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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454012/immunologic-effects-of-chronic-administration-of-tofacitinib-a-janus-kinase-inhibitor-in-cynomolgus-monkeys-and-rats-comparison-of-juvenile-and-adult-responses
#1
Mark Collinge, Douglas J Ball, Christopher J Bowman, Andrea L Nilson, Zaher A Radi, W Mark Vogel
Tofacitinib, an oral Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitor for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, targets JAK1, JAK3, and to a lesser extent JAK2 and TYK2. JAK1/3 inhibition impairs gamma common chain cytokine receptor signaling, important in lymphocyte development, homeostasis and function. Adult and juvenile cynomolgus monkey and rat studies were conducted and the impact of tofacitinib on immune parameters (lymphoid tissues and lymphocyte subsets) and function (T-dependent antibody response (TDAR), mitogen-induced T cell proliferation) assessed...
February 14, 2018: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453731/patient-perceptions-of-acute-pain-and-activity-disruption-following-inguinal-hernia-repair-a-propensity-matched-comparison-of-robotic-assisted-laparoscopic-and-open-approaches
#2
James G Bittner Iv, Lawrence W Cesnik, Thomas Kirwan, Laurie Wolf, Dongjing Guo
Few publications describe the potential benefit of robotic-assisted inguinal hernia repair on acute postoperative groin pain (APGP). This study compared patients' perceptions of APGP, activity limitation, and overall satisfaction after robotic-assisted- (R), laparoscopic (L), or open (O) inguinal hernia repair (IHR). Random samples of patients from two web-based research panels and surgical practices were screened for patients who underwent IHR between October 28, 2015 and November 1, 2016. Qualified patients were surveyed to assess perceived APGP at 1 week postoperatively, activity disruption, and overall satisfaction...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Robotic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452975/associations-between-food-security-status-and-dietary-inflammatory-potential-within-lower-income-adults-from-the-united-states-national-health-and-nutrition-examination-survey-cycles-2007-to-2014
#3
Rachel S Bergmans, Mari Palta, Stephanie A Robert, Lawrence M Berger, Deborah B Ehrenthal, Kristen M Malecki
BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests both that chronic inflammation mediates the association of food insecurity with adverse health outcomes and that diet may be a significant source of inflammation among food insecure individuals. OBJECTIVE: To examine whether food security status is associated with dietary inflammatory potential. DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: Cross-sectional data came from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), cycles 2007 to 2014 (n=10,630)...
February 13, 2018: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452755/machine-learning-algorithms-based-on-signals-from-a-single-wearable-inertial-sensor-can-detect-surface-and-age-related-differences-in-walking
#4
B Hu, P C Dixon, J V Jacobs, J T Dennerlein, J M Schiffman
The aim of this study was to investigate if a machine learning algorithm utilizing triaxial accelerometer, gyroscope, and magnetometer data from an inertial motion unit (IMU) could detect surface- and age-related differences in walking. Seventeen older (71.5 ± 4.2 years) and eighteen young (27.0 ± 4.7 years) healthy adults walked over flat and uneven brick surfaces wearing an inertial measurement unit (IMU) over the L5 vertebra. IMU data were binned into smaller data segments using 4-s sliding windows with 1-s step lengths...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451022/breast-tomosynthesis-for-the-clarification-of-mammographic-bi-rads-3-lesions-can-decrease-follow-up-examinations-and-enables-immediate-cancer-diagnosis
#5
Sonja D Bahrs, Vanessa Otto, Valerie Hattermann, Bernhard Klumpp, Markus Hahn, Konstantin Nikolaou, Katja Siegmann-Luz
Background The limited sensitivity of mammography in case of a high breast density often produces unclear or false-positive findings, so-called BI-RADS 3 lesions, which have to be followed up to prove benignity. Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) was developed to reduce such summation effects. Purpose To evaluate the influence of an additional DBT on the management of mammographic BI-RADS 3 findings and whether DBT can decrease the time to definitive diagnosis or not. Material and Methods We analyzed 87 patients with a mammographic non-calcified BI-RADS 3 lesion who underwent an additional DBT of the affected breast...
