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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749304/investigation-of-enrofloxacin-associated-retinal-toxicity-in-nondomestic-felids
#1
Kim M Newkirk, L Kathryn Beard, Xiaocun Sun, Edward C Ramsay
Enrofloxacin is known to cause retinal toxicity in domestic cats. The hallmark lesion of enrofloxacin-associated retinal toxicity in domestic cats is thinning of the outer nuclear layer of the retina. Enrofloxacin is commonly used to treat bacterial infections in nondomestic felids because of its action against a wide spectrum of bacteria and the ability for it to be given orally. No previous studies have investigated the potential retinal toxicity of enrofloxacin in nondomestic felids. This retrospective study evaluated 81 eyes from 14 lions ( Panthera leo ) and 33 tigers ( Panthera tigris ) that had been enucleated or collected postmortem...
June 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749293/diagnosis-and-successful-treatment-of-a-potentially-zoonotic-dermatophytosis-caused-by-microsporum-gypseum-in-a-zoo-housed-north-american-porcupine-erethizon-dorsatum
#2
Christine E Hackworth, David Eshar, Melissa Nau, Mary Bagladi-Swanson, Gordon A Andrews, James W Carpenter
A female North American porcupine ( Erethizon dorsatum ) was evaluated for a unilateral pedal crusting and alopecic dermatopathy. Fungal culture and histopathology testing revealed Microsporum gypseum dermatophytosis. Treatment with topical miconazole was initiated and then discontinued after 9 days and changed to oral terbinafine. Twenty-eight days after initial examination, clinical signs were improving, and fungal cultures of the front foot, muzzle, and noninfected area along the dorsum were negative for M...
June 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749266/epidemiologic-evaluation-of-elephant-endotheliotropic-herpesvirus-3b-infection-in-an-african-elephant-loxodonta-africana
#3
Ellen Bronson, Michael McClure, Jennifer Sohl, Ellen Wiedner, Sherry Cox, Erin M Latimer, Virginia R Pearson, Gary S Hayward, Angela Fuery, Paul D Ling
This epidemiologic study follows a 5-yr-old male African elephant ( Loxodonta africana ) during an episode of hemorrhagic disease (HD) due to elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus 3B (EEHV3B) utilizing data from complete blood counts, electrophoresis and acute phase protein analysis, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of multiple body fluids during and after the clinical episode. The elephant presented with sudden onset of marked lethargy and inappetence followed by hypersalivation, hyperemia of the conjunctivae and focally on the tongue, and swellings on the head and ventrum...
June 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749045/factors-related-to-recurrence-of-idiopathic-granulomatous-mastitis-what-do-we-learn-from-a-multicentre-study
#4
Erdal Uysal, Atilla Soran, Efe Sezgin
BACKGROUND: Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM) is a rare chronic inflammatory disease of the breast with unknown aetiology. Its treatment is controversial and the recurrence rate is high. The objectives of this study were to examine the demographic, sociocultural and clinical characteristics observed among a large cohort of IGM patients from Turkey and to identify factors related to the recurrence of IGM. METHODS: The study was designed as a multicentre retrospective study including 22 breast centres in Turkey...
July 27, 2017: ANZ Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748533/macrococcus-canis-and-m-caseolyticus-in-dogs-occurrence-genetic-diversity-and-antibiotic-resistance
#5
Kerstin Cotting, Christian Strauss, Sabrina Rodriguez-Campos, Ana Rostaher, Nina M Fischer, Petra J Roosje, Claude Favrot, Vincent Perreten
BACKGROUND: The discovery of a new Macrococcus canis species isolated from skin and infection sites of dogs led us to question if Macrococcus spp. are common in dogs and are resistant to antibiotics. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the occurrence of Macrococcus spp. in dogs, determine antibiotic resistance profiles and genetic relationships. ANIMALS: One hundred and sixty two dogs (mainly West Highland white terriers and Newfoundland dogs) were screened for the presence of Macrococcus, including six dogs with Macrococcus infections...
