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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222310/circulating-mirna-associated-with-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-in-a-cohort-of-military-combat-veterans
#1
Christiana G Martin, Hyungsuk Kim, Sijung Yun, Whitney Livingston, Joseph Fetta, Vincent Mysliwiec, Tristin Baxter, Jessica M Gill
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) affects many returning combat veterans, but underlying biological mechanisms remain unclear. In order to compare circulating micro RNA (miRNA) of combat veterans with and without PTSD, peripheral blood from 24 subjects was collected following deployment, and isolated miRNA was sequenced. PTSD was associated with 8 differentially expressed miRNA. Pathway analysis shows that PTSD is related to the axon guidance and Wnt signaling pathways, which work together to support neuronal development through regulation of growth cones...
January 31, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219675/tcf7l2-plays-crucial-roles-in-forebrain-development-through-regulation-of-thalamic-and-habenular-neuron-identity-and-connectivity
#2
Myungsin Lee, Jiyeon Yoon, Hobeom Song, Bumwhee Lee, Lam Tri Duc, Jaeseung Yoon, Kwanghee Baek, Hans Clevers, Yongsu Jeong
The thalamus acts as a central integrator for processing and relaying sensory and motor information to and from the cerebral cortex, and the habenula plays pivotal roles in emotive decision making by modulating dopaminergic and serotonergic circuits. These neural compartments are derived from a common developmental progenitor domain, called prosomere 2, in the caudal forebrain. Thalamic and habenular neurons exhibit distinct molecular profile, neurochemical identity, and axonal circuitry. However, the mechanisms of how their progenitors in prosomere 2 give rise to these two populations of neurons and contribute to the forebrain circuitry remains unclear...
February 17, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205531/wnt5a-is-a-crucial-regulator-of-neurogenesis-during-cerebellum-development
#3
Chandramohan Subashini, Sivadasan Bindu Dhanesh, Chih-Ming Chen, Paul Ann Riya, Vadakkath Meera, Thulasi Sheela Divya, Rejji Kuruvilla, Kerstin Buttler, Jackson James
The role of Wnt5a has been extensively explored in various aspects of development but its role in cerebellar development remains elusive. Here, for the first time we unravel the expression pattern and functional significance of Wnt5a in cerebellar development using Wnt5a(-/-) and Nestin-Cre mediated conditional knockout mouse models. We demonstrate that loss of Wnt5a results in cerebellar hypoplasia and depletion of GABAergic and glutamatergic neurons. Besides, Purkinje cells of the mutants displayed stunted, poorly branched dendritic arbors...
February 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195124/pervasive-translational-regulation-of-the-cell-signalling-circuitry-underlies-mammalian-development
#4
Kotaro Fujii, Zhen Shi, Olena Zhulyn, Nicolas Denans, Maria Barna
The degree and dynamics of translational control during mammalian development remain poorly understood. Here we monitored translation of the mammalian genome as cells become specified and organize into tissues in vivo. This identified unexpected and pervasive translational regulation of most of the core signalling circuitry including Shh, Wnt, Hippo, PI3K and MAPK pathways. We further identify and functionally characterize a complex landscape of upstream open reading frames (uORFs) across 5'-untranslated regions (UTRs) of key signalling components...
February 14, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195036/gsk-3%C3%AE-inhibition-induced-neuroprotection-regeneration-and-functional-recovery-after-intracerebral-hemorrhagic-stroke
#5
Yingying Zhao, Zheng Zachory Wei, James Ya Zhang, Yongbo Zhang, Soonmi Won, Jinmei Sun, Shan Ping Yu, Jimei Li, Ling Wei
Hemorrhagic stroke is a devastating disease that lacks effective therapies. In the present investigation, we tested 6-bromoindirubin-3'-oxime (BIO) as a selective glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) inhibitor in a mouse model of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). ICH was induced by injection of collagenase IV into the striatum of 8 to 10-week old C57BL/6 mice. BIO (8 µg/kg, i.p.) was administered following either an acute delivery (0 - 2 hr delay) or a prolonged regimen (every 48 hrs starting at 3 days postICH)...
