Read by QxMD icon Read


Connor M Pettem, Jennifer M Briens, David M Janz, Lynn P Weber
Selenium (Se) is considered an essential trace element, involved in important physiological and metabolic functions for all vertebrate species. Fish require dietary concentrations of 0.1-0.5 μg Se/g dry mass (d.m.) to maintain normal physiological and selenoprotein function, however concentrations exceeding 3 μg/g d.m. have been shown to cause toxicity. As Se is reported to have a narrow margin between essentiality and toxicity, there is growing concern surrounding the adverse effects of elevated Se exposure caused by anthropogenic activities...
March 8, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Shunying Hu, Pingjun Zhu, Hao Zhou, Ying Zhang, Yundai Chen
BACKGROUND: Melatonin is a neuroendocrine hormone synthesized primarily by the pineal gland that is indicated to effectively prevent myocardial reperfusion injury. It is unclear whether melatonin protects cardiac function from reperfusion injury by modulating intracellular calcium homeostasis. OBJECTIVE: Demonstrate that melatonin protect against myocardial reperfusion injury through modulating IP3R and SERCA2a to maintain calcium homeostasis via activation of ERK1 in cardiomyocytes...
January 2018: Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia
Ayushi Guleria, Neha Thukral, Sudhir Chandna
Sf9 lepidopteran insect cells are 100-200 times more radioresistant than mammalian cells. This distinctive feature thus makes them suitable for studies exploring radioprotective molecular mechanisms. It has been established from previous studies of our group that downstream mitochondrial apoptotic signaling pathways in Sf9 cells are quite similar to mammalian cells, implicating the upstream signaling pathways in their extensive radioresistance. In the present study, intracellular and mitochondrial calcium levels remained unaltered in Sf9 cells in response to radiation, in sharp contrast to human (HEK293T) cells...
March 10, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Val A Fajardo, John S Mikhaeil, Cameron F Leveille, A Russell Tupling, Paul J LeBlanc
BACKGROUND: An increase in phosphatidylcholine:phosphatidylethanolamine (PC:PE) and a decrease in fatty acyl chain length, monounsaturated:polyunsaturated (MUFA:PUFA) fatty acyl ratio reduces SERCA activity in liposomes and in mouse models of obesity and muscular dystrophy. We have previously shown that maximal SERCA activity is significantly reduced in mechanically overloaded (OVL) plantaris, however, whether changes in PC:PE ratio or fatty acyl composition may contribute to the alterations in maximal SERCA activity remain unknown...
March 13, 2018: Lipids in Health and Disease
Moritz Horn, Virginia Kroef, Kira Allmeroth, Nicole Schuller, Stephan Miethe, Martin Peifer, Josef M Penninger, Ulrich Elling, Martin S Denzel
Forward genetic screens in haploid mammalian cells have recently emerged as powerful tools for the discovery and investigation of recessive traits. Use of the haploid system provides unique genetic tractability and resolution. Upon positive selection, these screens typically employ analysis of loss-of-function (LOF) alleles and are thus limited to non-essential genes. Many relevant compounds, including anti-cancer therapeutics, however, target essential genes, precluding positive selection of LOF alleles. Here, we asked whether the use of random and saturating chemical mutagenesis might enable screens that identify essential biological targets of toxic compounds...
February 9, 2018: Oncotarget
Sarah E D Nelson, Kim N Ha, Tata Gopinath, Mara H Exline, Alessandro Mascioni, David D Thomas, Gianluigi Veglia
Approximately, 70% of the Ca2+ ion transport into the sarcoplasmic reticulum is catalyzed by the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ -ATPase (SERCA), whose activity is endogenously regulated by phospholamban (PLN). PLN comprises a TM inhibitory region and a cytoplasmic regulatory region that harbors a consensus sequence for cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). The inhibitory region binds the ATPase, reducing its apparent Ca2+ binding affinity. β-adrenergic stimulation activates PKA, which phosphorylates PLN at Ser 16, reversing its inhibitory function...
March 1, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Yan G Zhao, Hong Zhang
The ER forms contacts with other endomembrane systems to exchange materials (e.g., calcium and lipids) and also to modulate dynamic organelle processes, including fission, cargo sorting and movement. During autophagosome formation, dynamic contacts between the ER and the phagophore membrane are crucial for phagophore expansion and closure. Little is known about the mechanisms underlying the formation and disassembly of the ER contacts. We found that the ER-localized autophagy protein EPG-3/VMP1 plays an essential role in controlling ER-phagophore dissociation and also the disassembly of ER contacts with LDs, mitochondria and endolysosomes...
March 1, 2018: Autophagy
Edgar Djaha Yoboue, Roberto Sitia, Thomas Simmen
Many cellular redox reactions housed within mitochondria, peroxisomes and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) generate hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) and other reactive oxygen species (ROS). The contribution of each organelle to the total cellular ROS production is considerable, but varies between cell types and also over time. Redox-regulatory enzymes are thought to assemble at a "redox triangle" formed by mitochondria, peroxisomes and the ER, assembling "redoxosomes" that sense ROS accumulations and redox imbalances...
