Read by QxMD icon Read

Corn or maize

Frieder Hofmann, Maren Kruse-Plass, Ulrike Kuhn, Mathias Otto, Ulrich Schlechtriemen, Boris Schröder, Rudolf Vögel, Werner Wosniok
BACKGROUND: Risk assessment for GMOs such as Bt maize requires detailed data concerning pollen deposition onto non-target host-plant leaves. A field study of pollen on lepidopteran host-plant leaves was therefore undertaken in 2009-2012 in Germany. During the maize flowering period, we used in situ microscopy at a spatial resolution adequate to monitor the feeding behaviour of butterfly larvae. The plant-specific pollen deposition data were supplemented with standardised measurements of pollen release rates and deposition obtained by volumetric pollen monitors and passive samplers...
2016: Environmental Sciences Europe
S M Sinn, W R Gibbons, M L Brown, J M DeRouchey, C L Levesque
An experimental, microbially enhanced soybean product (MEPRO) was evaluated as a replacement for fishmeal (FM). Assessment of feedstuffs should include estimation of digestibility as well as pig performance and in combination with dietary additives. Digestibility values determined in growing pigs may not apply to nursery pigs; thus, standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids (AA) in MEPRO and FM were determined using 30±1.6 kg BW ileal-cannulated barrows (n=6) and 9.8±1.2 kg BW barrows (n=37; serial slaughter)...
October 18, 2016: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
G Klop, S van Laar-van Schuppen, W F Pellikaan, W H Hendriks, A Bannink, J Dijkstra
The adaptation of dairy cows to methane (CH4)-mitigating feed additives was evaluated using the in vitro gas production (GP) technique. Nine rumen-fistulated lactating Holstein cows were grouped into three blocks and within blocks randomly assigned to one of three experimental diets: Control (CON; no feed additive), Agolin Ruminant® (AR; 0.05 g/kg dry matter (DM)) or lauric acid (LA; 30 g/kg DM). Total mixed rations composed of maize silage, grass silage and concentrate were fed in a 40 : 30 : 30 ratio on DM basis...
October 17, 2016: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Jiangang Liu, Guangyao Wang, Qingquan Chu, Fu Chen
BACKGROUND: The nitrogen significantly increases the maize yield; however, the unreasonable use of nitrogen is common in China. An analysis of crop yield gaps can reveal the limiting factors for yield improvement; however, there's a lack of practical strategies for narrowing the yield gaps of household farms. The objectives of this study were to assess the yield gap of summer maize using an integrative method and to develop strategies for narrowing the maize yield gap through precise nitrogen fertilization...
October 17, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Qunying Lin, Liangkun Long, Liangliang Wu, Fenglun Zhang, Shuling Wu, Weiming Zhang, Xiaoming Sun
BACKGROUND: In commercial production of Cordyceps militaris (a famous Chinese medicine), usually cereal grains were utilized as cultivation substrates. This study is aimed to evaluate the efficiency of agricultural wastes as substitute materials in the low cost production of C. militaris. Cottonseed shells (CS), corn cob particles (CCP), Italian poplar sawdusts (IPS) and substrates spent by Flammulina velutipes (SS) were employed to cultivate C. militaris, using rice medium as control...
October 17, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Anne-Laure Chateigner-Boutin, José J Ordaz-Ortiz, Camille Alvarado, Brigitte Bouchet, Sylvie Durand, Yves Verhertbruggen, Yves Barrière, Luc Saulnier
Cell walls are comprised of networks of entangled polymers that differ considerably between species, tissues and developmental stages. The cell walls of grasses, a family that encompasses major crops, contain specific polysaccharide structures such as xylans substituted with feruloylated arabinose residues. Ferulic acid is involved in the grass cell wall assembly by mediating linkages between xylan chains and between xylans and lignins. Ferulic acid contributes to the physical properties of cell walls, it is a hindrance to cell wall degradability (thus biomass conversion and silage digestibility) and may contribute to pest resistance...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Chen Hui, Zhi Shan Hua, Meng Wai Woo, Xiao Dong Chen
Combinations of gelatin (G) and oxidized corn starch (OCS) were explored as a new microcapsule composite for single droplet spray drying. The blending solutions property, gel time, transparency and viscosity of G/CS (corn starch) and G/OCS blend solutions were compared at different ratios (10:0;9:1;8:2;7:3;6:4;5:5) and concentrations(1% wt; 3% wt;5% wt). The drying and dissolution behaviors of composite droplet have been studied using the single droplet drying technique. Possible reaction mechanisms in the composite blend were elucidated by SEM and FTIR techniques...
