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Infections in compromised host

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042204/antibody-response-to-human-papillomavirus-vaccination-and-natural-exposure-in-individuals-with-fanconi-anemia
#1
Parinda A Mehta, Sharon Sauter, Xue Zhang, Stella M Davies, Suzanne I Wells, Kasiani C Myers, Gitika Panicker, Elizabeth R Unger, Melinda Butsch Kovacic
Fanconi anemia (FA) is a rare genetic disorder associated with predisposition to head and neck and gynecological squamous cell cancers. In the general population, these cancers are commonly linked to human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Antibodies to natural HPV infection and HPV vaccination were evaluated in 63 individuals with FA while considering host immune factors. Approximately 30% of reportedly unvaccinated participants were seropositive (HPV6-38%, HPV11-25%, HPV16-26%, and HPV18-26%). Seropositivity was significantly associated with having had sex regardless of age (p=...
October 14, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038280/targeting-human-cytomegalovirus-infected-cells-by-redirecting-t-cells-using-an-anti-cd3-anti-gb-bispecific-antibody
#2
Weixu Meng, Aimin Tang, Xiaohua Ye, Xun Gui, Leike Li, Xuejun Fan, Robbie D Schultz, Daniel C Freed, Sha Ha, Dai Wang, Ningyan Zhang, Tong-Ming Fu, Zhiqiang An
Host immune response to human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is effective against HCMV reactivation from latency although not sufficient to clear the virus. T cells are primarily responsible for control of the viral reactivation. When host immune system is compromised, as in transplant recipients with immunosuppression, HCMV reactivation and progressive infection can cause serious morbidity and mortality. Adoptive T cell therapy is effective for control of HCMV infection in transplant recipients. However, it is a highly personalized therapeutic regimen, and difficult to implement in routine clinical practice...
October 16, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033934/ebi3-prevents-trypanosoma-cruzi-induced-myocarditis-by-dampening-ifn-%C3%AE-driven-inflammation
#3
Tiago Silva Medina, Gabriela Gonçalves Oliveira, Maria Cláudia Silva, Bruna Araújo David, Grace Kelly Silva, Denise Morais Fonseca, Renata Sesti-Costa, Amanda Farage Frade, Monique Andrade Baron, Barbara Ianni, Alexandre Costa Pereira, Christophe Chevillard, Edécio Cunha-Neto, José Antonio Marin-Neto, João Santana Silva
The identification of anti-inflammatory mediators can reveal important targetable molecules capable of counterbalancing Trypanosoma cruzi-induced myocarditis. Composed of Ebi3 and IL-27p28 subunits, IL-27 is produced by myeloid cells and is able to suppress inflammation by inducing IL-10-producing Tr1 cells, thus emerging as a potential candidate to ameliorate cardiac inflammation induced by T. cruzi. Although IL-27 has been extensively characterized as a suppressive cytokine that prevents liver immunopathogenesis after T...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032180/genomic-analysis-of-isometamidium-chloride-resistance-in-trypanosoma-congolense
#4
Eliane Tihon, Hideo Imamura, Frederik Van den Broeck, Lieve Vermeiren, Jean-Claude Dujardin, Jan Van Den Abbeele
Isometamidium Chloride (ISM) is one of the principal drugs used to counteract Trypanosoma congolense infection in livestock, both as a prophylactic as well as a curative treatment. However, numerous cases of ISM resistance have been reported in different African regions, representing a significant constraint in the battle against Animal African Trypanosomiasis. In order to identify genetic signatures associated with ISM resistance in T. congolense, the sensitive strain MSOROM7 was selected for induction of ISM resistance in a murine host...
October 6, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology, Drugs and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026623/a-case-of-vibrio-vulnificus-infection-complicated-with-fulminant-purpura-gene-and-biotype-analysis-of-the-pathogen
#5
Masatoshi Hori, Akifumi Nakayama, Daisuke Kitagawa, Hidetada Fukushima, Hideki Asai, Yasuyuki Kawai, Kazuo Okuchi
Introduction.Vibrio vulnificus (V. vulnificus) causes a severe infection that develops in the compromised host. Its pathophysiology is classified into three types: (1) primary septicaemia, (2) gastrointestinal illness pattern and (3) wound infection pattern. Of these, primary septicaemia is critical. V. vulnificus can be classified into three biotypes and two genotypes and its pathogenicity is type-dependent. Case presentation. A 47-year-old man presented to a local hospital with chief complaints of fever, bilateral lower limb pain and diarrhoea...
