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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809541/ubiquitin-chains-modified-by-the-bacterial-ligase-sdea-are-protected-from-dub-hydrolysis
#1
Kedar Puvar, Yiyang Zhou, Jiazhang Qiu, Zhao-Qing Luo, Mary J Wirth, Chittaranjan Das
The SidE family of Legionella pneumophila effectors are a unique group of ubiquitin-modifying enzymes. Along with catalyzing NAD+-dependent ubiquitination of certain host proteins independent of the canonical E1/E2/E3 pathway, they have also been shown to produce phosphoribosylated free ubiquitin. This modified ubiquitin product is incompatible with conventional E1/E2/E3 ubiquitination processes, with the potential to lockdown various cellular functions that are dependent on ubiquitin signaling. Here, we show that in addition to free ubiquitin, Lys63, Lys48, Lys11 and Met1-linked diubiquitin chains are also modified by SdeA in a similar fashion...
August 15, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807188/the-global-burden-of-tuberculosis-mortality-in-children-a-mathematical-modelling-study
#2
Peter J Dodd, Courtney M Yuen, Charalambos Sismanidis, James A Seddon, Helen E Jenkins
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis in children is increasingly recognised as an important component of the global tuberculosis burden, with an estimated 1 million cases in 2015. Although younger children are vulnerable to severe forms of tuberculosis disease, no age-disaggregated estimates of paediatric tuberculosis mortality exist, and tuberculosis has never been included in official estimates of under-5 child mortality. We aimed to produce a global mortality burden estimate in children using a complementary approach not dependent on vital registration data...
September 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782046/circulating-loxl2-levels-reflect-severity-of-intestinal-fibrosis-and-galt-cd4-t-lymphocyte-depletion-in-treated-hiv-infection
#3
Sophie Seang, Anoma Somasunderam, Maitreyee Nigalye, Ma Somsouk, Timoty W Schacker, Joyce L Sanchez, Peter W Hunt, Netanya S Utay, Jordan E Lake
BACKGROUND: Incomplete immune reconstitution may occur despite successful antiretroviral therapy (ART). Gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) fibrosis may contribute via local CD4(+) T lymphocyte depletion, intestinal barrier disruption, microbial translocation, and immune activation. METHODS: In a cross-sectional analysis, we measured circulating fibrosis biomarker levels on cryopreserved plasma from adult HIV-infected (HIV+) SCOPE study participants on suppressive ART who also had fibrosis quantification on recto-sigmoid biopsies...
2017: Pathogens & Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772331/-pre-operative-evaluation-of-patients-undergoing-total-joint-arthroplasty-what-is-essential
#4
Holger Haas, Christian D Weber
Background A thorough pre-operative evaluation is required prior to total joint arthroplasty (TJA). The objective of screening is to identify patient- and procedure-related risk constellations. Pre-operative diagnostic measures are vital in order to anticipate, reduce or even eliminate threats to patient safety. Furthermore, the clinical and radiographical workup may confirm the indication and type of surgical procedure, but this is not the subject of this article. Objective An overview of the current literature on pre-operative diagnostic principles is presented...
August 3, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Orthopädie und Unfallchirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771951/microbial-approaches-for-targeting-antibiotic-resistant-bacteria
#5
REVIEW
Wing Fei Wong, Marina Santiago
Antibiotic resistant bacterial infections are a global public health challenge that has been increasing in severity and scope for the last few decades. Without creative solutions to this problem, treatment of injuries and infections will become progressively more challenging. A better understanding of the human microbiome has led to a new appreciation for the role commensal microbes play in protecting us from pathogens, especially in the gut. Antibiotics lead to disruption of the gut microbial ecosystem, enabling colonization by antibiotic resistant bacterial pathogens...
