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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150711/epidemiology-of-peritonitis-following-maintenance-peritoneal-dialysis-catheter-placement-during-infancy-a-report-of-the-scope-collaborative
#1
Joshua Jacob Zaritsky, Coral Hanevold, Raymond Quigley, Troy Richardson, Cynthia Wong, Jennifer Ehrlich, John Lawlor, Jonathan Rodean, Alicia Neu, Bradley A Warady
BACKGROUND: Maintenance peritoneal dialysis (PD) is the dialysis modality of choice for infants and young children. However, there are limited outcome data for those who undergo PD catheter insertion and initiate maintenance PD within the first year of life. METHODS: Using data from the Children's Hospital Association's Standardizing Care to Improve Outcomes in Pediatric End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) Collaborative (SCOPE), we examined peritonitis rates and patient survival in 156 infants from 29 North American pediatric dialysis centers who had a chronic PD catheter placed prior to their first birthday...
November 17, 2017: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147555/what-can-machine-learning-do-for-antimicrobial-peptides-and-what-can-antimicrobial-peptides-do-for-machine-learning
#2
REVIEW
Ernest Y Lee, Michelle W Lee, Benjamin M Fulan, Andrew L Ferguson, Gerard C L Wong
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are a diverse class of well-studied membrane-permeating peptides with important functions in innate host defense. In this short review, we provide a historical overview of AMPs, summarize previous applications of machine learning to AMPs, and discuss the results of our studies in the context of the latest AMP literature. Much work has been recently done in leveraging computational tools to design new AMP candidates with high therapeutic efficacies for drug-resistant infections...
December 6, 2017: Interface Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143641/effects-of-deworming-on-child-and-maternal-health-a-literature-review-and-meta-analysis
#3
Winter Maxwell Thayer, Adrienne Clermont, Neff Walker
BACKGROUND: Soil-transmitted helminth infections are widespread. Many studies have been published on the topic of deworming. The Lives Saved Tool (LiST) is a software package that uses a deterministic mathematical model to estimate the effect of scaling up interventions on maternal and child health outcomes. This review investigates the scope of available evidence for benefits of deworming treatments in order to inform a decision about possible inclusion of deworming as an intervention in LiST...
November 7, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143637/impact-of-malaria-interventions-on-child-mortality-in-endemic-african-settings-comparison-and-alignment-between-list-and-spectrum-malaria-model
#4
Eline Korenromp, Matthew Hamilton, Rachel Sanders, Guy Mahiané, Olivier J T Briët, Thomas Smith, William Winfrey, Neff Walker, John Stover
BACKGROUND: In malaria-endemic countries, malaria prevention and treatment are critical for child health. In the context of intervention scale-up and rapid changes in endemicity, projections of intervention impact and optimized program scale-up strategies need to take into account the consequent dynamics of transmission and immunity. METHODS: The new Spectrum-Malaria program planning tool was used to project health impacts of Insecticide-Treated mosquito Nets (ITNs) and effective management of uncomplicated malaria cases (CMU), among other interventions, on malaria infection prevalence, case incidence and mortality in children 0-4 years, 5-14 years of age and adults...
November 7, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143620/optimising-diagnosis-of-viraemic-hepatitis-c-infection-the-development-of-a-target-product-profile
#5
Elena Ivanova Reipold, Philippa Easterbrook, Alessandra Trianni, Nivedha Panneer, Douglas Krakower, Stefano Ongarello, Teri Roberts, Veronica Miller, Claudia Denkinger
BACKGROUND: The current low access to virological testing to confirm chronic viraemic HCV infection in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) is limiting the rollout of hepatitis C (HCV) care. Existing tests are complex, costly and require sophisticated laboratory infrastructure. Diagnostic manufacturers need guidance on the optimal characteristics a virological test needs to have to ensure the greatest impact on HCV diagnosis and treatment in LMIC. Our objective was to develop a target product profile (TPP) for diagnosis of HCV viraemia using a global stakeholder consensus-based approach...