May 2017: JMM Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021397/varicella-zoster-virus-expresses-multiple-small-non-coding-rnas
#6
Amos Markus, Linoy Golani, Nishant Kumar Ojha, Tatiana Borodiansky-Shteinberg, Paul R Kinchington, Ronald S Goldstein
Many herpesviruses express small non coding RNAs (sncRNA), including microRNAs (miR), that may play roles in regulating lytic and latent infections. None have yet been reported in varicella zoster virus (VZV, HHV-3). Here we analyzed next generation sequencing (NGS) data for small RNAs in VZV-infected fibroblasts and human embryonic stem cell-derived (hESC) neurons. Two independent bioinformatics analyses identified more than 20 VZV-encoded 20-24 nucleotide RNAs, some of which are predicted to have stem-loop precursors potentially representing miRs...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993767/genomic-programming-of-human-neonatal-dendritic-cells-in-congenital-systemic-and-in-vitro-cytomegalovirus-infection-reveal-plastic-and-robust-immune-pathway-biology-responses
#7
Widad Dantoft, Pablo Martínez-Vicente, James Jafali, Lara Pérez-Martínez, Kim Martin, Konstantinos Kotzamanis, Marie Craigon, Manfred Auer, Neil T Young, Paul Walsh, Arnaud Marchant, Ana Angulo, Thorsten Forster, Peter Ghazal
Neonates and especially premature infants are highly susceptible to infection but still can have a remarkable resilience that is poorly understood. The view that neonates have an incomplete or deficient immune system is changing. Human neonatal studies are challenging, and elucidating host protective responses and underlying cognate pathway biology, in the context of viral infection in early life, remains to be fully explored. In both resource rich and poor settings, human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is the most common cause of congenital infection...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982736/an-epoxide-hydrolase-secreted-by-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-decreases-mucociliary-transport-and-hinders-bacterial-clearance-from-the-lung
#8
Kelli L Hvorecny, Emily Dolben, Sophie Moreau-Marquis, Thomas H Hampton, Tamer B Shabaneh, Becca A Flitter, Christopher D Bahl, Jennifer M Bomberger, Bruce D Levy, Bruce A Stanton, Deborah A Hogan, Dean R Madden
The opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa colonizes the lungs of susceptible individuals by deploying virulence factors targeting host defenses. The secreted CFTR inhibitory factor (Cif) dysregulates the endocytic recycling of CFTR and thus reduces CFTR abundance in host epithelial membranes. We have postulated that the decrease in ion secretion mediated by Cif would slow mucociliary transport and decrease bacterial clearance from the lungs. To test this hypothesis, we explored the effects of Cif in cultured epithelia and in the lungs of mice...
October 5, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976784/analysis-of-host-pathogen-modulators-of-autophagy-during-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection-and-therapeutic-repercussions
#9
Arshad Khan, Chinnaswamy Jagannath
Mycobacterium tuberculosis is one of the most deadly human pathogens known today in modern world, responsible for about 1.5 million deaths annually. Development of TB disease occurs only in 1 out of 10 individuals exposed to the pathogen which indicates that the competent host defense mechanisms exist in majority of the hosts to control the infection. In the last decade, autophagy has emerged as a key host immune defense mechanism against intracellular M. tuberculosis infection. Autophagy has been demonstrated not only as an effective antimicrobial mechanism for the clearance of M...
October 4, 2017: International Reviews of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974617/entamoeba-histolytica-induced-mucin-exocytosis-is-mediated-by-vamp8-and-is-critical-in-mucosal-innate-host-defense
#10
Steve Cornick, France Moreau, Herbert Y Gaisano, Kris Chadee
Intestinal mucus secretion is critical in maintaining mucosal host defense against a myriad of pathogens by preventing direct association with the epithelium. Entamoeba histolytica specifically binds colonic MUC2 mucin and also induces potent hypersecretion from goblet cells; however, characterization of the nature of the mechanisms controlling mucus release remains elusive. In this report, we identify vesicle SNARE vesicle-associated membrane protein 8 (VAMP8) present on mucin granules as orchestrating regulated exocytosis in human goblet cells in response to the presence of E...
