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Infections in compromised host

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192515/salmonella-typhimurium-disrupts-sirt1-ampk-checkpoint-control-of-mtor-to-impair-autophagy
#1
Raja Ganesan, Nina Judith Hos, Saray Gutierrez, Julia Fischer, Joanna Magdalena Stepek, Evmorphia Daglidu, Martin Krönke, Nirmal Robinson
During intracellular infections, autophagy significantly contributes to the elimination of pathogens, regulation of pro-inflammatory signaling, secretion of immune mediators and in coordinating the adaptive immune system. Intracellular pathogens such as S. Typhimurium have evolved mechanisms to circumvent autophagy. However, the regulatory mechanisms targeted by S. Typhimurium to modulate autophagy have not been fully resolved. Here we report that cytosolic energy loss during S. Typhimurium infection triggers transient activation of AMPK, an important checkpoint of mTOR activity and autophagy...
February 13, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183327/characteristics-of-sirnas-derived-from-southern-rice-black-streaked-dwarf-virus-in-infected-rice-and-their-potential-role-in-host-gene-regulation
#2
Donglin Xu, Guohui Zhou
BACKGROUND: Virus-derived siRNAs (vsiRNAs)-mediated RNA silencing plays important roles in interaction between plant viruses and their hosts. Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV) is a newly emerged devastating rice reovirus with ten dsRNA genomic segments. The characteristics of SRBSDV-derived siRNAs and their biological implications in SRBSDV-rice interaction remain unexplored. METHODS: VsiRNAs profiling from SRBSDV-infected rice samples was done via small RNA deep sequencing...
February 10, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167698/adar1-and-pact-contribute-to-efficient-translation-of-transcripts-containing-hiv-1-trans-activating-response-tar-element
#3
Evelyn Chukwurah, Indhira Handy, Rekha C Patel
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) has evolved various measures to counter the host cell's innate antiviral response during the course of infection. Interferon (IFN)-stimulated gene products are produced following HIV-1 infection to limit viral replication, but viral proteins and RNAs counteract their effect. One such mechanism is specifically directed against the IFN-induced Protein Kinase R (PKR), which is centrally important to the cellular antiviral response. In the presence of viral RNAs, PKR is activated and phosphorylates the translation initiation factor, eIF2α...
February 6, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161350/triggered-urine-interleukin-6-correlates-to-severity-of-symptoms-in-non-febrile-lower-urinary-tract-infections
#4
Fredrik Sundén, Daniel Butler, Björn Wullt
PURPOSE: Objective diagnosis of symptomatic urinary tract infections (UTI) in patients prone to asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU) is compromised by the already present local host responses and the positive urine culture. We investigated Interleukin-6 (IL-6) as a biomarker for non-febrile UTI severity, and diagnostic thresholds for IL-6, IL8 and neutrophils in differentiating between ABU and UTI. METHODS: Patients with residual urine and neurogenic bladders due to spinal lesions included in a long term E...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158306/identification-of-cyst-nematode-b-type-cle-peptides-and-modulation-of-the-vascular-stem-cell-pathway-for-feeding-cell-formation
#5
Xiaoli Guo, Jianying Wang, Michael Gardner, Hiroo Fukuda, Yuki Kondo, J Peter Etchells, Xiaohong Wang, Melissa Goellner Mitchum
Stem cell pools in the SAM (shoot apical meristem), RAM (root apical meristem) and vascular procambium/cambium are regulated by CLE-receptor kinase-WOX signaling modules. Previous data showed that cyst nematode CLE-like effector proteins delivered into host cells through a stylet, act as ligand mimics of plant A-type CLE peptides and are pivotal for successful parasitism. Here we report the identification of a new class of CLE peptides from cyst nematodes with functional similarity to the B-type CLE peptide TDIF (tracheary element differentiation inhibitory factor) encoded by the CLE41 and CLE44 genes in Arabidopsis...
