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Infections in compromised host

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936166/increased-age-but-not-parity-predisposes-to-higher-bacteriuria-burdens-due-to-streptococcus-urinary-tract-infection-and-influences-bladder-cytokine-responses-which-develop-independent-of-tissue-bacterial-loads
#1
Matthew J Sullivan, Alison J Carey, Sophie Y Leclercq, Chee K Tan, Glen C Ulett
Streptococcus agalactiae causes urinary tract infection (UTI) in pregnant adults, non-pregnant adults, immune-compromised individuals and the elderly. The pathogenesis of S. agalactiae UTI in distinct patient populations is poorly understood. In this study, we used murine models of UTI incorporating young mice, aged and dam mice to show that uropathogenic S. agalactiae causes bacteriuria at significantly higher levels in aged mice compared to young mice and this occurs coincident with equivalent levels of bladder tissue colonisation at 24 h post-infection (p...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927647/gvhd-prevents-nk-cell-dependent-leukemia-and-virus-specific-innate-immunity
#2
Mark D Bunting, Antiopi Varelias, Fernando Souza-Fonseca-Guimaraes, Iona S Schuster, Katie E Lineburg, Rachel D Kuns, Peter Fleming, Kelly R Locke, Nicholas D Huntington, Bruce R Blazar, Steven W Lane, Siok-Keen Tey, Kelli P A MacDonald, Mark J Smyth, Mariapia A Degli-Esposti, Geoffrey R Hill
Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (allo-BMT) is a curative therapy for hematological malignancies, but is associated with significant complications, principally graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and opportunistic infections. Natural killer (NK) cells mediate important innate immunity that provides a temporal bridge until the reconstruction of adaptive immunity. Here we show that the development of GVHD after allo-BMT prevented NK-cell reconstitution, particularly within the maturing M1 and M2 NK-cell subsets in association with exaggerated activation, apoptosis and autophagy...
December 7, 2016: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926931/microbial-translocation-and-inflammation-occur-in-hyperacute-immunodeficiency-virus-infection-and-compromise-host-control-of-virus-replication
#3
Adam J Ericsen, Michael Lauck, Mariel S Mohns, Sarah R DiNapoli, James P Mutschler, Justin M Greene, Jason T Weinfurter, Gabrielle Lehrer-Brey, Trent M Prall, Samantha M Gieger, Connor R Buechler, Kristin A Crosno, Eric J Peterson, Matthew R Reynolds, Roger W Wiseman, Benjamin J Burwitz, Jacob D Estes, Jonah B Sacha, Thomas C Friedrich, Jason M Brenchley, David H O'Connor
Within the first three weeks of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, virus replication peaks in peripheral blood. Despite the critical, causal role of virus replication in determining transmissibility and kinetics of progression to acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), there is limited understanding of the conditions required to transform the small localized transmitted founder virus population into a large and heterogeneous systemic infection. Here we show that during the hyperacute "pre-peak" phase of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection in macaques, high levels of microbial DNA transiently translocate into peripheral blood...
December 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918582/investigating-conservation-of-the-cell-cycle-regulated-transcriptional-program-in-the-fungal-pathogen-cryptococcus-neoformans
#4
Christina M Kelliher, Adam R Leman, Crystal S Sierra, Steven B Haase
The pathogenic yeast Cryptococcus neoformans causes fungal meningitis in immune-compromised patients. Cell proliferation in the budding yeast form is required for C. neoformans to infect human hosts, and virulence factors such as capsule formation and melanin production are affected by cell-cycle perturbation. Thus, understanding cell-cycle regulation is critical for a full understanding of virulence factors for disease. Our group and others have demonstrated that a large fraction of genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is expressed periodically during the cell cycle, and that proper regulation of this transcriptional program is important for proper cell division...
December 2016: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917363/future-therapy-for-hepatitis-b-virus-role-of-immunomodulators
#5
REVIEW
Edward A Pham, Ryan B Perumpail, Benjamin J Fram, Jeffrey S Glenn, Aijaz Ahmed, Robert G Gish
Although currently available therapies for chronic hepatitis B virus infection can suppress viremia and provide long-term benefits for patients, they do not lead to a functional cure for most patients. Advances in our understanding of the virus-host interaction and the recent remarkable success of immunotherapy in cancer offer new and promising strategies for developing immune modulators that may become important components of a total therapeutic approach to hepatitis B, some of which are now in clinical development...
