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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772167/glycogen-synthase-kinase-3-inhibition-sensitizes-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-to-thiol-containing-antioxidants-induced-apoptosis
#1
Chengyi Tu, Robert Xu, Meghana Koleti, Janet Zoldan
Inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) is an extensively used strategy to activate Wnt pathway for pluripotent stem cell (PSC) differentiation. However, the effects of such inhibition on PSCs, besides upregulating the Wnt pathway, have rarely been investigated despite that GSK3 is broadly involved in other cellular activities such as insulin signaling and cell growth/survival regulation. Here we describe a previously unknown synergistic effect between GSK3 inhibition (e.g., Chir99021 and LY2090314) and various normally non-toxic thiol-containing antioxidants (e...
July 22, 2017: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754619/celecoxib-induced-inhibition-of-neurogenesis-in-fetal-frontal-cortex-is-attenuated-by-curcumin-via-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-pathway
#2
Rong Wang, Shaoqi Tian, Xu Yang, Jiangjun Liu, Yuanhe Wang, Kang Sun
Celecoxib is widely used in pregnant women but its influence on fetal brain neurogenesis is largely unknown. The objective of the present study was to examine the influence of celecoxib to fetal brain development and to investigate whether curcumin could ameliorate celecoxib-induced neurotoxicity. Pregnant mice, cultured neurons and cultured neural progenitor cells were all treated with celecoxib with or without curcumin. The change in proliferation, differentiation and the activity of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway were then assessed...
July 25, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744803/xanthoceraside-modulates-neurogenesis-to-ameliorate-cognitive-impairment-in-app-ps1-transgenic-mice
#3
Lin Zhu, Tianyan Chi, Xuemei Zhao, Lei Yang, Shijie Song, Qiaohui Lu, Xuefei Ji, Peng Liu, Lihua Wang, Libo Zou
Neuronal loss is reported to be an important pathological process in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Neurogenesis is a process of generation of new neurons to fill the neuronal loss. Xanthoceraside has been shown to attenuate the cognitive deficits in several AD animal models. However, little is known about the effect of xanthoceraside on neurogenesis in APP/PS1 transgenic mice. Thus, in this study, we investigated whether xanthoceraside can ameliorate learning and memory impairment by promoting NSCs proliferation and neuronal differentiation...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736361/-effect-of-nucleolin-silencing-on-differentiation-of-rat-neural-stem-cells-in-vitro-and-the-molecular-mechanism
#4
Chong-Feng Chen, Huai-Cai Yang, Guo-Sheng Liu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of nucleolin silencing on the differentiation of rat neural stem cells (NSCs) and the role of Wnt signaling pathway in mediating such effect. METHODS: Adenovirus vectors expressing small interfering RNA (siRNA) against nucleolin were constructed, verified, and packaged in HEK293A cells. The adenovirus was then transfected into NSCs isolated from neonatal SD rats and the differentiation of the NSCs was examined by detecting the expressions of neuron specific encloase (NSE) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) using immunocytochemistry...
July 20, 2017: Nan Fang Yi Ke da Xue Xue Bao, Journal of Southern Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735706/amniotic-fluid-transcriptomics-reflects-novel-disease-mechanisms-in-fetuses-with-myelomeningocele
#5
Tomo Tarui, Aimee Kim, Alan Flake, Lauren McClain, John Stratigis, Inbar Fried, Rebecca Newman, Donna K Slonim, Diana W Bianchi
BACKGROUND: Cell-free RNA in amniotic fluid supernatant reflects developmental changes in gene expression in the living fetus, which includes genes that are specific to the central nervous system. Although it has been previously shown that central nervous system-specific transcripts are present in amniotic fluid supernatant, it is not known whether changes in the amniotic fluid supernatant transcriptome reflect the specific pathophysiologic condition of fetal central nervous system disorders...
