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Infections in compromised host

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458008/trefoil-factor-2-promotes-type-2-immunity-and-lung-repair-through-intrinsic-roles-in-hematopoietic-and-non-hematopoietic-cells
#1
Li-Yin Hung, Taylor K Oniskey, Debasish Sen, Matthew F Krummel, Andrew E Vaughan, Noam A Cohen, De'Broski R Herbert
Trefoil factors are small secreted proteins that regulate tissue integrity and repair at mucosal surfaces, particularly in the gastrointestinal tract. However, their relative contribution(s) to controlling baseline lung function or the extent of infection-induced lung injury are unknown issues. Using irradiation bone marrow chimeras, we found that Trefoil factor 2 (TFF2) produced from both hematopoietic- and non-hematopoietic-derived cells is essential for host protection, proliferation of alveolar type 2 cells, and restoration of pulmonary gas exchange following infection with the hookworm parasite Nippostrongylus brasiliensis...
February 16, 2018: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455343/the-first-isolation-of-westerdykella-dispersa-in-a-critically-burned-patient
#2
Bretislav Lipovy, Iva Kocmanova, Jakub Holoubek, Marketa Hanslianova, Matej Bezdicek, Hana Rihova, Ivan Suchanek, Pavel Brychta
Patients with critical thermal trauma belong to one of the most high-risk groups for development of infectious complications. Fungal infections are not among frequent complications during therapy of patients with thermal trauma, yet their incidence dramatically aggravates the prognosis for patients with this disorder. In the case report, we present the case of a young man with a critical burn, where Westerdykella dispersa was isolated. Identification of the pathogen was provided with a combination of cultivation and molecular biological confirmation...
February 17, 2018: Folia Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454849/escmid-study-group-for-infections-in-compromised-hosts-esgich-consensus-document-on-the-safety-of-targeted-and-biological-therapies-an-infectious-diseases-perspective-intracellular-signaling-pathways-tyrosine-kinase-and-mtor-inhibitors
#3
REVIEW
Mark Reinwald, Jose T Silva, Nicolas J Mueller, Jesús Fortún, Christian Garzoni, Johan W de Fijter, Mario Fernández-Ruiz, Paolo Grossi, Jose María Aguado
BACKGROUND: The present review is part of the ESCMID Study Group for Infections in Compromised Hosts (ESGICH) Consensus Document on the safety of targeted and biological therapies. AIMS: To review, from an Infectious Diseases perspective, the safety profile of therapies targeting different intracellular signaling pathways and to suggest preventive recommendations. SOURCES: Computer-based MEDLINE searches with MeSH terms pertaining to each agent or therapeutic family...
February 15, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453938/barley-stripe-mosaic-virus-infection-requires-pka-mediated-phosphorylation-of-%C3%AE-b-for-suppression-of-both-rna-silencing-and-the-host-cell-death-response
#4
Xuan Zhang, Kai Dong, Kai Xu, Kun Zhang, Xuejiao Jin, Meng Yang, Yongliang Zhang, Xianbing Wang, Chenggui Han, Jialin Yu, Dawei Li
The Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV) γb protein is a viral suppressor of RNA silencing (VSR) and symptom determinant. However, it is unclear how post-translational modification affects the different functions of γb. Here, we demonstrate that γb is phosphorylated at Ser-96 by a PKA-like kinase in vivo and in vitro. Mutant viruses containing a nonphosphorylatable substitution (BSMV S 96A or BSMV S 96R ) exhibited reduced viral accumulation in Nicotiana benthamiana due to transient induction of the cell death response that constrained the virus to necrotic areas...
February 17, 2018: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451894/trade-off-between-synergy-and-efficacy-in-combinations-of-hiv-1-latency-reversing-agents
#5
Vipul Gupta, Narendra M Dixit
Eradicating HIV-1 infection is difficult because of the reservoir of latently infected cells that gets established soon after infection, remains hidden from antiretroviral drugs and host immune responses, and retains the capacity to reignite infection following the cessation of treatment. Drugs called latency-reversing agents (LRAs) are being developed to reactivate latently infected cells and render them susceptible to viral cytopathicity or immune killing. Whereas individual LRAs have failed to induce adequate reactivation, pairs of LRAs have been identified recently that act synergistically and hugely increase reactivation levels compared to individual LRAs...
