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Infections in compromised host

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226970/a-dominant-interfering-camta3-mutation-compromises-primary-transcriptional-outputs-mediated-by-both-cell-surface-and-intracellular-immune-receptors-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#1
Florence Jacob, Barbara Kracher, Akira Mine, Carolin Seyfferth, Servane Blanvillain-Baufumé, Jane E Parker, Kenichi Tsuda, Paul Schulze-Lefert, Takaki Maekawa
Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) and nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat (LRR)-containing proteins (NLRs) initiate pattern-triggered immunity (PTI) and effector-triggered immunity (ETI), respectively, each associated with the activation of an overlapping set of defence genes. The regulatory mechanism behind this convergence of PTI- and ETI-mediated defence gene induction remains elusive. We generated transgenic Arabidopsis plants that enable conditional NLR activation without pathogen infection to dissect NLR- and PRR-mediated transcriptional signals...
December 11, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219058/macrophage-targeted-cellular-carriers-for-effective-delivery-of-anti-tubercular-drugs
#2
S Beg, Jaya Agnihotri, Shibhna Singh, Mohammad Wais
Newly developed vaccine VPM1002 confers paradigm swing in the prophylactic treatment of tuberculosis (TB).Multi drug resistant and latent TB in adults as well as in underprivileged patients is instigating menace over world population if the host is immune-compromised. One third of the world's population is infected with TB. Recently it is estimated around 9.6 million people around the world became sick with TB disease. There were 1.5 million TB-related deaths worldwide. Therefore with the advent in biotechnology and Nano engineering, newly adapted survival molecular mechanism of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, new targets receptors on alveolar macrophages must be explored out for eradication of TB from the globe...
December 7, 2017: Recent Patents on Anti-infective Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209174/potential-mechanisms-underlying-inflammation-enhanced-aminoglycoside-induced-cochleotoxicity
#3
REVIEW
Meiyan Jiang, Farshid Taghizadeh, Peter S Steyger
Aminoglycoside antibiotics remain widely used for urgent clinical treatment of life-threatening infections, despite the well-recognized risk of permanent hearing loss, i.e., cochleotoxicity. Recent studies show that aminoglycoside-induced cochleotoxicity is exacerbated by bacteriogenic-induced inflammation. This implies that those with severe bacterial infections (that induce systemic inflammation), and are treated with bactericidal aminoglycosides are at greater risk of drug-induced hearing loss than previously recognized...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187541/exosomes-mediate-intercellular-transmission-of-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-prrsv
#4
Ting Wang, Liurong Fang, Fuwei Zhao, Dang Wang, Shaobo Xiao
Exosomes are small membrane-enclosed vesicles produced by various cells and actively released into the extracellular space. They participate in intercellular communication and transfer of biologically active proteins, lipids and nucleic acids. Accumulating evidence suggests that exosomes derived from cells infected by some viruses selectively encapsulate viral proteins, genetic materials or even virions to mediate cell-to-cell communication and/or virus transmission. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is an Arterivirus that has been devastating the global swine industry since the late 1980s...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187538/the-absence-of-dhhc3-affects-primary-and-latent-hsv-1-infection
#5
Shaohui Wang, Kevin R Mott, Marianne Cilluffo, Casey L Kilpatrick, Shoko Murakami, Alexander V Ljubimov, Konstantin G Kousoulas, Sita Awasthi, Bernhard Luscher, Homayon Ghiasi
UL20, an essential HSV-1 protein, is involved in cytoplasmic envelopment of virions and virus egress. We reported recently that UL20 can bind to a host protein encoded by the zinc finger DHHC-type containing 3 (ZDHHC3) gene (also known as Golgi-specific DHHC zinc finger protein {GODZ}). Here, we show for the first time that HSV-1 replication is compromised in murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) isolated from GODZ-/- mice. The absence of GODZ resulted in reduced palmitoylation of UL20 and altered localization, expression of UL20 and gK; the expression of gB and gC; and the localization and expression of tegument and capsid proteins within HSV-1-infected MEFs...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180965/oxidative-stress-and-antioxidant-system-in-periodontitis
#6
REVIEW
Yue Wang, Oleh Andrukhov, Xiaohui Rausch-Fan
Periodontitis is a common inflammatory disease, which is initiated by bacterial infection and subsequently progressed by aberrant host response. It can result in the destruction of teeth supporting tissues and have an influence on systemic health. When periodontitis occurs, reactive oxygen species, which are overproduced mostly by hyperactive neutrophils, could not be balanced by antioxidant defense system and cause tissues damage. This is characterized by increased metabolites of lipid peroxidation, DNA damage and protein damage...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179785/toxoplasma-gondii-reorganizes-the-host-cell-architecture-during-spontaneous-cyst-formation-in-vitro
#7
T C Paredes-Santos, E S Martins-Duarte, W de Souza, M Attias, R C Vommaro
Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular protozoan parasite that causes toxoplasmosis, a prevalent infection related to abortion, ocular diseases and encephalitis in immuno-compromised individuals. In the untreatable (and life-long) chronic stage of toxoplasmosis, parasitophorous vacuoles (PVs, containing T. gondii tachyzoites) transform into tissue cysts, containing slow-dividing bradyzoite forms. While acute-stage infection with tachyzoites involves global rearrangement of the host cell cytoplasm, focused on favouring tachyzoite replication, the cytoplasmic architecture of cells infected with cysts had not been described...