February 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144629/pho4-is-essential-for-dissemination-of-cryptococcus-neoformans-to-the-host-brain-by-promoting-phosphate-uptake-and-growth-at-alkaline-ph
#6
Sophie Lev, Keren Kaufman-Francis, Desmarini Desmarini, Pierre G Juillard, Cecilia Li, Sebastian A Stifter, Carl G Feng, Tania C Sorrell, Georges E R Grau, Yong-Sun Bahn, Julianne T Djordjevic
Phosphate acquisition by fungi is regulated by the phosphate-sensing and acquisition (PHO) signaling pathway. Cryptococcus neoformans disseminates from the lung to the brain and is the commonest cause of fungal meningitis worldwide. To investigate the contribution of PHO signaling to cryptococcal dissemination, we characterized a transcription factor knockout strain (hlh3Δ/pho4Δ) defective in phosphate acquisition. Despite little similarity with other fungal Pho4 proteins, Hlh3/Pho4 functioned like a typical phosphate-responsive transcription factor in phosphate-deprived cryptococci, accumulating in nuclei and triggering expression of genes involved in phosphate acquisition...
January 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130016/cortical-strut-allograft-support-of-modular-femoral-junctions-during-revision-total-hip-arthroplasty
#7
Chin Tat Lim, Derek F Amanatullah, James I Huddleston, Katherine L Hwang, William J Maloney, Stuart B Goodman
BACKGROUND: There is risk of junction failure when using modular femoral stems for revision total hip arthroplasty (THA), especially with loss of bone stock in the proximal femur. Using a cortical strut allograft may provide additional support of a modular femoral construct in revision THA. METHODS: We reviewed prospectively gathered clinical and radiographic data for 28 revision THAs performed from 2004 to 2014 using cementless modular femoral components with cortical strut allograft applied to supplement proximal femoral bone loss: 5 (18%) were fluted taper designs and 23 (82%) were porous cylindrical designs All the patients had a Paprosky grade IIIA or greater femoral defect...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Arthroplasty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129542/pathogen-mediated-inhibition-of-anorexia-promotes-host-survival-and-transmission
#8
Sheila Rao, Alexandria M Palaferri Schieber, Carolyn P O'Connor, Mathias Leblanc, Daniela Michel, Janelle S Ayres
Sickness-induced anorexia is a conserved behavior induced during infections. Here, we report that an intestinal pathogen, Salmonella Typhimurium, inhibits anorexia by manipulating the gut-brain axis. Inhibition of inflammasome activation by the S. Typhimurium effector, SlrP, prevented anorexia caused by IL-1β-mediated signaling to the hypothalamus via the vagus nerve. Rather than compromising host defenses, pathogen-mediated inhibition of anorexia increased host survival. SlrP-mediated inhibition of anorexia prevented invasion and systemic infection by wild-type S...
January 26, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115333/clinical-efficacy-of-%C3%AE-lactam-%C3%AE-lactamase-inhibitor-combinations-for-the-treatment-of-bloodstream-infection-due-to-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-producing-enterobacteriaceae-in-haematological-patients-with-neutropaenia-a-study-protocol-for-a-retrospective-observational
#9
C Gudiol, C Royo-Cebrecos, C Tebe, E Abdala, M Akova, R Álvarez, G Maestro-de la Calle, A Cano, C Cervera, W T Clemente, P Martín-Dávila, A Freifeld, L Gómez, T Gottlieb, M Gurguí, F Herrera, A Manzur, G Maschmeyer, Y Meije, M Montejo, M Peghin, J Rodríguez-Baño, I Ruiz-Camps, T C Sukiennik, J Carratalà
INTRODUCTION: Bloodstream infection (BSI) due to extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Gram-negative bacilli (ESBL-GNB) is increasing at an alarming pace worldwide. Although β-lactam/β-lactamase inhibitor (BLBLI) combinations have been suggested as an alternative to carbapenems for the treatment of BSI due to these resistant organisms in the general population, their usefulness for the treatment of BSI due to ESBL-GNB in haematological patients with neutropaenia is yet to be elucidated...
January 23, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112734/jnk1-negatively-controls-antifungal-innate-immunity-by-suppressing-cd23-expression
#10
Xueqiang Zhao, Yahui Guo, Changying Jiang, Qing Chang, Shilei Zhang, Tianming Luo, Bin Zhang, Xinming Jia, Mien-Chie Hung, Chen Dong, Xin Lin
Opportunistic fungal infections are a leading cause of death among immune-compromised patients, and there is a pressing need to develop new antifungal therapeutic agents because of toxicity and resistance to the antifungal drugs currently in use. Although C-type lectin receptor- and Toll-like receptor-induced signaling pathways are key activators of host antifungal immunity, little is known about the mechanisms that negatively regulate host immune responses to a fungal infection. Here we found that JNK1 activation suppresses antifungal immunity in mice...