October 3, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970238/hcfc2-is-needed-for-irf1-and-irf2-dependent-tlr3-transcription-and-for-survival-during-viral-infections
#11
Lei Sun, Zhengfan Jiang, Victoria A Acosta-Rodriguez, Michael Berger, Xin Du, Jin Huk Choi, Jianhui Wang, Kuan-Wen Wang, Gokhul K Kilaru, Jennifer A Mohawk, Jiexia Quan, Lindsay Scott, Sara Hildebrand, Xiaohong Li, Miao Tang, Xiaoming Zhan, Anne R Murray, Diantha La Vine, Eva Marie Y Moresco, Joseph S Takahashi, Bruce Beutler
Transcriptional regulation of numerous interferon-regulated genes, including Toll-like receptor 3 (Tlr3), which encodes an innate immune sensor of viral double-stranded RNA, depends on the interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF1) and IRF2 transcription factors. We detected specific abrogation of macrophage responses to polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly(I:C)) resulting from three independent N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea-induced mutations in host cell factor C2 (Hcfc2). Hcfc2 mutations compromised survival during influenza virus and herpes simplex virus 1 infections...
October 2, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960179/effects-of-orally-ingested-arsenic-on-respiratory-epithelial-permeability-to-bacteria-and-small-molecules-in-mice
#12
Michael W Henderson, Jennifer H Madenspacher, Gregory S Whitehead, Seddon Y Thomas, Jim J Aloor, Kymberly M Gowdy, Michael B Fessler
BACKGROUND: Arsenic exposure via drinking water impacts millions of people worldwide. Although arsenic has been associated epidemiologically with increased lung infections, the identity of the lung cell types targeted by peroral arsenic and the associated immune mechanisms remain poorly defined. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to determine the impact of peroral arsenic on pulmonary antibacterial host defense. METHODS: Female C57BL/6 mice were administered drinking water with 0, 250 ppb, or 25 ppm sodium arsenite for 5 wk and then challenged intratracheally with Klebsiella pneumoniae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, or lipopolysaccharide...
September 28, 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946636/structure-function-relationships-underlying-the-capacity-of-bordetella-adenylate-cyclase-toxin-to-disarm-host-phagocytes
#13
REVIEW
Jakub Novak, Ondrej Cerny, Adriana Osickova, Irena Linhartova, Jiri Masin, Ladislav Bumba, Peter Sebo, Radim Osicka
Bordetellae, pathogenic to mammals, produce an immunomodulatory adenylate cyclase toxin-hemolysin (CyaA, ACT or AC-Hly) that enables them to overcome the innate immune defense of the host. CyaA subverts host phagocytic cells by an orchestrated action of its functional domains, where an extremely catalytically active adenylyl cyclase enzyme is delivered into phagocyte cytosol by a pore-forming repeat-in-toxin (RTX) cytolysin moiety. By targeting sentinel cells expressing the complement receptor 3, known as the CD11b/CD18 (αMβ₂) integrin, CyaA compromises the bactericidal functions of host phagocytes and supports infection of host airways by Bordetellae...
September 24, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934167/live-attenuated-influenza-vaccine-contains-substantial-and-unexpected-amounts-of-defective-viral-genomic-rna
#14
Philip S Gould, Andrew J Easton, Nigel J Dimmock
The live attenuated influenza vaccine FluMist(®) was withdrawn in the USA by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention after its failure to provide adequate protective immunity during 2013-2016. The vaccine uses attenuated core type A and type B viruses, reconfigured each year to express the two major surface antigens of the currently circulating viruses. Here Fluenz™ Tetra, the European version of this vaccine, was examined directly for defective-interfering (DI) viral RNAs. DI RNAs are deleted versions of the infectious virus genome, and have powerful biological properties including attenuation of infection, reduction of infectious virus yield, and stimulation of some immune responses...
September 21, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899789/the-evolutionary-logic-of-sepsis
#15
Lajos Rózsa, Péter Apari, Mihály Sulyok, Dennis Tappe, Imre Bodó, Richárd Hardi, Viktor Müller
The recently proposed Microbiome Mutiny Hypothesis posits that members of the human microbiome obtain information about the host individuals' health status and, when host survival is compromised, switch to an intensive exploitation strategy to maximize residual transmission. In animals and humans, sepsis is an acute systemic reaction to microbes invading the normally sterile body compartments. When induced by formerly mutualistic or neutral microbes, possibly in response to declining host health, sepsis appears to fit the 'microbiome mutiny' scenario except for its apparent failure to enhance transmission of the causative organisms...
