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Wnt neuron

Abril Ortiz-Matamoros, Clorinda Arias
Wnt signaling plays an important role in the adult brain function and its dysregulation has been implicated in some neurodegenerative pathways. Despite the functional role of the Wnt signaling in adult neural circuits, there is currently no evidence regarding the relationships between exogenously Wnt signaling activation or inhibition and hippocampal structural changes in vivo. Thus, we analyzed the effect of the chronic infusion of Wnt agonists, Wnt7a and Wnt5a, and antagonist, Dkk-1, on different markers of plasticity such as neuronal MAP-2, Tau, synapse number and morphology, and behavioral changes...
March 13, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Jie Li, Liqiang Li, Yong Shen
The present study aimed to investigate the role of microRNA (miR)-219-5p in spinal cord injury (SCI) and to examine the underlying molecular mechanism. SCI rat and cell models were conducted in the current study, while reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) was used to detect the level of miR-219-5p in the SCI mice and neurons. Bioinformatics analysis was applied to predict the target genes of miR-219-5p, and dual-luciferase reporter assay was performed to verify the prediction...
April 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Dario Presutti, Manuela Ceccarelli, Laura Micheli, Giuliana Papoff, Simonetta Santini, Simone Samperna, Cristiana Lalli, Lorena Zentilin, Giovina Ruberti, Felice Tirone
Medulloblastoma (MB), the tumor of the cerebellum, is the most frequent brain cancer in childhood and a major cause of pediatric mortality. Based on gene profiling, four MB subgroups have been identified, i.e., Wnt or Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) types, and subgroup 3 or 4. The Shh-type MB has been shown to arise from the cerebellar precursors of granule neurons (GCPs), where a hyperactivation of the Shh pathway leads to their neoplastic transformation. We have previously shown that the gene Tis21 (PC3/Btg2) inhibits the proliferation and promotes the differentiation and migration of GCPs...
2018: PloS One
Xin-Rui Han, Xin Wen, Yong-Jian Wang, Shan Wang, Min Shen, Zi-Feng Zhang, Shao-Hua Fan, Qun Shan, Liang Wang, Meng-Qiu Li, Bin Hu, Chun-Hui Sun, Dong-Mei Wu, Jun Lu, Yuan-Lin Zheng
Hypoxia-ischaemia (HI) remains a major cause of foetal brain damage presented a scarcity of effective therapeutic approaches. Dexmedetomidine (DEX) and microRNA-140-5p (miR-140-5p) have been highlighted due to its potentially significant role in the treatment of cerebral ischaemia. This study was to investigate the role by which miR-140-5p provides cerebral protection using DEX to treat hypoxic-ischaemic brain damage (HIBD) in neonatal rats via the Wnt/β-catenin signalling pathway. The HIBD rat models were established and allocated into various groups with different treatment plans, and eight SD rats into sham group...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Emma D Spikol, Eric Glasgow
Transcriptional control of oxytocinergic cell development influences social, sexual, and appetite related behaviors, and is implicated in disorders such as autism and Prader-Willi syndrome. Mediator 12 (Med12) is a transcriptional coactivator required for multiple facets of brain development including subsets of serotonergic and dopaminergic neurons. We surveyed hormone gene expression within the hypothalamo-pituitary axis of med12 mutant zebrafish embryos with a focus on oxytocin ( oxt ) expression. Some transcripts, such as oxt , vasopressin ( avp ) and corticotrophin releasing hormone ( crh ) are undetectable in the med12 mutant, while others are upregulated or downregulated to varying degrees...
March 12, 2018: Biology Open
Minlan Yang, Hairi Li, Yanru Li, Yang Ruan, Chengshi Quan
Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a major problem in the treatment of breast cancer. In the present study, next-generation sequencing technology was employed to identify differentially expressed genes in MCF‑7/MDR cells and MCF‑7 cells, and aimed to investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms of MDR in breast cancer. Differentially expressed genes between MCF‑7/MDR and MCF‑7 cells were selected using software; a total of 2085 genes were screened as differentially expressed in MCF‑7/MDR cells. Furthermore, gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analyses were performed using the DAVID database...
March 7, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Toshio Takahashi, Akira Shiraishi, Jun Murata
Cholinergic signaling, which modulates cell activities via nicotinic and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (n- and mAChRs) in response to internal or external stimuli, has been demonstrated in mammalian non-neuronal cells that synthesize acetylcholine (ACh). One of the major pathways of excitatory transmission in the enteric nervous system (ENS) is mediated by cholinergic transmission, with the transmitter ACh producing excitatory potentials in postsynaptic effector cells. In addition to ACh-synthesizing and ACh-metabolizing elements in the ENS, the presence of non-neuronal ACh machinery has been reported in epithelial cells of the small and large intestines of rats and humans...
