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Infections in compromised host

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671592/inactivation-mechanisms-of-human-and-animal-rotaviruses-by-solar-uva-and-visible-light
#1
Elbashir Araud, Joanna L Shisler, Thanh H Nguyen
Two rotavirus (RV) strains (sialidase-resistant Wa and sialidase-sensitive OSU) were irradiated with simulated solar UVA and visible light in sensitizer-free phosphate buffered solution (lacking exogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS)) or secondary effluent wastewater (producing ROS). Although light attenuated for up to 15% through the secondary effluent wastewater (SEW), the inactivation efficacies increased by 0.7 log10 for Wa and 2 log10 for OSU compared to those in sensitizer-free phosphate buffered solution (PBS) after 4 hrs of irradiation...
April 19, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669841/subclinical-cytomegalovirus-infection-associates-with-altered-host-immunity-gut-microbiota-and-vaccine-responses
#2
Clarissa Santos Rocha, Lauren A Hirao, Mariana G Weber, Gema Méndez-Lagares, W L William Chang, Guochun Jiang, Jesse D Deere, Ellen E Sparger, Jeffrey Roberts, Peter A Barry, Dennis J Hartigan-O'Connor, Satya Dandekar
Subclinical viral infections (SVI) including cytomegalovirus (CMV) are highly prevalent in humans, resulting in life-long persistence. However, the impact of SVI on the interplay between the host immunity and gut microbiota in the context of environmental exposures is not well defined. We utilized the preclinical nonhuman primate (NHP) model consisting of SVI-free (SPF) rhesus macaques and compared them to the animals with SVI (non-SPF) acquired through natural exposure and investigated the impact of SVI on immune cell distribution and function as well as on gut microbiota...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653177/additive-potential-of-combination-therapy-against-cryptococcosis-employing-a-novel-amphotericin-b-and-fluconazole-loaded-dual-delivery-system
#3
Azmat Ali Khan, Amer M Alanazi, Mumtaz Jabeen, Shahnavaj Khan, Abdul Mallik
Cryptococcus neoformans is one of the most lethal fungi causing mortality across the globe with the highest incidences in immuno-compromised person. Patients taking immuno-suppressive medications and immuno-competent hosts are extremely susceptible to its infection. Thus, new forms of therapy are urgently required for effective cure to the fungal burden. So, in the present study we have tried to explore the potential effects of amphotericin B (AMB) and fluconazole (FLC) in combination antifungal drug therapy...
April 10, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629622/tolerance-of-sulfolobus-smv1-virus-to-the-immunity-of-i-a-and-iii-b-crispr-cas-systems-in-sulfolobus-islandicus
#4
Tong Guo, Wenyuan Han, Qunxin She
Sulfolobus islandicus Rey15A encodes one type I-A and two type III-B systems, all of which are active in mediating nucleic acids interference. However, the effectiveness of each CRISPR system against virus infection was not tested in this archaeon. Here we constructed S. islandicus strains that constitutively express the antiviral immunity from either I-A, or III-B, or I-A plus III-B systems against SMV1 and tested the response of each host to SMV1 infection. We found that, although both CRISPR immunities showed a strongly inhibition to viral DNA replication at an early stage of incubation, the host I-A CRISPR immunity gradually lost the control on virus proliferation, allowing accumulation of cellular viral DNA and release of a large number of viral particles...
April 9, 2018: RNA Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625420/a-facile-method-to-prepare-a-versatile-surface-coating-with-fibrinolytic-activity-vascular-cell-selectivity-and-antibacterial-properties
#5
Sheng Jin, Hao Gu, Xianshuang Chen, Xiaoli Liu, Wenjun Zhan, Ting Wei, Xuebo Sun, Chuanlu Ren, Hong Chen
Clot and thrombus formation on surfaces that come into contact with blood is still the most serious problem for blood contacting devices. Despite many years of continuous efforts in developing hemocompatible materials, it is still of great interest to develop multifunctional materials to enable vascular cell selectivity (to favor rapid endothelialization while inhibiting smooth muscle cell proliferation) and improve hemocompatibility. In addition, biomaterial-associated infections also cause the failure of biomedical implants and devices...
