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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913795/prevalence-of-sti-symptoms-and-high-levels-of-stigma-in-sti-healthcare-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-dar-es-salaam-tanzania-a-respondent-driven-sampling-study
#1
Michael W Ross, Markus Larsson, Joyce E Nyoni, Anette Agardh
Symptoms of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), whether they are presented for treatment or diagnosis, and how they are received by the clinician where they are presented, may be concomitants of stigma associated with homosexuality in homophobic climates. We analyzed respondent-driven sampling data from a study on 200 young men who have sex with men (MSM) in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania to examine sample prevalence, treatment and clinician response to 10 symptoms potentially associated with STIs. Survey measures included 10 self-reported STI symptoms, further specified according to location (genital, anal, oral), further specified according to place of diagnosis, place of, treatment whether there was pharmacy treatment or self-medication, healthcare worker (HCW) inquiries about source of infection and whether the HCW was polite...
December 2, 2016: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913230/effects-of-combined-oral-contraceptives-depot-medroxyprogesterone-acetate-and-the-levonorgestrel-releasing-intrauterine-system-on-the-vaginal-microbiome
#2
J Paul Brooks, David J Edwards, Diana L Blithe, Jennifer M Fettweis, Myrna G Serrano, Nihar U Sheth, Jerome F Strauss, Gregory A Buck, Kimberly K Jefferson
OBJECTIVES: Prior studies suggest that the composition of the vaginal microbiome may positively or negatively affect susceptibility to sexually transmitted infections (STI) and bacterial vaginosis (BV). Some female hormonal contraceptive methods also appear to positively or negatively influence STI transmission and BV. Therefore changes in the vaginal microbiome that are associated with different contraceptive methods may explain, in part, effects on STI transmission and BV. STUDY DESIGN: We performed a retrospective study of 16S rRNA gene survey data of vaginal samples from a subset of participants from the Human Vaginal Microbiome Project at Virginia Commonwealth University...
November 29, 2016: Contraception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913142/candida-species-from-oral-cavity-of-hiv-infected-children-exhibit-reduced-virulence-factors-in-the-haart-era
#3
Maristela Barbosa Portela, Elaine Lima de Amorim, Adrielle Mangabeira Santos, José Alexandre da Rocha Curvelo, Karol de Oliveira Martins, Cauli Lima Capillé, Rosangela Maria de Araújo Soares, Gloria Fernanda Barbosa de Araújo Castro
This study aimed to assess, in vitro, the biofilm viability and the phospholipase and protease production of Candida spp. from the saliva of HIV infected children and healthy controls, and to correlate the results with the use of medical data. A total of 79 isolates were analyzed: 48 Candida albicans isolates (33/15) and 20 Candida parapsilosis sensu lato complex isolates (12/8) (from HIV/control patients, respectively), and 8 Candida krusei, 1 Candida tropicalis, 1 Candida dubliniensis and 1 Candida guilliermondii from HIV patients...
November 29, 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912886/medicinal-plants-and-natural-molecules-with-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-activity-against-rotavirus-a-systematic-review
#4
REVIEW
Gopalsamy Rajiv Gandhi, Paula Gurgel Barreto, Bruno Dos Santos Lima, Jullyana de Souza Siqueira Quintans, Adriano Antunes de Souza Araújo, Narendra Narain, Lucindo Jose Quintans-Júnior, Ricardo Queiroz Gurgel
BACKGROUND: Rotaviruses can cause life-threatening health disorders, such as severe dehydrating gastroenteritis and diarrhea in children. Vaccination is the main preventive strategy to reduce rotavirus diarrhea and the severity of episodes, but vaccines are not fully effective and new episodes may occur, even in vaccinated children. The WHO recommends oral rehydration therapy and zinc supplementation for rotavirus-induced diarrhea management. There is little preclinical evidence to support the use of phytotherapeutics in the management of rotaviral infections...
December 15, 2016: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912792/evaluation-of-natural-porcine-circovirus-type-2-pcv2-subclinical-infection-and-seroconversion-dynamics-in-piglets-vaccinated-at-different-ages
#5
Salvador Oliver-Ferrando, Joaquim Segalés, Sergio López-Soria, Antonio Callén, Olivier Merdy, François Joisel, Marina Sibila
This study aimed to determine the porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) serological and virological dynamics in piglets vaccinated at different ages in a PCV2 subclinical infection (PCV2-SI) scenario. Six hundred and forty-four 2 week-old healthy piglets were selected and distributed into four treatment groups: vaccination at 3, 6 or 10 weeks of age (3W-VAC, 6W-VAC and 10W-VAC groups, respectively) and unvaccinated pigs (NON-VAC group). Blood (n = 112 pigs) and oral fluid (OF) (n = 40 pens) samples were taken throughout the study to assess PCV2 load, humoral immunity and viral genotyping...