January 1, 2018: Acta Radiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449952/variations-of-dietary-intake-by-glycemic-status-and-hispanic-latino-heritage-in-the-hispanic-community-health-study-study-of-latinos-hchs-sol
#6
Sarah S Casagrande, Daniela Sotres-Alvarez, Larissa Avilés-Santa, Matthew J O'Brien, Cristina Palacios, Cynthia M Pérez, Samantha A Reina, Xueyin Wang, Qibin Qi, Aida L Giachello, Rebeca A Espinoza Giacinto, Catherine C Cowie
Objective: A healthy diet is important for diabetes prevention and control; however, few studies have assessed dietary intake among US Hispanics/Latinos, a diverse population with a significant burden of diabetes. To address this gap in the literature, we determined intake of energy, macro/micronutrients, and vitamin supplements among Hispanics/Latinos by glycemic status and heritage. Research design and methods: Cross-sectional study of adults aged 18-74 years from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (2008-2011) with complete baseline data on glycemic status and two 24-hour dietary recalls (n=13 089)...
2018: BMJ Open Diabetes Research & Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449821/intentional-forgetting-in-organizations-the-importance-of-eliminating-retrieval-cues-for-implementing-new-routines
#7
REVIEW
Annette Kluge, Norbert Gronau
To cope with the already large, and ever increasing, amount of information stored in organizational memory, "forgetting," as an important human memory process, might be transferred to the organizational context. Especially in intentionally planned change processes (e.g., change management), forgetting is an important precondition to impede the recall of obsolete routines and adapt to new strategic objectives accompanied by new organizational routines. We first comprehensively review the literature on the need for organizational forgetting and particularly on accidental vs...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449778/why-do-those-with-long-term-substance-use-disorders-stop-abusing-substances-a-qualitative-study
#8
Henning Pettersen, Anne Landheim, Ivar Skeie, Stian Biong, Morten Brodahl, Victoria Benson, Larry Davidson
Although a significant proportion of adults recover from substance use disorders (SUDs), little is known about how they reach this turning point or why they stop using. The purpose of the study was to explore the factors that influence reasoning and decision making about quitting substance use after a long-term SUD. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 18 participants, each of whom had been diagnosed with a SUD and had been abstinent for at least 5 years. A resource group of peer consultants in long-term recovery from SUDs contributed to the study's planning, preparation, and initial analyses...
2018: Substance Abuse: Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449557/differential-patterns-of-contextual-organization-of-memory-in-first-episode-psychosis
#9
Vishnu P Murty, Rachel A McKinney, Sarah DuBrow, Maria Jalbrzikowski, Gretchen L Haas, Beatriz Luna
Contextual information is used to support and organize episodic memory. Prior research has reliably shown memory deficits in psychosis; however, little research has characterized how this population uses contextual information during memory recall. We employed an approach founded in a computational framework of free recall to quantify how individuals with first episode of psychosis (FEP, N = 97) and controls (CON, N = 55) use temporal and semantic context to organize memory recall. Free recall was characterized using the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised (HVLT-R)...
February 15, 2018: NPJ Schizophrenia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449204/national-food-nutrition-and-physical-activity-survey-of-the-portuguese-general-population-2015-2016-protocol-for-design-and-development
#10
Carla Lopes, Duarte Torres, Andreia Oliveira, Milton Severo, Sofia Guiomar, Violeta Alarcão, Elisabete Ramos, Sara Rodrigues, Sofia Vilela, Luísa Oliveira, Jorge Mota, Pedro J Teixeira, Paulo J Nicola, Simão Soares, Lene Frost Andersen
BACKGROUND: The assessment of food consumption data using harmonized methodologies at the European level is fundamental to support the development of public policies. Portugal is one of the countries with the most outdated information on individual food consumption. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to describe the design and methodology of the National Food, Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey, 2015-2016, developed to collect national and regional data on dietary habits, physical activity (PA), and nutritional status, in a representative sample of the Portuguese general population (3 months-84 years)...
