher-levels
#5
Aspen Workman, Liqian Zhu, Brittney N Keel, Timothy P L Smith, Clinton Jones
Sensory neurons in trigeminal ganglia (TG) of calves latently infected with bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) abundantly express latency-related (LR) gene products, including a protein (ORF2) and two micro-RNAs. Recent studies in mouse neuroblastoma cells (Neuro-2A) demonstrated ORF2 interacts with β-catenin and a β-catenin coactivator, high mobility group AT-hook 1 protein (HMGA1), which correlates with increased β-catenin dependent transcription and cell survival. β-catenin and HMGA1 are readily detected in a subset of latently infected TG neurons, but not TG neurons from uninfected calves or reactivation from latency...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309927/glycogen-synthase-kinases-moonlighting-proteins-with-theranostic-potential-in-cancer
#6
REVIEW
Siddavaram Nagini, Josephraj Sophia, Rajakishore Mishra
Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3), a serine/threonine kinase is an archetypal multifunctional moonlighting protein involved in diverse cellular processes including metabolism, insulin signaling, proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, neuronal function and embryonic development. The two known isoforms, GSK-3α and GSK-3β that undergo activation/inactivation by post-translational, site-specific phosphorylation incorporate a vast number of substrates in their repertoire. Dysregulation of GSK-3 has been linked to diverse disease entities including cancer...
January 5, 2018: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307599/histone-deacetylase-inhibition-mediated-neuronal-differentiation-via-the-wnt-signaling-pathway-in-human-adipose-tissue-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#7
Sujeong Jang, Han-Seong Jeong
Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors, which have an effect on cell homeostasis, cell cycle progression, and terminal differentiation, can act to promote self-renewal and enhance directed differentiation of several lineages of stem cells. However, the roles of HDAC inhibitors on neurogenic differentiation and the mechanisms of Wnt signaling following treatment with HDAC inhibitors remain unclear in stem cells. We hypothesized that HDAC inhibitors regulate downstream Wnt signaling and neurogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells...
January 4, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305963/pten-silencing-enhances-neuronal-proliferation-and-differentiation-by-activating-pi3k-akt-gsk3%C3%AE-pathway-in-vitro
#8
Zhiwen Song, Xiu Han, Liming Shen, Hongjun Zou, Bin Zhang, Jinbo Liu, Aihua Gong
The failure of neuronal proliferation and differentiation is a major obstacle for neural repair and regeneration after traumatic central nervous system (CNS) injury. PTEN acts as an intrinsic brake on the neuronal cells, but its roles and mechanism still remain to be clarified. Herein, for the first time we confirmed that PTEN had a dual effect on the neuronal cells in vitro. Firstly, we found that PTEN knockdown significantly promoted cell proliferation and differentiation. Then, PTEN knockdown activated PI3K/Akt and Wnt/β-catenin pathways in vitro...
January 3, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303786/aerobic-glycolysis-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-and-huntington-s-disease
#9
REVIEW
Alexandre Vallée, Yves Lecarpentier, Rémy Guillevin, Jean-Noël Vallée
Neurodegenerative cells are the sites of numerous metabolic and energetic abnormalities with abnormalities in energy production. Energy is the primary determinant of neuronal viability. In neurodegenerative cells, metabolic enzymes are modified by the dysregulation of the canonical WNT/β-catenin pathway. In amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and Huntington's disease (HD), WNT/β-catenin pathway is upregulated. We focused this review on the hypothesis of aerobic glycolysis stimulated by the upregulation of WNT/β-catenin pathway in ALS and HD...
January 5, 2018: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238462/mechanisms-of-spinal-cord-injury-regeneration-in-zebrafish-a-systematic-review
#10
REVIEW
Zeynab Noorimotlagh, Mahla Babaie, Mahdi Safdarian, Tahereh Ghadiri, Vafa Rahimi-Movaghar
Objectives: To determine the molecular and cellular mechanisms of spinal cord regeneration in zebrafish. Materials and Methods: Medical databases of PubMed and Scopus were searched with following key words: Zebrafish; spinal cord injuries; regeneration; recovery of function. The map of mechanisms was performed using Xmind software. Results: Wnt/ß-catenin signaling, L1.1, L1.2, Major vault protein (MVP), contactin-2 and High mobility group box1 (HMGB1) had positive promoting effects on axonal re-growth while Ptena had an inhibitory effect...