July 20, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734031/downregulation-of-dec1-contributes-to-the-neurotoxicity-induced-by-mpp-by-suppressing-pi3k-akt-gsk3%C3%AE-pathway
#6
Zhu Zhu, Yu-Wen Wang, Ding-Hao Ge, Ming Lu, Wei Liu, Jing Xiong, Gang Hu, Xiao-Ping Li, Jian Yang
AIM: Differentiated embryonic chondrocyte gene 1 (DEC1) is involved in the neuronal differentiation and development. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of DEC1 in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPP(+) )-induced PD model. METHODS: The location of DEC1 and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive neurons were detected by immunofluorescence. 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced mouse subacute model of PD was established to evaluate the change of DEC1 expression in midbrain...
July 21, 2017: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729735/the-wnt-receptor-ryk-is-a-negative-regulator-of-mammalian-dendrite-morphogenesis
#7
Vanessa Lanoue, Michael Langford, Amanda White, Kai Sempert, Lily Fogg, Helen M Cooper
The unique dendritic architecture of a given neuronal subtype determines its synaptic connectivity and ability to integrate into functional neuronal networks. It is now clear that abnormal dendritic structure is associated with neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. Currently, however, the nature of the extrinsic factors that limit dendritic growth and branching within predetermined boundaries in the mammalian brain is poorly understood. Here we identify the Wnt receptor Ryk as a novel negative regulator of dendritic arborisation...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718066/the-preventive-effects-of-taurine-on-neural-tube-defects-through-the-wnt-pcp-jnk-dependent-pathway
#8
Qinghua Zhang, Yang Liu, Hui Wang, Li Ma, Hechun Xia, Jianguo Niu, Tao Sun, Li Zhang
The aim of this study was to clarify the protective role of taurine in neuronal apoptosis and the role of the Wnt/PCP-Jnk pathway in mediating the preventive effects of taurine on neural tube defects (NTDs). HT-22 cells (a hippocampal neuron cell line) were divided into a control group, a glutamate-induced apoptosis group, and glutamate (4.0 mmol/L) plus low-dose taurine (L; 0.5 mmol/L) and high-dose taurine (H; 2.0 mmol/L) groups. The MTT assay was used to monitor cell proliferation and cell survival. Immunofluorescence and Western blot analyses were used to determine caspase 9 expression...
July 17, 2017: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716607/seven-pass-cadherins-celsr1-3
#9
REVIEW
Andre M Goffinet, Fadel Tissir
Cadherin EGF LAG seven-pass G-type receptors 1, 2 and 3 (CELSR1-3) form a family of three atypical cadherins with multiple functions in epithelia and in the nervous system. During the past decade, evidence has accumulated for a key role of CELSR1 in epithelial planar cell polarity (PCP), and for CELSR2 and CELSR3 in ciliogenesis and neural development, especially neuron migration and axon guidance in the central, peripheral and enteric nervous systems. Phenotypes in mutant mice indicate that CELSR proteins work in concert with FZD3 and FZD6, but several questions remain...
July 14, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711506/sodium-selenate-activated-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-and-repressed-amyloid-%C3%AE-formation-in-a-triple-transgenic-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#10
Na Jin, Huazhang Zhu, Xiao Liang, Wei Huang, Qingguo Xie, Peng Xiao, Jiazuan Ni, Qiong Liu
Accumulating evidences show that selenium dietary intake is inversely associated with the mortality of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Sodium selenate has been reported to reduce neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) in the tauopathic mouse models, but its effects on the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway and APP processing remain unknown during AD formation. In this paper, triple transgenic AD mice (3×Tg-AD) had been treated with sodium selenate in drinking water for 10month before the detection of hippocampal pathology...
July 13, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705915/microarray-analysis-of-bone-marrow-lesions-in-osteoarthritis-demonstrates-upregulation-of-genes-implicated-in-osteochondral-turnover-neurogenesis-and-inflammation
#11
Anasuya Kuttapitiya, Lena Assi, Ken Laing, Caroline Hing, Philip Mitchell, Guy Whitley, Abiola Harrison, Franklyn A Howe, Vivian Ejindu, Christine Heron, Nidhi Sofat
OBJECTIVE: Bone marrow lesions (BMLs) are well described in osteoarthritis (OA) using MRI and are associated with pain, but little is known about their pathological characteristics and gene expression. We evaluated BMLs using novel tissue analysis tools to gain a deeper understanding of their cellular and molecular expression. METHODS: We recruited 98 participants, 72 with advanced OA requiring total knee replacement (TKR), 12 with mild OA and 14 non-OA controls...