January 23, 2017: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107198/meta-analysis-of-the-actions-of-antithymocyte-globulin-in-patients-undergoing-allogeneic-hematopoietic-cell-transplantation
#11
Jiaojiao Yuan, Renzhi Pei, Wensi Su, Junjie Cao, Ying Lu
Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a serious complication associated with allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT). Antithymocyte globulin (ATG) is widely used prior to allo-HCT for GVHD prevention, though evidence of its efficacy remains unclear. We therefore identified nine randomized controlled trials (RCTs), enrolling 1089 patients (554 in the ATG group and 535 in the non-ATG group) to conduct a meta-analysis of the actions of ATG in allo-HCT. A relative risk or risk ratio (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated for each outcome...
January 18, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087925/host-responses-to-urinary-tract-infections-and-emerging-therapeutics-sensation-and-pain-within-the-urinary-tract
#12
Lori A Birder, David J Klumpp
Urinary tract infection (UTI) pathogenesis is understood increasingly at the level of the uropathogens and the cellular and molecular mediators of host inflammatory responses. However, little is known about the mediators of symptoms during UTI and what distinguishes symptomatic events from asymptomatic bacteriuria. Here, we review bladder physiology and sensory pathways in the context of an emerging literature from murine models dissecting the host and pathogen factors mediating pain responses during UTI. The bladder urothelium is considered a mediator of sensory responses and appears to play a role in UTI pain responses...
October 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081143/engineered-aedes-aegypti-jak-stat-pathway-mediated-immunity-to-dengue-virus
#13
Natapong Jupatanakul, Shuzhen Sim, Yesseinia I Angleró-Rodríguez, Jayme Souza-Neto, Suchismita Das, Kristin E Poti, Shannan L Rossi, Nicholas Bergren, Nikos Vasilakis, George Dimopoulos
We have developed genetically modified Ae. aegypti mosquitoes that activate the conserved antiviral JAK/STAT pathway in the fat body tissue, by overexpressing either the receptor Dome or the Janus kinase Hop by the blood feeding-induced vitellogenin (Vg) promoter. Transgene expression inhibits infection with several dengue virus (DENV) serotypes in the midgut as well as systemically and in the salivary glands. The impact of the transgenes Dome and Hop on mosquito longevity was minimal, but it resulted in a compromised fecundity when compared to wild-type mosquitoes...
January 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080916/aerobic-microflora-and-endoparasites-of-freshly-shot-wild-agouti-dasyprocta-leporina-in-trinidad-west-indies
#14
Rod Suepaul, Roxanne Charles, Francis Dziva
The agouti ( Dasyprocta leporina ) is a New World wild rodent hunted for its meat in Trinidad and other Latin American countries. Studies on agouti under captive conditions have yielded some data on health-related aspects, but relatively very little is known about their wild counterparts. The environment of the agouti can influence the microflora and parasites harbored by the animals, which may contain zoonotic pathogens. Here, the microflora found on the nasal mucosa and sections of the intestinal tract and endoparasites of freshly shot agouti from various areas of Trinidad are described...
December 2016: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077791/carcinoma-risk-variant-of-ebna1-deregulates-epstein-barr-virus-episomal-latency
#15
Jayaraju Dheekollu, Kimberly Malecka, Andreas Wiedmer, Henri-Jacques Delecluse, Alan K S Chiang, Dario C Altieri, Troy E Messick, Paul M Lieberman
Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) latent infection is a causative co-factor for endemic Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma (NPC). NPC-associated variants have been identified in EBV-encoded nuclear antigen EBNA1. Here, we solve the X-ray crystal structure of an NPC-derived EBNA1 DNA binding domain (DBD) and show that variant amino acids are found on the surface away from the DNA binding interface. We show that NPC-derived EBNA1 is compromised for DNA replication and episome maintenance functions. Recombinant virus containing the NPC EBNA1 DBD are impaired in their ability to immortalize primary B-lymphocytes and suppress lytic transcription during early stages of B-cell infection...
