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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900568/control-of-phosphate-balance-by-the-kidney-and-intestine
#1
REVIEW
Ichiro Kaneko, Sawako Tatsumi, Hiroko Segawa, Ken-Ichi Miyamoto
The prevention and correction of hyperphosphatemia are major goals of the treatment of chronic kidney disease (CKD)-bone mineral disorders, and thus, Pi balance requires special attention. Pi balance is maintained by intestinal absorption, renal excretion, and bone accretion. The kidney is mainly responsible for the plasma Pi concentration. In CKD, reduced glomerular filtration rate leads to various Pi metabolism abnormalities, and Pi absorption in the small intestine also has an important role in Pi metabolism...
November 30, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896453/management-of-phosphorus-load-in-ckd-patients
#2
REVIEW
Yutaka Taketani, Fumihiko Koiwa, Keitaro Yokoyama
Disturbances in mineral and bone metabolism play a critical role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular complications in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The term "renal osteodystrophy" has recently been replaced with "CKD-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD)", which includes vascular calcification as well as bone abnormalities. In Japan, proportions of the aged and long-term dialysis patients are increasing which makes management of vascular calcification and parathyroid function increasingly more important...
November 28, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895472/safety-and-effectiveness-of-daily-teriparatide-for-osteoporosis-in-patients-with-severe-stages-of-chronic-kidney-disease-post-hoc-analysis-of-a-postmarketing-observational-study
#3
Atsushi Nishikawa, Fumito Yoshiki, Masanori Taketsuna, Kenta Kajimoto, Hiroyuki Enomoto
Teriparatide (recombinant 1-34 N-terminal sequence of human parathyroid hormone) for the treatment of osteoporosis should be prescribed with caution in patients with severe stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, in clinical settings, physicians and surgeons who treat such patients have few available options. We sought to further explore the safety and effectiveness of teriparatide for the treatment of osteoporosis in Japanese patients with severe stages of CKD. This was a post hoc analysis of a postmarketing surveillance study that included patients with osteoporosis at high risk of fracture and stage 4 or 5 CKD...
2016: Clinical Interventions in Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890549/novel-functions-of-circulating-klotho
#4
REVIEW
Julia M Hum, Linda O'Bryan, Rosamund C Smith, Kenneth E White
A significant portion of the key biological functions of αKlotho (αKL) and its cognate ligand Fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23) have been revealed through the study of rare diseases of mineral metabolism. These findings have far reaching implications for common disorders such as chronic kidney disease-mineral bone disorder (CKD-MBD). αKL's predominant effect on mineral homeostasis is through its actions in the kidney as a co-receptor for FGF23, however emerging data has shed light on its capacity to act as a circulating factor through the cleavage of the transmembrane form of αKL ('mKL') to produce 'cleaved KL' or 'cKL'...
November 23, 2016: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887750/chronic-kidney-disease
#5
REVIEW
Angela C Webster, Evi V Nagler, Rachael L Morton, Philip Masson
The definition and classification of chronic kidney disease (CKD) have evolved over time, but current international guidelines define this condition as decreased kidney function shown by glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of less than 60 mL/min per 1·73 m(2), or markers of kidney damage, or both, of at least 3 months duration, regardless of the underlying cause. Diabetes and hypertension are the main causes of CKD in all high-income and middle-income countries, and also in many low-income countries. Incidence, prevalence, and progression of CKD also vary within countries by ethnicity and social determinants of health, possibly through epigenetic influence...
November 22, 2016: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867189/the-role-of-phosphate-in-kidney-disease
#6
REVIEW
Marc G Vervloet, Siren Sezer, Ziad A Massy, Lina Johansson, Mario Cozzolino, Denis Fouque
The importance of phosphate homeostasis in chronic kidney disease (CKD) has been recognized for decades, but novel insights - which are frequently relevant to everyday clinical practice - continue to emerge. Epidemiological data consistently indicate an association between hyperphosphataemia and poor clinical outcomes. Moreover, compelling evidence suggests direct toxicity of increased phosphate concentrations. Importantly, serum phosphate concentration has a circadian rhythm that must be considered when interpreting patient phosphate levels...
