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Infected scopes

Carrie C Coughlin, Melinda V Jen, Markus D Boos
Drug hypersensitivity syndrome (DHS) is a severe medication reaction involving multiple organ systems that is characterized by rash, lymphadenopathy, and laboratory aberrations, including hepatic enzyme changes. Viral reactivation in the setting of DHS can significantly affect the course of disease. We report two children in whom parvovirus infection prolonged and complicated their course of DHS. Most other DHS-complicating viruses are herpesviruses; this report broadens the scope of DHS-modifying infections to include activation of Parvoviridae...
October 25, 2016: Pediatric Dermatology
Enrique Castro-Sánchez, Yiannis Kyratsis, Michiyo Iwami, Timothy M Rawson, Alison H Holmes
BACKGROUND: The uptake of improvement initiatives in infection prevention and control (IPC) has often proven challenging. Innovative interventions such as 'serious games' have been proposed in other areas to educate and help clinicians adopt optimal behaviours. There is limited evidence about the application and evaluation of serious games in IPC. The purposes of the study were: a) to synthesise research evidence on the use of serious games in IPC to support healthcare workers' behaviour change and best practice learning; and b) to identify gaps across the formulation and evaluation of serious games in IPC...
2016: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Rumana Ahmad, Tahmeena Khan, Bilal Ahmad, Aparna Misra, Anil K Balapure
Tapeworms (cestodes) are segmented flatworms responsible for causing diseases that may prove fatal and difficult to treat in the absence of proper treatment and efficient drugs. Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is a common parasitic infection of the central nervous system and a major contributor to epilepsy caused by the metacestode (larva) of the human tapeworm Taenia solium, characterized by a range of pathological symptoms including epileptic seizures, headaches, and hydrocephalus. Cysticercosis is considered as a "biological imprint" of the socioeconomic development of a community in general and a country in particular...
October 24, 2016: Parasitology Research
Elie A Saade, Nuntra Suwantarat, Trina F Zabarsky, Brigid Wilson, Curtis J Donskey
BACKGROUND: Recent reports suggest that infections due to fluoroquinolone-resistant Escherichia coli (E. coli) are an increasingly common complication of transrectal biopsy of the prostate (TBP) in the United States. A better understanding of the magnitude and scope of these infections is needed to guide prevention efforts. Our objective is to determine whether the incidence of infections due to fluoroquinolone-resistant E. coli after TBP has increased nationwide in the Veterans Affairs Health Care System and to identify risk factors for infection...
2016: Pathogens & Immunity
Songyuan Tang, Weiming Tang, Kathrine Meyers, Polin Chan, Zhongdan Chen, Joseph D Tucker
BACKGROUND: Despite global efforts to control HIV among key populations, new infections among men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender (TG) individuals are still increasing. The increasing HIV epidemic among MSM/TG in China indicates that more effective services are urgently needed. However, policymakers and program managers must have a clear understanding of MSM/TG sexual health in China to improve service delivery. To meet this need, we undertook a scoping review to summarize HIV epidemiology and responses among MSM and TG individuals in China...
October 20, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Jessica B McGillen, Sarah-Jane Anderson, Timothy B Hallett
INTRODUCTION: The new WHO guidelines recommend offering pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) to people who are at substantial risk of HIV infection. However, where PrEP should be prioritised, and for which population groups, remains an open question. The HIV landscape in sub-Saharan Africa features limited prevention resources, multiple options for achieving cost saving, and epidemic heterogeneity. This paper examines what role PrEP should play in optimal prevention in this complex and dynamic landscape...
2016: Journal of the International AIDS Society
Ira L Leeds, Anne Fabrizio, Sara E Cosgrove, Elizabeth C Wick
Antibiotic resistance continues to receive national attention as a leading public health threat. In 2015, President Barack Obama proposed a National Action Plan to Combat Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria to curb the rise of "superbugs," bacteria resistant to antibiotics of last resort. Whereas many antibiotics are prescribed appropriately to treat infections, there continue to be a large number of inappropriately prescribed antibiotics. Although much of the national attention with regards to stewardship has focused on primary care providers, there is a significant opportunity for surgeons to embrace this national imperative and improve our practices...
