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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926578/tet-mediated-dna-hydroxymethylation-regulates-retinal-neurogenesis-by-modulating-cell-extrinsic-signaling-pathways
#1
Pawat Seritrakul, Jeffrey M Gross
DNA hydroxymethylation has recently been shown to play critical roles in regulating gene expression and terminal differentiation events in a variety of developmental contexts. However, little is known about its function during eye development. Methylcytosine dioxygenases of the Tet family convert 5-methylcytosine (5mC) to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), an epigenetic mark thought to serve as a precursor for DNA demethylation and as a stable mark in neurons. Here, we report a requirement for Tet activity during zebrafish retinal neurogenesis...
September 19, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899900/ret-receptor-tyrosine-kinase-sustains-proliferation-and-tissue-maturation-in-intestinal-epithelia
#2
Daniel Perea, Jordi Guiu, Bruno Hudry, Chrysoula Konstantinidou, Alexandra Milona, Dafni Hadjieconomou, Thomas Carroll, Nina Hoyer, Dipa Natarajan, Jukka Kallijärvi, James A Walker, Peter Soba, Nikhil Thapar, Alan J Burns, Kim B Jensen, Irene Miguel-Aliaga
Expression of the Ret receptor tyrosine kinase is a defining feature of enteric neurons. Its importance is underscored by the effects of its mutation in Hirschsprung disease, leading to absence of gut innervation and severe gastrointestinal symptoms. We report a new and physiologically significant site of Ret expression in the intestine: the intestinal epithelium. Experiments in Drosophila indicate that Ret is expressed both by enteric neurons and adult intestinal epithelial progenitors, which require Ret to sustain their proliferation...
September 12, 2017: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879201/wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-pathway-and-epigenetic-mechanisms-regulate-the-pitt-hopkins-syndrome-and-schizophrenia-risk-gene-tcf4
#3
Krista M Hennig, Daniel M Fass, Wen-Ning Zhao, Steven D Sheridan, Ting Fu, Serkan Erdin, Alexei Stortchevoi, Diane Lucente, Jannine D Cody, David Sweetser, James F Gusella, Michael E Talkowski, Stephen J Haggarty
Genetic variation within the transcription factor TCF4 locus can cause the intellectual disability and developmental disorder Pitt-Hopkins syndrome (PTHS), whereas single-nucleotide polymorphisms within noncoding regions are associated with schizophrenia. These genetic findings position TCF4 as a link between transcription and cognition; however, the neurobiology of TCF4 remains poorly understood. Here, we quantitated multiple distinct TCF4 transcript levels in human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neural progenitors and differentiated neurons, and PTHS patient fibroblasts...
July 2017: Molecular Neuropsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858624/ligand-selective-wnt-receptor-complexes-in-cns-blood-vessels-reck-and-gpr124-plugged-in
#4
Harald J Junge
CNS angiogenesis and blood-brain barrier integrity are controlled by the canonical Wnt pathway. In this issue of Neuron, Cho et al. (2017) use advanced mouse genetics and biochemical experiments to unravel the ligand-specific association of membrane proteins GPR124 and RECK with Wnt receptor complexes.
August 30, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852096/a-multi-trap-microfluidic-chip-enabling-longitudinal-studies-of-nerve-regeneration-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#5
Sertan Kutal Gokce, Evan Marley Hegarty, Sudip Mondal, Peisen Zhao, Navid Ghorashian, Massimo A Hilliard, Adela Ben-Yakar
Several sophisticated microfluidic devices have recently been proposed for femtosecond laser axotomy in the nematode C. elegans for immobilization of the animals for surgery to overcome time-consuming and labor-intensive manual processes. However, nerve regeneration studies require long-term recovery of the animals and multiple imaging sessions to observe the regeneration capabilities of their axons post-injury. Here we present a simple, multi-trap device, consisting of a single PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane) layer, which can immobilize up to 20 animals at the favorable orientation for optical access needed for precise laser surgery and high-resolution imaging...
