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Infections in compromised host

Shaofei Rao, Zhaoyang Zhou, Pei Miao, Guozhi Bi, Man Hu, Ying Wu, Feng Feng, Xiaojuan Zhang, Jian-Min Zhou
Pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs), which consist of receptor kinases (RKs) and receptor-like proteins (RLPs), sense microbial- and host-derived molecular patterns associated with pathogen infection to trigger immune responses in plants. Several kinases of the 46-member Arabidopsis thaliana receptor-like cytoplasmic kinase (RLCK) subfamily VII play important roles in pattern-triggered immunity, but it is unclear whether different RLCK VII members act specifically or redundantly in immune signaling. Here, we constructed nine higher order mutants of this subfamily (named rlck vii-1 to rlck vii-9) and systematically characterized their immune phenotypes...
June 15, 2018: Plant Physiology
Sharvan Sehrawat, Dhaneshwar Kumar, Barry T Rouse
Most vertebrates are infected with one or more herpesviruses and remain so for the rest of their lives. The relationship of immunocompetent healthy host with herpesviruses may sometime be considered as harmonious. However, clinically severe diseases can occur when host immunity is compromised due to aging, during some stress response, co-infections or during neoplastic disease conditions. Discord can also occur during iatrogenic immunosuppression used for controlling graft rejection, in some primary genetic immunodeficiencies as well as when the virus infects a non-native host...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Xu Ye, Ting Pan, Dang Wang, Liurong Fang, Jun Ma, Xinyu Zhu, Yanling Shi, Keshan Zhang, Haixue Zheng, Huanchun Chen, Kui Li, Shaobo Xiao
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious, severe viral illness notifiable to the World Organization for Animal Health. The causative agent, FMD virus (FMDV), replicates rapidly and efficiently inhibits host translation and the innate immune response for it has developed multiple tactics to evade host defenses and takes over gene expression machinery in the host cell. Here, we report a systemic analysis of the proteome and phosphoproteome of FMDV-infected cells. Bioinformatics analysis suggested that FMDV infection shuts off host cap-dependent translation, but leaves intact internal ribosome entry site (IRES)-mediated translation for viral proteins...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Yichen Ding, Ye Htut Zwe, Seow Fong Chin, Gurjeet S Kohli, Daniela I Drautz-Moses, Michael Givskov, Jorgen Schlundt, Stephan C Schuster, Hyun-Gyun Yuk, Liang Yang
Background: Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Saintpaul ( S . Saintpaul) is an important gut pathogen which causes salmonellosis worldwide. Although intestinal salmonellosis is usually self-limiting, it can be life-threatening in children, the elderlies and immunocompromised patients. Appropriate antibiotic treatment is therefore required for these patients. However, the efficacy of many antibiotics on S. enterica infections has been greatly compromised due to spreading of multidrug resistance (MDR) plasmids, which poses serious threats on public health and needs to be closely monitored...
2018: Gut Pathogens
Sulayman Benmerzoug, Fabio Vitarelli Marinho, Stéphanie Rose, Claire Mackowiak, David Gosset, Delphine Sedda, Emeline Poisson, Catherine Uyttenhove, Jacques Van Snick, Muazzam Jacobs, Irene Garcia, Bernhard Ryffel, Valerie F J Quesniaux
Host directed immunomodulation represents potential new adjuvant therapies in infectious diseases such as tuberculosis. Major cytokines like TNFα exert a multifold role in host control of mycobacterial infections. GM-CSF and its receptor are over-expressed during acute M. tuberculosis infection and we asked how GM-CSF neutralization might affect host response, both in immunocompetent and in immunocompromised TNFα-deficient mice. GM-CSF neutralizing antibodies, at a dose effectively preventing acute lung inflammation, did not affect M...