October 13, 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Francesco Esposito, Evelina Fasano, Gelsomina Scognamiglio, Antonio Nardone, Maria Triassi, Teresa Cirillo
Fumonisins are mycotoxins produced by Fusarium species and affecting maize crops. Some analogues of fumonisins are known for their toxic and possible carcinogenic effects on humans and animals. Because of their occurrence in corn-based food, diet is the main source of exposure to these mycotoxins, especially among people affected by celiac disease. Hence, the purpose of this paper was to evaluate the amount of fumonisins B1, B2 and B3 in maize-based products and to assess the exposure of people affected by celiac disease to fumonisins...
October 13, 2016: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Yanli Xiang, Xiaopeng Sun, Shan Gao, Feng Qin, Mingqiu Dai
Drought is a major abiotic stress that causes the yearly yield loss of maize, a crop cultured worldwide, thus breeding drought tolerant maize cultivars is a priority target of the world agriculture. Clade A PP2C phosphatases (PP2C-A) are conserved in plants and are important for ABA signaling and plant drought response. However, the natural variations of PP2C-A genes that directly associated with levels of drought tolerance remain to be elucidated. Here, we conducted a candidate gene association analysis of ZmPP2C-A gene family in a maize panel consisting of 368 varieties collected worldwide, and identified a drought responsive gene ZmPP2C-A10 that is tightly associated with drought tolerance...
October 13, 2016: Molecular Plant
Lucia Rochi, María José Diéguez, Germán Burguener, Martín Alejandro Darino, María Fernanda Pergolesi, Lorena Romina Ingala, Alba Romina Cuyeu, Adrián Turjanski, Enrique Domingo Kreff, Francisco Sacco
Rust fungi are one of the most devastating pathogens of crop plants. The biotrophic fungus Puccinia sorghi Schwein (Ps) is responsible for maize common rust, an endemic disease of maize (Zea mays L) in Argentina that causes significant yield losses in corn production. In spite of this, the Ps genomic sequence was not available. We used Illumina sequencing to rapidly produce the 99.6 Mb draft genome sequence of Ps race RO10H11247, derived from a single-uredinial isolate from infected maize leaves collected in the Argentine Corn Belt Region during 2010...
October 13, 2016: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
Nikolas T Weissmueller, Hoang Dung Lu, Amanda Hurley, Robert K Prud'homme
One factor limiting the expansion of nanomedicines has been the high cost of the materials and processes required for their production. We present a continuous, scalable, low cost nano-encapsulation process, Flash Nanoprecipitation (FNP) that enables the production of nanocarriers (NCs) with a narrow size distribution using zein corn proteins. Zein is a low cost, GRAS protein (having the FDA status of "Generally Regarded as Safe") currently used in food applications, which acts as an effective encapsulant for hydrophobic compounds using FNP...
October 16, 2016: Biomacromolecules
Martin Waterstraat, Andreas A Hildebrand, Margit Rosler, Mirko Bunzel
Forage plants of the Poaceae family are grown as pasturage or used for the production of hay, straw, corn stover, etc. Although ferulic acid contents of grasses are generally high, the amount of ingested ferulic acid differs depending on the type of forage resulting in varying contents of ferulic acid and its microbial and hepatic metabolites in milk. Concentrations and patterns of these metabolites may be used as markers to track different forages in livestock feeding. Therefore, we developed a stable isotope dilution assay to quantitate ferulic acid, twelve ferulic acid based metabolites, p coumaric acid, and cinnamic acid in milk...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Sabitha Papineni, Dale W Fletcher, Gary L Cromwell, Ricardo D Ekmay
Broiler chickens are fast growing monogastric animals considered a sensitive test species to evaluate the safety and nutritional equivalence between transgenic and non-transgenic grains as part of the human safety evaluation process. DAS-44406-6 soybean expresses three herbicide-tolerant proteins: the aryloxyalkanoate dioxygenase-12 (AAD-12) enzyme which provides tolerance to 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) herbicides, the double-mutant 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (2mEPSPS) enzyme encoded by a modified version of the epsps gene from maize (Zea mays), which provides tolerance to glyphosate herbicides, and the phosphinothricin acetyltransferase (PAT) enzyme from Streptomyces viridochromogenes, which provides tolerance to glufosinate herbicides...