February 15, 2018: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448874/autobiographical-memory-functions-and-posttraumatic-stress-symptoms-across-adulthood
#11
Adriana Del Palacio-Gonzalez, Lynn A Watson, Dorthe Berntsen
Previous research has documented robust individual differences in the functions served by autobiographical memories, and shown that different autobiographical memory functions are related to both positive and negative indicators of psychological well-being, and that their frequency varies with age. In this study, we examined the unique relationship between autobiographical memory functions and posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) and whether such relationships varied with age across adulthood. A representative sample of 1040 adult Danes (20-70 years old) reported the frequency with which they recall autobiographical memories for different purposes as well as their level of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms...
February 15, 2018: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447778/the-effect-of-high-dose-atorvastatin-on-neural-activity-and-cognitive-function
#12
Beth A Taylor, Alecia D Dager, Gregory A Panza, Amanda L Zaleski, Shashwath Meda, Gregory Book, Michael C Stevens, Sarah Tartar, C Michael White, Donna M Polk, Godfrey D Pearlson, Paul D Thompson
BACKGROUND: Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has not been used to assess the effects of statins on the brain. We assessed the effect of statins on cognition using standard neuropsychological assessments and brain neural activation with fMRI on two tasks. METHODS: Healthy statin-naïve men and women (48±15 years) were randomized to 80 mg/day atorvastatin (n=66; 27 men) or placebo (n=84; 48 men) for 6 months. Participants completed cognitive testing while on study drug and 2 months after treatment cessation using alternative test and task versions...
March 2018: American Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447323/clinically-oriented-patient-maintenance-protocol-a-clinical-consensus-of-experts
#13
Massimo Del Fabbro, Myron Nevins, Daniele Venturoli, Roberto L Weinstein, Tiziano Testori
The aim of the present survey was to define the most appropriate recall regimen and professional maintenance care protocol, identifying the main relative issues, based on a consensus of experts with long-term clinical experience. The survey consisted of 14 clinically relevant focused questions. The answers of each expert were aggregated to formulate clinical recommendations. The maintenance care protocol must be individually determined and a baseline condition identified. The recall frequency must have a specific periodicity, and bone levels must be radiographically checked at least every 2 years, unless specific needs require a shorter interval...
March 2018: International Journal of Periodontics & Restorative Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447312/the-bone-core-technique-for-the-augmentation-of-limited-bony-defects-five-year-prospective-study-with-a-new-minimally-invasive-technique
#14
Fouad Khoury, Romain Doliveux
The aim of this study was to evaluate a new minimally invasive surgical technique for the reconstruction of critical-size bony defect with local harvested bone core with simultaneous implant placement. In a prospective study, 186 consecutively treated patients were included and controlled clinically and radiologically for at least 5 years postoperative. Every patient presented a bony defect affecting the buccal, lingual, or palatal wall. In all cases, the alveolar crest was wide enough to allow implant placement inside the bony contours...
March 2018: International Journal of Periodontics & Restorative Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447252/low-back-electromyography-emg-data-driven-load-classification-for-dynamic-lifting-tasks
#15
Deema Totah, Lauro Ojeda, Daniel D Johnson, Deanna Gates, Emily Mower Provost, Kira Barton
OBJECTIVE: Numerous devices have been designed to support the back during lifting tasks. To improve the utility of such devices, this research explores the use of preparatory muscle activity to classify muscle loading and initiate appropriate device activation. The goal of this study was to determine the earliest time window that enabled accurate load classification during a dynamic lifting task. METHODS: Nine subjects performed thirty symmetrical lifts, split evenly across three weight conditions (no-weight, 10-lbs and 24-lbs), while low-back muscle activity data was collected...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447201/estimation-model-for-habitual-24-hour-urinary-sodium-excretion-using-simple-questionnaires-from-normotensive-koreans
#16