November 21, 2016: Nature Reviews. Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866993/micrornas-223-3p-and-93-5p-in-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease-before-and-after-renal-transplantation
#7
M Ulbing, A H Kirsch, B Leber, S Lemesch, J Münzker, N Schweighofer, D Hofer, O Trummer, A R Rosenkranz, H Müller, K Eller, V Stadlbauer, B Obermayer-Pietsch
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with a multifactorial dysregulation of bone and vascular calcification and closely linked to increased cardiovascular mortality and concomitant bone disease. We aimed to investigate specific microRNA (miRNA) signatures in CKD patients to find indicators for vascular calcification and/or bone mineralization changes during CKD and after kidney transplantation (KT). A miRNA array was used to investigate serum miRNA profiles in CKD patients, then selected miRNAs were quantified in a validation cohort comprising 73 patients in CKD stages 3 to 5, 67 CKD patients after KT, and 36 healthy controls...
November 17, 2016: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861640/association-of-high-density-lipoprotein-subclasses-with-chronic-kidney-disease-progression-atherosclerosis-and-klotho
#8
Eiichiro Kanda, Masumi Ai, Mitsuyo Okazaki, Masayuki Yoshida, Yoshitaka Maeda
BACKGROUND: Atherosclerosis is often a complication of chronic kidney disease (CKD) because of dyslipidemia and CKD-mineral and bone disorder. High-density lipoproteins (HDLs) are grouped into various subclasses composed of multiple proteins and lipids, and their transformation is altered in CKD. We investigated the roles of lipoprotein subclasses in CKD progression, and atherosclerosis, and the relationships with Klotho and fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 23. METHODS: Seventy-one CKD patients were enrolled in this prospective cohort study in Japan...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855207/association-of-serum-osteoprotegerin-levels-with-bone-loss-in-chronic-kidney-disease-insights-from-the-know-ckd-study
#9
Chang Seong Kim, Eun Hui Bae, Seong Kwon Ma, Seung Hyeok Han, Kyu Hun Choi, Joongyub Lee, Dong Wan Chae, Kook-Hwan Oh, Curie Ahn, Soo Wan Kim
Osteoprotegerin, a potent osteoclast activation inhibitor, decreases bone resorption and positively affects bone mineral density. This study examined the association between serum osteoprotegerin levels and bone loss in patients with chronic kidney disease, a condition associated with increased risk of mineral and bone disorders. The bone mineral densities of the lumbar spine, total hip, and femur neck were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry; serum osteoprotegerin levels were measured at baseline for 1,423 patients enrolled in the prospective KoreaN cohort study for Outcome in patients With Chronic Kidney Disease (KNOW-CKD)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847255/fgf23-%C3%AE-klotho-as-a-paradigm-for-a-kidney-bone-network
#10
REVIEW
Makoto Kuro-O, Orson W Moe
The vertebrate endoskeleton is not a mere frame for muscle attachment to facilitate locomotion, but is a massive organ integrated with many physiologic functions including mineral and energy metabolism. Mineral balance is maintained by tightly controlled ion fluxes that are external (intestine and kidney) and internal (between bone and other organs), and are regulated and coordinated by many endocrine signals between these organs. The endocrine fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) and Klotho gene families are complex systems that co-evolved with the endoskeleton...
November 12, 2016: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847254/vascular-calcification-in-ckd-mbd-roles-for-phosphate-fgf23-and-klotho
#11
REVIEW
Shunsuke Yamada, Cecilia M Giachelli
Vascular calcification (VC) is highly prevalent in aging, diabetes mellitus, and chronic kidney disease (CKD). VC is a strong predictor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in the CKD population. Complex pathological mechanisms are involved in the development of VC, including osteochondrogenic differentiation and apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells, instability and release of extracellular vesicles loaded calcium and phosphate, and elastin degradation. Elevated serum phosphate is a late manifestation of CKD, and has been shown to accelerate mineral deposition in both the vessel wall and heart valves...