2016: Current Hepatology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915049/csn1201-a-subunit-of-the-cop9-signalosome-regulates-the-virulence-in-cryptococcus-neoformans-infection
#6
Yibin Fan, Xiaohua Tao, Weili Pan, Wei Fang, Youming Huang, Mingyan Jia
The COP9 signalosome (CSN) is a multisubunit protein complex, and it now has been found to participate in diverse cellular and developmental processes in various eukaryotic organisms. Cryptococcus neoformans (C. neoformans) is an important basidiomycete pathogen that causes life-threatening meningoencephalitis primarily in the immune compromised population. Here, we generated CSN deletion mutants to investigate the role in Cryptococcus infection. Compared to other CSN mutants, we identified a CSN1201 mutant exhibited severely attenuated virulence...
November 30, 2016: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911046/verticillium-dahliae-lysm-effectors-differentially-contribute-to-virulence-on-plant-hosts
#7
Anja Kombrink, Hanna Rovenich, Xiaoqian Shi-Kunne, Eduardo Rojas-Padilla, Grardy C M van den Berg, Emmanouil Domazakis, Ronnie de Jonge, Dirk-Jan Valkenburg, Andrea Sánchez-Vallet, Michael F Seidl, Bart P H J Thomma
Chitin-binding LysM effectors contribute to virulence of various plant pathogenic fungi that are causal agents of foliar diseases. Here, we report on LysM effectors of the soil-borne fungal vascular wilt pathogen Verticillium dahliae. Comparative genomics revealed three core LysM effectors that are conserved in a collection of V. dahliae strains. Remarkably, and in contrast to the previously studied LysM effectors of other plant pathogens, no expression of core LysM effectors was monitored in planta in a taxonomically diverse panel of host plants...
December 2, 2016: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899159/p53-signaling-modulation-of-cell-cycle-arrest-and-viral-replication-in-porcine-circovirus-type-2-infection-cells
#8
Dan Xu, Qian Du, Cong Han, Zengguo Wang, Xiujuan Zhang, Tongtong Wang, Xiaomin Zhao, Yong Huang, Dewen Tong
Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is a ubiquitous pathogen in the swine industry worldwide. Previous studies have shown that PCV2 infection induces host cell apoptosis through up-regulation of p53. To further identify the regulatory roles of p53 signaling in the process of PCV2 infection, we established p53 gene knockout PK15 cell lines using the genomic editor tool CRISPR/Cas9, and further investigated the roles of p53 in modulating the cell cycle and viral replication in this study. The results show that PCV2 infection induced obvious S phase accumulation in wild-type PK15 cells and a compromised S phase accumulation in the p53 gene mutation cells (813PK15 (p53m/m) ), but did not induce obvious S phase accumulation in the p53 gene knockout cells (148PK15 (p53-/-)) compared with the respective mock infection...
November 29, 2016: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889262/injections-of-predatory-bacteria-work-alongside-host-immune-cells-to-treat-shigella-infection-in-zebrafish-larvae
#9
Alexandra R Willis, Christopher Moore, Maria Mazon-Moya, Sina Krokowski, Carey Lambert, Robert Till, Serge Mostowy, R Elizabeth Sockett
Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus are predatory bacteria that invade and kill a range of Gram-negative bacterial pathogens in natural environments and in vitro [1, 2]. In this study, we investigated Bdellovibrio as an injected, antibacterial treatment in vivo, using zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae infected with an antibiotic-resistant strain of the human pathogen Shigella flexneri. When injected alone, Bdellovibrio can persist for more than 24 hr in vivo yet exert no pathogenic effects on zebrafish larvae. Bdellovibrio injection of zebrafish containing a lethal dose of Shigella promotes pathogen killing, leading to increased zebrafish survival...