November 1, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122796/association-between-organisational-and-workplace-cultures-and-patient-outcomes-systematic-review
#6
Jeffrey Braithwaite, Jessica Herkes, Kristiana Ludlow, Luke Testa, Gina Lamprell
DESIGN AND OBJECTIVES: Every organisation has a unique culture. There is a widely held view that a positive organisational culture is related to positive patient outcomes. Following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses statement, we systematically reviewed and synthesised the evidence on the extent to which organisational and workplace cultures are associated with patient outcomes. SETTING: A variety of healthcare facilities, including hospitals, general practices, pharmacies, military hospitals, aged care facilities, mental health and other healthcare contexts...
November 8, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120501/analysis-of-the-plasma-proteome-using-itraq-and-tmt-based-isobaric-labeling
#7
REVIEW
Robert Moulder, Santosh D Bhosale, David R Goodlett, Riitta Lahesmaa
Over the past decade, chemical labeling with isobaric tandem mass tags, such as isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification reagents (iTRAQ) and tandem mass tag (TMT) reagents, has been employed in a wide range of different clinically orientated serum and plasma proteomics studies. In this review the scope of these works is presented with attention to the areas of research, methods employed and performance limitations. These applications have covered a wide range of diseases, disorders and infections, and have implemented a variety of different preparative and mass spectrometric approaches...
November 9, 2017: Mass Spectrometry Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102993/evidence-of-accessibility-and-utility-of-point-of-care-diagnostics-as-an-integral-part-of-prevention-of-mother-to-child-transmission-services-systematic-scoping-review-protocol
#8
Juliet Katoba, Lydia Hangulu, Tivani Phosa Mashamba-Thompson
INTRODUCTION: Point-of-care (POC) testing has been shown to help improve healthcare access in resource-limited settings. However, there is paucity of evidence on accessibility of POC testing for prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) in resource-limited settings. We propose to conduct a systematic scoping review to map the evidence on POC testing services for PMTCT. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A scoping review framework, proposed by Arksey and O'Malley, will guide the study...
November 4, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099828/-bacterial-lysates-history-and-availability
#9
Gian Loreto D'Alò, Ermanno Zorzoli, Alessandra Loria, Elisa Terracciano, Laura Zaratti, Elisabetta Franco
The use of bacterial lysates (BLs) can be traced back to the end of the nineteenth century, and they are currently available in several countries across all continents. Over the last few decades, BLs have been used, both in pediatric patients and in adults, mainly for the prevention and treatment of bacterial infections of the respiratory tract. BLs are produced from bacterial cultures that undergo cell lysis with two different methods: mechanical lysis and chemical lysis. The in vivo mechanism of action is still not fully understood, and the main hypotheses focus on mucosal immunity modulation...
July 2017: Igiene e Sanità Pubblica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089164/-pertussis-immunization-within-three-adult-populations-concerned-by-cocoon-strategy-in-%C3%A3-le-de-france
#10
M-C Lempereur de Guerny, M Scauflaire, D Crabot, C Le Cossec, H Partouche
BACKGROUND: Pertussis is a highly contagious respiratory tract infection with a high morbi-mortality in non or insufficiently immunized infants. Cocoon strategy was implemented in France in 2004 in order to reduce the disease incidence. The main objective of the study was to estimate immunization coverage according to cocoon strategy among eligible adults in three different settings in Île-de-France. METHODS: A descriptive survey was carried out by means of the same questionnaire addressed to relatives of children hospitalized in pediatric wards, to adults living under the same roof as children enrolled in nursery school, and to grandparents who consulted general practitioners...