February 14, 2017: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187790/retinoic-acid-and-tgf-%C3%AE-signalling-cooperate-to-overcome-mycn-induced-retinoid-resistance
#6
David J Duffy, Aleksandar Krstic, Melinda Halasz, Thomas Schwarzl, Anja Konietzny, Kristiina Iljin, Desmond G Higgins, Walter Kolch
BACKGROUND: Retinoid therapy is widely employed in clinical oncology to differentiate malignant cells into their more benign counterparts. However, certain high-risk cohorts, such as patients with MYCN-amplified neuroblastoma, are innately resistant to retinoid therapy. Therefore, we employed a precision medicine approach to globally profile the retinoid signalling response and to determine how an excess of cellular MYCN antagonises these signalling events to prevent differentiation and confer resistance...
February 10, 2017: Genome Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179206/recombinant-insulin-like-growth-factor-binding-protein-4-inhibits-proliferation-and-promotes-differentiation-of-neural-progenitor-cells
#7
Hanxu Niu, Rongbin Gou, Qunyuan Xu, Deyi Duan
Insulin-like growth factor (IGF) is involved in regulating many processes during neural development, and IGF binding protein-4 (IGFBP4) functions as a modulator of IGF actions or in an IGF-independent manner (e.g., via inhibiting Wnt/β-catenin signaling). In the present study, neural progenitor cells (NPCs) were isolated from the forebrain of newborn mice to investigate effects of IGFBP4 on the proliferation and differentiation of NPCs. The proliferation of NPCs was evaluated using Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) after treatment with or without IGFBP4 as well as blockers of IGF-IR and β-catenin...
February 5, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154134/cdon-deficiency-causes-cardiac-remodeling-through-hyperactivation-of-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling
#8
Myong-Ho Jeong, Hyun-Ji Kim, Jung-Hoon Pyun, Kyu-Sil Choi, Dong I Lee, Soroosh Solhjoo, Brian O'Rourke, Gordon F Tomaselli, Dong Seop Jeong, Hana Cho, Jong-Sun Kang
On pathological stress, Wnt signaling is reactivated and induces genes associated with cardiac remodeling and fibrosis. We have previously shown that a cell surface receptor Cdon (cell-adhesion associated, oncogene regulated) suppresses Wnt signaling to promote neuronal differentiation however its role in heart is unknown. Here, we demonstrate a critical role of Cdon in cardiac function and remodeling. Cdon is expressed and predominantly localized at intercalated disk in both mouse and human hearts. Cdon-deficient mice develop cardiac dysfunction including reduced ejection fraction and ECG abnormalities...
February 2, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28142224/effects-of-sulforaphane-on-neural-stem-cell-proliferation-and-differentiation
#9
Zhenxian Han, Qian Xu, Changfu Li, Hong Zhao
Sulforaphane (SFN) is a natural organosulfur compound with ant-oxidant and anti-inflammation properties. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of SFN on the proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells (NSC). NSCs were exposed to SFN at the concentrations ranging from 0.25 to 10 µM. Cell viability was evaluated with MTT assay and lactate dehydogenase (LDH) release assay. The proliferation of NSCs was evaluated with neurosphere formation assay and Ki-67 staining. The level of Tuj-1 was evaluated with immunostaining and western blot to assess NSC neuronal differentiation...
January 31, 2017: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137846/endothelial-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-reduces-immune-cell-infiltration-in-multiple-sclerosis
#10
Justin E Lengfeld, Sarah E Lutz, Julian R Smith, Claudiu Diaconu, Cameron Scott, Sigal B Kofman, Claire Choi, Craig M Walsh, Cedric S Raine, Ilir Agalliu, Dritan Agalliu
Disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a defining and early feature of multiple sclerosis (MS) that directly damages the central nervous system (CNS), promotes immune cell infiltration, and influences clinical outcomes. There is an urgent need for new therapies to protect and restore BBB function, either by strengthening endothelial tight junctions or suppressing endothelial vesicular transcytosis. Although wingless integrated MMTV (Wnt)/β-catenin signaling plays an essential role in BBB formation and maintenance in healthy CNS, its role in BBB repair in neurologic diseases such as MS remains unclear...
