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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323880/randomized-controlled-trials-in-central-vascular-access-devices-a-scoping-review
#1
Mari Takashima, Gillian Ray-Barruel, Amanda Ullman, Samantha Keogh, Claire M Rickard
BACKGROUND: Randomized controlled trials evaluate the effectiveness of interventions for central venous access devices, however, high complication rates remain. Scoping reviews map the available evidence and demonstrate evidence deficiencies to focus ongoing research priorities. METHOD: A scoping review (January 2006-December 2015) of randomized controlled trials evaluating the effectiveness of interventions to improve central venous access device outcomes; including peripherally inserted central catheters, non-tunneled, tunneled and totally implanted venous access catheters...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320397/a-30-year-bibliometric-analysis-of-research-coverage-on-hiv-and-aids-in-lesotho
#2
REVIEW
Eltony Mugomeri, Bisrat S Bekele, Mamajoin Mafaesa, Charles Maibvise, Clemence Tarirai, Sunny E Aiyuk
BACKGROUND: Given the well documented undesired impacts of HIV/AIDS globally, there is a need to create a statistical inventory of research output on HIV/AIDS. This need is particularly important for a country such as Lesotho, whose HIV/AIDS prevalence is one of the highest globally. Research on HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa continues to trail behind that of other regions, especially those of the developed countries. Lesotho, a sub-Saharan country, is a developing country with lower research output in this area when longitudinally compared to other countries...
March 21, 2017: Health Research Policy and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317569/oral-fungal-infections-diagnosis-and-management
#3
REVIEW
David R Telles, Niraj Karki, Michael W Marshall
Oral and maxillofacial fungal infections can appear in high-risk patients, including those immunocompromised. This article explores common oral manifestations of fungal infections in the oral cavity as primary lesions or as a result of disseminated disease. By far the most common oral fungal infection experienced in dentistry is oral candidiasis, which is reviewed in depth from simple oral infections to invasive candidiasis. The review aids the dental practitioner in understanding the full scope of Candida infections and other fungal infections...
April 2017: Dental Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298366/antibiotics-for-acute-respiratory-tract-infections-a-mixed-methods-study-of-patient-experiences-of-non-medical-prescriber-management
#4
Molly Courtenay, Samantha Rowbotham, Rosemary Lim, Rhian Deslandes, Karen Hodson, Katie MacLure, Sarah Peters, Derek Stewart
OBJECTIVE: To (1) explore patients' expectations and experiences of nurse and pharmacist non-medical prescriber-led management of respiratory tract infections (RTIs), (2) examine whether patient expectations for antibiotics affect the likelihood of receiving them and (3) understand factors influencing patient satisfaction with RTI consultations. DESIGN: Mixed methods. SETTING: Primary care. PARTICIPANTS: Questionnaires from 120 patients and follow-up interviews with 22 patients and 16 nurse and pharmacist non-medical prescribers (NMPs)...
March 15, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295658/successful-closure-of-post-tracheostomy-large-chronic-trachea-esophageal-fistula-with-new-over-the-scope-clip
#5
P Rai, R Bhargava
Acquired tracheo-esophageal fistula mostly occurs secondary to malignancy, infection, ruptured diverticula, and injuries.(1) Among the benign conditions, prolonged mechanical ventilation is the most common (47%), followed by injury (17%), prior laryngectomy (17%), and prior esophagostomy (17%).(2) A 19 y male had a road traffic accident and was managed in an intensive care unit with ventilator support and had tracheostomy for 20 days. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
March 10, 2017: Digestive Endoscopy: Official Journal of the Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291157/deceased-organ-donors-with-a-history-of-increased-risk-behavior-for-the-transmission-of-blood-borne-viral-infection-the-uk-experience
#6
Patrick B Trotter, Dominic M Summers, Matthew Robb, William Hulme, Ines Ushiro-Lumb, Christopher J E Watson, James Neuberger, Andrew J Bradley
BACKGROUND: Deceased organ donors are routinely screened for behaviors that increase the risk of transmissible blood borne viral (BBV) infection, but the impact of this information on organ donation and transplant outcome is not well documented. Our aim was to establish the impact of such behavior on organ donation and utilization, as well transplant recipient outcomes. METHODS: We identified all UK deceased organ donors from 2003-2015 with a disclosed history of increased risk behavior (IRB) including intravenous drug use (IVDU), imprisonment and increased risk sexual behavior...
March 13, 2017: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290954/improving-surgical-complications-and-patient-safety-at-the-nation-s-largest-military-hospital-an-analysis-of-national-surgical-quality-improvement-program-data
#7
Steve Maturo, Charlotte Hughes, George Kallingal, Stephen Silvey, A J Johnson, Douglas Soderdahl, Evan Renz, Joseph Brennan
INTRODUCTION: The U.S. Military Health System cares for over 9 million patients and encompasses 63 hospitals and 413 clinics worldwide. Military medicine balances the simultaneous tasks of caring for those patients wounded in military engagements, treating large numbers of families of service men and women, and training the next generation of health care providers and ancillary staff. Similar to civilian health care delivery in the United States, military medicine has also seen increased scrutiny in the areas of cost and quality...