June 5, 2018: Scientific Reports
Qiyao Chai, Yong Zhang, Cui Hua Liu
Mycobacterium tuberculosis , the etiological agent of tuberculosis (TB), is an extremely successful pathogen that adapts to survive within the host. During the latency phase of infection, M. tuberculosis employs a range of effector proteins to be cloud the host immune system and shapes its lifestyle to reside in granulomas, sophisticated, and organized structures of immune cells that are established by the host in response to persistent infection. While normally being restrained in immunocompetent hosts, M...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Marcos Lopez, Herbert B Tanowitz, Nisha J Garg
Purpose of review: Trypanosoma cruzi is the causative agent of Chagas disease. Decades after initial infection, ~30% of individuals can develop chronic chagasic cardiomyopathy. There are several proposed mechanisms for pathogenesis of Chagas disease, including parasite persistence, immune responses against parasite or self that continue in the heart, vascular compromise, and involvement of autonomous and central nervous system. Herein, we will focus on the significance of macrophages, mitochondrial dysfunction, and oxidative stress in progression of chagasic cardiomyopathy...
March 2018: Current Clinical Microbiology Reports
Sarah E Davis, Robert N Tams, Norma Solis, Andrew S Wagner, Tian Chen, Joseph W Jackson, Sahar Hasim, Anthony E Montedonico, Justin Dinsmore, Timothy E Sparer, Scott G Filler, Todd B Reynolds
Candida albicans mutants for phosphatidylserine (PS) synthase ( cho1 ΔΔ) and PS decarboxylase ( psd1 ΔΔ psd2 ΔΔ) are compromised for virulence in mouse models of systemic infection and oropharyngeal Candidiasis (OPC). Both of these enzymes are necessary to synthesize phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) by the de novo pathway, but these mutants are still capable of growth in culture media as they can import ethanolamine from media to synthesize PE through the Kennedy pathway. Given that the host has ethanolamine in its serum, the exact mechanism by which virulence is lost in these mutants is not clear...
June 4, 2018: Infection and Immunity
Maria Albertina Romaniuk, Alberto Carlos Frasch, Alejandro Cassola
Trypanosomes, protozoan parasites of medical importance, essentially rely on post-transcriptional mechanisms to regulate gene expression in insect vectors and vertebrate hosts. RNA binding proteins (RBPs) that associate to the 3'-UTR of mature mRNAs are thought to orchestrate master developmental programs for these processes to happen. Yet, the molecular mechanisms by which differentiation occurs remain largely unexplored in these human pathogens. Here, we show that ectopic inducible expression of the RBP TcUBP1 promotes the beginning of the differentiation process from non-infective epimastigotes to infective metacyclic trypomastigotes in Trypanosoma cruzi...
June 4, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Nitesh Kumar Bauddha, Ranveer Singh Jadon, Saikat Mondal, N K Vikram, Rita Sood
Histoplasmosis is a systemic fungal infection caused by Histoplasma capsulatum which occurs endemically in some parts of the world like North and Central America particularly in Mississippi and Ohio River valleys, but is uncommon in India. Progressive disseminated form of histoplasmosis (PDH) usually occurs in the immune-compromised hosts especially in HIV positive population. In PDH any organ can be involved like lung, liver, spleen, brain, adrenals etc . Involvement of oral cavity and buccal mucosa in PDH is common but pharyngeal involvement is rare...
May 2018: Intractable & Rare Diseases Research
Lorena Tuchscherr, Èva Korpos, Hélène van de Vyver, Clais Findeisen, Salome Kherkheulidze, Anke Siegmund, Stefanie Deinhardt-Emmer, Olaf Bach, Martin Rindert, Alexander Mellmann, Cord Sunderkötter, Georg Peters, Lydia Sorokin, Bettina Löffler
Staphylococcus aureus is the most frequent pathogen causing diabetic foot infections. Here, we investigated the degree of bacterial virulence required to establish invasive tissue infections in diabetic organisms. Staphylococcal isolates from diabetic and non-diabetic foot ulcers were tested for their virulence in in vitro functional assays of host cell invasion and cytotoxicity. Isolates from diabetes mellitus type I/II patients exhibited less virulence than isolates from non-diabetic patients, but were nevertheless able to establish severe infections...
May 22, 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
Cecily R Wood, Lydia E Mack, Luis A Actis
Acinetobacter baumannii adapts to different environmental conditions by expressing complex regulatory circuitry. Recent studies revealed that this circuitry includes regulatory factors that control the emergence of distinct bacterial subpopulations, which are critical for the capacity of this pathogen to persist in medical settings and cause infections in compromised hosts.