December 2017: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238079/dorsal-root-ganglion-neurons-regulate-the-transcriptional-and-translational-programs-of-osteoblast-differentiation-in-a-microfluidic-platform
#11
Diana Isabel Silva, Bruno Paiva Dos Santos, Jacques Leng, Hugo Oliveira, Joëlle Amédée
Innervation by the sensory nervous system plays a key role in skeletal development and in orchestration of bone remodeling and regeneration. However, it is unclear how and in which bone cells can sensory nerves act to control these processes. Here, we show a microfluidic coculture system comprising dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) that more faithfully represents the in vivo scenario of bone sensory innervation. We report that DRG neurons promote the osteogenic differentiation capacity of MSCs, by mediating the increase of alkaline phosphatase activity and the upregulation of osteoblast-specific genes...
December 13, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229768/revealing-age-related-changes-of-adult-hippocampal-neurogenesis-using-mathematical-models
#12
Frederik Ziebell, Sascha Dehler, Ana Martin-Villalba, Anna Marciniak-Czochra
New neurons are continuously generated in the dentate gyrus of the adult hippocampus. This continuous supply of newborn neurons is important to modulate cognitive functions. Yet, the number of newborn neurons declines with age. Increasing Wnt activity upon loss of the Dickkopf-1 can counteract both the decline of newborn neurons and the age-related cognitive decline. However, the precise cellular changes underlying the age-related decline or its rescue are fundamentally not understood. The present study combines a mathematical model and experimental data to address features controlling neural stem cell (NSC) dynamics...
December 11, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207049/coordinated-microrna-mrna-expression-profiles-reveal-a-putative-mechanism-of-corneal-epithelial-cell-transdifferentiation-from-skin-epidermal-stem-cells
#13
Yanjie Guo, Xiya Ma, Weini Wu, Mingyan Shi, Junlong Ma, Yaping Zhang, Erkang Zhao, Xueyi Yang
Skin epidermal stem cells (SESCs), which share a single origin with corneal epithelial cells (CECs), are considered to be one of the most ideal seed cells for the construction of tissue engineered corneas. However, the mechanism underlying the transdifferentiation of SESCs to CECs has not been fully elucidated. In the present study, to identify critical microRNAs (miRNAs/miRs) and genes that regulate the transdifferentiation of SESCs to CECs, SESCs and CECs were collected from sheep and used for small RNA sequencing and mRNA microarray analyses...
December 1, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202785/anti-aggregant-tau-mutant-promotes-neurogenesis
#14
Maria Joseph, Marta Anglada-Huguet, Katharina Paesler, Eckhard Mandelkow, Eva-Maria Mandelkow
BACKGROUND: The microtubule-associated protein Tau plays a role in neurodegeneration as well as neurogenesis. Previous work has shown that the expression of the pro-aggregant mutant Tau repeat domain causes strong aggregation and pronounced neuronal loss in the hippocampus whereas the anti-aggregant form has no deleterious effects. These two proteins differ mainly in their propensity to form ß structure and hence to aggregate. METHODS: To elucidate the basis of these contrasting effects, we analyzed organotypic hippocampal slice cultures (OHSCs) from transgenic mice expressing the repeat domain (RD) of Tau with the anti-aggregant mutation (TauRDΔKPP) and compared them with slices containing pro-aggregant TauRDΔK...
December 4, 2017: Molecular Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198828/altered-differentiation-potential-of-gaucher-s-disease-ipsc-neuronal-progenitors-due-to-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-downregulation
#15
Ola Awad, Leelamma M Panicker, Rania M Deranieh, Manasa P Srikanth, Robert A Brown, Antanina Voit, Tejasvi Peesay, Tea Soon Park, Elias T Zambidis, Ricardo A Feldman
Gaucher's disease (GD) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the GBA1 gene, which encodes acid β-glucocerebrosidase (GCase). Severe GBA1 mutations cause neuropathology that manifests soon after birth, suggesting that GCase deficiency interferes with neuronal development. We found that neuronopathic GD induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived neuronal progenitor cells (NPCs) exhibit developmental defects due to downregulation of canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling and that GD iPSCs' ability to differentiate to dopaminergic (DA) neurons was strikingly reduced due to early loss of DA progenitors...