March 5, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Eva Z Hoseth, Florian Krull, Ingrid Dieset, Ragni H Mørch, Sigrun Hope, Erlend S Gardsjord, Nils Eiel Steen, Ingrid Melle, Hans-Richard Brattbakk, Vidar M Steen, Pål Aukrust, Srdjan Djurovic, Ole A Andreassen, Thor Ueland
The Wnt signaling pathway plays a crucial role in neurodevelopment and in regulating the function and structure of the adult nervous system. Schizophrenia (SCZ) and bipolar disorder (BD) are severe mental disorders with evidence of subtle neurodevelopmental, structural and functional neuronal abnormalities. We aimed to elucidate the role of aberrant regulation of the Wnt system in these disorders by evaluating plasma levels of secreted Wnt modulators in patients (SCZ = 551 and BD = 246) and healthy controls (HCs = 639) using enzyme immune-assay...
March 6, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
Marianna Szemes, Alexander Greenhough, Zsombor Melegh, Sally Malik, Aysen Yuksel, Daniel Catchpoole, Kelli Gallacher, Madhu Kollareddy, Ji Hyun Park, Karim Malik
Neuroblastoma is one of the commonest and deadliest solid tumours of childhood, and is thought to result from disrupted differentiation of the developing sympathoadrenergic lineage of the neural crest. Neuroblastoma exhibits intra- and intertumoural heterogeneity, with high risk tumours characterised by poor differentiation, which can be attributable to MYCN-mediated repression of genes involved in neuronal differentiation. MYCN is known to co-operate with oncogenic signalling pathways such as Alk, Akt and MEK/ERK signalling, and, together with c-MYC has been shown to be activated by Wnt signalling in various tissues...
March 2, 2018: Neoplasia: An International Journal for Oncology Research
Matías A Medina, Víctor M Andrade, Mario O Caracci, Miguel E Avila, Daniela A Verdugo, Macarena F Vargas, Giorgia D Ugarte, Ariel E Reyes, Carlos Opazo, Giancarlo V De Ferrari
Synaptic abnormalities have been described in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The cell-adhesion molecule Neuroligin-3 (Nlgn3) has an essential role in the function and maturation of synapses and NLGN3 ASD-associated mutations disrupt hippocampal and cortical function. Here we show that Wnt/β-catenin signaling increases Nlgn3 mRNA and protein levels in HT22 mouse hippocampal cells and primary cultures of rat hippocampal neurons. We characterized the activity of mouse and rat Nlgn3 promoter constructs containing conserved putative T-cell factor/lymphoid enhancing factor (TCF/LEF)-binding elements (TBE) and found that their activity is significantly augmented in Wnt/β-catenin cell reporter assays...
March 5, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
Edna Grünblatt, Jasmin Bartl, Susanne Walitza
Methylphenidate (Ritalin) is the most commonly prescribed drug in the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. It is suggested that in vivo, methylphenidate treatment supports cortical maturation, however, the molecular and cellular mechanisms are not well understood. This study aimed to explore the potential effect of methylphenidate on cell proliferation and maturation in various cellular models, hypothesizing its interaction with the Wnt-signaling. The termination of cell proliferation concomitant to neuronal maturation following methylphenidate treatment was observed in all of the cell-models tested: murine neural stem-, rat PC12- and the human SH-SY5Y-cells...
March 1, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
Francesca L'Episcopo, Cataldo Tirolo, Maria F Serapide, Salvatore Caniglia, Nunzio Testa, Loredana Leggio, Silvia Vivarelli, Nunzio Iraci, Stefano Pluchino, Bianca Marchetti
Neuroinflammatory processes are recognized key contributory factors in Parkinson's disease (PD) physiopathology. While the causes responsible for the progressive loss of midbrain dopaminergic (mDA) neuronal cell bodies in the subtantia nigra pars compacta are poorly understood, aging, genetics, environmental toxicity, and particularly inflammation, represent prominent etiological factors in PD development. Especially, reactive astrocytes, microglial cells, and infiltrating monocyte-derived macrophages play dual beneficial/harmful effects, via a panel of pro- or anti-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, neurotrophic and neurogenic transcription factors...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Hua Ji, Linhao Xu, Zheng Wang, Xinli Fan, Lihui Wu
Glyphosate is the active ingredient in numerous herbicide formulations. The role of glyphosate in neurotoxicity has been reported in human and animal models. However, the detailed mechanism of the role of glyphosate in neuronal development remains unknown. Recently, several studies have reported evidence linking neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) with gestational glyphosate exposure. The current group previously identified microRNAs (miRNAs) that are associated with the etiology of NDDs, but their expression levels in the developing brain following glyphosate exposure have not been characterized...