December 3, 2016: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912079/a-humanized-mouse-model-for-hiv-2-infection-and-efficacy-testing-of-a-single-pill-triple-drug-combination-anti-retroviral-therapy
#6
Shuang Hu, Charles Preston Neff, Dipu Mohan Kumar, Yuichiro Habu, Sarah R Akkina, Takahiro Seki, Ramesh Akkina
While HIV-2 is a causative agent for AIDS in addition to the better studied HIV-1, there is currently no suitable animal model for experimental studies for HIV-2 infection and evaluating promising drugs in vivo. Here we evaluated humanized mice for their susceptibility to HIV-2 infection and tested a single-pill three drug formulation of anti-retrovirals (NRTIs abacavir and lamivudine, integrase inhibitor dolutegravir) (trade name, Triumeq(R)). Our results showed that hu-mice are susceptible to HIV-2 infection showing persistent viremia and CD4 T cell loss, key hallmarks of AIDS pathogenesis...
November 29, 2016: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911406/ultrasound-guided-botulinum-toxin-a-injections-a-method-of-treating-sialorrhea
#7
Pierangelo Barbero, Marco Busso, Carlo Alberto Artusi, Stefania De Mercanti, Marco Tinivella, Andrea Veltri, Luca Durelli, Marinella Clerico
Neurological diseases can be complicated by sialorrhea, an excessive flow of saliva. Patients suffering from moderate to severe sialorrhea have an impaired quality of life, often worsened by correlated complications such as aspiration pneumonia, oral infections, dental caries, and maceration of the skin. Diverse therapeutic approaches have been proposed for the treatment of sialorrhea, including surgery and the use of anticholinergic agents, with limited results and the possible occurrence of serious adverse events...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910930/design-of-a-hydroxyapatite-binding-antimicrobial-peptide-with-improved-retention-and-antibacterial-efficacy-for-oral-pathogen-control
#8
Zhi-Bin Huang, Xin Shi, Jing Mao, Shi-Qiang Gong
Controlling and reducing the formation of pathogenic biofilm on tooth surface is the key to the prevention and treatment of the biofilm-associated oral diseases. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), considered as possible future alternatives for conventional antibiotics, have been extensively studied for the control of bacterial infection. Due to the rapid dilution and degradation by human saliva, AMP preparations designed for oral use with longer retention and higher efficacy are in urgent need. To this end, a hydroxyapatite (HAp)-binding antimicrobial peptide (HBAMP), which is based on the fusion of a specific HAp-binding heptapeptide (HBP7) domain and a broad-spectrum antimicrobial peptide (KSLW) domain, has been developed in our laboratory...
December 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910116/the-cost-effectiveness-of-testing-for-ns5a-resistance-associated-polymorphisms-at-baseline-in-genotype-1a-infected-treatment-na%C3%A3-ve-and-treatment-experienced-subjects-treated-with-all-oral-elbasvir-grazoprevir-regimens-in-the-united-states
#9
E H Elbasha, M N Robertson, C Nwankwo
BACKGROUND: The presence of baseline NS5A resistance-associated variants (RAVs) impacted treatment response in HCV genotype 1a (GT1a)-infected patients treated with elbasvir/grazoprevir (EBR/GZR) for 12 weeks, but not patients treated with EBR/GZR and ribavirin (RBV) for 16 weeks. AIM: We assessed the cost-effectiveness of baseline testing for NS5A RAVs in EBR/GZR-treated patients compared without testing and with current treatments for GT1a patients. METHODS: We simulated the course of treatment with EBR/GZR, ledipasvir/sofosbuvir (LDV/SOF) and ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir+dasabuvir (3D) with or without RBV and natural history of disease of GT1a patients...