March 28, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624825/the-rho-signaling-pathway-mediates-the-pathogenicity-of-ahpnd-causing-v-parahaemolyticus-in-shrimp
#6
Tze Hann Ng, Chia-Wei Lu, Shih-Shun Lin, Che-Chih Chang, Loc H Tran, Wen-Chi Chang, Chu-Fang Lo, Han-Ching Wang
An emerging bacterial disease, acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND), is caused by strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus with an additional AHPND-associated plasmid pVA1 encoding a virulent toxin (Pirvp ) that damages the shrimp's hepatopancreas. Like other species of Vibrio, these virulent strains initially colonize the shrimp's stomach, but it is not yet understood how the bacteria or toxins are subsequently able to cross the epithelial barrier and reach the hepatopancreas. Here, by using transcriptomics and system biology methods, we investigate AHPND-induced changes in the stomach of AHPND-causing V...
April 6, 2018: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614112/a-fine-tuned-vector-parasite-dialogue-in-tsetse-s-cardia-determines-peritrophic-matrix-integrity-and-trypanosome-transmission-success
#7
Aurélien Vigneron, Emre Aksoy, Brian L Weiss, Xiaoli Bing, Xin Zhao, Erick O Awuoche, Michelle B O'Neill, Yineng Wu, Geoffrey M Attardo, Serap Aksoy
Arthropod vectors have multiple physical and immunological barriers that impede the development and transmission of parasites to new vertebrate hosts. These barriers include the peritrophic matrix (PM), a chitinous barrier that separates the blood bolus from the midgut epithelia and thus modulates vector-microbiota interactions. In tsetse flies, a sleeve-like PM is continuously produced by the cardia organ located at the fore- and midgut junction. African trypanosomes, Trypanosoma brucei, must bypass the PM twice; first to colonize the midgut and secondly to reach the salivary glands (SG), to complete their transmission cycle in tsetse...
April 3, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608569/expanding-the-toolbox-for-trypanosoma-cruzi-a-parasite-line-incorporating-a-bioluminescence-fluorescence-dual-reporter-and-streamlined-crispr-cas9-functionality-for-rapid-in-vivo-localisation-and-phenotyping
#8
Fernanda Cristina Costa, Amanda Fortes Francisco, Shiromani Jayawardhana, Simone Guedes Calderano, Michael D Lewis, Francisco Olmo, Tom Beneke, Eva Gluenz, Jack Sunter, Samuel Dean, John Morrison Kelly, Martin Craig Taylor
BACKGROUND: Infection with Trypanosoma cruzi causes Chagas disease, a major public health problem throughout Latin America. There is no vaccine and the only drugs have severe side effects. Efforts to generate new therapies are hampered by limitations in our understanding of parasite biology and disease pathogenesis. Studies are compromised by the complexity of the disease, the long-term nature of the infection, and the fact that parasites are barely detectable during the chronic stage...
April 2, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608332/immune-tolerance-of-vector-beetle-to-its-partner-plant-parasitic-nematode-modulated-by-its-insect-parasitic-nematode
#9
Jiao Zhou, Li-Lin Zhao, Hai-Ying Yu, Yan-Hong Wang, Wei Zhang, Song-Nian Hu, Zhen Zou, Jiang-Hua Sun
Immune response of insect vectors to transmitted pathogens or insect hosts against parasites are well studied, whereas the mechanism of tripartite interactions remains elusive. In this study, we investigated the immune interactions of the vector beetle Monochamus alternatus ( Ma) to the devastating plant parasitic nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus ( Bx) and the insect parasitic nematode Howardula phyllotretae ( Hp). We report the unique immune mechanism by which the vector beetle tolerates many devastating Bx in its trachea, yet that immune tolerance is compromised by the parasitic nematode Hp...