August 3, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771460/notes-from-the-field-epidemic-keratoconjunctivitis-outbreak-associated-with-human-adenovirus-type-8-u-s-virgin-islands-june-november-2016
#6
Marie E Killerby, Matthew J Stuckey, Irene Guendel, Senthilkumar Sakthivel, Xiaoyan Lu, Dean D Erdman, Eileen Schneider, Ryan Fagan, Michelle S Davis, John T Watson, Susan I Gerber, Holly M Biggs, Esther M Ellis
On October 11, 2016, the U.S. Virgin Islands Department of Health (USVI DOH) was notified by a local ophthalmologist of an unexpected increase in the number of patients with suspected epidemic keratoconjunctivitis (EKC) during the preceding month. EKC is a severe form of acute conjunctivitis caused by human adenoviruses (HAdVs). Clinical illness typically lasts 1 to 3 weeks and is usually self-limited; treatment is supportive (1). HAdVs can survive for weeks in the environment and are resistant to common disinfectants (2,3)...
August 4, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760636/changing-the-paradigm-messages-for-hand-hygiene-education-and-audit-from-cluster-analysis
#7
D J Gould, D Navaïe, E Purssell, N S Drey, S Creedon
BACKGROUND: Hand hygiene is considered the foremost infection prevention measure. How health workers accept and make sense of the hand hygiene message is likely to contribute to success and sustainability of initiatives to improve performance, which is still often poor. METHODS: Survey of nurses in critical care units in three National Health Service trusts in England to explore opinions about hand hygiene, use of alcohol handrubs, audit with performance feedback and other key hand hygiene-related issues...
July 28, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758310/the-global-burden-of-respiratory-infections-in-indigenous-children-and-adults-a-review
#8
REVIEW
Thilini L Basnayake, Lucy C Morgan, Anne B Chang
This review article focuses on common lower respiratory infections (LRIs) in indigenous populations in both developed and developing countries, where data is available. Indigenous populations across the world share some commonalities including poorer health and socio-economic disadvantage compared with their non-indigenous counterparts. Generally, acute and chronic respiratory infections are more frequent and more severe in both indigenous children and adults, often resulting in substantial consequences including higher rates of bronchiectasis and poorer outcomes for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)...
July 30, 2017: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743299/the-public-health-value-of-vaccines-beyond-efficacy-methods-measures-and-outcomes
#9
A Wilder-Smith, I Longini, P L Zuber, T Bärnighausen, W J Edmunds, N Dean, V Masserey Spicher, M R Benissa, B D Gessner
BACKGROUND: Assessments of vaccine efficacy and safety capture only the minimum information needed for regulatory approval, rather than the full public health value of vaccines. Vaccine efficacy provides a measure of proportionate disease reduction, is usually limited to etiologically confirmed disease, and focuses on the direct protection of the vaccinated individual. Herein, we propose a broader scope of methods, measures and outcomes to evaluate the effectiveness and public health impact to be considered for evidence-informed policymaking in both pre- and post-licensure stages...
July 26, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740150/identification-of-putative-unique-immunogenic-zikv-and-denv1-4-peptides-for-diagnostic-cellular-based-tests
#10
Aaron L Oom, Davey Smith, Kevan Akrami
Since the re-emergence of Zika virus in 2014 and subsequent association with microcephaly, much work has focused on the development of a vaccine to halt its spread throughout the world. The mosquito vector that transmits this virus is widespread and responsible for the spread of other arboviridae including Dengue. Current diagnostic methods rely on serologic testing that are complicated by cross reactivity and therefore unable to distinguish Zika from Dengue infection in the absence of virus isolation. We performed an in silico analysis to identify potential epitopes that may stimulate a unique T-lymphocyte response to distinguish prior infection with Zika or Dengue...
