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Respiratory infections

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040527/in-and-out-of-hospital-mortality-associated-with-seasonal-and-pandemic-influenza-and-respiratory-syncytial-virus-in-south-africa-2009-2013
#1
Cheryl Cohen, Sibongile Walaza, Florette K Treurnicht, Meredith McMorrow, Shabir A Madhi, Johanna M McAnerney, Stefano Tempia
Background: Estimates of influenza- and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-associated mortality burden are important to guide policy for control. Data are limited on the contribution of out-of-hospital deaths to this mortality. Methods: We modeled excess mortality attributable to influenza and RSV infection by applying regression models to weekly deaths from national vital statistics from 2009 through 2013, using influenza and RSV laboratory surveillance data as covariates...
October 10, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040215/role-of-receptor-for-advanced-glycation-end-products-in-regulating-lung-fluid-balance-in-lipopolysaccharide-induced-acute-lung-injury-and-infection-related-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome
#2
Hao Wang, Tao Wang, Zhicheng Yuan, Yufang Cao, Yongfang Zhou, Junyun He, Yongchun Shen, Ni Zeng, Luqi Dai, Fuqiang Wen, Lei Chen
Receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) is implicated in inflammatory responses in acute lung injury (ALI)/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), but its role in pulmonary edema formation remains unclear, especially in infection-related ARDS mainly caused by pneumonia or sepsis. In this study, we investigated the role of RAGE in alveolar fluid regulation by using RAGE gene knockout (RAGE) mice in a murine ALI model induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and by comparing soluble RAGE (sRAGE) levels in serum and bronchial alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) between ARDS patients and control subjects...
October 16, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036724/etiology-and-clinical-characteristics-of-community-acquired-pneumonia-with-airway-malacia-in-children
#3
Wang Yu-Qing, Hao Chuang-Li, Ji Wei, Chen Zheng-Rong, Zhang Xin-Xin, Gu Wen-Jing
Objective: The objective of this article is to study the etiology of community-acquired pneumonia in children with airway malacia. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 428 pneumonia patients. All patients underwent bronchoscopy, and bronchoalveolar lavage samples were processed for microbiological assessment. Results: In a total of 428 cases reviewed, 60 were found to have airway malacia. Pathogens were identified in 44 of the 60 specimens (73...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036487/prospective-and-retrospective-evaluation-of-the-performance-of-the-fda-approved-cepheid-xpert-flu-rsv-xc-assay
#4
Sophie Arbefeville, Elizabeth Thonen-Kerr, Patricia Ferrieri
Rapid and accurate detection of respiratory viruses is important in patient care and in guiding therapy and infection prevention policy. Rapid viral antigen assays are simple to perform and provide results within 15 to 30 minutes but are limited by their modest-to-moderate sensitivity. Molecular assays are more sensitive and specific but require more technical time and expertise and are more expensive. We verified the performance of the Xpert Flu/RSV XC assay prospectively, using patient respiratory samples from the 2014-2015 respiratory season, and, retrospectively, with frozen patient samples from the previous respiratory season...
September 29, 2017: Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036182/proteome-analysis-of-bronchoalveolar-lavage-from-calves-infected-with-bovine-respiratory-syncytial-virus-insights-in-pathogenesis-and-perspectives-for-new-treatments
#5
Sara Hägglund, Krister Blodörn, Katarina Näslund, Karin Vargmar, Sara Bergström Lind, Jia Mi, Mariluz Araínga, Sabine Riffault, Geraldine Taylor, John Pringle, Jean François Valarcher
Human and bovine respiratory syncytial viruses (HRSV/BRSV) are major causes of severe lower respiratory tract infections in children and calves, respectively. Shared epidemiological, clinical, pathological and genetic characteristics of these viruses make comparative research highly relevant. To characterise the host response against BRSV infection, bronchoalveolar lavage supernatant (BAL) from i) non-vaccinated, BRSV-infected ii) vaccinated, BRSV-infected and iii) non-infected calves was analysed by tandem mass spectrometry...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034936/synergistic-antiviral-effect-of-curcumin-functionalized-graphene-oxide-against-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection
#6
Xiao Xi Yang, Chun Mei Li, Yuan Fang Li, Jian Wang, Cheng Zhi Huang
The diseases attributable to viruses remain a global burden. The respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), which is considered as the major viral pathogen of the lower respiratory tract of infants, has been implicated in severe lung disease. In this contribution, we developed a β-cyclodextrin (CD) functionalized graphene oxide (GO) composite, which displayed excellent antiviral activity and could load curcumin efficiently. RSV, a negative-sense single-stranded enveloped RNA virus, was employed as a model virus to investigate the antiviral activity of multifunctional GO...