October 4, 2016: Annals of Surgery
Greer Dawson, Robin Gilmour, Sean Tobin, Joanne Travaglia
OBJECTIVE: In New South Wales (NSW), influenza surveillance is informed by a number of discrete data sources, including laboratories, emergency departments, death registrations and community surveillance programs. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the NSW influenza surveillance system using the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines for evaluating public health surveillance systems. Importance of study: Having a strong influenza surveillance system is important for both seasonal and pandemic influenza preparedness...
April 15, 2016: Public Health Research & Practice
Gary M LiMarzi, Kurt F Scherer, Michael L Richardson, David R Warden, Christopher W Wasyliw, Jack A Porrino, Christopher R Pettis, Gideon Lewis, Christopher C Mason, Laura W Bancroft
A variety of surgical procedures exist for repair of both traumatic and degenerative osseous and soft-tissue pathologic conditions involving the foot and ankle. It is necessary for the radiologist to be familiar with these surgical procedures, so as to assess structural integrity, evaluate for complicating features, and avoid diagnostic pitfalls. Adequate interpretation of postoperative changes often requires access to surgical documentation to evaluate not only the surgery itself but the expected timeline for resolution of normal postoperative changes versus progressive disease...
October 2016: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
Haodi Dong, Yue Lv, Deming Zhao, Paul Barrow, Xiangmei Zhou
Human tuberculosis remains a huge global public health problem with an estimated 1/3rd of the population being infected. Defensins are antibacterial cationic peptides produced by a number of cell types, most notably neutrophil granulocytes and epithelial cells. All three defensin types (α-, β-, and θ-defensins) have antibacterial activities, mainly through bacterial membrane permeabilization. Defensins are effective against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria including mycobacteria and are active both intra- and extracellularly...
2016: Journal of Immunology Research
E P Budgell, D Evans, K Schnippel, P Ive, L Long, S Rosen
BACKGROUND: Despite the large number of tuberculosis (TB) patients treated in South Africa (SA), there are few descriptions in the published literature of drug-susceptible TB patient characteristics, mode of diagnosis or treatment outcomes in routine public sector treatment programmes. OBJECTIVE: To enhance the evidence base for public sector TB treatment service delivery, we reported the characteristics of and outcomes for a retrospective cohort of adult TB patients at public sector clinics in the Johannesburg Metropolitan Municipality (JHB), SA...
September 5, 2016: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
Caleb Mawuli Agbale, Marlon Henrique Cardoso, Isaac Kojo Galyuon, Octávio Luiz Franco
The accidental discovery of cisplatin some 50 years ago generated renewed interest in metallopharmaceuticals. Beyond cisplatin, many useful metallodrugs have been synthesized for the diagnosis and treatment of various diseases, but toxicity concerns, and the propensity to induce chemoresistance and secondary cancers make it imperative to search for novel metallodrugs that address these limitations. The Amino Terminal Cu(ii) and Ni(ii) (ATCUN) binding motif has emerged as a suitable template to design catalytic metallodrugs with nuclease and protease activities...
September 30, 2016: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
Adam L Beckman, Alyssa Bilinski, Ryan Boyko, George M Camp, A T Wall, Joseph K Lim, Emily A Wang, R Douglas Bruce, Gregg S Gonsalves
Prisoners bear much of the burden of the hepatitis C epidemic in the United States. Yet little is known about the scope and cost of treating hepatitis C in state prisons-particularly since the release of direct-acting antiviral medications. In the forty-one states whose departments of corrections reported data, 106,266 inmates (10 percent of their prisoners) were known to have hepatitis C on or about January 1, 2015. Only 949 (0.89 percent) of those inmates were being treated. Prices for a twelve-week course of direct-acting antivirals such as sofosbuvir and the combination drug ledipasvir/sofosbuvir varied widely as of September 30, 2015 ($43,418-$84,000 and $44,421-$94,500, respectively)...
October 1, 2016: Health Affairs
Ian L Valerio, Jennifer M Sabino, Christopher L Dearth
Background: A large volume of service members have sustained complex injuries during Operations Iraqi Freedom (OIF) and Enduring Freedom (OEF). These injuries are complicated by contamination with particulate and foreign materials, have high rates of bacterial and/or fungal infections, are often composite-type defects with massive soft tissue wounds, and usually have multisystem involvement. While traditional treatment modalities remain a mainstay for optimal wound care, traditional reconstruction approaches alone may be inadequate to fully address the scope and magnitude of such massive complex wounds...
