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Aylin Ayaz, Reyhan Nergiz-Unal, Damla Dedebayraktar, Asli Akyol, A Gulden Pekcan, Halit Tanju Besler, Zehra Buyuktuncer
This study aimed to investigate whether there was any difference in eating pattern, abnormal eating behaviour, obesity and the number of food addiction symptoms according to food addiction presence. A total sample of 851 healthy subjects living in Ankara (n = 360 male, n = 491 female) aged 19-65 years were included in this cross-sectional survey. Data on demographic information, 24-hour dietary recalls, Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS), Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26), and anthropometric measurements were collected through face-to-face interviews...
2018: PloS One
Rachelle Janicki, M Kate Thomas, Katarina Pintar, Manon Fleury, Andrea Nesbitt
In Canada, over 400,000 enteric diseases related to drinking water occur each year, highlighting the importance of understanding sources of Canadians' drinking and recreational water exposures. To address this need, a population-based telephone survey of 10,942 Canadians was conducted between 2014 and 2015, assessing Canadian's drinking water sources and recreational water exposures using a seven-day recall method. Results were analyzed by province/territory, season, age group, gender, income, education, and urban/rural status...
April 2018: Journal of Water and Health
Angeline Chatelan, Pedro Marques-Vidal, Sabine Bucher, Stefan Siegenthaler, Nathalie Metzger, Christine Anne Zuberbühler, Esther Camenzind-Frey, Andrea Reggli, Murielle Bochud, Sigrid Beer-Borst
This paper informs about the implementation of the first trilingual Swiss nutrition pilot survey and lessons learnt in terms of recruitment, participation, data collection feasibility, and data management. The population-based cross-sectional nutrition pilot survey took place between June and November 2013. Six trained dietitians interviewed 276 adults aged 18-75 years residing in the cantons of Bern (German), Vaud (French) or Ticino (Italian). Food consumption was assessed with two non-consecutive computer-assisted 24-Hour Dietary Recalls (24HDR), applying a trilingual version of GloboDiet® adapted to specific requirements of Switzerland...
April 20, 2018: International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research. Journal International de Vitaminologie et de Nutrition
Elia Psouni, Andreas Falck, Leni Boström, Martin Persson, Lisa Sidén, Maria Wallin
Effects of joint attention were addressed on 3- to 4-year-olds' performance in a verbal false-Belief Test (FBT), featuring the experimenter as co-watcher rather than narrator. In two experiments, children (N = 183) watched a filmed-FBT jointly with a test leader, disjointed from a test leader, or alone. Children attending jointly with a test leader were more likely to pass the FBT compared with normative data and to spontaneously recall information indicating false-belief understanding, suggesting that joint attention strengthens the plausibility of the FBT and renders plot-critical information more salient...
April 20, 2018: Child Development
Justus Uchenna Onu, Jude Uzoma Ohaeri
Introduction: The debate on the current nosological status of schizophrenia and mood disorders as distinct entities is very active among scholars. There is a paucity of genetic epidemiological data to contribute an African perspective to this debate. Aim: This study aimed to assess the morbid risk of mood disorders in the relatives of schizophrenia probands, in comparison with the families of a sample of healthy controls. Subjects and Methods: This study elicited the information on the morbid risk of mood disorders among 5259 relatives of schizophrenia probands (n = 138) and 6734 relatives of healthy controls (n = 138) through direct interview of patients, available relatives of patients and the comparison group...
January 2018: Nigerian Postgraduate Medical Journal
Dina Abdel Salam El-Dakhs, Jeanette Altarriba
Empirical evidence has recently been provided for the distinctiveness of emotion words as compared to abstract and concrete words for monolinguals, calling for a reconsideration of the relation between emotion and language. The present study investigates whether the distinctiveness of emotion words among monolinguals holds for foreign language learners. To this end, three groups (n = 120 per group) of late Arabic-English bilinguals who learned English as a foreign language completed tasks including free recall, rating, and discrete word association...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
Nitin Shivappa, Michael D Wirth, E Angela Murphy, Thomas G Hurley, James R Hébert
BACKGROUND: Enterolignans are important biomarkers of microbiota diversity, with higher levels indicating greater diversity. Diet and inflammation have been shown to play a role in maintaining microbiota diversity. This study examined whether inflammatory potential of diet, as measured by the Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII® ) has an impact on levels of urinary enterolignans in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2008. We also carried out construct validation of the DII with C-reactive protein (CRP)...