July 13, 2017: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697798/a-proteomic-analysis-of-lrrk2-binding-partners-reveals-interactions-with-multiple-signaling-components-of-the-wnt-pcp-pathway
#12
Alena Salašová, Chika Yokota, David Potěšil, Zbyněk Zdráhal, Vítězslav Bryja, Ernest Arenas
BACKGROUND: Autosomal-dominant mutations in the Park8 gene encoding Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) have been identified to cause up to 40% of the genetic forms of Parkinson's disease. However, the function and molecular pathways regulated by LRRK2 are largely unknown. It has been shown that LRRK2 serves as a scaffold during activation of WNT/β-catenin signaling via its interaction with the β-catenin destruction complex, DVL1-3 and LRP6. In this study, we examine whether LRRK2 also interacts with signaling components of the WNT/Planar Cell Polarity (WNT/PCP) pathway, which controls the maturation of substantia nigra dopaminergic neurons, the main cell type lost in Parkinson's disease patients...
July 11, 2017: Molecular Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694190/non-canonical-pathway-induced-by-wnt3a-regulates-%C3%AE-catenin-via-pyk2-in-differentiating-human-neural-progenitor-cells
#13
Venkata Ajay Narendra Talabattula, Peter Morgan, Moritz J Frech, Adelinde M Uhrmacher, Ottmar Herchenröder, Brigitte M Pützer, Arndt Rolfs, Jiankai Luo
Wnt/β-catenin and Wnt/Ca(2+) pathways are involved in cellular processes during embryonic development and the interaction between them in the same cell decides the outcome of cellular functions. In this study, we showed that Wnt3a triggers the Wnt/Ca(2+) signaling pathway, indicated by an increase of cytosolic free calcium ([Ca(2+)]i) and activation of calmodulin dependent kinase II (CaMKII) during the differentiation of human neuronal progenitor cells (hNPCs). Wnt3a via the increase of [Ca(2+)]i activates proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 (Pyk2), which subsequently regulates phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) and β-catenin stabilization...
July 8, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694018/the-enu-3-protein-family-members-function-in-the-wnt-pathway-parallel-to-unc-6-netrin-to-promote-motor-neuron-axon-outgrowth-in-c-elegans
#14
Roxana Oriana Florica, Victoria Hipolito, Stephen Bautista, Homa Anvari, Chloe Rapp, Suzan El-Rass, Alimohammad Asgharian, Costin N Antonescu, Marie T Killeen
The axons of the DA and DB classes of motor neurons fail to reach the dorsal cord in the absence of the guidance cue UNC-6/Netrin or its receptor UNC-5 in C. elegans. However, the axonal processes usually exit their cell bodies in the ventral cord in the absence of both molecules. Strains lacking functional versions of UNC-6 or UNC-5 have a low level of DA and DB motor neuron axon outgrowth defects. We found that mutations in the genes for all six of the ENU-3 proteins function to enhance the outgrowth defects of the DA and DB axons in strains lacking either UNC-6 or UNC-5...
July 7, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685386/vertebrate-presynaptic-active-zone-assembly-a-role-accomplished-by-diverse-molecular-and-cellular-mechanisms
#15
REVIEW
Viviana I Torres, Nibaldo C Inestrosa
Among all the biological systems in vertebrates, the central nervous system (CNS) is the most complex, and its function depends on specialized contacts among neurons called synapses. The assembly and organization of synapses must be exquisitely regulated for a normal brain function and network activity. There has been a tremendous effort in recent decades to understand the molecular and cellular mechanisms participating in the formation of new synapses and their organization, maintenance, and regulation. At the vertebrate presynapses, proteins such as Piccolo, Bassoon, RIM, RIM-BPs, CAST/ELKS, liprin-α, and Munc13 are constant residents and participate in multiple and dynamic interactions with other regulatory proteins, which define network activity and normal brain function...