November 12, 2016: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837149/chronic-hyperphosphatemia-and-vascular-calcification-are-reduced-by-stable-delivery-of-soluble-klotho
#12
Julia M Hum, Linda M O'Bryan, Arun K Tatiparthi, Taryn A Cass, Erica L Clinkenbeard, Martin S Cramer, Manoj Bhaskaran, Robert L Johnson, Jonathan M Wilson, Rosamund C Smith, Kenneth E White
αKlotho (αKL) regulates mineral metabolism, and diseases associated with αKL deficiency are characterized by hyperphosphatemia and vascular calcification (VC). αKL is expressed as a membrane-bound protein (mKL) and recognized as the coreceptor for fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23) and a circulating soluble form (cKL) created by endoproteolytic cleavage of mKL. The functions of cKL with regard to phosphate metabolism are unclear. We tested the ability of cKL to regulate pathways and phenotypes associated with hyperphosphatemia in a mouse model of CKD-mineral bone disorder and αKL-null mice...
November 11, 2016: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27823902/pth-levels-and-not-serum-phosphorus-levels-are-a-predictor-of-the-progression-of-kidney-disease-in-elderly-patients-with-advanced-chronic-kidney-disease
#13
Néstor Gabriel Toapanta Gaibor, Nathasha Carolina Nava Pérez, Yeleine Martínez Echevers, Rafael Montes Delgado, María Ángeles Guerrero Riscos
BACKGROUND: At present, there is a high incidence of elderly patients with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) and it is important to know the long term progression and the factors that influence it. OBJECTIVES: To analyse the progression of advanced CKD in elderly patients and the influence of bone-mineral metabolism. METHODS: Retrospective study of 125 patients ≥70years of age with CKD stages 4-5 who started follow-up from January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2008, showing the progression of CKD (measured by the slope of the regression line of the estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] by MDRD-4) over 5years...
November 4, 2016: Nefrología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española Nefrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821896/vitamin-d-25-oh-d-in-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease-stages-2-5
#14
César Augusto Restrepo Valencia, José Vicente Aguirre Arango
OBJECTIVE: To establish the impact the chronic kidney disease stage has in the native vitamin D levels in patients not undergoing dialysis treatment. METHODS: A study performed in Manizales, Colombia, a city located 2,200 meters above sea level, without important stational variations. Patients with 18 years of age or more, with chronic kidney disease stages 2 to 5 and not undergoing dialysis treatment were recruited for this study. Demographic and anthropometric variations were evaluated as well as solar exposure, CKD etiology and laboratory variables related to bone and mineral diseases...
September 30, 2016: Colombia Médica: CM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818277/comparison-of-the-effects-of-novel-vitamin-d-receptor-analog-vs-105-and-paricalcitol-on-chronic-kidney-disease-mineral-bone-disorder-in-an-experimental-model-of-chronic-kidney-disease
#15
Hideki Fujii, Yuriko Yonekura, Kentaro Nakai, Keiji Kono, Shunsuke Goto, Shinichi Nishi
When using vitamin D, the most important clinical problems are hypercalcemia, hyperphosphatemia, and vascular calcification. VS-105 is a novel vitamin D receptor (VDR) analog. In the present study, we compared the effects of VS-105 and paricalcitol on chronic kidney disease-mineral bone disorder (CKD-MBD) in a CKD rat model. We used male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats and performed 5/6 nephrectomy at 8-9 weeks. At 10 weeks, the rats were classified into five groups and administered vehicle, low-dose paricalcitol (LP, 0...