August 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837622/lef1-dependent-hypothalamic-neurogenesis-inhibits-anxiety
#6
Yuanyuan Xie, Dan Kaufmann, Matthew J Moulton, Samin Panahi, John A Gaynes, Harrison N Watters, Dingxi Zhou, Hai-Hui Xue, Camille M Fung, Edward M Levine, Anthea Letsou, K C Brennan, Richard I Dorsky
While innate behaviors are conserved throughout the animal kingdom, it is unknown whether common signaling pathways regulate the development of neuronal populations mediating these behaviors in diverse organisms. Here, we demonstrate that the Wnt/ß-catenin effector Lef1 is required for the differentiation of anxiolytic hypothalamic neurons in zebrafish and mice, although the identity of Lef1-dependent genes and neurons differ between these 2 species. We further show that zebrafish and Drosophila have common Lef1-dependent gene expression in their respective neuroendocrine organs, consistent with a conserved pathway that has diverged in the mouse...
August 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821654/wnt9a-can-influence-cell-fates-and-neural-connectivity-across-the-radial-axis-of-the-developing-cochlea
#7
Vidhya Munnamalai, Ulrike J Sienknecht, R Keith Duncan, M Katie Scott, Ankita Thawani, Kristen N Fantetti, Nadia M Atallah, Deborah J Biesemeier, Kuhn H Song, Kirsten Luethy, Eric Traub, Donna M Fekete
Vertebrate hearing organs manifest cellular asymmetries across the radial axis that underlie afferent versus efferent circuits between the inner ear and the brain. Thus, understanding the molecular control of patterning across this axis has important functional implications. Radial axis patterning begins before the cells become postmitotic, and is likely linked to the onset of asymmetric expression of secreted factors adjacent to the sensory primordium. This study explores one such asymmetrically-expressed gene, Wnt9a, that becomes restricted to the neural edge of the avian auditory organ, the basilar papilla, by embryonic day (E) 5...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772167/glycogen-synthase-kinase-3-inhibition-sensitizes-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-to-thiol-containing-antioxidants-induced-apoptosis
#8
Chengyi Tu, Robert Xu, Meghana Koleti, Janet Zoldan
Inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) is an extensively used strategy to activate Wnt pathway for pluripotent stem cell (PSC) differentiation. However, the effects of such inhibition on PSCs, besides upregulating the Wnt pathway, have rarely been investigated despite that GSK3 is broadly involved in other cellular activities such as insulin signaling and cell growth/survival regulation. Here we describe a previously unknown synergistic effect between GSK3 inhibition (e.g., Chir99021 and LY2090314) and various normally non-toxic thiol-containing antioxidants (e...
August 2017: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754619/celecoxib-induced-inhibition-of-neurogenesis-in-fetal-frontal-cortex-is-attenuated-by-curcumin-via-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-pathway
#9
Rong Wang, Shaoqi Tian, Xu Yang, Jiangjun Liu, Yuanhe Wang, Kang Sun
Celecoxib is widely used in pregnant women but its influence on fetal brain neurogenesis is largely unknown. The objective of the present study was to examine the influence of celecoxib to fetal brain development and to investigate whether curcumin could ameliorate celecoxib-induced neurotoxicity. Pregnant mice, cultured neurons and cultured neural progenitor cells were all treated with celecoxib with or without curcumin. The change in proliferation, differentiation and the activity of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway were then assessed...
July 25, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744803/xanthoceraside-modulates-neurogenesis-to-ameliorate-cognitive-impairment-in-app-ps1-transgenic-mice
#10
Lin Zhu, Tianyan Chi, Xuemei Zhao, Lei Yang, Shijie Song, Qiaohui Lu, Xuefei Ji, Peng Liu, Lihua Wang, Libo Zou
Neuronal loss is reported to be an important pathological process in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Neurogenesis is a process of generation of new neurons to fill the neuronal loss. Xanthoceraside has been shown to attenuate the cognitive deficits in several AD animal models. However, little is known about the effect of xanthoceraside on neurogenesis in APP/PS1 transgenic mice. Thus, in this study, we investigated whether xanthoceraside can ameliorate learning and memory impairment by promoting NSCs proliferation and neuronal differentiation...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736361/-effect-of-nucleolin-silencing-on-differentiation-of-rat-neural-stem-cells-in-vitro-and-the-molecular-mechanism
#11
Chong-Feng Chen, Huai-Cai Yang, Guo-Sheng Liu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of nucleolin silencing on the differentiation of rat neural stem cells (NSCs) and the role of Wnt signaling pathway in mediating such effect. METHODS: Adenovirus vectors expressing small interfering RNA (siRNA) against nucleolin were constructed, verified, and packaged in HEK293A cells. The adenovirus was then transfected into NSCs isolated from neonatal SD rats and the differentiation of the NSCs was examined by detecting the expressions of neuron specific encloase (NSE) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) using immunocytochemistry...