February 28, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Yuting Zhai, Yuanyuan Luo, Pei Wu, Dongye Li
Sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase 2a (SERCA2a) is a target of interest in gene therapy for heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). However, the results of an important clinical study, the Calcium Upregulation by Percutaneous Administration of Gene Therapy in Cardiac Disease (CUPID) trial, were controversial. Promising results were observed in the CUPID 1 trial, but the results of the CUPID 2 trial were negative. The factors that caused the controversial results remain unclear. Importantly, enrolled patients were required to have a higher plasma level of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) in the CUPID 2 trial...
February 24, 2018: Journal of Medical Genetics
Megha Amar, Birendra Nath Mallick
Rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) plays an important role in maintaining brain excitability by regulating noradrenaline (NA) level and Na-K ATPase activity. We showed earlier that REMS deprivation (REMSD) associated elevated NA increased neuronal, while decreased glial Na-K ATPase activity. However, our knowledge was insufficient on how the REMSD-associated effect is sustained particularly under chronic condition. Using Neuro-2a cells as a model, we investigated the molecular mechanism of NA-induced increase in mRNA expression of Na-K ATPase subunit and the enzyme activity...
February 22, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Renata Gonçalves, Ana Paula Zanatta, Fernanda Carvalho Cavalari, Monica Andressa Wessner do Nascimento, Christelle Delalande-Lecapitaine, Hélène Bouraïma-Lelong, Fátima Regina Mena Barreto Silva
We investigated the acute effect of low concentrations of BPA on calcium influx and the mechanism of action of BPA in this rapid response in the rat testis. BPA increased calcium influx at 1 pM and 1 nM at 300 s of incubation, in a similar manner to that of estradiol. At 1 pM, BPA stimulated calcium influx independently of classical estrogen receptors, consistent with a G-protein coupled receptor. This effect also involves the modulation of ionic channels, such as K+ , TRPV1 and Cl- channels. Furthermore, BPA is able to modulate calcium from intracellular storages by inhibiting SERCA and activating IP3 receptor/Ca2+ channels at the endoplasmic reticulum and activate kinase proteins, such as PKA and PKC...
February 21, 2018: Reproductive Toxicology
Ying Zhang, Lei Jiao, Li-Hua Sun, Yanru Li, Yuqiu Gao, Chaoqian Xu, Yingchun Shao, Mengmeng Li, Chunyan Li, Yanjie Lu, Zhenwei Pan, Li-Na Xuan, Yiyuan Zhang, Qingqi Li, Rui Yang, Yuting Zhuang, Yong Zhang, Baofeng Yang
<u>Rationale:</u> Ca2+ homeostasis, a critical determinant of cardiac contractile function, is critically regulated by sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ -ATPase 2a (SERCA2a). Our previous study has identified ZFAS1 as a new long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) biomarker of acute myocardial infarction (MI). <u>Objective:</u> To evaluate the effects of ZFAS1 on SERCA2a and the associated Ca2+ homeostasis and cardiac contractile function in the setting of MI. <u>Methods and Results:</u> ZFAS1 expression was robustly increased in cytoplasm and sarcoplasmic reticulum in a mouse model of MI and a cellular model of hypoxia...
February 23, 2018: Circulation Research
Patrycja Kaczara, Bartosz Proniewski, Christopher Lovejoy, Kamil Kuś, Roberto Motterlini, Andrey Y Abramov, Stefan Chlopicki
Carbon monoxide-releasing molecules (CO-RMs) induce nitric oxide (NO) release (which requires NADPH), and Ca2+ -dependent signalling; however, their contribution in mediating endothelial responses is not clear. Here, we studied the effects of CO liberated from CORM-401 on NO production, calcium signalling and pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) activity in human endothelial cell line (EA.hy926). CORM-401 induced NO production and two types of calcium signalling: a peak-like calcium signal and a gradual increase in cytosolic calcium...
February 21, 2018: FEBS Journal
Joseph O Primeau, Gareth P Armanious, M'Lynn E Fisher, Howard S Young
The calcium pump (a.k.a. Ca2+ -ATPase or SERCA) is a membrane transport protein ubiquitously found in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of all eukaryotic cells. As a calcium transporter, SERCA maintains the low cytosolic calcium level that enables a vast array of signaling pathways and physiological processes (e.g. synaptic transmission, muscle contraction, fertilization). In muscle cells, SERCA promotes relaxation by pumping calcium ions from the cytosol into the lumen of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR), the main storage compartment for intracellular calcium...