February 14, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134846/neurogenic-traditional-chinese-medicine-as-a-promising-strategy-for-the-treatment-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#11
REVIEW
Sravan Gopalkrishnashetty Sreenivasmurthy, Jing-Yi Liu, Ju-Xian Song, Chuan-Bin Yang, Sandeep Malampati, Zi-Ying Wang, Ying-Yu Huang, Min Li
Hippocampal neurogenesis plays a critical role in the formation of new neurons during learning and memory development. Attenuation of neurogenesis in the brain is one of the primary causes of dementia in Alzheimer's disease (AD), and, conversely, modulating the process of hippocampal neurogenesis benefit patients with AD. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), particularly herbal medicine, has been in use for thousands of years in Asia and many regions of the world for the treatment of cancer, cardiovascular diseases and neurodegenerative diseases...
January 28, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124605/increase-signaling-of-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-pathway-and-presence-of-apoptosis-in-cerebellum-of-kindled-rats
#12
Carmen Rubio-Osornio, Artemio Rosiles-Abonce, Cristina Trejo-Solís, Moisés Rubio-Osornio, Cesar Mendoza, Verónica Custodio, Juan Carlos Martínez-Lazcano, Edith González, Carlos Paz
Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders in humans, and the role of the cerebellum in its physiopathology remains the subject of study. The Purkinje cells (PC), whose axons target the dentate and interpositus nuclei, form the main cerebellar output to forebrain structures involved in epilepsy. Cerebellar atrophy related to loss of PC has been reported in chronic epilepsy although its mechanism remains unclear. Taking in account that an overexpression of β-Catenin has been related with cell death, here we present the signaling of β-Catenin and the type of PC death in cerebellum of rats with chronic seizures induced by the amygdaloid kindling model...
January 17, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123427/methylprednisolone-promotes-recovery-of-neurological-function-after-spinal-cord-injury-association-with-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-pathway-activation
#13
Gong-Biao Lu, Fu-Wen Niu, Ying-Chun Zhang, Lin Du, Zhi-Yuan Liang, Yuan Gao, Ting-Zhen Yan, Zhi-Kui Nie, Kai Gao
Some studies have indicated that the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is activated following spinal cord injury, and expression levels of specific proteins, including low-density lipoprotein receptor related protein-6 phosphorylation, β-catenin, and glycogen synthase kinase-3β, are significantly altered. We hypothesized that methylprednisolone treatment contributes to functional recovery after spinal cord injury by inhibiting apoptosis and activating the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. In the current study, 30 mg/kg methylprednisolone was injected into rats with spinal cord injury immediately post-injury and at 1 and 2 days post-injury...
November 2016: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123080/cortactin-is-a-regulator-of-activity-dependent-synaptic-plasticity-controlled-by-wingless
#14
Daniel Alicea, Marizabeth Perez, Carolina Maldonado, Carihann Dominicci-Cotto, Bruno Marie
: Major signaling molecules initially characterized as key early developmental regulators are also essential for the plasticity of the nervous system. Recently the Wingless (Wg)/Wnt pathway has been shown to underlie the structural and electrophysiological changes during activity-dependent synaptic plasticity at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction. A challenge remains to understand how this signal mediates the cellular changes underlying this plasticity. Here, we focus on the actin regulator Cortactin, a major organizer of protrusion, membrane mobility and invasiveness, and define its new role in synaptic plasticity...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120140/lithium-chloride-promotes-neuronal-differentiation-of-rat-neural-stem-cells-and-enhances-neural-regeneration-in-parkinson-s-disease-model
#15
Li Qi, Yonggang Tang, Wei He, Honghua Pan, Wenxian Jiang, Lin Wang, Weilin Deng
Parkinson's disease (PD) is one of the most common neural degenerative disease, affecting millions of people globally. Great progress has been made in the PD treatment, and one of the most promising one is the stem cell-based therapy. Thus, studies on the differentiation of neural stem cells (NSCs) are important to the advancement in PD therapy. In this study, we used the rat NSCs to elucidate the role of Lithium in the proliferation and differentiation of NSCs by immunostaining against Ki67 and BrdU analysis as well as immunostaining against specific neuronal markers...
January 24, 2017: Cytotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114100/the-genetics-of-axon-guidance-and-axon-regeneration-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#16
Andrew D Chisholm, Harald Hutter, Yishi Jin, William G Wadsworth
The correct wiring of neuronal circuits depends on outgrowth and guidance of neuronal processes during development. In the past two decades, great progress has been made in understanding the molecular basis of axon outgrowth and guidance. Genetic analysis in Caenorhabditis elegans has played a key role in elucidating conserved pathways regulating axon guidance, including Netrin signaling, the slit Slit/Robo pathway, Wnt signaling, and others. Axon guidance factors were first identified by screens for mutations affecting animal behavior, and by direct visual screens for axon guidance defects...