July 20, 2017: Nan Fang Yi Ke da Xue Xue Bao, Journal of Southern Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735706/amniotic-fluid-transcriptomics-reflects-novel-disease-mechanisms-in-fetuses-with-myelomeningocele
#12
Tomo Tarui, Aimee Kim, Alan Flake, Lauren McClain, John D Stratigis, Inbar Fried, Rebecca Newman, Donna K Slonim, Diana W Bianchi
BACKGROUND: Cell-free RNA in amniotic fluid supernatant reflects developmental changes in gene expression in the living fetus, which includes genes that are specific to the central nervous system. Although it has been previously shown that central nervous system-specific transcripts are present in amniotic fluid supernatant, it is not known whether changes in the amniotic fluid supernatant transcriptome reflect the specific pathophysiologic condition of fetal central nervous system disorders...
July 20, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734031/downregulation-of-dec1-contributes-to-the-neurotoxicity-induced-by-mpp-by-suppressing-pi3k-akt-gsk3%C3%AE-pathway
#13
Zhu Zhu, Yu-Wen Wang, Ding-Hao Ge, Ming Lu, Wei Liu, Jing Xiong, Gang Hu, Xiao-Ping Li, Jian Yang
AIM: Differentiated embryonic chondrocyte gene 1 (DEC1) is involved in the neuronal differentiation and development. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of DEC1 in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPP(+) )-induced PD model. METHODS: The location of DEC1 and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive neurons were detected by immunofluorescence. 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced mouse subacute model of PD was established to evaluate the change of DEC1 expression in midbrain...
September 2017: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729735/the-wnt-receptor-ryk-is-a-negative-regulator-of-mammalian-dendrite-morphogenesis
#14
Vanessa Lanoue, Michael Langford, Amanda White, Kai Sempert, Lily Fogg, Helen M Cooper
The unique dendritic architecture of a given neuronal subtype determines its synaptic connectivity and ability to integrate into functional neuronal networks. It is now clear that abnormal dendritic structure is associated with neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. Currently, however, the nature of the extrinsic factors that limit dendritic growth and branching within predetermined boundaries in the mammalian brain is poorly understood. Here we identify the Wnt receptor Ryk as a novel negative regulator of dendritic arborisation...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718066/the-preventive-effects-of-taurine-on-neural-tube-defects-through-the-wnt-pcp-jnk-dependent-pathway
#15
Qinghua Zhang, Yang Liu, Hui Wang, Li Ma, Hechun Xia, Jianguo Niu, Tao Sun, Li Zhang
The aim of this study was to clarify the protective role of taurine in neuronal apoptosis and the role of the Wnt/PCP-Jnk pathway in mediating the preventive effects of taurine on neural tube defects (NTDs). HT-22 cells (a hippocampal neuron cell line) were divided into a control group, a glutamate-induced apoptosis group, and glutamate (4.0 mmol/L) plus low-dose taurine (L; 0.5 mmol/L) and high-dose taurine (H; 2.0 mmol/L) groups. The MTT assay was used to monitor cell proliferation and cell survival. Immunofluorescence and Western blot analyses were used to determine caspase 9 expression...