March 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289243/use-of-standard-risk-screening-and-assessment-forms-to-prevent-harm-to-older-people-in-australian-hospitals-a-mixed-methods-study
#8
Bernice Redley, Michelle Raggatt
BACKGROUND: Standard risk screening and assessment forms are frequently used in strategies to prevent harm to older people in hospitals. Little is known about good practices for their use. OBJECTIVE: Scope the preventable harms addressed by standard forms used to screen and assess older people and how standard forms are operationalised in hospitals across Victoria, Australia. METHODS: Mixed methods study: (1) cross-sectional audit of the standard risk screening and assessment forms used to assess older people at 11 health services in 2015; (2) nine focus groups with a purposive sample of 69 participants at 9 health services...
March 13, 2017: BMJ Quality & Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271821/animal-models-of-zika-virus
#9
Michael P Bradley And Claude M Nagamine
Zika virus has garnered great attention over the last several years, as outbreaks of the disease have emerged throughout the Western Hemisphere. Until quite recently Zika virus was considered a fairly benign virus, with limited clinical severity in both people and animals. The size and scope of the outbreak in the Western Hemisphere has allowed for the identification of severe clinical disease that is associated with Zika virus infection, most notably microcephaly among newborns, and an association with Guillian-Barré syndrome in adults...
March 7, 2017: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258140/ecological-and-evolutionary-insights-into-pathovar-diversity-of-xanthomonas-citri
#10
Kanika Bansal, Samriti Midha, Sanjeet Kumar, Prabhu B Patil
Citrus canker, caused by Xanthomonas citri pv. citri (Xct), is a serious disease of citrus plants worldwide. Earlier phylogenetic studies using housekeeping genes revealed that Xct is related to many other pathovars, which can be collectively referred as Xanthomonas citri pathovars (XCPs). In the present study, we report the genome sequence of eighteen XCPs compared with four XCPs available in the public domain. In a tree based on phylogenomic marker genes, all the XCPs form a monophyletic cluster suggesting their origin from a common ancestor...
March 3, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257079/-looking-over-the-backyard-fence-householders-and-mosquito-control
#11
Samir Mainali, Ram Sharan Lamichhane, Kim Clark, Shelley Beatty, Maria Fatouros, Peter Neville, Jacques Oosthuizen
(1) Background: Vector-borne diseases are a significant public health problem in Western Australia. Mosquitoes are responsible for the transmission of a number of pathogens and may pose a serious nuisance problem. Prevention efforts in the State are multi-faceted and include physical, chemical, and cultural control methods for restricting mosquito breeding. This is less complex where breeding areas are located within public open spaces. In Australia's developed urban areas, breeding sites are, however, frequently located within private residential landholdings, where the scope of public health officials to act is constrained by law and practicality...
March 2, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255806/audit-of-aspects-of-practice-in-relation-to-patients-with-suspected-community-onset-blood-stream-infection
#12
M A Reza, M Cormican
BACKGROUND: Community-onset blood stream infection (C-BSI) is an important cause of sepsis. The urinary tract is an important source for C-BSI. Urinary catheters are a recognized risk factor. Blood culture is the critical diagnostic test. Prompt effective antimicrobial therapy is a key intervention. We reviewed practice in relation to patients presenting with suspected C-BSI. AIM: To review practice in relation to patients presenting with suspected C-BSI. METHODS: Patients were those with blood cultures (BC) submitted from the emergency department over 4 weeks...
March 2, 2017: Irish Journal of Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238624/biochemical-basis-for-increased-activity-of-ebola-glycoprotein-in-the-2013-16-epidemic
#13
May K Wang, Sun-Young Lim, Soo Mi Lee, James M Cunningham
Ebola virus (EBOV) infection is characterized by sporadic outbreaks caused by zoonotic transmission. Fixed changes in amino acid sequence, such as A82V in the EBOV glycoprotein (GP) that occurred early in the 2013-16 epidemic, are suspected to confer a selective advantage to the virus. We used biochemical assays of GP function to show that A82V, as well as a polymorphism in residue 544 identified in other outbreaks, enhances infection by decreasing the threshold for activation of membrane fusion activity triggered by the host factors cathepsin B and Niemann-Pick C1...
February 18, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236291/prioritizing-of-bacterial-infections-transmitted-through-substances-of-human-origin-in-europe
#14
Dragoslav Domanović, Alessandro Cassini, Isabelle Bekeredjian-Ding, Arlinke Bokhorst, Martijn Bouwknegt, Giuseppina Facco, George Galea, Paolo Grossi, Ramadan Jashari, Christoph Jungbauer, Jan Marcelis, Ioana Raluca-Siska, Inger Andersson-Vonrosen, Jonathan E Suk
BACKGROUND: Bacteria are the pathogens most frequently transmitted through substances of human origin (SoHO). The European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) organized an expert consultation, with the objective of developing a priority list of bacterial pathogens transmissible via SoHO. The list will be used to further assess risks and determine appropriate preventive measures. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: The 14 most frequently SoHO-transmitted bacteria identified through a scoping literature review were then prioritized during an expert workshop through a methodology based on multicriteria decision analysis...