February 16, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447988/escmid-study-group-for-infections-in-compromised-hosts-esgich-consensus-document-on-the-safety-of-targeted-and-biological-therapies-an-infectious-diseases-perspective-agents-targeting-lymphoid-cells-surface-antigens-i-cd19-cd20-and-cd52
#6
REVIEW
Małgorzata Mikulska, Simone Lanini, Carlota Gudiol, Lubos Drgona, Giuseppe Ippolito, Mario Fernández-Ruiz, Bernd Salzberger
BACKGROUND: The present review is part of the ESCMID Study Group for Infections in Compromised Hosts (ESGICH) Consensus Document on the safety of targeted and biological therapies. AIMS: To review, from an Infectious Diseases perspective, the safety profile of agents targeting CD19, CD20 and CD52 and to suggest preventive recommendations. SOURCES: Computer-based MEDLINE searches with MeSH terms pertaining to each agent or therapeutic family...
February 12, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447987/escmid-study-group-for-infections-in-compromised-hosts-esgich-consensus-document-on-the-safety-of-targeted-and-biological-therapies-an-infectious-diseases-perspective-soluble-immune-effector-molecules-ii-agents-targeting-interleukins-immunoglobulins-and-complement
#7
REVIEW
Kevin L Winthrop, Xavier Mariette, Jose T Silva, Esther Benamu, Leonard H Calabrese, Alexandre Dumusc, Josef S Smolen, José María Aguado, Mario Fernández-Ruiz
BACKGROUND: The present review is part of the ESCMID Study Group for Infections in Compromised Hosts (ESGICH) Consensus Document on the safety of targeted and biological therapies. AIMS: To review, from an Infectious Diseases perspective, the safety profile of agents targeting interleukins, immunoglobulins and complement factors and to suggest preventive recommendations. SOURCES: Computer-based MEDLINE searches with MeSH terms pertaining to each agent or therapeutic family...
February 12, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427804/escmid-study-group-for-infections-in-compromised-hosts-esgich-consensus-document-on-the-safety-of-targeted-and-biological-therapies-an-infectious-diseases-perspective-immune-checkpoint-inhibitors-cell-adhesion-inhibitors-sphingosine-1-phosphate-receptor-modulators
#8
REVIEW
Gil Redelman-Sidi, Olivier Michielin, Carlos Cervera, Camillo Ribi, José María Aguado, Mario Fernández-Ruiz, Oriol Manuel
BACKGROUND: The present review is part of the ESCMID Study Group for Infections in Compromised Hosts (ESGICH) Consensus Document on the safety of targeted and biological therapies. AIMS: To review, from an Infectious Diseases perspective, the safety profile of immune checkpoint inhibitors, LFA-3-targeted agents, cell adhesion inhibitors, sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor modulators and proteasome inhibitors and to suggest preventive recommendations. SOURCES: Computer-based MEDLINE searches with MeSH terms pertaining to each agent or therapeutic family...
February 7, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427801/escmid-study-group-for-infections-in-compromised-hosts-esgich-consensus-document-on-the-safety-of-targeted-and-biological-therapies-an-infectious-diseases-perspective-introduction
#9
REVIEW
Mario Fernández-Ruiz, Yolanda Meije, Oriol Manuel, Hamdi Akan, Jordi Carratalà, José María Aguado, Julie Delaloye
BACKGROUND: The field of new biological agents is increasing exponentially over the past years, thus making prevention and management of associated infectious complications a challenge for non-specialized clinicians. AIMS: The present Consensus Document is an initiative of the ESCMID Study Group for Infections in Compromised Hosts (ESGICH) aimed at analyzing, from an Infectious Diseases perspective, the safety of targeted and biological therapies. SOURCES: Computer-based MEDLINE searches with MeSH terms pertaining to each agent or therapeutic family...