July 6, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659791/pentazocine-protects-sn4741-cells-against-mpp-induced-cell-damage-via-up-regulation-of-the-canonical-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-pathway
#16
Jiancai Wang, Jintao Gu, Hao Wu, Gang Zhu, Dayun Feng, Yuqian Li, Wei Guo, Keyong Tian, Guodong Gao, Li Gao
The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway has been linked to many neurodegenerative diseases including Parkinson's disease (PD). A glycoprotein named Dickkopf-1 (Dkk1) can combine with the receptor complex on cell membrane to inhibit Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Opioids, a series of compounds including morphine, fentanyl and pentazocine, have been reported to contribute to the up-regulation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Naloxone is an antagonist that has been used as an antidote to opioids through mu-opioid receptor...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656580/potential-lung-carcinogenicity-induced-by-chronic-exposure-to-pm2-5-in-the-rat
#17
Xiaoli Hu, Qingzhao Li, Shifeng Shao, Qiang Zeng, Shoufang Jiang, Qi Wu, Chunyang Jiang
Exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) may increase lung cancer risk, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. This study explored the potential carcinogenicity in rat lung induced by chronic exposure to PM2.5. Adult male rats (200-220 g) were treated with PM2.5 (10 mg/kg body weight) by tracheal perfusion once per week for 1 year; the rats were killed, and expression of tumor markers (carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), neuron-specific enolase (NSE), squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCCA)), cancer-related genes, and pathological changes were detected...
June 28, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647856/glial-and-neuronal-protein-tyrosine-phosphatase-alpha-ptp%C3%AE-regulate-oligodendrocyte-differentiation-and-myelination
#18
Yuda Shih, Philip T T Ly, Jing Wang, Catherine J Pallen
CNS myelination defects occur in mice deficient in receptor-like protein tyrosine phosphatase alpha (PTPα). Here, we investigated the role of PTPα in oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination using cells and tissues from wild-type (WT) and PTPα knockout (KO) mice. PTPα promoted the timely differentiation of neural stem cell-derived oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs). Compared to WT OPCs, KO OPC cultures had more NG2+ progenitors, fewer myelin basic protein (MBP)+ oligodendrocytes, and reduced morphological complexity...
August 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642339/establishment-of-a-novel-three-dimensional-primary-culture-model-for-hippocampal-neurogenesis
#19
Tatsuya Usui, Masashi Sakurai, Hideyoshi Kawasaki, Takashi Ohama, Hideyuki Yamawaki, Koichi Sato
New neurons are generated in the adult hippocampus throughout life and contribute to the functions of learning and memory. Nevertheless, the mechanisms by which disrupted neurogenesis regulates central nervous system (CNS) disorders are not fully understood. Here, we established a novel 3D culture system of hippocampal neurogenesis using air liquid interface (ALI) culture and Matrigel culture from mouse hippocampus tissues. After isolated mouse hippocampus tissue fragments were seeded into ALI wells and cultured in stemness-stimulated media containing Wnt, EGF, Noggin and R-spondin for 7 days, small spheres gradually appeared in the tissues...
June 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637511/the-emergence-of-mesencephalic-trigeminal-neurons
#20
Marcela Lipovsek, Julia Ledderose, Thomas Butts, Tanguy Lafont, Clemens Kiecker, Andrea Wizenmann, Anthony Graham
BACKGROUND: The cells of the mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus (MTN) are the proprioceptive sensory neurons that innervate the jaw closing muscles. These cells differentiate close to the two key signalling centres that influence the dorsal midbrain, the isthmus, which mediates its effects via FGF and WNT signalling and the roof plate, which is a major source of BMP signalling as well as WNT signalling. METHODS: In this study, we have set out to analyse the importance of FGF, WNT and BMP signalling for the development of the MTN...
June 21, 2017: Neural Development
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