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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636116/curriculum-content-and-assessment-of-pre-clinical-dental-skills-a-survey-of-undergraduate-dental-education-in-europe
#1
J Field, S Stone, C Orsini, A Hussain, S Vital, A Crothers, D Walmsley
INTRODUCTION: Since 1981, the qualifications for various healthcare professionals across the European Union have enjoyed mutual recognition in accordance with the EU Directive 81/1057/EEC. Whilst the directive includes dental practitioners, it is recognised that significant variation exists in curriculum structure, content and scope of practice across institutions. This article aimed to explore pan-European practice in relation to curriculum content, teaching and learning strategies and assessment of pre-clinical dental skills...
June 21, 2017: European Journal of Dental Education: Official Journal of the Association for Dental Education in Europe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628043/immunotherapy-for-transplantation-associated-viral-infections
#2
Claire Roddie, Karl S Peggs
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infections following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) are a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Early clinical trials demonstrate that adoptive transfer of donor-derived virus-specific T cells to restore virus-specific immunity is an effective strategy to control CMV and EBV infection after HSCT, conferring protection in 70%-90% of patients. The field has evolved rapidly to develop solutions to some of the manufacturing challenges identified in early clinical studies, such as prolonged in vitro culture, optimization of the purity of the virus-specific T cell product, the potential limitations of targeting a single viral antigen, and how to manage the patient with a virus-naive donor...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624838/dental-management-of-pediatric-patients-affected-by-pulmonary-atresia-with-ventricular-septal-defect-a-scoping-review
#3
A Garrocho-Rangel, A-C Echavarría-García, M-A Rosales-Bérber, J Flores-Velázquez, A Pozos-Guillén
BACKGROUND: Congenital Heart Diseases (CHD) involves a wide range of pathological conditions, such as Pulmonary Atresia with Ventricle Septal Defect (PA/VSD). This disorder leads to the systemic circulation of oxygen-poor blood (cyanosis), with associated features and consequences in the oral cavity. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Using scoping review methodology for screening and article selection, the primary objectives of this paper were as follows: first, to pose a research question; second, to identify relevant studies in order to answer the research question; third, to select and retrieve the studies; fourth, to chart the critical data, and finally, to collate, summarize, and report the results from the most important articles on the dental management of children affected with PA/VSD...
June 18, 2017: Medicina Oral, Patología Oral y Cirugía Bucal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617870/a-novel-genetic-technique-in-plasmodium-berghei-allows-liver-stage-analysis-of-genes-required-for-mosquito-stage-development-and-demonstrates-that-de-novo-heme-synthesis-is-essential-for-liver-stage-development-in-the-malaria-parasite
#4
Upeksha L Rathnapala, Christopher D Goodman, Geoffrey I McFadden
The combination of drug resistance, lack of an effective vaccine, and ongoing conflict and poverty means that malaria remains a major global health crisis. Understanding metabolic pathways at all parasite life stages is important in prioritising and targeting novel anti-parasitic compounds. The unusual heme synthesis pathway of the rodent malaria parasite, Plasmodium berghei, requires eight enzymes distributed across the mitochondrion, apicoplast and cytoplasm. Deletion of the ferrochelatase (FC) gene, the final enzyme in the pathway, confirms that heme synthesis is not essential in the red blood cell stages of the life cycle but is required to complete oocyst development in mosquitoes...
June 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605173/barriers-to-hiv-remission-research-in-low-and-middle-income-countries
#5
REVIEW
Theresa Rossouw, Joseph D Tucker, Gert U van Zyl, Kenly Sikwesi, Catherine Godfrey
INTRODUCTION: HIV eradication and remission research has largely taken place in high-income countries. In low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), there may be factors that have a substantial impact on the size of the latent HIV reservoir and the immunological response to infection. If a curative strategy is to be available to all HIV-infected individuals, these factors must be understood. METHODS: We use a scoping review to examine the literature on biological factors that may have an impact on HIV persistence in LMIC...
June 5, 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600661/controversy-of-single-versus-staged-management-of-anorectal-malformations
#6
Ajay Narayan Gangopadhyay, Vaibhav Pandey
Anorectal malformations' (ARMs) management has taken strides over the past few decades. The advent of Posterior sagittal anorectoplasty (PSARP) and its acceptance by most people across the globe as standard procedure has given way to a debate of single vs. three-staged repair. After initial hesitancy and lot of skepticism, single-staged repair has very well established its role because of its advantages over the staged procedure. There is enough evidence which suggests that single-staged repair has got equally good outcome as that of staged repair (if not better)...
June 10, 2017: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598092/-risk-prediction-of-feeding-intolerance-in-preterm-infants
#7
Qiong Chen, Jin-Bo Fang, Wen-Tao Peng
OBJECTIVES: To identify risk factors associated with feeding intolerance (FI) in preterm infants. METHODS: Preterm infants treated in the neonatal unit of a hospital from August 2014 to January 2015 were recruited in this study. A clinical observation table was developed based on the reactive scope model. Data in relation to predictive homeostasis, reactive homeostasis, homeostatic overload, homeostatic failure and other aspects were collected and compared between those with and without FI...