April 19, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
David Rodriguez-Andres, Magdalena Mendez-Lopez, M-Carmen Juan, Elena Perez-Hernandez
The use of virtual reality-based tasks for studying memory has increased considerably. Most of the studies that have looked at child population factors that influence performance on such tasks have been focused on cognitive variables. However, little attention has been paid to the impact of non-cognitive skills. In the present paper, we tested 52 typically-developing children aged 5-12 years in a virtual object-location task. The task assessed their spatial short-term memory for the location of three objects in a virtual city...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Emma Foster, Jennifer Bradley
Dietary assessment has come under much criticism of late to the extent that it has been questioned whether self-reported methods of dietary assessment are worth doing at all. Widespread under-reporting of energy intake, limitations due to memory, changes to intake due to the burden of recording and social desirability bias all impact significantly on the accuracy of the dietary information collected. Under-reporting of energy intakes has long been recognized as a problem in dietary research with doubly labeled water measures of energy expenditure uncovering significant under-reporting of energy intakes across different populations and different dietary assessment methods...
March 2018: Nutrition Research
Keewan Kim, Jean Wactawski-Wende, Kara A Michels, Karen C Schliep, Torie C Plowden, Ellen N Chaljub, Sunni L Mumford
Although minerals are linked to several reproductive outcomes, it is unknown whether dietary minerals are associated with ovulatory function. We hypothesised that low intakes of minerals would be associated with an increased risk of anovulation. We investigated associations between dietary mineral intake and both reproductive hormones and anovulation in healthy women in the BioCycle Study, which prospectively followed up 259 regularly menstruating women aged 18-44 years who were not taking mineral supplements for two menstrual cycles...
April 20, 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
Todd C Jones, Kealagh Robinson, Brenna C Steel
Describing unfamiliar faces during or immediately after their presentation in a study phase can produce better recognition memory performance compared with a view-only control condition. We treated descriptions as elaborative information that is part of the study context and investigated how context retrieval influences recognition memory. Following general dual-process theories, we hypothesized that recollection would be used to recall descriptions and that description recall would influence recognition decisions, including the level of recognition confidence...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
Dominic Guitard, Andrew J Gabel, Jean Saint-Aubin, Aimée M Surprenant, Ian Neath
The word length effect, better recall of lists of short (fewer syllables) than long (more syllables) words has been termed a benchmark effect of working memory. Despite this, experiments on the word length effect can yield quite different results depending on set size and stimulus properties. Seven experiments are reported that address these 2 issues. Experiment 1 replicated the finding of a preserved word length effect under concurrent articulation for large stimulus sets, which contrasts with the abolition of the word length effect by concurrent articulation for small stimulus sets...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
Bettina Zengel, Brett M Wells, John J Skowronski
The mechanisms underlying mnemic neglect (MN) and the conditions under which it waxes and wanes are not yet fully understood. The research in this article examined conditions during both encoding and recall that could potentially moderate the MN effect and that could provide cues about the cognitive mechanisms that contribute to the effect. Results showed that MN: (a) emerged after recall was delayed (Study 1); (b) could not be attributed to differential behavior looking time (Study 2); (c) did not emerge under cognitive load (Study 3); and (d) was not linked to the perceived extremity, importance, or evaluations of the behaviors...
May 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Thomas Lane, Daniel P Russo, Kimberley M Zorn, Alex Michael Clark, Alexandru Korotcov, Valery Tkachenko, Robert C Reynolds, Alexander Luke Perryman, Joel Stephen Freundlich, Sean Ekins
Tuberculosis is a global health dilemma. In 2016, the WHO reported 10.4 million incidences and 1.7 million deaths. The need to develop new treatments for those infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) has led to many large-scale phenotypic screens and many thousands of new active compounds identified in vitro. However, with limited funding, efforts to discover new active molecules against Mtb needs to be more efficient. Several computational machine learning approaches have been shown to have good enrichment and hit rates...