April 2, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593047/il-27r-signalling-mediates-early-viral-containment-and-impacts-innate-and-adaptive-immunity-after-chronic-lymphocytic-choriomeningitis-virus-infection
#10
James A Harker, Kurt A Wong, Simone Dallari, Phuc Bao, Aleksandr Dolgoter, Yeara Jo, Ellen J Wehrens, Monica Macal, Elina I Zuniga
Chronic viral infections represent a major challenge to host's immune response and a unique network of immunological elements, including cytokines, are required for their containment. By using a model persistent infection with the natural murine pathogen lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus clone 13 (LCMV Cl13) we investigated the role of one such cytokine, interleukin 27 (IL-27), in the control of chronic infection. We found that IL-27R signalling promoted control of LCMV Cl13 as early as day 1 and 5 after infection and that il27p28 transcripts were rapidly elevated in multiple subsets of dendritic cells (DCs) and myeloid cells...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29572070/escmid-study-group-for-infections-in-compromised-hosts-esgich-consensus-document-on-the-safety-of-targeted-and-biological-therapies-an-infectious-diseases-perspective-agents-targeting-lymphoid-or-myeloid-cells-surface-antigens-ii-cd22-cd30-cd33-cd38-cd40-slamf
#11
REVIEW
Lubos Drgona, Carlota Gudiol, Simone Lanini, Bernd Salzberger, Giuseppe Ippolito, Małgorzata Mikulska
BACKGROUND: The present review is part of the ESCMID Study Group for Infections in Compromised Hosts (ESGICH) Consensus Document on the safety of targeted and biological therapies. AIMS: To review, from an Infectious Diseases perspective, the safety profile of agents targeting CD22, CD30, CD33, CD38, CD40, SLAMF-7 and CCR4 and to suggest preventive recommendations. SOURCES: Computer-based MEDLINE searches with MeSH terms pertaining to each agent or therapeutic family...
March 20, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29572043/bioluminescence-imaging-increases-in-vivo-screening-efficiency-for-antifungal-activity-against-device-associated-candida-albicans-biofilms
#12
Greetje Vande Velde, Soňa Kucharíková, Patrick Van Dijck, Uwe Himmelreich
Fungal infections are a major problem for a growing number of mostly immune-compromised patients. Candida albicans is an important human fungal pathogen causing mucosal and deep tissue infections of which the majority is associated with biofilm formation on medical implants. The animal models that are currently in use to test antifungal drugs are limited to ex vivo analyses, requiring host sacrifice that excludes longitudinal monitoring of dynamic processes during biofilm formation in the live host. As a solution, we introduce non-invasive, dynamic imaging and quantification of C...
March 20, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29563291/a-naturally-occurring-deletion-in-the-effector-domain-of-h5n1-swine-influenza-virus-nonstructural-protein-1-regulates-viral-fitness-and-host-innate-immunity
#13
Junyong Wang, Yan Zeng, Shuai Xu, Jiayun Yang, Wanbing Wang, Bo Zhong, Jinying Ge, Lei Yin, Zhigao Bu, Hong-Bing Shu, Hualan Chen, Cao-Qi Lei, Qiyun Zhu
Nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) of influenza A virus regulates innate immune responses via various mechanisms. We previously showed that a naturally occurring deletion (the EALQR motif) in the NS1 effector domain of an H5N1 swine-origin avian influenza virus impairs the inhibition of type I interferon (IFN) in chicken fibroblasts and attenuates virulence in chickens. Here, we found that the virus bearing this deletion in its NS1 effector domain showed diminished inhibition of IFN-related cytokine expression and attenuated virulence in mice...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29563287/nonstructural-5a-impairs-dna-damage-repair-implication-of-hepatitis-c-virus-mediated-hepatocarcinogenesis
#14
Tram T Nguyen, Eun-Mee Park, Yun-Sook Lim, Soon B Hwang
RAD51-associated protein 1 (RAD51AP1) is a member of the multiprotein complexes postulated to carry out RAD51-mediated homologous recombination and DNA repair in mammalian cells. In the present study, we showed that hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS5A directly bound RAD51AP1 and increased protein level of RAD51AP1 through modulation of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. We also demonstrated that RAD51AP1 protein levels were increased in the liver tissues of HCV-infected patients and NS5A transgenic mice. Importantly, NS5A impaired DNA repair by disrupting RAD51/RAD51AP1/UAF1 complex and rendered HCV-infected cells more sensitive to DNA damage...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29549322/population-screening-and-transmission-experiments-indicate-paramyxid-microsporidian-co-infection-in-echinogammarus-marinus-represents-a-non-hyperparasitic-relationship-between-specific-parasite-strains
#15
Yasmin Guler, Stephen Short, Amaia Green Etxabe, Peter Kille, Alex T Ford
Phylogenetically distant parasites often infect the same host. Indeed, co-infections can occur at levels greater than expected by chance and are sometimes hyperparasitic. The amphipod Echinogammarus marinus presents high levels of co-infection by two intracellular and vertically transmitted parasites, a paramyxid (Paramarteilia sp. Em) and a microsporidian strain (Dictyocoela duebenum Em). This co-infection may be hyperparasitic and result from an exploitative 'hitchhiking' or a symbiotic relationship between the parasites...