November 2017: Revue D'épidémiologie et de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082022/systematic-review-of-the-clinical-manifestations-of-glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase-deficiency-in-the-greater-mekong-subregion-implications-for-malaria-elimination-and-beyond
#11
Ken Ing Cherng Ong, Hodaka Kosugi, Sophea Thoeun, Hitomi Araki, Moe Moe Thandar, Moritoshi Iwagami, Bouasy Hongvanthong, Paul T Brey, Shigeyuki Kano, Masamine Jimba
INTRODUCTION: To achieve malaria elimination in the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) by 2030, proper case management is necessary. 8-aminoquinolines, such as primaquine, are the only available medicines effective in preventing relapse of the hypnozoite stage of Plasmodium vivax, as well as the onward transmission of Plasmodium falciparum. However, primaquine can cause haemolysis in individuals who have glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (G6PDd). We conducted a systematic review on the reported clinical manifestations of G6PDd to provide a comprehensive overview of the situation in the GMS...
2017: BMJ Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079968/prediction-of-drug-drug-interaction-potential-using-physiologically-based-pharmacokinetic-modeling
#12
REVIEW
Jee Sun Min, Soo Kyung Bae
The occurrence of drug-drug interactions (DDIs) can significantly affect the safety of a patient, and thus assessing DDI risk is important. Recently, physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling has been increasingly used to predict DDI potential. Here, we present a PBPK modeling concept and strategy. We also surveyed PBPK-related articles about the prediction of DDI potential in humans published up to October 10, 2017. We identified 107 articles, including 105 drugs that fit our criteria, with a gradual increase in the number of articles per year...
October 27, 2017: Archives of Pharmacal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077540/toward-reduction-in-antibiotic-use-for-pediatric-otitis-media-predicting-parental-compliance-with-watchful-waiting-advice
#13
Erina L MacGeorge, Rachel A Smith, Emily P Caldes, Nicole M Hackman
"Watchful waiting" (WW) can reduce unnecessary antibiotic use in the treatment of pediatric otitis media (ear infection), but the utility of the strategy is impaired by underutilization and noncompliance. Guided by advice response theory (ART), the current study examines how parental compliance with WW and trust in the prescribing physician is predicted by evaluative and affective responses to the advice. Parents (N = 134) of at least one child aged 5 years or younger completed questionnaires that assessed responses to WW advice they received for their youngest child...
November 2017: Journal of Health Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068275/investigation-of-next-generation-sequencing-data-of-klebsiella-pneumoniae-using-web-based-tools
#14
Eva Brhelova, Mariya Antonova, Filip Pardy, Iva Kocmanova, Jiri Mayer, Zdenek Racil, Martina Lengerova
PURPOSE: Rapid identification and characterization of multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae strains is necessary due to the increasing frequency of severe infections in patients. The decreasing cost of next-generation sequencing enables us to obtain a comprehensive overview of genetic information in one step. The aim of this study is to demonstrate and evaluate the utility and scope of the application of web-based databases to next-generation sequenced (NGS) data. METHODOLOGY: The whole genomes of 11 clinical Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates were sequenced using Illumina MiSeq...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033046/eschar-removal-by-bromelain-based-enzymatic-debridement-nexobrid-%C3%A2-in-burns-an-european-consensus
#15
Christoph Hirche, Antonella Citterio, Henk Hoeksema, Ján Koller, Martina Lehner, José Ramón Martinez, Stan Monstrey, Alexandra Murray, Jan A Plock, Frank Sander, Alexandra Schulz, Benjamin Ziegler, Ulrich Kneser
Early debridement and/or eschar removal is regarded as a significant step in the treatment of deep partial and full thickness burns. It aims to control wound bioburden and allows early wound closure by conservative treatment or skin grafting. Preservation of viable dermis accompanied by early wound closure, is regarded as a necessary step to reduce scar related complication, e.g. functional limitations and/or unaesthetic scar formation. Aside from the classical techniques of surgical excision as tangential excision for eschar removal, hydro-surgery, maggot therapy, laser, enzymatic debridement have been described as additional techniques in the burn surgeon's armamentarium...