February 24, 2017: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225198/adjunctive-steroid-therapy-versus-antibiotics-alone-for-acute-endophthalmitis-after-intraocular-procedure
#15
REVIEW
Carole H Kim, Monica F Chen, Anne L Coleman
BACKGROUND: Endophthalmitis refers to severe infection within the eye that involves the aqueous humor or vitreous humor, or both, and threatens vision. Most cases of endophthalmitis are exogenous (i.e. due to inoculation of organisms from an outside source), and most exogenous endophthalmitis is acute and occurs after an intraocular procedure. The mainstay of treatment is emergent administration of broad-spectrum intravitreous antibiotics. Due to their anti-inflammatory effects, steroids in conjunction with antibiotics have been proposed to be beneficial in endophthalmitis management...
February 22, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224049/the-role-of-topical-antiseptic-agents-within-antimicrobial-stewardship-strategies-for-prevention-and-treatment-of-surgical-site-and-chronic-open-wound-infection
#16
Christopher D Roberts, David J Leaper, Ojan Assadian
Scope and Significance: The topical use of antiseptics for wound care has a role in an antimicrobial stewardship strategy. However, the details of this role need clarification. Further clinical research into the use of topical antiseptics in wound care would lower the risk of furthering antibiotic resistance and contribute to more effective antibiotic use. As part of this research, experimental and surveillance data are needed on the resistance and tolerance patterns associated with topical antiseptic use in wound infections...
February 1, 2017: Advances in Wound Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220979/more-significance-of-tb-igra-except-for-the-diagnose-of-tuberculosis
#17
Jun-Chi Xu, Ze-Yi Li, Xin-Nian Chen, Cui-Lin Shi, Mei-Ying Wu, Hui Chen, Xiao-Yan Zhu, Hua-Feng Song, Min-Juan Wu, Ping Xu
OBJECTIVE: Tuberculosis (TB)-interferon gamma release assay (IGRA) test has the characteristics of short time, high specificity, and high sensitivity, but it lacks the correlation research between TB-IGRA test results and body's immune cells, disease progression and prognosis, which is explored in this study. DESIGN: A retrospective study was carried out on positive TB-IGRA patients who were infected with TB and diagnosed at our hospital from January 2014 to June 2015...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214316/pre-and-perioperative-aspects-of-dermatosurgery
#18
Cornelia S L Müller, Wakiko Hubner, Sigrid Thieme-Ruffing, Claudia Pföhler, Thomas Vogt, Thomas Volk, Barbara C Gärtner, Patric Bialas
Dermatosurgery occupies an exceptional position among all surgical disciplines. Above all, this includes the fact that, with very few exceptions, the vast majority of surgical interventions can be performed under local or regional anesthesia, usually in smaller procedure rooms that are spatially separated from larger operating suites. Thus, peri- and postinterventional patient monitoring is the responsibility of the dermatosurgeon and his team. Though inherently smaller, this team still has to observe numerous perioperative requirements that - in larger surgical specialties - would be attended to by a host of various specialists working in concert...
February 2017: Journal der Deutschen Dermatologischen Gesellschaft, Journal of the German Society of Dermatology: JDDG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207570/international-survey-of-critically-ill-children-with-acute-neurologic-insults-the-prevalence-of-acute-critical-neurological-disease-in-children-a-global-epidemiological-assessment-study
#19
Ericka L Fink, Patrick M Kochanek, Robert C Tasker, John Beca, Michael J Bell, Robert S B Clark, Jamie Hutchison, Monica S Vavilala, Anthony Fabio, Derek C Angus, R Scott Watson
OBJECTIVE: The international scope of critical neurologic insults in children is unknown. Our objective was to assess the prevalence and outcomes of children admitted to PICUs with acute neurologic insults. DESIGN: Prospective study. SETTING: Multicenter (n = 107 PICUs) and multinational (23 countries, 79% in North America and Europe). PATIENTS: Children 7 days to 17 years old admitted to the ICU with new traumatic brain injury, stroke, cardiac arrest, CNS infection or inflammation, status epilepticus, spinal cord injury, hydrocephalus, or brain mass...
February 15, 2017: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196555/dohad-at-the-intersection-of-maternal-immune-activation-and-maternal-metabolic-stress-a-scoping-review
#20
J A Goldstein, S A Norris, D M Aronoff
The prenatal environment is now recognized as a key driver of non-communicable disease risk later in life. Within the developmental origins of health and disease (DOHaD) paradigm, studies are increasingly identifying links between maternal morbidity during pregnancy and disease later in life for offspring. Nutrient restriction, metabolic disorders during gestation, such as diabetes or obesity, and maternal immune activation provoked by infection have been linked to adverse health outcomes for offspring later in life...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
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