July 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732448/synthesis-of-a-bicyclic-azetidine-with-in-vivo-antimalarial-activity-enabled-by-stereospecific-directed-c-sp-3-h-arylation
#11
Micah Maetani, Jochen Zoller, Bruno Melillo, Oscar Verho, Nobutaka Kato, Jun Pu, Eamon Comer, Stuart L Schreiber
The development of new antimalarial therapeutics is necessary to address the increasing resistance to current drugs. Bicyclic azetidines targeting Plasmodium falciparum phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase comprise one promising new class of antimalarials, especially due to their activities against three stages of the parasite's life cycle, but a lengthy synthetic route to these compounds may affect the feasibility of delivering new therapeutic agents within the cost constraints of antimalarial drugs. Here, we report an efficient synthesis of antimalarial compound BRD3914 (EC50 = 15 nM) that hinges on a Pd-catalyzed, directed C(sp(3))-H arylation of azetidines at the C3 position...
August 16, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713108/current-prescribing-practices-for-antibiotic-prophylaxis-a-survey-of-dental-practitioners
#12
Leah S Spittle, Kathleen B Muzzin, Patricia R Campbell, Janice P DeWald, Francisco Rivera-Hidalgo
AIM: Antibiotic prophylaxis guidelines have been developed for health care and dentistry. The authors examined whether dentists were following the 2007 American Heart Association (AHA) and the 2012 American Association of Orthopaedic Surgeons (AAOS) recommendations for antibiotic prophylaxis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A survey was sent to 600 dentists in the south-central region of the United States. The survey examined dentists' prescribing practices for patients with cardiac and prosthetic joint replacements, antibiotic regimen prescribed, confidence in their prescription decisions, and dentistry's contribution to antibiotic resistance...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706313/methyl-bromide-alternatives-for-control-of-root-knot-nematode-meloidogyne-spp-in-tomato-production-in-florida
#13
Johan Desaeger, Donald W Dickson, S J Locascio
The following work was initiated to determine the scope of application methodology and fumigant combinations for increasing efficacy of 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) and metam sodium for management of root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) in Florida. A series of five experiments were set up during spring and fall seasons to evaluate the potential of different fumigants, alone or in combination, in polyethylene film tomato production. The most promising chemical alternatives to methyl bromide, in terms of root-knot nematode management, were the combinations 1,3-D-chloropicrin, chloropicrin-proprietary solvent ,and 1,3-D-metam sodium...
June 2017: Journal of Nematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705583/prevalence-and-risk-factors-for-colonization-by-clostridium-difficile-and-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-producing-enterobacteriaceae-in-rehabilitation-clinics-in-germany
#14
Mardjan Arvand, Claudia Ruscher, Gudrun Bettge-Weller, Markus Goltz, Yvonne Pfeifer
BACKGROUND: Rehabilitation clinics may vary widely in terms of type of care provided, duration of hospital stay, and case severity. Only few data are available on prevalence of Clostridium difficile or extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) colonization in rehabilitation clinics in Germany. AIM: This study investigated the frequency of intestinal colonization by these pathogens among patients in rehabilitation clinics of different specialization...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700748/hypoxia-tolerance-and-responses-to-hypoxic-stress-during-heart-and-skeletal-muscle-inflammation-in-atlantic-salmon-salmo-salar
#15
Morten Lund, Maria Krudtaa Dahle, Gerrit Timmerhaus, Marta Alarcon, Mark Powell, Vidar Aspehaug, Espen Rimstad, Sven Martin Jørgensen
Heart and skeletal muscle inflammation (HSMI) is associated with Piscine orthoreovirus (PRV) infection and is an important disease in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) aquaculture. Since PRV infects erythrocytes and farmed salmon frequently experience environmental hypoxia, the current study examined mutual effects of PRV infection and hypoxia on pathogenesis and fish performance. Furthermore, effects of HSMI on hypoxia tolerance, cardiorespiratory performance and blood oxygen transport were studied. A cohabitation trial including PRV-infected post-smolts exposed to periodic hypoxic stress (4 h of 40% O2; PRV-H) at 4, 7 and 10 weeks post-infection (WPI) and infected fish reared under normoxic conditions (PRV) was conducted...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698506/ubiquitination-in-periodontal-disease-a-review
#16
REVIEW
Sachio Tsuchida, Mamoru Satoh, Masaki Takiwaki, Fumio Nomura
Periodontal disease (periodontitis) is a chronic inflammatory condition initiated by microbial infection that leads to gingival tissue destruction and alveolar bone resorption. The periodontal tissue's response to dental plaque is characterized by the accumulation of polymorphonuclear leukocytes, macrophages, and lymphocytes, all of which release inflammatory mediators and cytokines to orchestrate the immunopathogenesis of periodontal disease. Ubiquitination is achieved by a mechanism that involves a number of factors, including an ubiquitin-activating enzyme, ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme, and ubiquitin-protein ligase...