November 27, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196797/sorting-nexin-3-mutation-impairs-development-and-neuronal-function-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#16
Neide Vieira, Carlos Bessa, Ana J Rodrigues, Paulo Marques, Fung-Yi Chan, Ana Xavier de Carvalho, Margarida Correia-Neves, Nuno Sousa
The sorting nexins family of proteins (SNXs) plays pleiotropic functions in protein trafficking and intracellular signaling and has been associated with several disorders, namely Alzheimer's disease and Down's syndrome. Despite the growing association of SNXs with neurodegeneration, not much is known about their function in the nervous system. The aim of this work was to use the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans that encodes in its genome eight SNXs orthologs, to dissect the role of distinct SNXs, particularly in the nervous system...
December 1, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196444/temporal-analysis-of-hippocampal-ca3-gene-co-expression-networks-in-a-rat-model-of-febrile-seizures
#17
Hatylas Azevedo, Nathália Amato Khaled, Paula Santos, Fernanda Bernardi Bertonha, Carlos Alberto Moreira-Filho
Complex febrile seizures during infancy constitute an important risk factor for epilepsy development. However, little is known about the alterations induced by febrile seizures that may turn the brain susceptible to epileptic activity. In this context, the use of animal models of hyperthermic seizures (HS) could allow the temporal analysis of brain molecular changes that arise after febrile seizures. Here, we investigated temporal changes in hippocampal gene co-expression networks during the development of rats submitted to HS...
November 30, 2017: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196093/sonic-hedgehog-regulates-the-pathfinding-of-descending-serotonergic-axons-in-hindbrain-in-collaboration-with-wnt5a-and-secreted-frizzled-related-protein-1
#18
Jie Xie, Teng Zhao, Yaobo Liu
Previous studies have demonstrated that both Wnt5a and Sonic hedgehog (Shh) are involved in regulating the pathfinding of descending serotonergic (5-HT, 5-hydroxytryptamine) axons in an opposite manner in the brainstem. Shh and Wnt signaling pathways interact to guide post-crossing commissural axons, where Shh acts as a repellent directly and shaping the Wnt gradient indirectly by regulating the gradient expression of the frizzled-related protein 1 (Sfrp1). Whether such a mechanism functions in descending 5-HT axon guidance remains unknown...
November 28, 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192226/transcriptomics-reveal-an-integrative-role-for-maternal-thyroid-hormones-during-zebrafish-embryogenesis
#19
Nadia Silva, Bruno Louro, Marlene Trindade, Deborah M Power, Marco A Campinho
Thyroid hormones (THs) are essential for embryonic brain development but the genetic mechanisms involved in the action of maternal THs (MTHs) are still largely unknown. As the basis for understanding the underlying genetic mechanisms of MTHs regulation we used an established zebrafish monocarboxylic acid transporter 8 (MCT8) knock-down model and characterised the transcriptome in 25hpf zebrafish embryos. Subsequent mapping of differentially expressed genes using Reactome pathway analysis together with in situ expression analysis and immunohistochemistry revealed the genetic networks and cells under MTHs regulation during zebrafish embryogenesis...
November 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180410/smek1-2-is-a-nuclear-chaperone-and-cofactor-for-cleaved-wnt-receptor-ryk-regulating-cortical-neurogenesis
#20
Wen-Hsuan Chang, Si Ho Choi, Byoung-San Moon, Mingyang Cai, Jungmook Lyu, Jinlun Bai, Fan Gao, Ibrahim Hajjali, Zhongfang Zhao, Daniel B Campbell, Leslie P Weiner, Wange Lu
The receptor-like tyrosine kinase (Ryk), a Wnt receptor, is important for cell fate determination during corticogenesis. During neuronal differentiation, the Ryk intracellular domain (ICD) is cleaved. Cleavage of Ryk and nuclear translocation of Ryk-ICD are required for neuronal differentiation. However, the mechanism of translocation and how it regulates neuronal differentiation remain unclear. Here, we identified Smek1 and Smek2 as Ryk-ICD partners that regulate its nuclear localization and function together with Ryk-ICD in the nucleus through chromatin recruitment and gene transcription regulation...
November 27, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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