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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911377/hybrid-cut-an-improved-sectioning-method-for-recalcitrant-plant-tissue-samples
#1
Tien-Kuan Chen, Hui-Ting Yang, Su-Chiung Fang, Yi-Chen Lien, Ting-Ting Yang, Swee-Suak Ko
Maintaining plant section integrity is essential for studying detailed anatomical structures at the cellular, tissue, or even organ level. However, some plant cells have rigid cell walls, tough fibers and crystals (calcium oxalate, silica, etc.), and high water content that often disrupt tissue integrity during plant tissue sectioning. This study establishes a simple Hybrid-Cut tissue sectioning method. This protocol modifies a paraffin-based sectioning technique and improves the integrity of tissue sections from different plants...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910283/feeding-behaviors-during-home-based-treatment-of-moderate-acute-malnutrition-using-corn-soy-blends-or-lipid-based-nutrient-supplements
#2
Ann-Sophie Iuel-Brockdorf, Albertine Ouedraogo, Christian Ritz, Tania Aase Draebel, Per Ashorn, Suzanne Filteau, Kim F Michaelsen
Feeding behaviors have an important impact on children's nutritional status and are essential to consider when implementing nutrition programs. The objective of this study was to explore and compare feeding behaviors related to supplementary feeding with corn-soy blends (CSB) and lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) based on best practice feeding behaviors. The study was conducted as part of a randomized controlled trial assessing the effectiveness of new formulations of CSB and LNS and comprised 1,546 children from 6 to 23 months...
December 2, 2016: Maternal & Child Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909923/quality-improvement-of-acidic-soils-by-biochar-derived-from-renewable-materials
#3
Deok Hyun Moon, Inseong Hwang, Yoon-Young Chang, Agamemnon Koutsospyros, Kyung Hoon Cheong, Won Hyun Ji, Jeong-Hun Park
Biochar derived from waste plant materials and agricultural residues was used to improve the quality of an acidic soil. The acidic soil was treated for 1 month with both soy bean stover-derived biochar and oak-derived biochar in the range of 1 to 5 wt% for pH improvement and exchangeable cation enhancement. Following 1 month of treatment, the soil pH was monitored and exchangeable cations were measured. Moreover, a maize growth experiment was performed for 14 days with selected treated soil samples to confirm the effectiveness of the treatment...
December 1, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909913/plant-extracts-as-phytogenic-additives-considering-intake-digestibility-and-feeding-behavior-of-sheep
#4
Camila Sousa da Silva, Evaristo Jorge Oliveira de Souza, Gerfesson Felipe Cavalcanti Pereira, Edwilka Oliveira Cavalcante, Ewerton Ivo Martins de Lima, Thaysa Rodrigues Torres, José Ricardo Coelho da Silva, Daniel Cézar da Silva
The objective was to evaluate the intake, digestibility, and ingestive sheep behavior with feeding phytogenic additives derived from plant extracts. Five non-emasculated sheep without defined breed at 28 ± 1.81 kg initial body weight and 6 months age were used. Treatments consisted of administering four phytogenic additives from the garlic extracts, coriander seed, oregano, and pods of mesquite, plus a control treatment (without additive). The ration was composed of Tifton 85 hay grass, corn, soybean meal, and mineral salt...
December 1, 2016: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909554/high-maysin-corn-silk-extract-reduces-body-weight-and-fat-deposition-in-c57bl-6j-mice-fed-high-fat-diets
#5
Eun Young Lee, Sun Lim Kim, Hyeon Jung Kang, Myung Hwan Kim, Ae Wha Ha, Woo Kyoung Kim
BACKGROUNG/OBJECTIVES: The study was performed to investigate the effects and mechanisms of action of high maysin corn silk extract on body weight and fat deposition in experimental animals. MATERIALS/METHODS: A total of 30 male C57BL/6J mice, 4-weeks-old, were purchased and divided into three groups by weight using a randomized block design. The normal-fat (NF) group received 7% fat (diet weight basis), the high-fat (HF) group received 25% fat and 0.5% cholesterol, and the high-fat corn silk (HFCS) group received high-fat diet and high maysin corn silk extract at 100 mg/kg body weight through daily oral administration...