2018: Sub-cellular Biochemistry
Wei Zhang, Terunao Takahara, Takuya Achiha, Hideki Shibata, Masatoshi Maki
NFAT is a cytoplasm-localized hyper-phosphorylated transcription factor that is activated through dephosphorylation by calcineurin, a Ca2+ /calmodulin-dependent phosphatase. A non-palindromic NFAT-response element (RE) found in the IL2 promoter region has been commonly used for a Ca2+ -response reporter gene system, but requirement of concomitant activation of AP-1 (Fos/Jun) often complicates the interpretation of obtained results. A new nanoluciferase (NanoLuc) reporter gene containing nine-tandem repeats of a pseudo-palindromic NFAT-RE located upstream of the IL8 promoter was designed to monitor Ca2+ -induced transactivation activity of NFAT in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells by measuring luciferase activities of NanoLuc and co-expressed firefly luciferase for normalization...
February 18, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Rebecca Sullivan, Rebecca McGirr, Shirley Hu, Alice Tan, Derek Wu, Carlie Charron, Tyler Lalonde, Edith Arany, Subrata Chakrabarti, Leonard Luyt, Savita Dhanvantari
Ghrelin and its receptor, the growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1a (GHSR1a), are present in cardiac tissue. Activation of GHSR1a by ghrelin promotes cardiomyocyte contractility and survival, and changes in myocardial GHSR1a and circulating ghrelin track with end-stage heart failure, leading to the hypothesis that GHSR1a is a biomarker for heart failure. We hypothesized that GHSR1a could also be a biomarker for diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM). We used two models of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced DCM: group 1, adult mice treated with 35 mg/kg STZ for 3 days; and group 2, neonatal mice treated with 70 mg/kg STZ at days 2 and 5 after birth...
February 1, 2018: Journal of the Endocrine Society
Joshua Mayourian, Delaine K Ceholski, Przemyslaw Gorski, Prabhu Mathiyalagan, Jack F Murphy, Sophia I Salazar, Francesca Stillitano, Joshua M Hare, Susmita Sahoo, Roger J Hajjar, Kevin D Costa
<u>Rationale:</u> The promising clinical benefits of delivering human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) for treating heart disease warrant a better understanding of underlying mechanisms of action. hMSC exosomes increase myocardial contractility; however, the exosomal cargo responsible for these effects remains unresolved. <u>Objective:</u> This study aims to identify lead cardioactive hMSC exosomal microRNAs to provide a mechanistic basis for optimizing future stem cell-based cardiotherapies...
February 15, 2018: Circulation Research
Morten Andre Høydal, Idar Kirkeby-Garstad, Asbjørn Karevold, Rune Wiseth, Rune Haaverstad, Alexander Wahba, Tomas L Stølen, Riccardo Contu, Gianluigi Condorelli, Øyvind Ellingsen, Godfrey L Smith, Ole J Kemi, Ulrik Wisløff
AIMS: Cellular processes in the heart rely mainly on studies from experimental animal models or explanted hearts from patients with terminal end-stage heart failure (HF). To address this limitation, we provide data on excitation contraction coupling, cardiomyocyte contraction and relaxation, and Ca2+ handling in post-myocardial-infarction (MI) patients at mid-stage of HF. METHODS AND RESULTS: Nine MI patients and eight control patients without MI (non-MI) were included...
February 12, 2018: ESC Heart Failure
Yinping Du, Ping Liu, Tongda Xu, Defeng Pan, Hong Zhu, Nana Zhai, Yanbin Zhang, Dongye Li
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The myocardial sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase (SERCA2a) is a pivotal pump responsible for calcium cycling in cardiomyocytes. The present study investigated the effect of luteolin (Lut) on restoring SERCA2a protein level and stability reduced by myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. We verified a hypothesis that Lut protected against myocardial I/R injury by regulating SERCA2a SUMOylation. METHODS: The hemodynamic data, myocardial infarct size of intact hearts, apoptotic analysis, mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), the level of SERCA2a SUMOylation, and the activity and expression of SERCA2a were examined in vivo and in vitro to clarify the cardioprotective effects of Lut after SUMO1 was knocked down or over-expressed...
February 2, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Julian Mustroph, Olivia Wagemann, Simon Lebek, Daniel Tarnowski, Jasmin Ackermann, Marzena Drzymalski, Steffen Pabel, Christof Schmid, Stefan Wagner, Samuel Sossalla, Lars S Maier, Stefan Neef
AIMS: Ethanol has acute negative inotropic and arrhythmogenic effects. The underlying mechanisms, however, are largely unknown. Sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-leak is an important mechanism for reduced contractility and arrhythmias. Ca2+-leak can be induced by oxidative stress and Ca2+/Calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII). Therefore, we investigated the influence of acute ethanol exposure on excitation-contraction coupling in atrial and ventricular cardiomyocytes. METHODS AND RESULTS: Isolated human atrial and murine atrial or ventricular cardiomyocytes were preincubated for 30 min and then superfused with control solution or solution containing ethanol...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"