March 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Lillianne H Wright, Daniel J Herr, Symone S Brown, Harinath Kasiganesan, Donald R Menick
Myocardial infarctions (MIs) cause the loss of myocytes due to lack of sufficient oxygenation and latent revascularization. Although the administration of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors reduces the size of infarctions and improves cardiac physiology in small-animal models of MI injury, the cellular targets of the HDACs, which the drugs inhibit, are largely unspecified. Here, we show that WNT-inducible secreted protein-1 (Wisp-1), a matricellular protein that promotes angiogenesis in cancers as well as cell survival in isolated cardiac myocytes and neurons, is a target of HDACs...
February 22, 2018: JCI Insight
Marco Terrigno, Irene Busti, Claudia Alia, Marta Pietrasanta, Ivan Arisi, Mara D'Onofrio, Matteo Caleo, Federico Cremisi
The capability of generating neural precursor cells with distinct types of regional identity in vitro has recently opened new opportunities for cell replacement in animal models of neurodegenerative diseases. By manipulating Wnt and BMP signaling, we steered the differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) toward isocortical or hippocampal molecular identity. These two types of cells showed different degrees of axonal outgrowth and targeted different regions when co-transplanted in healthy or lesioned isocortex or in hippocampus...
February 8, 2018: Stem Cell Reports
Armando L Garcia, Adanna Udeh, Karthik Kalahasty, Abigail S Hackam
The canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway is a highly conserved signaling cascade that plays critical roles during embryogenesis. Wnt ligands regulate axonal extension, growth cone guidance and synaptogenesis throughout the developing central nervous system (CNS). Recently, studies in mammalian and fish model systems have demonstrated that Wnt/β-catenin signaling also promotes axonal regeneration in the adult optic nerve and spinal cord after injury, raising the possibility that Wnt could be developed as a therapeutic strategy...
January 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
Arianna Colini Baldeschi, Eugenia Pittaluga, Federica Andreola, Simona Rossi, Mauro Cozzolino, Giuseppe Nicotera, Gianluca Sferrazza, Pasquale Pierimarchi, Annalucia Serafino
In the last decades increasing evidence indicated a crucial role of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling in development of midbrain dopaminergic (mDA) neurons. Recently dysregulation of this pathway has been proposed as a novel pathomechanism leading to Parkinson's disease (PD) and some of the molecules participating to the signaling have been evaluated as potential therapeutic targets for PD. Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) is a cardiac-derived hormone having a critical role in cardiovascular homeostasis. ANP and its receptors (NPRs) are widely expressed in mammalian central nervous system (CNS) where they could be implicated in the regulation of neural development, synaptic transmission and information processing, as well as in neuroprotection...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Daniil Nikitin, Dmitry Penzar, Andrew Garazha, Maxim Sorokin, Victor Tkachev, Nicolas Borisov, Alexander Poltorak, Vladimir Prassolov, Anton A Buzdin
Endogenous retroviruses and retrotransposons also termed retroelements (REs) are mobile genetic elements that were active until recently in human genome evolution. REs regulate gene expression by actively reshaping chromatin structure or by directly providing transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs). We aimed to identify molecular processes most deeply impacted by the REs in human cells at the level of TFBS regulation. By using ENCODE data, we identified ~2 million TFBS overlapping with putatively regulation-competent human REs located in 5-kb gene promoter neighborhood (~17% of all TFBS in promoter neighborhoods; ~9% of all RE-linked TFBS)...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Xingmiao Chen, Binghua Zhou, Tingting Yan, Hao Wu, Jinghan Feng, Hansen Chen, Chong Gao, Tao Peng, Dan Yang, Jiangang Shen
Hypoxic/ischemic stimulation could mediate growth and differentiation of neural stem/progenitor cells (NSCs) into mature neurons but its underlying mechanisms are largely unclear. Peroxynitrite formation is considered as a crucial pathological process contributing to cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that peroxynitrite at low concentration could function as redox signaling to promote the growth of NSCs under hypoxic/ischemic conditions. Increased NSCs proliferation was accompanied by peroxynitrite production in the rat brains with 1hour of ischemia plus 7 days of reperfusion in vivo...
February 7, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Wenjuan Ma, Xiaoru Shao, Dan Zhao, Qianshun Li, Mengting Liu, Tengfei Zhou, Xueping Xie, Chenchen Mao, Yuxin Zhang, Yunfeng Lin
Stem cell-based therapy is considered a promising approach for repair of nervous tissues. Neural stem cells (NSCs) cannot proliferate or differentiate efficiently; hence, different biomaterials have been explored to improve NSCs proliferation and differentiation. However, these agents either had low bioavailability or poor biocompatibility. In this work, our group investigated the effects of tetrahedral DNA nanostructures (TDNs), a novel DNA biological material, on the self-renew and differentiation of neuroectodermal (NE-4C) stem cells...
February 9, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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