July 10, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693642/what-s-trending-in-infection-control-scoping-and-narrative-reviews
#17
Brett G Mitchell, Dayna Petrie, Lindsay Morton, Stephanie J Dancer
OBJECTIVE To explore the trends in infection control peer-reviewed journals, mainstream media, and blogs written by infection control professionals DESIGN Narrative and scoping reviews METHODS Narrative and scoping reviews were performed to identify trending infection prevention and control topics from international journals, national news websites, newspapers, and so-called grey literature throughout 2015. Data were analyzed using word frequencies, and results are displayed in word clouds. RESULTS For 2015, our search identified 6 news websites with a total of published 116 articles, 71 articles from selected newspapers, and 214 publications from infection control websites...
July 11, 2017: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693453/an-account-of-the-ebola-virus-disease-outbreak-in-nigeria-implications-and-lessons-learnt
#18
Akaninyene Otu, Soter Ameh, Egbe Osifo-Dawodu, Enoma Alade, Susan Ekuri, Jide Idris
BACKGROUND: The 2014 Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak remains unprecedented both in the number of cases, deaths and geographic scope. The first case of EVD was confirmed in Lagos Nigeria on 23 July 2014 and spread to involve 19 laboratory-confirmed EVD cases. The EVD cases were not limited to Lagos State as Rivers State recorded 2 confirmed cases of EVD with 1 out of the 2 dying. Swift implementation of public health measures were sufficient to forestall a country -wide spread of this dreaded disease...
July 10, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691435/clinical-and-public-health-implications-of-acute-and-early-hiv-detection-and-treatment-a-scoping-review
#19
Sarah E Rutstein, Jintanat Ananworanich, Sarah Fidler, Cheryl Johnson, Eduard J Sanders, Omar Sued, Asier Saez-Cirion, Christopher D Pilcher, Christophe Fraser, Myron S Cohen, Marco Vitoria, Meg Doherty, Joseph D Tucker
INTRODUCTION: The unchanged global HIV incidence may be related to ignoring acute HIV infection (AHI). This scoping review examines diagnostic, clinical, and public health implications of identifying and treating persons with AHI. METHODS: We searched PubMed, in addition to hand-review of key journals identifying research pertaining to AHI detection and treatment. We focused on the relative contribution of AHI to transmission and the diagnostic, clinical, and public health implications...
June 28, 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689639/regulation-of-inflammation-by-members-of-the-formyl-peptide-receptor-family
#20
REVIEW
Keqiang Chen, Zhiyao Bao, Wanghua Gong, Peng Tang, Teizo Yoshimura, Ji Ming Wang
Inflammation is associated with a variety of diseases. The hallmark of inflammation is leukocyte infiltration at disease sites in response to pathogen- or damage-associated chemotactic molecular patterns (PAMPs and MAMPs), which are recognized by a superfamily of seven transmembrane, Gi-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) on cell surface. Chemotactic GPCRs are composed of two major subfamilies: the classical GPCRs and chemokine GPCRs. Formyl-peptide receptors (FPRs) belong to the classical chemotactic GPCR subfamily with unique properties that are increasingly appreciated for their expression on diverse host cell types and the capacity to interact with a plethora of chemotactic PAMPs and MAMPs...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Autoimmunity
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