Ji-Sook Kong, Yeon-Kyung Lee, Mi Kyung Kim, Mi-Kyeong Choi, Young-Ran Heo, Taisun Hyun, Sun Mee Kim, Eun-Soon Lyu, Se-Young Oh, Hae-Ryun Park, Moo-Yong Rhee, Hee-Kyong Ro, Mi Kyung Song
This study was conducted to develop an equation for estimation of 24-h urinary-sodium excretion that can serve as an alternative to 24-h dietary recall and 24-h urine collection for normotensive Korean adults. In total, data on 640 healthy Korean adults aged 19 to 69 years from 4 regions of the country were collected as a training set. In order to externally validate the equation developed from that training set, 200 subjects were recruited independently as a validation set. Due to heterogeneity by gender, we constructed a gender-specific equation for estimation of 24-h urinary-sodium excretion by using a multivariable linear regression model and assessed the performance of the developed equation in validation set...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446758/localized-thin-section-ct-with-radiomics-feature-extraction-and-machine-learning-to-classify-early-detected-pulmonary-nodules-from-lung-cancer-screening
#17
Shu-Ju Tu, Chih-Wei Wang, Kuang-Tse Pan, Yi-Cheng Wu, Chen-Te Wu
Lung cancer screening aims to detect small pulmonary nodules and decrease the mortality rate. However, studies from large-scale clinical trials of lung cancer screening showed false-positive rate is high and positive predictive value is low. To address these problems, it is highly needed to have a technical approach for accurate malignancy differentiation among these early-detected nodules. We studied the clinical feasibility of an additional protocol of localized thin-section CT for further assessment on these recalled patients from lung cancer screening tests...
February 15, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446699/investigating-d-cycloserine-as-a-potential-pharmacological-enhancer-of-an-emotional-bias-learning-procedure
#18
Marcella L Woud, Simon E Blackwell, Susann Steudte-Schmiedgen, Michael Browning, Emily A Holmes, Catherine J Harmer, Jürgen Margraf, Andrea Reinecke
The partial N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor agonist d-cycloserine may enhance psychological therapies. However, its exact mechanism of action is still being investigated. Cognitive bias modification techniques allow isolation of cognitive processes and thus investigation of how they may be affected by d-cycloserine. We used a cognitive bias modification paradigm targeting appraisals of a stressful event, Cognitive Bias Modification-Appraisal, to investigate whether d-cycloserine enhanced the modification of appraisal, and whether it caused greater reduction in indices of psychopathology...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446044/electrophysiological-correlates-of-encoding-processes-in-a-full-report-visual-working-memory-paradigm
#19
Kyle W Killebrew, Gennadiy Gurariy, Candace E Peacock, Marian E Berryhill, Gideon P Caplovitz
Why are some visual stimuli remembered, whereas others are forgotten? A limitation of recognition paradigms is that they measure aggregate behavioral performance and/or neural responses to all stimuli presented in a visual working memory (VWM) array. To address this limitation, we paired an electroencephalography (EEG) frequency-tagging technique with two full-report VWM paradigms. This permitted the tracking of individual stimuli as well as the aggregate response. We recorded high-density EEG (256 channel) while participants viewed four shape stimuli, each flickering at a different frequency...
February 14, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444966/cerebral-microbleeds-and-csf-alzheimer-biomarkers-in-primary-progressive-aphasias
#20
Aline Mendes, Anne Bertrand, Foudil Lamari, Olivier Colliot, Alexandre Routier, Olivier Godefroy, Frédérique Etcharry-Bouyx, Olivier Moreaud, Florence Pasquier, Philippe Couratier, Karim Bennys, Martine Vercelletto, Olivier Martinaud, Bernard Laurent, Jérémie Pariente, Michèle Puel, Stéphane Epelbaum, Serge Belliard, Takoua Kaaouana, Ludovic Fillon, Marie Chupin, Bruno Dubois, Marc Teichmann
OBJECTIVE: To reveal the prevalence and localization of cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) in the 3 main variants of primary progressive aphasia (PPA) (logopenic, semantic, and nonfluent/agrammatic), to identify the relationship with underlying Alzheimer pathology, and to explore whether CMBs contribute to language breakdown. METHODS: We used a cross-sectional design in a multicenter cohort of 82 patients with PPA and 19 similarly aged healthy controls. MRI allowed for rating CMBs (2-dimensional gradient recalled echo T2*, susceptibility weighted imaging sequences) and white matter hyperintensities...
February 14, 2018: Neurology
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