July 26, 2017: Veterinary Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748175/inhibition-of-the-quorum-sensing-system-comde-pathway-by-aromatic-1-3-di-m-tolylurea-dmtu-cariostatic-effect-with-fluoride-in-wistar-rats
#6
Gurmeet Kaur, P Balamurugan, S Adline Princy
Dental caries occurs as a result of dysbiosis among commensal and pathogenic bacteria leading to demineralization of enamel within a dental biofilm (plaque) as a consequence of lower pH in the oral cavity. In our previous study, we have reported 1,3-disubstituted ureas particularly, 1,3-di-m-tolylurea (DMTU) could inhibit the biofilm formation along with lower concentrations of fluoride (31.25 ppm) without affecting bacterial growth. In the present study, RT-qPCR analysis showed the target specific molecular mechanism of DMTU...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748117/epidemiology-pathophysiology-and-management-of-uric-acid-urolithiasis-a-narrative-review
#7
REVIEW
A Abou-Elela
An in-depth comprehension of the epidemiology as well as pathophysiology of uric acid urolithiasis is important for the identification, treatment, and prophylaxis of calculi in these patients. Persistently low urinary pH, hyperuricosuria, and low urinary volume are the most important factors in pathogenesis of uric acid urolithiasis. Other various causes of calculus formation comprises of chronic diarrhea, renal hyperuricosuria, insulin resistance, primary gout, extra purine in the diet, neoplastic syndromes, and congenital hyperuricemia...
September 2017: Journal of Advanced Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748040/effect-of-erythritol-on-microbial-ecology-of-in-vitro-gingivitis-biofilms
#8
Marleen Marga Janus, Catherine Minke Charlotte Volgenant, Bernd Willem Brandt, Mark Johannes Buijs, Bart Jan Frederik Keijser, Wim Crielaard, Egija Zaura, Bastiaan Philip Krom
Gingivitis is one of the most common oral infections in humans. While sugar alcohols such as erythritol are suggested to have caries-preventive properties, it may also have beneficial effects in prevention of gingivitis by preventing maturation of oral biofilms. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of erythritol on the microbial ecology and the gingivitis phenotype of oral microcosms. Biofilms were inoculated with stimulated saliva from 20 healthy donors and grown in a gingivitis model in the continuous presence of 0 (control group), 5, and 10% erythritol...
2017: Journal of Oral Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748034/porphyromonas-gingivalis-may-interfere-with-conception-in-women
#9
Susanna Paju, Juha Oittinen, Henna Haapala, Sirkka Asikainen, Jorma Paavonen, Pirkko J Pussinen
In this observational and prospective study, we investigated if microbiological and serological markers of periodontitis associated with conception in 256 non-pregnant women (Mage = 29.2 years; range 19-42 years). Clinical oral and gynecological examinations were performed, major periodontal pathogens in the saliva were detected, and serum and saliva antibodies against major periodontal pathogens were analyzed. The follow-up period for becoming pregnant was 12 months. Porphyromonas gingivalis was significantly (p = 0...
2017: Journal of Oral Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748033/candida-and-porphyromonas-gingivalis-the-effect-on-wound-closure-in-vitro
#10
Thijs M Haverman, Alexa M G A Laheij, Johannes J de Soet, Jan de Lange, Frederik R Rozema
Microorganisms play a role in oral mucositis after cancer therapy. The current study explored the hypothesis that Candida spp. alone and together with Porphyromonas gingivalis cause delayed healing of oral ulcerations due to the inhibition of wound closure. An in vitro scratch assay model was used to study the influence of viable and heat-killed Candida glabrata, Candida kefyr, and Candida albicans on cell migration of oral epithelial cells. Separately, the effect of conditioned medium of Candida spp. and the effect of a mixed infection of Candida spp...