December 1, 2016: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909484/lyme-arrhythmia-in-an-avid-golfer-a-diagnostic-challenge-and-a-therapeutic-dilemma
#10
Ujjwal Rastogi, Dr Nidhi Kumars
Lyme disease is a multisystem disorder affecting dermatologic, cardiac, nervous and musculoskeletal systems. Cardiac manifestations occur in about 5% of Lyme infections and stem from the involvement of the cardiac conduction system, resulting in varying degrees of sino-atrioventricular block. Occasionally, Lyme infection may also present with myopericarditis. Unlike isolated conduction node disease, myocardial involvement presents a great diagnostic and therapeutic dilemma for the physician. We report the case of a 68 year-old male cardiologist who presented with new onset exertional dyspnea and palpitations...
February 2016: Journal of Atrial Fibrillation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908830/protective-efficacy-of-fc-targeting-conserved-influenza-virus-m2e-antigen-expressed-by-lactobacillus-plantarum
#11
Wen-Tao Yang, Gui-Lian Yang, Qian Wang, Hai-Bin Huang, Yan-Long Jiang, Chun-Wei Shi, Jian-Zhong Wang, Ke-Yan Huang, Yu-Bei Jin, Chun-Feng Wang
The influenza A (H1N1) virus is a highly contagious acute respiratory disease affecting pigs and humans. This disease causes severe economic loss in many countries, and developing mucosal vaccines is an efficient strategy to control the influenza virus. The neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) plays an important role in transferring IgG across polarized epithelial cells. In the present study, an oral vaccine was developed using Lactobacillus plantarum to deliver the internal influenza viral protein M2e fused to an IgG Fc fragment...
November 28, 2016: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908697/clostridium-difficile-carriage-in-adult-cystic-fibrosis-cf-implications-for-patients-with-cf-and-the-potential-for-transmission-of-nosocomial-infection
#12
D G Burke, M J Harrison, C Fleming, M McCarthy, C Shortt, I Sulaiman, D M Murphy, J A Eustace, F Shanahan, C Hill, C Stanton, M C Rea, R P Ross, B J Plant
Clostridium difficile is an anaerobic Gram-positive, spore-forming, toxin-producing bacillus transmitted among humans through the faecal-oral route. Despite increasing carriage rates and the presence of C. difficile toxin in stool, patients with CF rarely appear to develop typical manifestations of C. difficile infection (CDI). In this study, we examined the carriage, toxin production, ribotype distribution and antibiotic susceptibility of C. difficile in a cohort of 60 adult patients with CF who were pre-lung transplant...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Cystic Fibrosis: Official Journal of the European Cystic Fibrosis Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907019/the-effects-of-transdermally-delivered-oleanolic-acid-on-malaria-parasites-and-blood-glucose-homeostasis-in-p-berghei-infected-male-sprague-dawley-rats
#13
Happiness P Sibiya, Musa V Mabandla, Cephas T Musabayane
The present study investigated the effects of transdermally delivered oleanolic acid (OA) monotherapy and in combination with chloroquine (CHQ) on malaria parasites and glucose homeostasis of P. berghei-infected male Sprague-Dawley rats. Oral glucose test (OGT) responses to OA-pectin patch and CHQ-OA combination matrix patch were monitored in non-infected and infected rats. To evaluate the short-term effects of treatment, percentage parasitaemia, blood glucose, glycogen and plasma insulin were monitored in separate groups of animals treated with either OA-patch monotherapy or CHQ-OA combination pectin patch over a 21-days period...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905672/oral-astragalus-huang-qi-for-preventing-frequent-episodes-of-acute-respiratory-tract-infection-in-children
#14
REVIEW
Guobin Su, Xiankun Chen, Zhuangzhu Liu, Lihong Yang, La Zhang, Cecilia Stålsby Lundborg, Zehuai Wen, Xinfeng Guo, Xindong Qin, Jueyao Liang, Xusheng Liu
BACKGROUND: Acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs) are common in children and can involve both upper and lower airways. Many children experience frequent ARTI episodes or recurrent respiratory tract infections (RRTIs) in early life, which creates challenges for paediatricians, primary care physicians, parents and carers of children.In China, Astragalus (Huang qi), alone or in combination with other herbs, is used by Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) practitioners in the form of a water extract, to reduce the risk of ARTIs; it is believed to stimulate the immune system...