November 28, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176985/mucosal-iga-responses-damaged-in-established-hiv-infection-yet-effective-weapon-against-hiv-transmission
#8
REVIEW
Viraj Kulkarni, Ruth M Ruprecht
HIV infection not only destroys CD4+ T cells but also inflicts serious damage to the B-cell compartment, such as lymphadenopathy, destruction of normal B-cell follicle architecture, polyclonal hypergammaglobulinemia, increased apoptosis of B cells, and irreversible loss of memory B-cell responses with advanced HIV disease. Subepithelial B cells and plasma cells are also affected, which results in loss of mucosal IgG and IgA antibodies. This leaves the mucosal barrier vulnerable to bacterial translocation. The ensuing immune activation in mucosal tissues adds fuel to the fire of local HIV replication...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170671/b7-h1-influences-the-accumulation-of-virus-specific-tissue-resident-memory-t-cells-in-the-central-nervous-system
#9
Kevin D Pavelko, Michael P Bell, Susan M Harrington, Haidong Dong
Therapies that target the PD-1/B7-H1 axis have revolutionized cancer treatment, yet precise knowledge of how this pathway provides benefit continues to evolve. Here, we report a novel role for the immune checkpoint ligand B7-H1 in the accumulation of tissue-resident memory CD8(+) T-cells (TRM). After intracranial infection, Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) generates TRM that are maintained in the central nervous system (CNS) tissues of B7-H1(WT) animals. Although no differences in acute T-cell responses between B7-H1(WT) and B7-H1(KO) are observed, at long-term periods post-infection the maintenance of CD8(+) TRM is diminished in B7-H1(KO) animals...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166596/the-gcn2-atf4-signaling-pathway-induces-4e-bp-to-bias-translation-and-boost-antimicrobial-peptide-synthesis-in-response-to-bacterial-infection
#10
Deepika Vasudevan, Nicholas K Clark, Jessica Sam, Victoria C Cotham, Beatrix Ueberheide, Michael T Marr, Hyung Don Ryoo
Bacterial infection often leads to suppression of mRNA translation, but hosts are nonetheless able to express immune response genes through as yet unknown mechanisms. Here, we use a Drosophila model to demonstrate that antimicrobial peptide (AMP) production during infection is paradoxically stimulated by the inhibitor of cap-dependent translation, 4E-BP (eIF4E-binding protein; encoded by the Thor gene). We found that 4E-BP is induced upon infection with pathogenic bacteria by the stress-response transcription factor ATF4 and its upstream kinase, GCN2...
November 21, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165520/-neisseria-subflava-bacteremia-in-newborns-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#11
M Carolina Rivacoba, Giannina Izquierdo, Natalia Zenteno, Lorena Porte
Neisseria subflava belongs to Neisseriaceae family, is considered a comensal specie, however in certain host, mainly inmunosuppresed patientes and children, the literature has documented invasive infections. We present a case of a bacteriemia due to N. subflava in a newborn, treated with cefotaxime with good outcome. In newborns, the most common Neisseria bacteria to cause invasive infections are N. meningitidis, with highly fatal clinical course and N. gonorrhoeae which compromise the eye, oftalmia neonatorum, with uncommon invasive infections...