July 17, 2017: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716607/seven-pass-cadherins-celsr1-3
#16
REVIEW
Andre M Goffinet, Fadel Tissir
Cadherin EGF LAG seven-pass G-type receptors 1, 2 and 3 (CELSR1-3) form a family of three atypical cadherins with multiple functions in epithelia and in the nervous system. During the past decade, evidence has accumulated for a key role of CELSR1 in epithelial planar cell polarity (PCP), and for CELSR2 and CELSR3 in ciliogenesis and neural development, especially neuron migration and axon guidance in the central, peripheral and enteric nervous systems. Phenotypes in mutant mice indicate that CELSR proteins work in concert with FZD3 and FZD6, but several questions remain...
July 15, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711506/sodium-selenate-activated-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-and-repressed-amyloid-%C3%AE-formation-in-a-triple-transgenic-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#17
Na Jin, Huazhang Zhu, Xiao Liang, Wei Huang, Qingguo Xie, Peng Xiao, Jiazuan Ni, Qiong Liu
Accumulating evidences show that selenium dietary intake is inversely associated with the mortality of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Sodium selenate has been reported to reduce neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) in the tauopathic mouse models, but its effects on the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway and APP processing remain unknown during AD formation. In this paper, triple transgenic AD mice (3×Tg-AD) had been treated with sodium selenate in drinking water for 10month before the detection of hippocampal pathology...
July 13, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705915/microarray-analysis-of-bone-marrow-lesions-in-osteoarthritis-demonstrates-upregulation-of-genes-implicated-in-osteochondral-turnover-neurogenesis-and-inflammation
#18
Anasuya Kuttapitiya, Lena Assi, Ken Laing, Caroline Hing, Philip Mitchell, Guy Whitley, Abiola Harrison, Franklyn A Howe, Vivian Ejindu, Christine Heron, Nidhi Sofat
OBJECTIVE: Bone marrow lesions (BMLs) are well described in osteoarthritis (OA) using MRI and are associated with pain, but little is known about their pathological characteristics and gene expression. We evaluated BMLs using novel tissue analysis tools to gain a deeper understanding of their cellular and molecular expression. METHODS: We recruited 98 participants, 72 with advanced OA requiring total knee replacement (TKR), 12 with mild OA and 14 non-OA controls...
July 13, 2017: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697798/a-proteomic-analysis-of-lrrk2-binding-partners-reveals-interactions-with-multiple-signaling-components-of-the-wnt-pcp-pathway
#19
Alena Salašová, Chika Yokota, David Potěšil, Zbyněk Zdráhal, Vítězslav Bryja, Ernest Arenas
BACKGROUND: Autosomal-dominant mutations in the Park8 gene encoding Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) have been identified to cause up to 40% of the genetic forms of Parkinson's disease. However, the function and molecular pathways regulated by LRRK2 are largely unknown. It has been shown that LRRK2 serves as a scaffold during activation of WNT/β-catenin signaling via its interaction with the β-catenin destruction complex, DVL1-3 and LRP6. In this study, we examine whether LRRK2 also interacts with signaling components of the WNT/Planar Cell Polarity (WNT/PCP) pathway, which controls the maturation of substantia nigra dopaminergic neurons, the main cell type lost in Parkinson's disease patients...
July 11, 2017: Molecular Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694190/non-canonical-pathway-induced-by-wnt3a-regulates-%C3%AE-catenin-via-pyk2-in-differentiating-human-neural-progenitor-cells
#20
Venkata Ajay Narendra Talabattula, Peter Morgan, Moritz J Frech, Adelinde M Uhrmacher, Ottmar Herchenröder, Brigitte M Pützer, Arndt Rolfs, Jiankai Luo
Wnt/β-catenin and Wnt/Ca(2+) pathways are involved in cellular processes during embryonic development and the interaction between them in the same cell decides the outcome of cellular functions. In this study, we showed that Wnt3a triggers the Wnt/Ca(2+) signaling pathway, indicated by an increase of cytosolic free calcium ([Ca(2+)]i) and activation of calmodulin dependent kinase II (CaMKII) during the differentiation of human neuronal progenitor cells (hNPCs). Wnt3a via the increase of [Ca(2+)]i activates proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 (Pyk2), which subsequently regulates phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) and β-catenin stabilization...
September 9, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
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