September 2016: Sichuan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Sichuan University. Medical Science Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589386/navigating-the-jungles-of-tropical-infectious-gastrointestinal-pathology-a-pattern-based-approach-to-the-endoscopic-biopsy
#8
Tomas Slavik, Gregory Y Lauwers
International travels and global human migration have had the unforeseen consequence of increasing the exposure of histopathologists in developed countries to the pathology of tropical infectious disease. The gastrointestinal tract (GIT) is often the primary site of infection due to the faecal-oral route of transmission and the high risk of exposure to contaminated water, food or soil when travelling to these regions. Whilst current microbiologic techniques are far more sensitive than histology in detecting infectious pathogens, the histopathologist nonetheless retains a pivotal role in diagnosing tropical GIT disease...
June 6, 2017: Virchows Archiv: An International Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584991/nanoparticle-based-mycosis-vaccine
#9
Swaleha Zubair, Asim Azhar, Nazoora Khan, Ejaj Ahmad, Mohd Ajmal, Mohammad Owais
Many diseases that were considered major affliction of mankind in the past have been successfully eradicated with introduction of appropriate vaccine strategies. In order to expedite new challenges coming up to deal with various infectious diseases, nano-particulate-based subunit vaccines seem to be the demand of ordeal. The nano-vaccines can find better scope for the diseases that were not rampant in the semi-advanced world few years back. For example in present-day circumstances that corroborate with advancement in the field of medical sciences in terms of cancer chemotherapy, organ transplantation, therapy of autoimmune diseases, etc...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571589/computer-assisted-antimicrobial-recommendations-for-optimal-therapy-analysis-of-prescribing-errors-in-an-antimicrobial-stewardship-trial
#10
David N Schwartz, Kevin W McConeghy, Rosie D Lyles, Ulysses Wu, Robert C Glowacki, Gail S Itokazu, Piotr Kieszkowski, Yingxu Xiang, Bala Hota, Robert A Weinstein
Clinician education and prospective audit and feedback interventions, deployed separately and concurrently, did not reduce antimicrobial use errors or rates compared to a control group of general medicine inpatients at our public hospital. Additional research is needed to define the optimal scope and intensity of hospital antimicrobial stewardship interventions. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2017;1-3.
June 2, 2017: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569191/the-strategic-framework-of-tuberculosis-control-and-prevention-in-the-elderly-a-scoping-review-towards-end-tb-targets
#11
REVIEW
Jun Li, Pui-Hong Chung, Cyrus L K Leung, Nobuyuki Nishikiori, Emily Y Y Chan, Eng-Kiong Yeoh
With the rapid pace of population ageing, tuberculosis (TB) in the elderly increasingly becomes a public health challenge. Despite the increasing burden and high risks for TB in the elderly, targeted strategy has not been well understood and evaluated. We undertook a scoping review to identify current TB strategies, research and policy gaps in the elderly and summarized the results within a strategic framework towards End TB targets. Databases of Embase, MEDLINE, Global health and EBM reviews were searched for original studies, review articles, and policy papers published in English between January 1990 and December 2015...
June 1, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559891/systematic-optimization-of-protein-secretory-pathways-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-to-increase-expression-of-hepatitis-b-small-antigen
#12
Jiayuan Sheng, Hunter Flick, Xueyang Feng
Hepatitis B is a major disease that chronically infects millions of people in the world, especially in developing countries. Currently, one of the effective vaccines to prevent Hepatitis B is the Hepatitis B Small Antigen (HBsAg), which is mainly produced by the recombinant yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In order to bring down the price, which is still too high for people in developing countries to afford, it is important to understand key cellular processes that limit protein expression. In this study, we took advantage of yeast knockout collection (YKO) and screened 194 S...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559489/in-vivo-imaging-of-influenza-virus-infection-in-immunized-mice
#13
Rita Czakó, Leatrice Vogel, Elaine W Lamirande, Kevin W Bock, Ian N Moore, Ali H Ellebedy, Rafi Ahmed, Andrew Mehle, Kanta Subbarao
Immunization is the cornerstone of seasonal influenza control and represents an important component of pandemic preparedness strategies. Using a bioluminescent reporter virus, we demonstrate the application of noninvasive in vivo imaging system (IVIS) technology to evaluate the preclinical efficacy of candidate vaccines and immunotherapy in a mouse model of influenza. Sequential imaging revealed distinct spatiotemporal kinetics of bioluminescence in groups of mice passively or actively immunized by various strategies that accelerated the clearance of the challenge virus at different rates and by distinct mechanisms...
May 30, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551446/intimate-partner-violence-and-pregnancy-epidemiology-and-impact
#14
Christian A Chisholm, Linda Bullock, James E Jef Ferguson
Intimate partner violence is a significant public health problem in our society, affecting women disproportionately. Intimate partner violence takes many forms, including physical violence, sexual violence, stalking, and psychological aggression. While the scope of intimate partner violence is not fully documented, nearly 40% of women in the United States are victims of sexual violence in their lifetimes and 20% are victims of physical intimate partner violence. Other forms of intimate partner violence are likely particularly underreported...