August 2017: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162143/prevalence-and-risk-of-hepatitis-e-virus-infection-in-the-hiv-population-of-nepal
#12
Ananta Shrestha, Anurag Adhikari, Manjula Bhattarai, Ramanuj Rauniyar, Jose D Debes, André Boonstra, Thupten K Lama, Mamun Al Mahtab, Amna Subhan Butt, Sheikh Mohammad Fazle Akbar, Nirmal Aryal, Sapana Karn, Krishna Das Manandhar, Birendra Prasad Gupta
BACKGROUND: Infection with the hepatitis E virus (HEV) can cause acute hepatitis in endemic areas in immune-competent hosts, as well as chronic infection in immune-compromised subjects in non-endemic areas. Most studies assessing HEV infection in HIV-infected populations have been performed in developed countries that are usually affected by HEV genotype 3. The objective of this study is to measure the prevalence and risk of acquiring HEV among HIV-infected individuals in Nepal. METHODS: We prospectively evaluated 459 Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-positive individuals from Nepal, an endemic country for HEV, for seroprevalence of HEV and assessed risk factors associated with HEV infection...
November 21, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157471/case-reports-on-integrated-management-of-tubercular-disease
#13
Kusum S Chand, Priya Kapoor
BACKGROUND: Host immunity plays an important role in prevention of disease as is evident by the increased incidence of Tuberculosis (TB) in immuno-compromised population of HIV infected, diabetes inflicted, immune-suppressant therapy and elderly people. Rising incidence of antibiotic resistance has led to resurgence of TB of epidemic proportions. Integrated treatment with add on homeopathy in addition to anti-tuberculosis treatment (ATT) appears to improve outcome in TB. The intervention has been integrated treatment with homeopathy regime, which is using a patient specific, disease specific and supportive medicine simultaneously, all individualized for the patient and the disease...
November 2017: Homeopathy: the Journal of the Faculty of Homeopathy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150278/a-hypothetical-role-for-notch-signaling-pathway-in-immunopathogenesis-of-leprosy
#14
Héctor Serrano-Coll, Liliana Acevedo-Saenz, Nora Cardona-Castro
Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae mainly affecting skin and peripheral nerves. Leprosy has a broad range of clinical manifestations that range from mild (tuberculoid leprosy) to severe (lepromatous leprosy) forms, and are highly dependent on the host's immune response. Among the immune response elements involved in the pathogenesis of leprosy are the Toll-like receptors (TLRs), vitamin D receptor (VDR), natural killer cells (NK), and T cells. These innate and adaptive immune response elements may be related to the Notch signaling pathway, which is involved in immune cell growth, differentiation, and proliferation...
November 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140544/a-cryptosporidium-infection-in-a-patient-with-relapsed-t-lymphoblastic-lymphoma-undergoing-allogeneic-stem-cell-transplantation
#15
Joanna Schiller, Sebastian Klein, Marianne Engels, Reinhard Büttner, Jan Rybniker, Gerd Fätkenheuer, Christof Scheid, Christian Wybranski, Alexander Quaas, Hans Christian Reinhardt, Ruth Waßermann
Cryptosporidium infection is a rare cause of enterocolitis. In immunocompromised patients, cryptosporidiosis may lead to debilitating and life-threatening diarrhea and malabsorption, occasionally with multi organ involvement. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) requires long-term immunosuppressive therapy, while cellular immunity is usually compromised due to intensive conditioning chemotherapy. Diarrhea in patients who underwent allo-HSCT may be a sign of an infection, but can also be the result of intestinal graft-versus-host disease (GvHD)...
November 15, 2017: European Journal of Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135911/the-apoptogenic-toxin-aip56-is-secreted-by-the-type-ii-secretion-system-of-photobacterium-damselae-subsp-piscicida
#16
Ana do Vale, Cassilda Pereira, Carlos R Osorio, Nuno M S Dos Santos
AIP56 (apoptosis-inducing protein of 56 kDa) is a key virulence factor of Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida (Phdp), the causative agent of a septicaemia affecting warm water marine fish species. Phdp-associated pathology is triggered by AIP56, a short trip AB toxin with a metalloprotease A domain that cleaves the p65 subunit of NF-κB, an evolutionarily conserved transcription factor that regulates the expression of inflammatory and anti-apoptotic genes and plays a central role in host responses to infection...