February 7, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427422/relative-abundance-of-candida-albicans-and-candida-glabrata-in-in-vitro-co-culture-biofilms-impacts-biofilm-structure-and-formation
#10
Michelle L Olson, Arul Jayaraman, Katy C Kao
Candida is a member of the normal human microbiota and often resides on mucosal surfaces such as the oral cavity or the gastrointestinal tract. In addition to their commensality, Candida species can opportunistically become pathogenic if the host microbiota is disrupted or if the host immune system becomes compromised. An important factor for Candida pathogenesis is its ability to form biofilm communities. The two most medically important species - Candida albicans and Candida glabrata - are often co-isolated from infection sites, suggesting the importance of Candida co-culture biofilms...
February 2, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426804/escmid-study-group-for-infections-in-compromised-hosts-esgich-consensus-document-on-the-safety-of-targeted-and-biologic-therapies-an-infectious-diseases-perspective-cell-surface-receptors-and-associated-signaling-pathways
#11
REVIEW
J Aguilar-Company, M Fernández-Ruiz, R García-Campelo, A C Garrido-Castro, I Ruiz-Camps
BACKGROUND: The present review is part of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ESCMID) Study Group for Infections in Compromised Hosts (ESGICH) consensus document on the safety of targeted and biologic therapies. AIMS: To review, from an infectious diseases perspective, the safety profile of therapies targeting cell surface receptors and associated signaling pathways among cancer patients and to suggest preventive recommendations...
February 6, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407169/the-cucumber-mosaic-virus-movement-protein-suppresses-pamp-triggered-immune-responses-in-arabidopsis-and-tobacco
#12
Jun Kong, Meisheng Wei, Guifen Li, Rong Lei, Yanhong Qiu, Chenguang Wang, Zhi-Hong Li, Shuifang Zhu
Cucumber Mosaic Virus (CMV) has a small RNA genome that encodes a limited number of proteins, but can infect many plant species, including Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotiana benthamiana. Virus proteins thus have multiple means of conferring their pathogenicity during the infection process. However, the pathogenic mechanism of CMV remains unclear. Here we discovered that the expression of the CMV movement protein (MP) in A. thaliana and N. benthamiana can suppress reactive oxygen species (ROS) production triggered by multiple pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), such as bacteria-derived peptide flg22, elf18, and fungal-derived chitin...
February 3, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402878/challenges-with-intestine-and-multivisceral-re-transplantation-importance-of-timing-of-re-transplantation-and-optimal-immunosuppression
#13
Chandrashekhar A Kubal, Catherine Pennington, Jonathan Fridell, Burcin Ekser, Plamen Muhaylov, Richard Mangus
BACKGROUND Patients undergoing re-transplantation often receive high doses of immunosuppression, which may lead to an immunocompromised status of the recipient. This study investigates the outcomes after intestine/multivisceral re-transplantation. MATERIAL AND METHODS Clinical outcomes of 23 patients undergoing 24 re-transplantations at a single intestine transplant center were reviewed. Bone marrow suppression was used as a surrogate marker of immunocompromised status, and was defined as platelet count <50 k/mm3 and absolute lymphocyte count <200/mm³...
February 6, 2018: Annals of Transplantation: Quarterly of the Polish Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29399441/nk-cells-and-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cells-for-relapse-protection-after-allogeneic-hematopoietic-cell-transplantation-hct
#14
Moniek A de Witte, Jürgen Kuball, Jeffrey S Miller
Purpose of review: The outcome of allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-HCT) is still compromised by relapse and complications. NK cells and γδT cells, effectors which both function through MHC-unrestricted mechanisms, can target transformed and infected cells without inducing Graft-versus-Host Disease (GVHD). Allo-HCT platforms based on CD34+ selection or αβ-TCR depletion result in low grades of GVHD, early immune reconstitution (IR) of NK and γδT cells and minimal usage of GVHD prophylaxis...