2017: Journal of Oral Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748031/antibiofilm-peptides-against-oral-biofilms
#11
Zhejun Wang, Ya Shen, Markus Haapasalo
The oral cavity is a major entry point for bacteria and other microorganisms. Oral biofilms are formed by mixed communities of microorganisms embedded in an exopolysaccharide matrix. Biofilms forming on dental hard or soft tissue are the major cause of caries and endodontic and periodontal disease. Human oral biofilms exhibit high resistance to antimicrobial agents. Antibiofilm peptides constitute a diverse class of host-defense molecules that act to combat invasion and infection with biofilms. Different in vitro and in vivo biofilm models with quantitative analysis have been established to provide predictable platforms for the evaluation of the antibiofilm effect of oral antibiofilm peptides...
2017: Journal of Oral Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748029/prevalence-of-and-risk-factors-for-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-colonization-among-human-immunodeficient-virus-infected-outpatients-in-taiwan-oral-candida-colonization-as-a-comparator
#12
Chi-Jung Wu, Wen-Chien Ko, Mao-Wang Ho, Hsi-Hsun Lin, Yun-Liang Yang, Jiun-Nong Lin, I-Wen Huang, Hui-Ying Wang, Jui-Fen Lai, Yih-Ru Shiau, Li-Yun Hsieh, Hui-Ting Chen, Chih-Chao Lin, Wen-Li Chu, Hsiu-Jung Lo, Tsai-Ling Lauderdale
Human immuodeficency virus (HIV)-infected patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) have increased in recent years in Taiwan. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of and risk factors for nasal and oral S. aureus and MRSA colonization among contemporary HIV-infected populations. Clinical variables for S. aureus and MRSA colonization among HIV-infected outpatients from three hospitals were analyzed and compared with those for oral Candida colonization...
2017: Journal of Oral Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748027/oral-candidiasis-among-african-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-individuals-10-years-of-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-from-sub-saharan-africa
#13
REVIEW
Martha F Mushi, Oliver Bader, Liliane Taverne-Ghadwal, Christine Bii, Uwe Groß, Stephen E Mshana
Oral candidiasis (OC) is the most common opportunistic fungal infection among immunocompromised individuals. This systematic review and meta-analysis reports on the contribution of non-albicans Candida species in causing OC among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals in sub-Saharan Africa between 2005 and 2015. Thirteen original research articles on oral Candida infection/colonization among HIV-infected African populations were reviewed. The prevalence of OC ranged from 7.6% to 75.3%. Pseudomembranous candidiasis was found to range from 12...
2017: Journal of Oral Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747597/antimicrobial-activity-of-ethylene-vinyl-acetate-containing-bioactive-filler-against-oral-bacteria
#14
Kosuke Nagai, Hisanori Domon, Masataka Oda, Tomoe Shirai, Tatsuya Ohsumi, Yutaka Terao, Yoshiaki Arai
We developed an ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) containing surface pre-reacted glass-ionomer (S-PRG) filler, as a new mouthguard material for preventing intraoral bacterial infection. We examined its physical properties, antimicrobial activity against a major cariogenic bacterium Streptococcus mutans and a periodontopathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis, and its cytotoxicity toward human gingival epithelial cells. S-PRG filler was added to EVA copolymer at 5, 10, 20, or 40 wt% and was processed into disc-shaped test specimens...
July 26, 2017: Dental Materials Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747274/efficacy-safety-and-effect-on-sexual-behaviour-of-on-demand-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-for-hiv-in-men-who-have-sex-with-men-an-observational-cohort-study
#15
Jean-Michel Molina, Isabelle Charreau, Bruno Spire, Laurent Cotte, Julie Chas, Catherine Capitant, Cecile Tremblay, Daniela Rojas-Castro, Eric Cua, Armelle Pasquet, Camille Bernaud, Claire Pintado, Constance Delaugerre, Luis Sagaon-Teyssier, Soizic Le Mestre, Christian Chidiac, Gilles Pialoux, Diane Ponscarme, Julien Fonsart, David Thompson, Mark A Wainberg, Veronique Doré, Laurence Meyer
BACKGROUND: Data for on-demand pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) are scarce. We implemented a cohort study to assess its efficacy, safety, and effect on sexual behaviour. METHODS: We invited men and transgender women who have sex with men, previously enrolled in the randomised placebo-controlled ANRS IPERGAY trial at seven sites (six in France and one in Canada), to participate in an open-label extension with on-demand tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (300 mg) and emtricitabine (200 mg) to be taken before and after sexual intercourse...