October 12, 2017: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029647/renal-manifestations-of-hiv-during-the-antiretroviral-era-in-south-africa-a-systematic-scoping-review
#16
Shirelle Assaram, Nombulelo P Magula, Suman Mewa Kinoo, Tivani P Mashamba-Thompson
BACKGROUND: It is estimated that 650,000 patients may develop human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related renal disease in South Africa. South Africa has recently adopted WHO policy, stipulating that all HIV-infected patients have access to antiretroviral treatment (ART) irrespective of CD4 cell count. METHODS: We searched Google Scholar, PubMed, Medline, Cochrane Library, Worldcat.org and EBSCO host databases from July 2015 to December 2015. Eligibility criteria included articles pertaining to renal manifestations of HIV in South Africa from 2004 to 2015 in adult patients (≥ 18 years)...
October 13, 2017: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029644/varying-intervals-of-antiretroviral-medication-dispensing-to-improve-outcomes-for-hiv-patients-the-interval-study-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#17
Risa Hoffman, Ashley Bardon, Sydney Rosen, Matthew Fox, Thoko Kalua, Thembi Xulu, Angela Taylor, Ian Sanne
BACKGROUND: Requirements for frequent dispensing of antiretroviral therapy (ART) place demands on health systems and can lead to suboptimal adherence and disengagement in care for patients due to the time and cost of frequent clinic visits. Rigorous data are needed to define optimal ART dispensing strategies and to evaluate the impact of a longer medication supply on retention and virologic suppression and determine whether this strategy lowers costs for both the patient and the health system...
October 13, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026748/knowledge-and-awareness-regarding-menstruation-and-hiv-aids-among-schoolgoing-adolescent-girls
#18
Rakhi Jain, Puneet Anand, Anuj Dhyani, Deshant Bansal
INTRODUCTION: Menstruation in our country is associated with various myths and restrictions leading to lack of awareness among adolescent girls. Insufficient menstrual hygiene practices are the cause of stress associated with menstruation and reproductive tract infections. Sexually transmitted infections and HIV/AIDS are not openly discussed in our society making adolescents vulnerable to them. AIM: To assess the knowledge of school going adolescent girls regarding menstrual hygiene and HIV/AIDS...
January 2017: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020929/a-scoping-review-of-prevalence-incidence-and-risk-factors-for-hiv-infection-amongst-young-people-in-brazil
#19
Igor Pedrosa Saffier, Hélia Kawa, Guy Harling
BACKGROUND: Despite young people being a key population for HIV prevention, the HIV epidemic amongst young Brazilians is perceived to be growing. We therefore reviewed all published literature on HIV prevalence and risk factors for HIV infection amongst 10-25 year olds in Brazil. METHODS: We searched Embase, LILACS, Proquest, PsycINFO, PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science for studies published up to March 2017 and analyzed reference lists of relevant studies. We included published studies from any time in the HIV epidemic which provided estimates specific to ages 10-25 (or some subset of this age range) for Brazilians on either: (a) HIV prevalence or incidence; or (b) the association between HIV and socio-demographic or behavioral risk factors...
October 11, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020160/immune-cross-opsonization-within-emm-clusters-following-group-a-streptococcus-skin-infection-broadening-the-scope-of-type-specific-immunity
#20
Hannah R Frost, Delphine Laho, Martina L Sanderson-Smith, Paul Licciardi, Susan Donath, Nigel Curtis, Joseph Kado, James B Dale, Andrew C Steer, Pierre R Smeesters
Background: Group A Streptococcus (GAS) skin infections are particularly prevalent in developing nations. The GAS M protein, by which strains are differentiated into >220 different emm types, is immunogenic and elicits protective antibodies. A major obstacle for vaccine development has been the traditional understanding that immunity following infection is restricted to a single emm type. However, recent evidence has led to the hypothesis of immune cross-reactivity between emm types...
July 19, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
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