December 2016: Nutrition Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909444/smallholder-farms-and-the-potential-for-sustainable-intensification
#6
Leah M Mungai, Sieglinde Snapp, Joseph P Messina, Regis Chikowo, Alex Smith, Erin Anders, Robert B Richardson, Guiying Li
The sustainable intensification of African agriculture is gaining momentum with the compelling need to increase food and agricultural production. In Southern Africa, smallholder farming systems are predominately maize-based and subject to erratic climatic conditions. Farmer crop and soil management decisions are influenced by a plethora of complex factors such as market access resource availability, social relations, environment, and various messages on sustainable farming practices. Such factors pose barriers to increasing sustainable intensification in Africa...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908713/optimization-of-resistant-starch-formation-from-high-amylose-corn-starch-by-microwave-irradiation-treatments-and-characterization-of-starch-preparations
#7
Selime Mutlu, Kevser Kahraman, Serpil Öztürk
The effects of microwave irradiation on resistant starch (RS) formation and functional properties in high-amylose corn starch, Hylon VII, by applying microwave-storing cycles and drying processes were investigated. The Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the reaction conditions, microwave time (2-4min) and power (20-100%), for RS formation. The starch:water (1:10) mixtures were cooked and autoclaved and then different microwave-storing cycles and drying (oven or freeze drying) processes were applied...
November 28, 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908415/iodine-in-the-feed-of-cows-and-in-the-milk-with-a-view-to-the-consumer-s-iodine-supply
#8
Friedrich Schöne, Kathrin Spörl, Matthias Leiterer
Milk may be an iodine source for humans, but its magnitude depends on the iodine content of cow feed. The present investigation focused on the iodine level of feed and milk in German feeding practice in comparison with the results of previous milk monitoring and dose-response experiments with dairy cows. In 73 samples of straight feedstuffs (41 concentrates, 32 silages prepared from grass or green maize) and a total of 83 vitamin mineral premixes and compound feeds, respectively, the iodine content was determined and along with the expected daily iodine intake of cows...
January 2017: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907130/environmental-nitrogen-losses-from-commercial-crop-production-systems-in-the-suwannee-river-basin-of-florida
#9
Rishi Prasad, George J Hochmuth
The springs and the Suwannee river of northern Florida in Middle Suwanee River Basin (MSRB) are among several examples in this planet that have shown a temporal trend of increasing nitrate concentration primarily due to the impacts of non-point sources such as agriculture. The rate of nitrate increase in the river as documented by Ham and Hatzell (1996) was 0.02 mg N L-1 y-1. Best management practices (BMPs) for nutrients were adopted by the commercial farms in the MSRB region to reduce the amounts of pollutants entering the water bodies, however the effectiveness of BMPs remains a topic of interest and discussion among the researchers, environmental administrators and policy makers about the loads of nitrogen entering into groundwater and river systems...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907051/battle-in-the-new-world-helicoverpa-armigera-versus-helicoverpa-zea-lepidoptera-noctuidae
#10
José P F Bentivenha, Silvana V Paula-Moraes, Edson L L Baldin, Alexandre Specht, Ivana F da Silva, Thomas E Hunt
The corn earworm Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) and the old world bollworm Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) are allopatric species and occur in important agricultural crops. In maize, both species tend to infest the ear. The introduction of H. armigera in Brazil has created a new scenario, where these Helicoverpa species might cohabit and interact with one another, affecting the prevalence of each species in the agroecosystem, integrated pest management, and insect resistance management. In this study, larval occurrence and proportion of these species in maize was assessed in three regions of Brazil during three crop seasons...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906979/a-phosphorylcholine-containing-glycolipid-like-antigen-present-on-the-surface-of-infective-stage-larvae-of-ascaris-spp-is-a-major-antibody-target-in-infected-pigs-and-humans
#11
Johnny Vlaminck, Dries Masure, Tao Wang, Peter Nejsum, Cornelis H Hokke, Peter Geldhof
BACKGROUND: The pig parasite Ascaris suum plays and important role in veterinary medicine and represents a suitable model for A. lumbricoides, which infects over 800 million people. In pigs, continued exposure to Ascaris induces immunity at the level of the gut, protecting the host against migrating larvae. The objective of this study was to identify and characterize parasite antigens targeted by this local immune response that may be crucial for parasite invasion and establishment and to evaluate their protective and diagnostic potential...