December 1, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904542/the-effect-of-brushing-with-a-soft-toothbrush-and-distilled-water-on-the-incidence-of-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-in-the-intensive-care-unit
#15
Khadijeh Nasiriani, Fakhri Torki, Mohammad Hossein Jarahzadeh, Fahimeh Rashidi Maybodi
BACKGROUND: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a common nosocomial infection, which results in longer hospitalization, increased treatment costs, and higher mortality rates. One major cause of VAP is colonization and microaspiration of oropharyngeal secretions following the formation of dental plaque, which is due to poor oral hygiene and failure to mechanically remove these microorganisms from the teeth. This study was conducted to determine the effect of brushing teeth with distilled water on the incidence of VAP in patients admitted to intensive care unit (ICU)...
2016: Tanaffos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904526/new-agents-approved-for-treatment-of-acute-staphylococcal-skin-infections
#16
Jan Tatarkiewicz, Anna Staniszewska, Magdalena Bujalska-Zadrożny
Vancomycin has been a predominant treatment for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections for decades. However, growing reservations about its efficacy led to an urgent need for new antibiotics effective against MRSA and other drug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains. This review covers three new anti-MRSA antibiotics that have been recently approved by the FDA: dalbavancin, oritavancin, and tedizolid. The mechanism of action, indications, antibacterial activity profile, microbial resistance, pharmacokinetics, clinical efficacy, adverse effects, interactions as well as available formulations and administration of each of these new antibiotics are described...
December 1, 2016: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904277/herpes-zoster-duplex-unilateralis-two-cases-and-brief-literature-review
#17
Jee Hee Son, Bo Young Chung, Hye One Kim, Hee Jin Cho, Chun Wook Park
Cases involving dermatomal herpes zoster in two or more locations are rare, especially in immunocompetent patients. When two noncontiguous dermatomes are involved, if affected unilaterally, it is called herpes zoster duplex unilateralis; if bilaterally, bilateralis. Here, we report two cases of herpes zoster duplex unilateralis. A 66-year-old man presented with painful erythematous grouped vesicles on his left scalp, forehead, trunk, and back (left [Lt.] V1, Lt. T8). Histologic findings were consistent with herpetic infection...
December 2016: Annals of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904074/prophylactic-effect-of-lactobacillus-pentosus-strain-s-pt84-on-candida-infection-and-gastric-inflammation-in-a-murine-gastrointestinal-candidiasis-model-errata
#18
Toshihiro Maekawa, A Sanae Ishijima, Masayuki Ida, Takayuki Izumo, Yoshiko Ono, Hiroshi Shibata, Shigeru Abe
We previously showed a prophylactic effect of Lactobacillus pentosus strain S-PT84 against oral candidiasis in mice. In the present study, we evaluated the protective effect of S-PT84 against Candida infection of the gastrointestinal tract. As the first step, we used an in vitro assay to compare the inhibitory effects of several lactobacilli (S-PT84 and Lactobacillus pentosus type strain JCM1558(T), Lactobacillus gasseri type strain JCM1131(T) and Lactobacillus casei type strain JCM1134(T)) on mycelial growth of Candida albicans...
2016: Medical Mycology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904057/potential-of-ravuconazole-and-its-prodrugs-as-the-new-oraltherapeutics-for-onychomycosis
#19
Hideyo Yamaguchi
Onychomycosis is a fungal infection of the nail apparatus caused by dermatophytes, Candida and non-dermatophytic molds. It is highly prevalent in the general population worldwide and also responsible for significant morbidity and complications and does not usually cure itself. Thus, the condition needs to be treated in view of physical and psychological problems produced. Currently, oral medications using terbinafine are the most effective therapy, but it has relatively limited therapeutic success, particularly for long-term management...
2016: Medical Mycology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904056/prophylactic-effect-of-lactobacillus-pentosus-strain-s-pt84-on-candida-infection-and-gastric-inflammation-in-a-murine-gastrointestinal-candidiasis-model
#20
Toshihiro Maekawa, A Sanae Ishijima, Masayuki Ida, Takayuki Izumo, Yoshiko Ono, Hiroshi Shibata, Shigeru Abe
We previously showed a prophylactic effect of Lactobacillus pentosus strain S-PT84 against oral candidiasis in mice. In the present study, we evaluated the protective effect of S-PT84 against Candida infection of the gastrointestinal tract. As the first step, we used an in vitro assay to compare the inhibitory effects of several lactobacilli (S-PT84 and Lactobacillus pentosus type strain JCM1558(T), Lactobacillus gasseri type strain JCM1131(T) and Lactobacillus casei type strain JCM1134(T)) on mycelial growth of Candida albicans...
2016: Medical Mycology Journal
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