November 3, 2016: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806914/micrornas-in-the-pathophysiology-of-ckd-mbd-biomarkers-and-innovative-drugs
#16
REVIEW
Valérie Metzinger-Le Meuth, Stéphane Burtey, Pierre Maitrias, Ziad A Massy, Laurent Metzinger
microRNAs comprise a novel class of endogenous small non-coding RNAs that have been shown to be implicated in both vascular damage and bone pathophysiology. Chronic kidney disease-mineral bone disorder (CKD-MBD) is characterized by vessel and bone damage secondary to progressive loss of kidney function. In this review, we will describe how several microRNAs have been implicated, in recent years, in cellular and animal models of CKD-MBD, and have been very recently shown to be deregulated in patients with CKD...
October 30, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27804080/a-critical-appraisal-of-chronic-kidney-disease-mineral-and-bone-disorders-clinical-practice-guidelines-using-the-agree-ii-instrument
#17
REVIEW
Nigar Sekercioglu, Reem Al-Khalifah, Joycelyne Efua Ewusie, Rosilene M Elias, Lehana Thabane, Jason W Busse, Noori Akhtar-Danesh, Alfonso Iorio, Tetsuya Isayama, Juan Pablo Díaz Martínez, Ivan D Florez, Gordon H Guyatt
BACKGROUND: Patients with chronic kidney disease mineral and bone disorders (CKD-MBD) suffer high rates of morbidity and mortality, in particular related to bone and cardiovascular outcomes. The management of CKD-MBD remains challenging. The objective of this systematic survey is to critically appraise clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) addressing CKD-MBD. METHODS/DESIGN: Data sources included MEDLINE, EMBASE, the National Guideline Clearinghouse, Guideline International Network and Turning Research into Practice up to May 2016...
November 1, 2016: International Urology and Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799624/protein-bound-toxins-has-the-cinderella-of-uraemic-toxins-turned-into-a-princess
#18
REVIEW
Sophie Liabeuf, Cédric Villain, Ziad A Massy
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has emerged as a global public health problem. Although the incidence and prevalence of CKD vary from one country to another, the estimated worldwide prevalence is 8-16%. The complications associated with CKD include progression to end-stage renal disease (ESRD), mineral and bone disorders, anaemia, cognitive decline and elevated all-cause and cardiovascular (CV) mortality. As a result of progressive nephron loss, patients with late-stage CKD are permanently exposed to uraemic toxins...
December 1, 2016: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779902/vitamin-d-status-and-bone-mineral-density-is-influenced-by-vitamin-d-supplementation-and-vitamin-k1-intake-in-adults-with-diabetes-and-chronic-kidney-disease
#19
Michelle R Hoffmann, Peter A Senior, Stephanie T Jackson, Guylaine Ferland, Nancy Presse, Kailash Jindal, Ping Li, Abeer S Alzaben, Diana R Mager
PURPOSE: Patients with diabetes (DM) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at increased risk for suboptimal bone health. The study objective was to investigate the relationships between vitamin D (vitD), vitamin K1 (vitK1), and calcium intake with bone mineral density (BMD) and vitamin D status in an ambulatory population with DM and CKD. METHODS: Adults (age 18-80 years; n = 62) with DM and CKD (stages 1-4) were recruited from the Northern Alberta Renal Program...
October 25, 2016: Canadian Journal of Dietetic Practice and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760419/relationship-between-anemia-and-serum-concentrations-of-calcium-and-phosphorus-in-advanced-non-dialysis-dependent-chronic-kidney-disease
#20
Mauro Boronat, Ángelo Santana, Elvira Bosch, Dionisio Lorenzo, Marta Riaño, César García-Cantón
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Different biochemical abnormalities of metabolic bone disease have been associated with anemia of chronic kidney disease (CKD), mainly in hemodialysis patients. However, all of these abnormalities are closely inter-related and their individual effect on the development of anemia is uncertain. This study was aimed to assess the relationship between anemia and a set of metabolic bone disease biomarkers in a cohort of adult patients with advanced non-dialysis-dependent CKD...
October 20, 2016: Nephron
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