October 14, 2016: Poultry Science
Jan Franko, Qian Shi, Jeffrey P Meyers, Timothy S Maughan, Richard A Adams, Matthew T Seymour, Leonard Saltz, Cornelis J A Punt, Miriam Koopman, Christophe Tournigand, Niall C Tebbutt, Eduardo Diaz-Rubio, John Souglakos, Alfredo Falcone, Benoist Chibaudel, Volker Heinemann, Joseph Moen, Aimery De Gramont, Daniel J Sargent, Axel Grothey
BACKGROUND: Patients with peritoneal metastatic colorectal cancer have reduced overall survival compared with patients with metastatic colorectal cancer without peritoneal involvement. Here we further investigated the effect of the number and location of metastases in patients receiving first-line systemic chemotherapy. METHODS: We analysed individual patient data for previously untreated patients enrolled in 14 phase 3 randomised trials done between 1997 and 2008...
October 12, 2016: Lancet Oncology
Simon P Overeem, Johannes T Boersen, Richte C L Schuurmann, Erik Groot Jebbink, Cornelis H Slump, Michel M P J Reijnen, Jean-Paul P M de Vries
OBJECTIVE: Gutters can be described as the loss of continuous apposition between the main body of the endograft, the chimney stent graft, and the aortic wall. Gutters have been associated with increased risk of type IA endoleaks and are considered to be the Achilles' heel of chimney endovascular aneurysm repair (ch-EVAR). However, there is no classification yet to classify and quantify gutter types after ch-EVAR. METHODS: Different gutter types can be distinguished by their morphologic appearance in two- and three-dimensional views and reconstructed slices perpendicular to the center lumen line...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Vascular Surgery
Erik Groot Jebbink, Varghese Mathai, Johannes T Boersen, Chao Sun, Cornelis H Slump, Peter C J M Goverde, Michel Versluis, Michel M P J Reijnen
BACKGROUND: Endovascular treatment of aortoiliac occlusive disease entails the use of multiple stents to reconstruct the aortic bifurcation. Different configurations have been applied and geometric variations exist, as quantified in previous work. Other studies concluded that specific stent geometry seems to affect patency. These variations may affect local flow patterns, resulting in different wall shear stress (WSS) and oscillating shear index (OSI). The aim of this study was to compare the effect of different stent configurations on flow perturbations (recirculation and fluid stasis), WSS, and OSI in an in vitro setup...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Vascular Surgery
A Palmonari, G Canestrari, M Fustini, E Bonfante, L Mammi, A Formigoni
In vitro methods requiring ruminal microorganisms to ferment and digest feeds have been used for decades. Though commonly accepted, collecting and pooling rumen fluid from different donor animals to avoid individual characteristics could affect in vitro fermentations. The current study evaluated the effects of individual or pooled liquors on in vitro digestibility of amylase- and sodium sulfite-treated NDF with ash correction (aNDFom). The study was conducted on 24 samples (8 alfalfa hays, 8 grass hays, and 8 corn silages)...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
Na Sai, Wenjing Sun, Yuntang Wu, Zhong Sun, Guanggui Yu, Guowei Huang
A new enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for atrazine was developed based on covalent bonding of the small molecule hapten, 2-mercaptopropionic acid-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-1,3,5-triazine (MPA-atrazine), to urea-glutaraldehyde (UGA)-treated microtiter plates. In this assay, the microtiter plate surface was treated with the UGA network to both introduce amino groups, which were used to cross-link with the hapten carboxylate groups, and efficiently prevent non-specific adsorption of antibodies, which successfully eliminated the time-consuming routine blocking step...
October 12, 2016: International Immunopharmacology
Rivka B Fidel, David A Laird, Michael L Thompson, Michael Lawrinenko
Lack of knowledge regarding the nature of biochar alkalis has hindered understanding of pH-sensitive biochar-soil interactions. Here we investigate the nature of biochar alkalinity and present a cohesive suite of methods for its quantification. Biochars produced from cellulose, corn stover and wood feedstocks had significant low-pKa organic structural (0.03-0.34 meq g(-1)), other organic (0-0.92 meq g(-1)), carbonate (0.02-1.5 meq g(-1)), and other inorganic (0-0.26 meq g(-1)) alkalinities. All four categories of biochar alkalinity contributed to total biochar alkalinity and are therefore relevant to pH-sensitive soil processes...
October 12, 2016: Chemosphere
Jiafa Chen, Rosemary Shrestha, Junqiang Ding, Hongjian Zheng, Chunhua Mu, Jianyu Wu, George Mahuku
Fusarium ear rot (FER) incited by Fusarium verticillioides is a major disease of maize that reduces grain quality globally. Host resistance is the most suitable strategy for managing the disease. We report the results of genome-wide association study (GWAS) to detect alleles associated with increased resistance to FER in a set of 818 tropical maize inbred lines evaluated in three environments. Association tests performed using 43,424 single-nucleotide polymorphic (SNPs) markers identified 45 SNPs and 15 haplotypes that were significantly associated with FER resistance...
October 14, 2016: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"