May 25, 2018: Trends in Microbiology
Cory J Pettit, Katherine Mazurek, Benjamin Kaffenberger
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Post-transplant infections present a formidable challenge to the physician due to their varied presentation. Many of these infections begin by inoculation following skin compromise or disseminate to the skin hematogenously, making cutaneous manifestations of infection an important diagnostic clue in the immunocompromised. Quality research in this field is lacking, and this articles seeks to review the literature and present a guide to physicians in order for them to suspect certain infections by their cutaneous presentation...
May 22, 2018: Current Infectious Disease Reports
G R Rahim, Neha Gupta, Puneet Maheshwari, M P Singh
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Necrotizing fasciitis (NF) although rare, is a potentially fatal infection. Majority of cases being polymicrobial; a recent surge in monomicrobial NF caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae (KP-NF) has been reported. KP-NF recently accounted for an average of 16% amongst all pathogens with highest mortality rate of 60%. This review discusses the important aspects of KP-NF with additional note on implications of multidrug resistant infections. SOURCES: Literature was searched using PubMed...
May 19, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Lori L Burrows
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative opportunistic pathogen, designated by the World Health Organization as a critical priority for development of new therapeutics due to high levels of intrinsic and acquired antibiotic resistance. Other challenges include its versatility (it can persist in the environment and most strains are capable of causing disease in compromised hosts), robust efflux mechanisms that limit drug penetration, and the propensity to form antimicrobial-tolerant biofilms. Novel therapeutics in development to prevent or treat P...
May 17, 2018: ACS Infectious Diseases
Jun Qin, Kailun Wang, Lifan Sun, Haiying Xing, Sheng Wang, Lin Li, She Chen, Hui-Shan Guo, Jie Zhang
The vascular pathogen Verticillium dahliae infects the roots of plants to cause Verticillium wilt. The molecular mechanisms underlying V. dahliae virulence and host resistance remain elusive. Here, we demonstrate that a secretory protein, VdSCP41, functions as an intracellular effector that promotes V. dahliae virulence. The Arabidopsis master immune regulators CBP60g and SARD1 and cotton GhCBP60b are targeted by VdSCP41. VdSCP41 binds the C-terminal portion of CBP60g to inhibit its transcription factor activity...
May 14, 2018: ELife
Fanny Tzelepis, Julianna Blagih, Nargis Khan, Joshua Gillard, Laura Mendonca, Dominic G Roy, Eric H Ma, Philippe Joubert, Russell G Jones, Maziar Divangahi
Mycobacterium tuberculosis ( Mtb ) is one of the most ancient human pathogens, yet the exact mechanism(s) of host defense against Mtb remains unclear. Although one-third of the world's population is chronically infected with Mtb , only 5 to 10% develop active disease. This indicates that, in addition to resistance mechanisms that control bacterial burden, the host has also evolved strategies to tolerate the presence of Mtb to limit disease severity. We identify mitochondrial cyclophilin D (CypD) as a critical checkpoint of T cell metabolism that controls the expansion of activated T cells...
May 11, 2018: Science Immunology
Katherine A Baugh, Ifigeneia Tzannou, Ann M Leen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has proven curative for a range of malignant and nonmalignant disorders. However, the clinical success of this therapy is marred by the morbidity associated with viral infections, which are frequent (cytomegalovirus 15.6-28%, adenovirus 3-21%, BK virus 18.5-20.7%) post-transplant. These infections occur as a consequence of transplant conditioning regimens designed to eliminate not only malignant cells but also host immune cells that might interfere with stem cell engraftment...
May 9, 2018: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Laura Gall-Mas, Alessia Fabbri, Martin R J Namini, Michael Givskov, Carla Fiorentini, Thorbjørn Krejsgaard
Cytotoxic necrotizing factor 1 (CNF1) is a bacterial protein toxin primarily expressed by pathogenic Escherichia coli strains, causing extraintestinal infections. The toxin is believed to enhance the invasiveness of E. coli by modulating the activity of Rho GTPases in host cells, but it has interestingly also been shown to promote inflammation, stimulate host immunity and function as a potent immunoadjuvant. The mechanisms underlying the immunostimulatory properties of CNF1 are, however, poorly characterized, and little is known about the direct effects of the toxin on immune cells...
May 8, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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