November 2016: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109879/selenomethionine-promoted-hippocampal-neurogenesis-via-the-pi3k-akt-gsk3%C3%AE-wnt-pathway-in-a-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#17
REVIEW
Rui Zheng, Zhong-Hao Zhang, Chen Chen, Yao Chen, Shi-Zheng Jia, Qiong Liu, Jia-Zuan Ni, Guo-Li Song
The maintenance of neural system integrity and function is the ultimate goal for the treatment of neurodegenerative disease such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Neurogenesis plays an integral role in the maintenance of neural and cognitive functions, and its dysfunction is regarded as a major cause of cognitive impairment in AD. Moreover, the induction of neurogenesis by targeting endogenous neural stem cells (NSCs) is considered as one of the most promising treatment strategies. Our previous studies demonstrated that selenomethionine (Se-Met) was able to reduce β-amyloid peptide (Aβ) deposition, decrease Tau protein hyperphosphorylation and markedly improve cognitive functions in triple transgenic (3xTg) AD mice...
January 18, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103901/pathogenic-lrrk2-variants-are-gain-of-function-mutations-that-enhance-lrrk2-mediated-repression-of-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling
#18
Daniel C Berwick, Behzad Javaheri, Andrea Wetzel, Mark Hopkinson, Jonathon Nixon-Abell, Simone Grannò, Andrew A Pitsillides, Kirsten Harvey
BACKGROUND: LRRK2 mutations and risk variants increase susceptibility to inherited and idiopathic Parkinson's disease, while recent studies have identified potential protective variants. This, and the fact that LRRK2 mutation carriers develop symptoms and brain pathology almost indistinguishable from idiopathic Parkinson's disease, has led to enormous interest in this protein. LRRK2 has been implicated in a range of cellular events, but key among them is canonical Wnt signalling, which results in increased levels of transcriptionally active β-catenin...
January 19, 2017: Molecular Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094016/a-single-cell-roadmap-of-lineage-bifurcation-in-human-esc-models-of-embryonic-brain-development
#19
Zizhen Yao, John K Mich, Sherman Ku, Vilas Menon, Anne-Rachel Krostag, Refugio A Martinez, Leon Furchtgott, Heather Mulholland, Susan Bort, Margaret A Fuqua, Ben W Gregor, Rebecca D Hodge, Anu Jayabalu, Ryan C May, Samuel Melton, Angelique M Nelson, N Kiet Ngo, Nadiya V Shapovalova, Soraya I Shehata, Michael W Smith, Leah J Tait, Carol L Thompson, Elliot R Thomsen, Chaoyang Ye, Ian A Glass, Ajamete Kaykas, Shuyuan Yao, John W Phillips, Joshua S Grimley, Boaz P Levi, Yanling Wang, Sharad Ramanathan
During human brain development, multiple signaling pathways generate diverse cell types with varied regional identities. Here, we integrate single-cell RNA sequencing and clonal analyses to reveal lineage trees and molecular signals underlying early forebrain and mid/hindbrain cell differentiation from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). Clustering single-cell transcriptomic data identified 41 distinct populations of progenitor, neuronal, and non-neural cells across our differentiation time course. Comparisons with primary mouse and human gene expression data demonstrated rostral and caudal progenitor and neuronal identities from early brain development...
January 5, 2017: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088670/fibrin-hydrogels-induce-mixed-dorsal-ventral-spinal-neuron-identities-during-differentiation-of-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#20
John M Edgar, Meghan Robinson, Stephanie M Willerth
: We hypothesized that generating spinal motor neurons (sMNs) from human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived neural aggregates (NAs) using a chemically-defined differentiation protocol would be more effective inside of 3D fibrin hydrogels compared to 2D poly-L-ornithine(PLO)/laminin-coated tissue culture plastic surfaces. We performed targeted RNA-Seq using next generation sequencing to determine the substrate-specific differences in gene expression that regulate cell phenotype...
January 11, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
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