December 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906014/acceptability-and-use-of-ready-to-use-supplementary-food-compared-to-corn-soy-blend-as-a-targeted-ration-in-an-hiv-program-in-rural-haiti-a-qualitative-study
#12
Anne G Beckett, Debbie Humphries, J Gregory Jerome, Jessica E Teng, Patrick Ulysse, Louise C Ivers
BACKGROUND: Ready-to-use supplementary food (RUSF) is increasingly used as a component of food rations for adults with HIV. METHODS: We undertook a qualitative study to evaluate the acceptability and use of peanut-based RUSF compared to corn-soy blend (CSB) among adults living with HIV in rural Haiti who had been enrolled in a prospective, randomized trial comparing the impact of those rations. A total of 13 focus groups were conducted with 84 participants-42 selected from the RUSF arm of the study, and 42 from the CSB arm-using a guide with pre-designated core topics and open-ended questions...
February 17, 2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905191/race-and-ethnicity-and-preconception-folic-acid-supplement-use-among-pregnant-women-in-georgia-prams-2009-to-2011
#13
Ayesha Mukhtar, Michael R Kramer, Godfrey P Oakley, Vijaya Kancherla
BACKGROUND: The United States Public Health Service recommends that all women of reproductive age consume 400 μg of folic acid daily to prevent major neural tube defects. Hispanics have the highest prevalence of neural tube defects compared with other race/ethnic groups. We studied prevalence of preconception folic acid supplement use, and its association with race/ethnicity among pregnant women in Georgia. METHODS: Using state-wide population-based data from 2009 to 2011 Georgia Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System, we examined the prevalence of preconception folic acid supplement use among pregnant women aged 18 to 45 years...
December 1, 2016: Birth Defects Research. Part A, Clinical and Molecular Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904810/a-preliminary-identification-of-rf-a619-a-novel-restorer-gene-for-cms-c-in-maize-zea-mays-l
#14
Liu Yongming, Zhao Zhuofan, Lu Yanli, Li Chuan, Wang Jing, Dong Boxiao, Liang Bing, Qiu Tao, Zeng Wenbing, Cao Moju
C-type cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS-C) is widely utilized for hybrid maize seed production. However, genetic mechanisms underlying the fertility restoration are very complicated. At present, there is a divergence on the number of fertility restorer genes in maize inbred line A619 for CMS-C. To further elucidate the restoring mechanism of A619, we used genetic analysis and molecular markers to confirm the restorer genes of maize inbred line A619 for C-type male sterile line C48-2 in this study. Firstly, the fertility segregations of (C48-2 × A619)F2 populations were investigated under three environments during 2013-2015...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904393/the-production-of-synbiotic-bread-by-microencapsulation
#15
Mojan Seyedain-Ardabili, Anousheh Sharifan, Babak Ghiassi Tarzi
Bread is a global staple food. Despite attempts to develop functional breads containing viable microorganisms, this has not been done yet because of the high temperature during baking. The aim of this study is to obtain synbiotic bread, hence hamburger bun and white pan bread were selected. Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5 and L. casei 431 were encapsulated with calcium alginate and Hi-maize resistant starch via emulsion technique and coated with chitosan. The morphology and size of microcapsules were measured by scanning electron microscopy and particle size analyser...