November 14, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119707/impaired-expression-of-cxcl5-and-matrix-metalloproteinases-in-the-lungs-of-mice-with-high-susceptibility-to-streptococcus-pneumoniae-infection
#17
Rubia I Mancuso, Eliane N Miyaji, Cristiane C F Silva, Fernanda V Portaro, Alessandra Soares-Schanoski, Orlando G Ribeiro, Maria Leonor S Oliveira
INTRODUCTION: Streptococcus pneumoniae colonizes the nasopharynx of healthy individuals establishing a commensal relationship with the host. In some conditions, bacteria invade the lower respiratory tract and innate immune responses are crucial to avoid diseases such as pneumonia, sepsis, or meningitis. METHODS: Here, we compared the susceptibility to pneumococcal respiratory infection of two outbred mouse lines, AIRmin and AIRmax, selected for low or high acute inflammatory responses, respectively...
November 9, 2017: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116194/site-specific-modification-of-adeno-associated-virus-enables-both-fluorescent-imaging-of-viral-particles-and-characterization-of-the-capsid-interactome
#18
Jayanth S Chandran, Paul S Sharp, Evangelia Karyka, João Miguel da Conceição Aves-Cruzeiro, Ian Coldicott, Lydia Castelli, Guillaume Hautbergue, Mark O Collins, Mimoun Azzouz
Adeno-associated viruses (AAVs) are attractive gene therapy vectors due to their low toxicity, high stability, and rare integration into the host genome. Expressing ligands on the viral capsid can re-target AAVs to new cell types, but limited sites have been identified on the capsid that tolerate a peptide insertion. Here, we incorporated a site-specific tetracysteine sequence into the AAV serotype 9 (AAV9) capsid, to permit labelling of viral particles with either a fluorescent dye or biotin. We demonstrate that fluorescently labelled particles are detectable in vitro, and explore the utility of the method in vivo in mice with time-lapse imaging...
November 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102122/effects-of-porcine-epidemic-diarrhea-virus-infection-on-nursery-pig-intestinal-function-and-barrier-integrity
#19
S M Curry, K J Schwartz, K J Yoon, N K Gabler, E R Burrough
The pig intestinal epithelium can be compromised by pathogens leading to reduced integrity and function. Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), recently detected in North America, exemplifies intestinal epithelial insult. Although several studies have investigated the molecular aspects and host immune response to PEDV, there are little data on the impact of PEDV on pig intestinal physiology. The objective of this study was to investigate the longitudinal impact of PEDV on nursery pig intestinal function and integrity...
November 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097439/mucosa-associated-invariant-t-cells-link-intestinal-immunity-with-antibacterial-immune-defects-in-alcoholic-liver-disease
#20
Antonio Riva, Vishal Patel, Ayako Kurioka, Hannah C Jeffery, Gavin Wright, Sarah Tarff, Debbie Shawcross, Jennifer M Ryan, Alexander Evans, Sarah Azarian, Jasmohan S Bajaj, Andrew Fagan, Vinood Patel, Kosha Mehta, Carlos Lopez, Marieta Simonova, Krum Katzarov, Tanya Hadzhiolova, Slava Pavlova, Julia A Wendon, Ye Htun Oo, Paul Klenerman, Roger Williams, Shilpa Chokshi
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Intestinal permeability with systemic distribution of bacterial products are central in the immunopathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease (ALD), yet links with intestinal immunity remain elusive. Mucosa-associated invariant T cells (MAIT) are found in liver, blood and intestinal mucosa and are a key component of antibacterial host defences. Their role in ALD is unknown. METHODS/DESIGN: We analysed frequency, phenotype, transcriptional regulation and function of blood MAIT cells in severe alcoholic hepatitis (SAH), alcohol-related cirrhosis (ARC) and healthy controls (HC)...
November 2, 2017: Gut
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