December 2017: Current Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29386365/low-intensity-blood-parasite-infections-do-not-reduce-the-aerobic-performance-of-migratory-birds
#15
Steffen Hahn, Silke Bauer, Dimitar Dimitrov, Tamara Emmenegger, Karina Ivanova, Pavel Zehtindjiev, William A Buttemer
Blood parasites (Haemosporidia) are thought to impair the flight performance of infected animals, and therefore, infected birds are expected to differ from their non-infected counterparts in migratory capacity. Since haemosporidians invade host erythrocytes, it is commonly assumed that infected individuals will have compromised aerobic capacity, but this has not been examined in free-living birds. We tested if haemosporidian infections affect aerobic performance by examining metabolic rates and exercise endurance in migratory great reed warblers (Acrocephalus arundinaceus) experimentally treated with Plasmodium relictum pGRW04 and in naturally infected wild birds over consecutive life-history stages...
January 31, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29384053/viral-infections-in-pregnancy-a-focus-on-ebola-virus
#16
Nicole S Olgun
During gestation, the immune response of the placenta to viruses and other pathogens plays an important role in determining a pregnant woman's vulnerability toward infectious diseases. Located at the maternal- fetal interface, trophoblast cells serve to minimize the spread of viruses between the host and developing fetus through an intricate system of innate antiviral immune signaling. Adverse pregnancy outcomes, ranging from learning disabilities to preterm birth and fetal death, are all documented results of a viral breach in the placental barrier...
January 30, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29381385/influence-of-functional-food-components-on-gut-health
#17
Murphy L Y Wan, K H Ling, Hani El-Nezami, M F Wang
Intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) lining the gastrointestinal tract establish a barrier between external environments and the internal milieu. An intact intestinal barrier maintains gut health and overall good health of the body by preventing from tissue injury, pathogen infection and disease development. When the intestinal barrier function is compromised, bacterial translocation can occur. Our gut microbiota also plays a fundamentally important role in health, for example, by maintaining intestinal barrier integrity, metabolism and modulating the immune system, etc...
January 30, 2018: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29378793/role-of-the-inducible-adhesin-cpals7-in-binding-of-candida-parapsilosis-to-extracellular-matrix-under-fluid-shear
#18
Matthew N Neale, Kyle A Glass, Sarah J Longley, Denny J Kim, Sonia S Laforce-Nesbitt, Jeremy D Wortzel, Sunil K Shaw, Joseph M Bliss
The yeast, Candida parapsilosis, is an increasingly common cause of systemic fungal infections among the immune compromised, including premature infants. Adhesion to host surfaces is an important step in pathogenesis, but this process has not been extensively studied in this organism. A microfluidics assay was developed to test the ability of C. parapsilosis to adhere to immobilized host extracellular matrix proteins under physiologic fluid shear conditions. Growth in mammalian tissue culture media at 37°C for 3-6 hours led to induction of an adhesive phenotype at shear forces of 1-5 dynes/cm2 in some isolates of C...
January 29, 2018: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29375129/immunological-roulette-luck-or-something-more-considering-the-connections-between-host-and-environment-in-tb
#19
John E Pearl, Mrinal Das, Andrea M Cooper
Accurate prediction of which patient will progress from a sub-clinical Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection to active tuberculosis represents an elusive, yet critical, clinical research objective. From the individual perspective, progression can be considered to be the product of a series of unfortunate events or even a run of bad luck. Here, we identify the subtle physiological relationships that can influence the odds of progression to active TB and how this progression may reflect directed dysbiosis in a number of interrelated systems...
January 29, 2018: Cellular & Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29371564/immune-recognition-of-fungal-polysaccharides
#20
REVIEW
Brendan D Snarr, Salman T Qureshi, Donald C Sheppard
The incidence of fungal infections has dramatically increased in recent years, in large part due to increased use of immunosuppressive medications, as well as aggressive medical and surgical interventions that compromise natural skin and mucosal barriers. There are relatively few currently licensed antifungal drugs, and rising resistance to these agents has led to interest in the development of novel preventative and therapeutic strategies targeting these devastating infections. One approach to combat fungal infections is to augment the host immune response towards these organisms...
August 28, 2017: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
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