November 22, 2016: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885564/hepatitis-e-virus-infection-in-patients-on-dialysis-and-in-solid-organ-transplant-recipients-in-argentina-exploring-associated-risk-factors
#10
María Belén Pisano, Domingo Balderramo, Maribel Martínez Wassaf, Martín Lotto, Yanina Carlino, Viviana Elizabeth Ré, José D Debes
Infection with hepatitis E virus (HEV) leads to acute hepatitis infection in immunocompetent hosts. HEV genotype 3 can present with high frequency and lead to chronic infection in individuals with a compromised immune system. The risk factors related to increased seroprevalence or chronicity in this population are not entirely understood. Moreover, most studies addressing risk factors for HEV in non-endemic areas come from developed areas such as North America and Europe. In this study we evaluated seroprevalence, chronicity and risk factors for HEV in 120 transplant recipients and 88 patients on dialysis in Argentina...
November 25, 2016: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883091/mycobacterium-tuberculosis-triggered-hippo-pathway-orchestrates-cxcl1-2-expression-to-modulate-host-immune-responses
#11
Monoranjan Boro, Vikas Singh, Kithiganahalli Narayanaswamy Balaji
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) pathogenesis encompasses a plethora of finely regulated alterations within the host which eventually coin the outcome of infection. Chemokines are important components in directing immune cell recruitment to the site of infection, and shaping the disease progression. Here, we demonstrate that Hippo (mammalian sterile 20-like 1 and 2 kinases, MST1/2, in mammals), is activated during mycobacterial infection in a toll-like receptor (TLR) 2-interleukin receptor-1 associated kinases (IRAK1/4)-dependent manner...
November 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881644/suppression-of-adenovirus-replication-by-cardiotonic-steroids
#12
Filomena Grosso, Peter Stoilov, Clifford Lingwood, Martha Brown, Alan Cochrane
: The dependence of adenovirus on the host pre-RNA splicing machinery for expression of its complete genome, potentially makes it vulnerable to modulators of RNA splicing, such as digoxin and digitoxin. Both drugs reduced the yield of four adenoviruses (HAdV-A31, B35, C5 and a species D conjunctivitis isolate) by at least 2- 3 logs by affecting one or more steps needed for genome replication. Immediate early E1A protein levels are unaffected by the drugs, but synthesis of the delayed protein E4orf6 and the major late capsid protein, hexon, are compromised...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878915/plant-phytopathogen-interactions-bacterial-responses-to-environmental-and-plant-stimuli
#13
REVIEW
Simon Leonard, Florence Hommais, William Nasser, Sylvie Reverchon
Plant pathogenic bacteria attack numerous agricultural crops, causing devastating effects on plant productivity and yield. They survive in diverse environments, both in plants, as pathogens, and also outside their hosts as saprophytes. Hence, they are confronted with numerous changing environmental parameters. During infection, plant pathogens have to deal with stressful conditions, such as acidic, oxidative and osmotic stresses; anaerobiosis; plant defenses; and contact with antimicrobial compounds. These adverse conditions can reduce bacterial survival and compromise disease initiation and propagation...
November 23, 2016: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867018/chitin-synthase-1-gene-is-crucial-to-antifungal-host-defense-of-the-model-beetle-tribolium-castaneum
#14
Yuuki Hayakawa, Daiki Kato, Katsumi Kamiya, Chieka Minakuchi, Ken Miura
The importance of the insect cuticle as a primary protective barrier against entomopathogens has long been noted. In the present study, we addressed this issue by utilizing an experimental infection system composed of the model beetle T. castaneum and two entomopathogenic fungal species, Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae. The pupae were relatively susceptible to these fungi by the natural route of infection, with some refractoriness developed with age, while the adults exhibited much higher refractoriness...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865864/construction-and-manipulation-of-a-full-length-infectious-bacterial-artificial-chromosome-clone-of-equine-herpesvirus-type-3-ehv-3
#15
Maksat Akhmedzhanov, Mariela Scrochi, Maria Barrandeguy, Aldana Vissani, Nikolaus Osterrieder, Armando Mario Damiani
Equine herpesvirus type 3 (EHV-3) is the causal agent of equine coital exanthema, a disease characterized by pox-like lesions on the penis of stallions and the vulva of mares. Although the complete genomic sequence of EHV-3 has been recently made available, its genomic content remains poorly characterized and the molecular mechanisms of disease development not yet elucidated. In an attempt to facilitate genetic manipulation of EHV-3, we describe here the construction of a full-length infectious bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clone of EHV-3...