March 2016: Food Technology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904079/application-of-response-surface-methodology-to-estimate-the-design-space-of-pharmaceutical-diluents-for-dispensing-powdered-formulations
#16
Yasunori Miyazaki, Kozo Takayama, Tomonobu Uchino, Yoshiyuki Kagawa
Scientific approaches for dispensation are important for the quality and efficacy of drug treatments. Therefore, for the dispensation of powdered medicines, we have developed a powder blending method using a planetary centrifugal mixer (PCM) to replace the empirical manual method involving a mortar and pestle. The aim of this study was to optimize the formulation of pharmaceutical diluents for dispensing powdered medicines, using PCM. The diluents, composed of powdered lactose, crystalline lactose, and corn starch were assigned to a {3,2}-Simplex Lattice design...
2016: Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902914/inactivation-of-avian-influenza-virus-in-nonpelleted-chicken-feed
#17
H Toro, V L van Santen, C Breedlove
Corn stored outside could become contaminated with avian influenza virus (AIV) from wild bird droppings. AIV-contaminated ingredients could pass into the poultry flocks in nonpelleted chicken feed. The efficacy of two disinfectants at inactivating AIV in chicken feed was evaluated. Both Termin-8 (a blend of formaldehyde, propionic acid, terpenes, and surfactant) and Finio (a blend of approved phytochemicals and carboxylic acids) effectively inactivated AIV in chicken feed. Because stability of infectious AIV in chicken feed is limited, we evaluated addition of protein (skim milk powder) to the virus suspension...
December 2016: Avian Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902799/genomic-prediction-of-genotype-%C3%A3-environment-interaction-kernel-regression-models
#18
Jaime Cuevas, José Crossa, Víctor Soberanis, Sergio Pérez-Elizalde, Paulino Pérez-Rodríguez, Gustavo de Los Campos, O A Montesinos-López, Juan Burgueño
In genomic selection (GS), genotype × environment interaction (G × E) can be modeled by a marker × environment interaction (M × E). The G × E may be modeled through a linear kernel or a nonlinear (Gaussian) kernel. In this study, we propose using two nonlinear Gaussian kernels: the reproducing kernel Hilbert space with kernel averaging (RKHS KA) and the Gaussian kernel with the bandwidth estimated through an empirical Bayesian method (RKHS EB). We performed single-environment analyses and extended to account for G × E interaction (GBLUP-G × E, RKHS KA-G × E and RKHS EB-G × E) in wheat ( L...
November 2016: Plant Genome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902712/is-there-a-future-for-nuclear-power-wind-and-emission-reduction-targets-in-fossil-fuel-alberta
#19
G Cornelis van Kooten, Jun Duan, Rachel Lynch
This paper explores the viability of relying on wind power to replace upwards of 60% of electricity generation in Alberta that would be lost if coal-fired generation is phased out. Using hourly wind data from 17 locations across Alberta, we are able to simulate the potential wind power output available to the Alberta grid when modern, 3.5 MW-capacity wind turbines are spread across the province. Using wind regimes for the years 2006 through 2015, we find that available wind power is less than 60% of installed capacity 98% of the time, and below 30% of capacity 74% of the time...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902278/chryseobacterium-endophyticum-sp-nov-isolated-from-a-maize-leaf
#20
Shih-Yao Lin, Asif Hameed, You-Cheng Liu, Yi-Han Hsu, Yu-Ting Hsieh, Wei-An Lai, Chiu-Chung Young
A Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, yellow-pigmented, flexirubin-producing, rod-shaped and endophytic bacterium, designated strain CC-YTH209T, was isolated from a maize leaf and subjected to a taxonomic study. Strain CC-YTH209T was found to grow at 15-40 °C (optimal 30 °C), at pH 6.0-8.0 (optimal pH 7.0) and in the presence of 0-2 % (optimal 1 %) (w/v) NaCl. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain CC-YTH209T appeared to belong to the genus Chryseobacterium within the class Flavobacteriia, and was closely related to Chryseobacterium rigui CJ16T (97...
November 11, 2016: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
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