January 31, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077630/mavs-is-essential-for-primary-cd4-t-cell-immunity-but-not-for-recall-t-cell-responses-following-an-attenuated-west-nile-virus-infection
#16
Huanle Luo, Evandro Winkelmann, Guorui Xie, Rong Fang, Bi-Hung Peng, Li Li, Helen M Lazear, Slobodan Paessler, Michael S Diamond, Michael Gale, Alan D Barrett, Tian Wang
: The use of pathogen recognition receptor (PRR) agonists and the molecular mechanisms involved have been the major focus of research in individual vaccine development. West Nile virus (WNV) nonstructural (NS) 4B-P38G mutant has several features for an ideal vaccine candidate, including significantly reduced neuroinvasiveness, induction of strong adaptive immunity, and protection of mice from wild-type (WT) WNV infection. Here, we determined the role of mitochondrial antiviral-signaling (MAVS), the adaptor protein for RIG-I like receptor in regulating host immunity against the NS4B-P38G vaccine...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077629/sun2-silencing-impairs-cd4-t-cell-proliferation-and-alters-sensitivity-to-hiv-1-infection-independently-of-cyclophilin-a
#17
Daniel A Donahue, Françoise Porrot, Norbert Couespel, Olivier Schwartz
: Linker of nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton (LINC) complexes connect the nucleus to the cytoskeleton in eukaryotic cells. We previously reported that overexpression of SUN2, an inner nuclear membrane protein and LINC complex component, inhibits HIV infection between reverse transcription and nuclear import in a capsid-specific manner. We also reported that SUN2 silencing does not modulate HIV infection in several cell lines. Silencing of SUN2 was recently reported to decrease HIV infection of CD4 T cells, an effect suggested to result from modulation of CypA-dependent steps of HIV infection...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077609/travellers-and-influenza-risks-and-prevention
#18
REVIEW
M Goeijenbier, P van Genderen, B J Ward, A Wilder-Smith, R Steffen, A D M E Osterhaus
BACKGROUND: Influenza viruses are among the major causes of serious human respiratory tract infection worldwide. In line with the high disease burden attributable to influenza, these viruses play an important, but often neglected, role in travel medicine. Guidelines and recommendations regarding prevention and management of influenza in travellers are scarce. Of special interest for travel medicine are risk populations and also circumstances that facilitate influenza virus transmission and spread, like travel by airplane or cruise ship and mass gatherings...
January 2017: Journal of Travel Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065517/peritoneal-macrophage-heterogeneity-is-associated-with-different-peritoneal-dialysis-outcomes
#19
Chia-Te Liao, Robert Andrews, Leah E Wallace, Mohd Wajid A Khan, Ann Kift-Morgan, Nicholas Topley, Donald J Fraser, Philip R Taylor
Peritonitis remains the major obstacle for the maintenance of long-term peritoneal dialysis and dysregulated host peritoneal immune responses may compromise local anti-infectious defense, leading to treatment failure. Whilst, tissue mononuclear phagocytes, comprising macrophages and dendritic cells, are central to a host response to pathogens and the development of adaptive immune responses, they are poorly characterized in the human peritoneum. Combining flow cytometry with global transcriptome analysis, the phenotypic features and lineage identity of the major CD14(+) macrophage and CD1c(+) dendritic cell subsets in dialysis effluent were defined...
January 5, 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062578/gmp-synthase-is-required-for-virulence-factor-production-and-infection-by-cryptococcus-neoformans
#20
Jessica L Chitty, Tayla L Tatzenko, Simon J Williams, Y Q Andre E Koh, Elizabeth C Corfield, Mark S Butler, Avril A B Robertson, Matthew A Cooper, Ulrike Kappler, Bostjan Kobe, James A Fraser
Over the last four decades the HIV pandemic and advances in medical treatments that also cause immunosuppression have produced an ever-growing cohort of individuals susceptible to opportunistic pathogens. Of these, AIDS patients are particularly vulnerable to infection by the encapsulated yeast Cryptococcus neoformans Most commonly found in the environment in purine-rich bird guano, C. neoformans experiences a drastic change in nutrient availability during host infection, ultimately disseminating to colonize the purine-poor central nervous system...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
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