November 16, 2016: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859195/energetic-costs-of-mange-in-wolves-estimated-from-infrared-thermography
#16
P C Cross, E S Almberg, C G Haase, P J Hudson, S K Maloney, M C Metz, A J Munn, P Nugent, O Putzeys, D R Stahler, A C Stewart, D W Smith
Parasites, by definition, extract energy from their hosts and thus affect trophic and food web dynamics even when the parasite may have limited effects on host population size. We studied the energetic costs of mange (Sarcoptes scabiei) in wolves (Canis lupus) using thermal cameras to estimate heat losses associated with compromised insulation during the winter. We combined the field data of known, naturally infected wolves with a data set on captive wolves with shaved patches of fur as a positive control to simulate mange-induced hair loss...
August 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859043/monocyte-derived-dendritic-cells-enhance-protection-against-secondary-influenza-challenge-by-controlling-the-switch-in-cd82-t-cell-immunodominance
#17
Jazmina L G Cruz, José V Pérez-Girón, Anja Lüdtke, Sergio Gómez-Medina, Paula Ruibal, Juliana Idoyaga, César Muñoz-Fontela
Influenza virus infection triggers an increase in the number of monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDCs) in the respiratory tract, but the role of these cells during antiviral immunity is still unclear. Here we show that during influenza infection, moDCs dominate the late activation of CD8(+) T cells and trigger the switch in immunodominance of the CD8(+) T-cell response from acidic polymerase (PA)-specificity to nucleoprotein (NP)-specificity. Abrogation of monocyte recruitment or depletion of moDCs strongly compromised host resistance to secondary influenza challenge...
November 18, 2016: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855617/eryptosis-ally-or-enemy
#18
Marilena Briglia, Maria Antonia Rossi, Caterina Faggio
Prior to senescence, erythrocytes may, experience injury which compromises their integrity and thus triggers suicidal erythrocyte death or eryptosis. This mechanism is characterised by cell shrinkage, cell membrane blebbing, and cell membrane phospholipid scrambling after phosphatidylserine exposure on the cell surface that is identified by macrophages which engulf and degrade the eryptotic cells. The term eryptosis also includes typical mechanisms, which contribute to the triggering of this process. Among them: oxidative stress, Ca2+ entry with an increase in cytosolic Ca2+ activity ([Ca ]i) and the activation of p38 kinase, which is a kinase expressed in human erythrocytes and activated after hyperosmotic shock...
November 18, 2016: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853279/controlled-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection-in-mice-under-treatment-with-anti-il-17a-or-il-17f-antibodies-in-contrast-to-tnf%C3%AE-neutralization
#19
Noria Segueni, Elaine Tritto, Marie-Laure Bourigault, Stéphanie Rose, François Erard, Marc Le Bert, Muazzam Jacobs, Franco Di Padova, Daniel P Stiehl, Pierre Moulin, Dominique Brees, Salah-Dine Chibout, Bernhard Ryffel, Michael Kammüller, Valerie F Quesniaux
Antibodies targeting IL-17A or its receptor IL-17RA show unprecedented efficacy in the treatment of autoimmune diseases such as psoriasis. These therapies, by neutralizing critical mediators of immunity, may increase susceptibility to infections. Here, we compared the effect of antibodies neutralizing IL-17A, IL-17F or TNFα on murine host responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection by evaluating lung transcriptomic, microbiological and histological analyses. Coinciding with a significant increase of mycobacterial burden and pathological changes following TNFα blockade, gene array analyses of infected lungs revealed major changes of inflammatory and immune gene expression signatures 4 weeks post-infection...
November 17, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846253/functional-analysis-of-the-pathogenicity-related-gene-vdpr1-in-the-vascular-wilt-fungus-verticillium-dahliae
#20
Ya-Lin Zhang, Zhi-Fang Li, Zi-Li Feng, Hong-Jie Feng, Yong-Qiang Shi, Li-Hong Zhao, Xi-Ling Zhang, He-Qin Zhu
Verticillium dahliae Kleb., the causal agent of vascular wilt, can seriously diminish the yield and quality of many crops, including cotton. The pathogenic mechanism to cotton is complicated and unclear now. To screen pathogencity related genes and identify their function is the reliable way to explain the mechanism. In this study, we obtained a low-pathogenicity mutant vdpr1 from a T-DNA insertional library of the highly virulent isolate of V. dahliae Vd080, isolated from cotton. The tagged gene was named pathogenicity-related gene (VdPR1)...
2016: PloS One
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