March 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29547356/host-pathogen-interaction-in-fusarium-oxysporum-infections-where-do-we-stand
#16
Amjad M Husaini, Aafreen Sakina, Souliha R Cambay
Fusarium oxysporum, a ubiquitous soil-borne pathogen causes devastating vascular wilt in more than 100 plant species and ranks fifth among top ten fungal plant pathogens. It has emerged as a human pathogen too, causing infections in immune-compromised patients. It is, therefore, important to gain insight into the molecular processes involved in the pathogenesis of this trans-kingdom pathogen. A complex network comprising of interconnected and over lapping signal pathways; mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways, Ras proteins, G-protein signaling components and their downstream pathways, components of the velvet (LaeA/VeA/VelB) complex and cAMP pathways, is involved in perceiving the host...
March 16, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29543719/interactions-of-cryptococcus-with-dendritic-cells
#17
REVIEW
Karen L Wozniak
The fungal pathogens Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii can cause life-threatening infections in immune compromised and immune competent hosts. These pathogens enter the host via inhalation, and respiratory tract innate immune cells such as dendritic cells (DCs) are one of the first host cells they encounter. The interactions between Cryptococcus and innate immune cells play a critical role in the progression of disease in the host. This review will focus specifically on the interactions between Cryptococcus and dendritic cells (DCs), including recognition/processing by DCs, effects of immune mediators on DC recruitment and activity, and the potential for DC vaccination against cryptococcosis...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29538388/cryptic-invasion-of-a-parasitic-copepod-compromised-identification-when-morphologically-similar-invaders-co-occur-in-invaded-ecosystems
#18
M Anouk Goedknegt, David W Thieltges, Jaap van der Meer, K Mathias Wegner, Pieternella C Luttikhuizen
Despite their frequent occurrence and strong impacts on native biota, biological invasions can long remain undetected. One reason for this is that an invasive species can be morphologically similar to either native species or introduced species previously established in the same region, and thus be subject to mistaken identification. One recent case involves congeneric invasive parasites, copepods that now infect bivalve hosts along European Atlantic coasts, after having been introduced independently first from the Mediterranean Sea (Mytilicola intestinalis Steuer, 1902) and later from Japan (Mytilicola orientalis Mori, 1935)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29535147/a-host-pathogen-interaction-screen-identifies-ada2-as-a-mediator-of-candida-glabrata-defences-against-reactive-oxygen-species
#19
Ilias Kounatidis, Lauren Ames, Rupal Mistry, Hsueh-Lui Ho, Ken Haynes, Petros Ligoxygakis
Candida glabrata ( C. glabrata ) forms part of the normal human gut microbiota but can cause life-threatening invasive infections in immune-compromised individuals. C. glabrata displays high resistance to common azole antifungals, which necessitates new treatments. In this investigation, we identified five C. glabrata deletion mutants ( Δada2 , Δbas1 , Δhir3, Δino2 and Δmet31 ) from a library of 196 transcription factor mutants that were unable to grow and activate an immune response in Drosophila larvae...
March 13, 2018: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29526919/-septic-cardiomyopathy-pathophysiology-and-potential-new-therapeutic-approaches
#20
Tokiko Suzuki, Mari Sakai, Shigeyuki Yamashita, Kengo Tomita, Yuichi Hattori
Sepsis is the leading cause of death in critically ill patients, and its incidence continues to rise. Sepsis was defined as a systemic inflammatory response syndrome with an identifiable focus of infection, but therapeutic strategies aimed at eliminating the inflammatory response have only modest clinical benefit. The development of a failure of one or more organs poses a major threat to the survival of patients with sepsis, and mortality in sepsis is most often attributed to multiple organ dysfunction. Accordingly, sepsis has been recently redefined as life-threatening organ dysfunction due to a dysregulated host response to infection...
2018: Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi. Folia Pharmacologica Japonica
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