April 19, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
D J Hallford, D W Austin, F Raes, K Takano
Overgeneral memory (OGM) refers to the failure to recall memories of specific personally experienced events, which occurs in various psychiatric disorders. One pathway through which OGM is theorized to develop is the avoidance of thinking of negative experiences, whereby cumulative avoidance may maladaptively generalize to autobiographical memory (AM) more broadly. We tested this, predicting that negative experiences would interact with avoidance to predict AM specificity. In Study 1 (N = 281), negative life events (over six months) and daily hassles (over one month) were not related to AM specificity, nor was avoidance, and no interaction was found...
April 18, 2018: Memory & Cognition
Keyur Mehta, Andreas Kaubisch, Justin Tang, Aneesh Pirlamarla, Shalom Kalnicki
Introduction: Radiation recall dermatitis (RRD) is a phenomenon that occurs in previously irradiated areas shortly after administration of a chemotherapeutic agent. As the use of sorafenib expands, the incidence of radiation recall dermatitis induced by sorafenib will likely increase. Here, we report on a patient who developed RRD and describe his clinical characteristics along with a review of the literature. Case Presentation: Our patient was treated with palliative radiation therapy (RT) to a painful metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma lesion in the right forearm...
2018: Case Reports in Oncological Medicine
Zhen Gao, Guoliang Lu, Peng Yan, Chen Lyu, Xueyong Li, Wei Shang, Zhaohong Xie, Wanming Zhang
In recent years, automatic change detection for real-time monitoring of electroencephalogram (EEG) signals has attracted widespread interest with a large number of clinical applications. However, it is still a challenging problem. This paper presents a novel framework for this task where joint time-domain features are firstly computed to extract temporal fluctuations of a given EEG data stream; and then, an auto-regressive (AR) linear model is adopted to model the data and temporal anomalies are subsequently calculated from that model to reflect the possibilities that a change occurs; a non-parametric statistical test based on Randomized Power Martingale (RPM) is last performed for making change decision from the resulting anomaly scores...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Thackery I Brown, Jesse Rissman, Tiffany E Chow, Melina R Uncapher, Anthony D Wagner
Autobiographical remembering can depend on two forms of memory: episodic (event) memory and autobiographical semantic memory (remembering personally relevant semantic knowledge, independent of recalling a specific experience). There is debate about the degree to which the neural signals that support episodic recollection relate to or build upon autobiographical semantic remembering. Pooling data from two fMRI studies of memory for real-world personal events, we investigated whether medial temporal lobe (MTL) and parietal subregions contribute to autobiographical episodic and semantic remembering...
April 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
Machoene D Sekgala, Zandile J Mchiza, Whadi-Ah Parker, Kotsedi D Monyeki
This study attempts to bridge the research gap regarding the importance of dietary fiber in reducing metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk factors in young rural South Africans. A total of 627 individuals (309 males and 318 females) aged 18–30 years participated in the study. Dietary intake was measured using a validated 24-h recall method. The consumption of different types of dietary fiber (total, soluble, and insoluble) was calculated and presented as grams. Anthropometrics, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, and lipid profiles were measured according to standard protocols...
April 18, 2018: Nutrients
Nicole Naadu Ofosu, John Paul Ekwaru, Kerry Ann Bastian, Sarah A Loehr, Kate Storey, John C Spence, Paul J Veugelers
BACKGROUND: APPLE Schools is a Comprehensive School Health (CSH) project, started in schools in socioeconomically disadvantaged areas where dietary habits are poor, physical activity (PA) levels are low, and obesity rates are high. Earlier research showed program effects whereby energy intake, PA and weight status of students in APPLE Schools had reached similar levels as that of students in other schools. However, it is unknown whether the effects of CSH are sustained when children grow into adolescents...
April 18, 2018: BMC Public Health
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