July 21, 2017: Lancet HIV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747217/persistence-of-candida-dubliniensis-and-lung-function-in-patients-with-cystic-fibrosis
#16
Atqah AbdulWahab, Husam Salah, Prem Chandra, Saad J Taj-Aldeen
OBJECTIVES: Candida dubliniensis is an emerging yeast and demonstrated a high adherence property to cystic fibrosis respiratory tract. Therefore, it is important to determine the persistence of C. dubliniensis and to assess the possible relationship to the body mass index (BMI) and forced expiratory volume in 1st second (FEV1). RESULTS: Candida isolates were identified by MALDI-TOF MS to species level from 40/52 (76.9%) cystic fibrosis patients. C. dubliniensis was the most common organism isolated from 50/77 (65%) lower respiratory specimens of 29 patients...
July 26, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746320/c-reactive-protein-in-periodontitis-and-its-comparison-with-body-mass-index-and-smoking-behaviour
#17
S Gupta, S Pradhan, S Kc, S Shakya, M Giri
INTRODUCTION: Chronic periodontitis is an infectious disease resulting in inflammation within the supporting tissues of the teeth, progressive attachment loss, and bone loss. In addition to declining oral health, there is always low grade infection present in periodontitis. Studies show increased levels of systemic biomarkers in periodontal disease such as CRP, which is considered a key-marker of CVD. Research has also shown positive association between BMI and smoking with periodontitis and CRP...
April 2017: JNMA; Journal of the Nepal Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746260/perinatal-hiv-infection-and-exposure-and-their-association-with-dental-caries-in-nigerian-children
#18
Modupe Coker, Samer El-Kamary, Cyril Enwonwu, William Blattner, Patricia Langenberg, Emmanuel Mongodin, Paul Akhigbe, Ozo Obuekwe, Austin Omoigberale, Manhattan Charurat
BACKGROUND: Although HIV infection is associated with well-known oral pathologies, there remains a dearth of comparative studies aimed at determining the association between HIV infection/exposure and early childhood caries. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study using a convenience sample of 3 groups of children receiving care at a tertiary care hospital in Nigeria. The groups include HIV infected (HI); HIV exposed but uninfected (HEU); and HIV unexposed and uninfected (HUU) children aged 6 through 72 months...
July 19, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746167/factors-associated-with-prevalent-hiv-infection-among-kenyan-msm-the-anza-mapema-study
#19
Colin P Kunzweiler, Robert C Bailey, Duncan O Okall, Susan M Graham, Supriya D Mehta, Fredrick O Otieno
BACKGROUND: In order to inform future HIV treatment and care programs for men who have sex with men (MSM), we assessed the prevalence of and factors associated with previously diagnosed out-of-care (PDOC) or newly diagnosed out-of-care (NDOC) HIV infection among MSM enrolled in the prospective Anza Mapema cohort study. METHODS: Participants were aged >18, reported oral or anal sex with a man in the past 6 months, and were not already in HIV care or taking antiretroviral therapy in the past 3 months...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745729/highlights-of-skin-disease-education-foundation-s-41st-annual-hawaii-dermatology-seminar%C3%A2
#20
Kenneth B Gordon, Craig L Leonardi, Daniel E Furst, Neal Bhatia, Lawrence F Eichenfield, Katie Beleznay
New therapies, recent pathophysiological findings, and updated guidelines combined to create compelling presentations at the Skin Disease Education Foundation's 41st Annual Hawaii Dermatology Seminar™. This educational supplement summarizes the highlights of clinical sessions presented during this CME/CE conference. A growing understanding of the biology of psoriasis has facilitated the development of increasingly efficacious medications. Skin clearance used to be regarded as an impractical goal for psoriasis therapy...
June 2017: Seminars in Cutaneous Medicine and Surgery
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