September 9, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884578/enhanced-anti-infective-efficacy-of-zno-nanoreservoirs-through-a-combination-of-intrinsic-anti-biofilm-activity-and-reinforced-innate-defense
#16
Jiaxing Wang, Huaijuan Zhou, Geyong Guo, Jiaqi Tan, Qiaojie Wang, Jin Tang, Wei Liu, Hao Shen, Jinhua Li, Xianlong Zhang
The increasing prevalence of implant-associated infections (IAIs) imposes a heavy burden on patients and medical providers. Bacterial biofilms are recalcitrant to antiseptic drugs and local immune defense and can attenuate host proinflammatory response to interfere with bacterial clearance. Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) play a dual role in antibacterial and immunomodulatory activities but compromise the cytocompatibility because of their intracellular uptake. Here, ZnO NPs were immobilized on titanium to form homogeneous nanofilms (from discontinuous to continuous) through magnetron sputtering, and the possible antimicrobial activity and immunomodulatory effect of nano-ZnO films were investigated...
October 4, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882797/modification-of-the-plasma-complement-protein-profile-by-exogenous-estrogens-is-indicative-of-a-compromised-immune-competence-in-marine-medaka-oryzias-melastigma
#17
Miao Dong, Frauke Seemann, Joseph L Humble, Yimin Liang, Drew R Peterson, Rui Ye, Honglin Ren, Hui-Su Kim, Jae-Seong Lee, Doris W T Au, Yun Wah Lam
Growing evidence suggests that the immune system of teleost is vulnerable to xenoestrogens, which are ubiquitous in the marine environment. This study detected and identified the major circulatory immune proteins deregulated by 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2), which may be linked to fish susceptibility to pathogens in the marine medaka, Oryzias melastigma. Fish immune competence was determined using a host resistance assay to pathogenic bacteria Edwardsiella tarda. Females were consistently more susceptible to infection-induced mortality than males...
September 4, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878128/respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection-of-newborn-cx3cr1-deficent-mice-induces-a-pathogenic-pulmonary-innate-immune-response
#18
Sudipta Das, Mahesh Raundhal, Jie Chen, Timothy B Oriss, Rachael Huff, John V Williams, Anuradha Ray, Prabir Ray
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infects almost all infants by 2 years of age, and severe bronchiolitis resulting from RSV infection is the primary cause of hospitalization in the first year of life. Among infants hospitalized due to RSV-induced bronchiolitis, those with a specific mutation in the chemokine receptor CX3CR1, which severely compromises binding of its ligand CX3CL1, were at a higher risk for more severe viral bronchiolitis than those without the mutation. Here, we show that RSV infection of newborn mice deficient in CX3CR1 leads to significantly greater neutrophilic inflammation in the lungs, accompanied by an increase in mucus production compared with that induced in WT mice...
September 7, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878080/mechanical-barriers-restrict-invasion-of-herpes-simplex-virus-1-into-human-oral-mucosa
#19
Katharina Thier, Philipp Petermann, Elena Rahn, Daniel Rothamel, Wilhelm Bloch, Dagmar Knebel-Mörsdorf
Oral mucosa is one of the main target tissues of the human pathogen herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1). How the virus overcomes the protective epithelial barriers and penetrates into the tissue to reach its receptors and initiate infection is still unclear. Here, we established an ex vivo infection assay with human oral mucosa which allows viral entry studies in a natural target tissue. The focus was on the susceptibility of keratinocytes in the epithelium, and the characterization of cellular receptors that mediate viral entry...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877987/adhesion-to-the-host-cell-surface-is-sufficient-to-mediate-listeria-monocytogenes-entry-into-epithelial-cells
#20
Fabian E Ortega, Michelle Rengarajan, Natalie Chavez, Prathima Radhakrishnan, Martijn Gloerich, Julie Bianchini, Kathleen Siemers, William S Luckett, Peter Lauer, W James Nelson, Julie A Theriot
An intestinal epithelium is the first physiological barrier breached by the Gram-positive facultative pathogen Listeria monocytogenes during an in vivo infection. L. monocytogenes binds to the epithelial host cell receptor E-cadherin, which mediates a physical link between the bacterium and filamentous actin (F-actin). However, the importance of anchoring the bacterium to F-actin through E-cadherin for bacterial invasion has not been tested directly in epithelial cells. Here, we demonstrate that depleting αE-catenin, which indirectly links E-cadherin to F-actin, did not decrease L...
September 6, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
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