May 25, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539450/mimic-phosphorylation-of-a-%C3%AE-c1-encoded-by-tylccnb-impairs-its-functions-as-a-viral-suppressor-of-rna-silencing-and-a-symptom-determinant
#15
Xueting Zhong, Zhan Qi Wang, Ruyuan Xiao, Linge Cao, Yaqin Wang, Yan Xie, Xueping Zhou
Phosphorylation of the βC1 protein encoded by the betasatellite of tomato yellow leaf curl China virus (TYLCCNB-βC1) by SNF1-related protein kinase 1 (SnRK1) plays a critical role in defense of host plants against geminivirus infection in Nicotiana benthamiana However, how phosphorylation of TYLCCNB-βC1 impacts its pathogenic functions during viral infection remains elusive. In this study, we identified two additional tyrosine residues in TYLCCNB-βC1 that are phosphorylated by SnRK1. The effects of TYLCCNB-βC1 phosphorylation on its functions as a viral suppressor of RNA silencing (VSR) and a symptom determinant were investigated via phosphorylation- mimic mutants in N...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532815/attitudes-and-practices-of-irish-hospital-based-physicians-towards-hand-hygiene-and-handrubbing-using-alcohol-based-hand-rubs-a-comparison-between-2007-and-2015
#16
Liz M Kingston, Barbara L Slevin, Nuala H O'Connell, Colum P Dunne
BACKGROUND: Hand hygiene is the cornerstone of infection prevention and control practices and reduces healthcare-associated infections significantly. Yet, international evidence suggests that medical doctors demonstrate poor compliance. AIM: To explore and compare practices and attitudes towards hand hygiene, in particular handrubbing using alcohol-based hand rubs (ABHR), among hospital-based physicians in Ireland between 2007 and 2015. METHODS: In 2007, a random sample of doctors in a large teaching hospital was invited to complete a postal survey using a validated questionnaire...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531183/a-scoping-review-on-bio-aerosols-in-healthcare-and-the-dental-environment
#17
Charifa Zemouri, Hans de Soet, Wim Crielaard, Alexa Laheij
BACKGROUND: Bio-aerosols originate from different sources and their potentially pathogenic nature may form a hazard to healthcare workers and patients. So far no extensive review on existing evidence regarding bio-aerosols is available. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to review evidence on bio-aerosols in healthcare and the dental setting. The objectives were 1) What are the sources that generate bio-aerosols?; 2) What is the microbial load and composition of bio-aerosols and how were they measured?; and 3) What is the hazard posed by pathogenic micro-organisms transported via the aerosol route of transmission? METHODS: Systematic scoping review design...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508384/endoscopic-management-of-benign-esophageal-ruptures-and-leaks
#18
REVIEW
Milena Di Leo, Roberta Maselli, Elisa Chiara Ferrara, Laura Poliani, Sameer Al Awadhi, Alessandro Repici
Esophageal leaks (EL) and ruptures (ER) are rare conditions associated with a high risk of mortality and morbidity. Historically, EL and ER have been surgically treated, but current treatment options also include conservative management and endoscopy. Over the last decades, interventional endoscopy has evolved as an effective and less invasive alternative to primary surgery in these cases. A variety of techniques are currently available to re-establish the continuity of the digestive tract, prevent or treat infection related to the leak/rupture, prevent further contamination, drain potential collections, and provide nutritional support...
May 15, 2017: Current Treatment Options in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503983/design-and-in-vitro-evaluation-of-tenofovir-loaded-vaginal-gels-for-the-prevention-of-hiv-infections
#19
Selin Seda Timur, Adem Şahin, Eren Aytekin, Naile Öztürk, Kerem Heybet Polat, Nurten Tezel, Reyhan Neslihan Gürsoy, Sema Çalış
Infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is affecting women disproportionally with increasing incidence rates over the last decades. Tenofovir is one of the most commonly used antiretroviral agents, which belongs to the nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor family, for the prevention of HIV acquisition. In scope of this study, a thermogelling system containing tenofovir - loaded chitosan nanoparticles for the controlled release of tenofovir was developed and characterized. The in vitro release studies have shown that the burst release effect was decreased to 27% with f-TFV CS NPs-Gel...
May 15, 2017: Pharmaceutical Development and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498164/functional-status-and-physical-impairments-of-adult-patients-infected-with-the-human-immunodeficiency-virus-admitted-to-hospital-a-scoping-review-protocol
#20
Ronel Roos, Heleen van Aswegen, Witness Mudzi
The objectives of this scoping review are to describe the physical impairments and subsequent level of function of adult individuals infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) admitted to an acute care hospital, determine the outcome measures used by rehabilitation professionals when evaluating said impairments and level of function in the population of interest, and identify the rehabilitation interventions offered to individuals while in hospital as a means of addressing these physical impairments and individuals' functional status...
May 2017: JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports
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