September 1, 2016: Advances in Wound Care
Timothy P Gauthier, Eva Moreira, Chantal Chan, Alexandria Cabrera, Maribel Toro, Mara Z Carrasquillo, Mark Corentin, Elizabeth M Sherman
OBJECTIVES: To describe an innovative hepatitis C virus (HCV) care program and treatment outcomes resulting from pharmacist services. SETTING: Adult ambulatory care HCV clinic within the Miami Veteran Affairs Healthcare System. PRACTICE DESCRIPTION: Pharmacists with limited prescriptive authority are integrated into a medical hepatology care team. PRACTICE INNOVATION: Pharmacists screen patients with HCV infection for treatment eligibility, counsel patients upon treatment initiation, assess ongoing treatment success and toxicity through patient appointments, telephone calls, and the ordering of pertinent laboratory data, and provide oversight of all patients on HCV therapies...
September 22, 2016: Journal of the American Pharmacists Association: JAPhA
Dzidzo R Yirenya-Tawiah, Mercy M Ackumey, Kwabena M Bosompem
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization, in the year 2009, renamed Schistosomiasis haematobium disease, urinary schistosomiasis, as urogenital schistosomiasis. This study, sought to determine whether urogenital schistosomiasis endemic community members were aware of the broadened scope of the disease and associated certain reproductive health related signs and symptoms to S. haematobium infection. METHOD: This is a cross-sectional study in which 2,585 respondents aged 15-49 years from 30 riparian communities along the lower arm of the Volta lake were interviewed using a structured questionnaire; 24 focus group discussions were also conducted...
2016: Reproductive Health
Elia Gabarron, Rolf Wynn
BACKGROUND: In order to prevent sexually transmitted infections (STIs), the World Health Organization recommends educating people on sexual health. With more than 2 billion active users worldwide, online social media potentially represent powerful channels for health promotion, including sexual health. OBJECTIVE: To review the scientific literature on the use of online social media for sexual health promotion. DESIGN: A search was conducted of scientific and medical databases, and grey literature was also included...
2016: Global Health Action
Alexander Rodriguez-Palacios, Natalia Aladyshkina, Mauricio Retuerto, Christopher L Hager, Sanja Ilic, Mahmoud A Ghannoum, Fabio Cominelli
We report and investigated a case of inadvertent contamination of 125 mice (housed in two germ-free positive-pressurized isolators) with emerging human and coral pathogen Aspergillus sydowii. The infected mice correspond to genetic line SAMP1/YitFc, which have 100% immune predisposition to develop Crohn's disease-like spontaneous pathologies, namely, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Pathogen update based on a scoping review of the literature and our clinical observations and experimentation are discussed. The unwanted infection of germ-free mice (immunologically prone to suffer chronic inflammation) with human pathogen A...
2016: Journal of Pathogens
Jasvinder A Singh
Biologic use is a major advance in the treatment of several autoimmune conditions, including rheumatoid arthritis. In this review, we summarize key studies of serious/hospitalized infections in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). RA is a risk factor for infections. High RA disease activity is associated with higher risk of serious infection. The risk of serious infections with tumor necrosis factor inhibitor (TNFi) biologics is increased in the first 6 months of initiating therapy, and this risk was higher compared to the use of traditional disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs)...
October 2016: Current Rheumatology Reports
Igor Minia, Clementine Merce, Monica Terrao, Christine Clayton
African trypanosome procyclic forms multiply in the midgut of tsetse flies, and are routinely cultured at 27°C. Heat shocks of 37°C and above result in general inhibition of translation, and severe heat shock (41°C) results in sequestration of mRNA in granules. The mRNAs that are bound by the zinc-finger protein ZC3H11, including those encoding refolding chaperones, escape heat-induced translation inhibition. At 27°C, ZC3H11 mRNA is predominantly present as an untranslated cytosolic messenger ribonucleoprotein particle, but after heat shocks of 37°C-41°C, the ZC3H11 mRNA moves into the polysomal fraction...
September 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
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