October 16, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034331/extensive-core-microbiome-in-drone-captured-whale-blow-supports-a-framework-for-health-monitoring
#7
Amy Apprill, Carolyn A Miller, Michael J Moore, John W Durban, Holly Fearnbach, Lance G Barrett-Lennard
The pulmonary system is a common site for bacterial infections in cetaceans, but very little is known about their respiratory microbiome. We used a small, unmanned hexacopter to collect exhaled breath condensate (blow) from two geographically distinct populations of apparently healthy humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae), sampled in the Massachusetts coastal waters off Cape Cod (n = 17) and coastal waters around Vancouver Island (n = 9). Bacterial and archaeal small-subunit rRNA genes were amplified and sequenced from blow samples, including many of sparse volume, as well as seawater and other controls, to characterize the associated microbial community...
September 2017: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034326/bacterial-lipopolysaccharide-destabilizes-influenza-viruses
#8
Christopher Bandoro, Jonathan A Runstadler
Depending on the specific viral pathogen, commensal bacteria can promote or reduce the severity of viral infection and disease progression in their hosts. Influenza A virus (IAV) has a broad host range, comprises many subtypes, and utilizes different routes of transmission, including the fecal-oral route in wild birds. It has been previously demonstrated that commensal bacteria can interact with the host's immune system to protect against IAV pathogenesis. However, it is unclear whether bacteria and their products may be interacting directly with IAV to impact virion stability...
September 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034325/collection-of-viable-aerosolized-influenza-virus-and-other-respiratory-viruses-in-a-student-health-care-center-through-water-based-condensation-growth
#9
Maohua Pan, Tania S Bonny, Julia Loeb, Xiao Jiang, John A Lednicky, Arantzazu Eiguren-Fernandez, Susanne Hering, Z Hugh Fan, Chang-Yu Wu
The dynamics and significance of aerosol transmission of respiratory viruses are still controversial, for the major reasons that virus aerosols are inefficiently collected by commonly used air samplers and that the collected viruses are inactivated by the collection method. Without knowledge of virus viability, infection risk analyses lack accuracy. This pilot study was performed to (i) determine whether infectious (viable) respiratory viruses in aerosols could be collected from air in a real world environment by the viable virus aerosol sampler (VIVAS), (ii) compare and contrast the efficacy of the standard bioaerosol sampler, the BioSampler, with that of the VIVAS for the collection of airborne viruses in a real world environment, and (iii) gain insights for the use of the VIVAS for respiratory virus sampling...
September 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033963/convergent-evolution-of-pathogen-effectors-toward-reactive-oxygen-species-signaling-networks-in-plants
#10
REVIEW
Nam-Soo Jwa, Byung Kook Hwang
Microbial pathogens have evolved protein effectors to promote virulence and cause disease in host plants. Pathogen effectors delivered into plant cells suppress plant immune responses and modulate host metabolism to support the infection processes of pathogens. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) act as cellular signaling molecules to trigger plant immune responses, such as pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity (PTI) and effector-triggered immunity. In this review, we discuss recent insights into the molecular functions of pathogen effectors that target multiple steps in the ROS signaling pathway in plants...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033947/interferon-%C3%AE-s-front-line-guardians-of-immunity-and-homeostasis-in-the-respiratory-tract
#11
REVIEW
Evangelos Andreakos, Maria Salagianni, Ioanna E Galani, Ourania Koltsida
Type III interferons (IFNs), also termed lambda IFNs (IFNλs) or interleukins-28/29, constitute a new addition to the IFN family. They are induced upon infection and are particularly abundant at barrier surfaces, such as the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. Although they signal through a unique heterodimeric receptor complex comprising IFNLR1 and IL10RB, they activate a downstream signaling pathway remarkably similar to that of type I IFNs and share many functions with them. Yet, they also have important differences which are only now starting to unfold...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033599/primary-ciliary-dyskinesia-mechanisms-and-management
#12
REVIEW
Nadirah Damseh, Nada Quercia, Nisreen Rumman, Sharon D Dell, Raymond H Kim
Primary ciliary dyskinesia is a genetically heterogeneous disorder of motile cilia that is predominantly inherited in an autosomal-recessive fashion. It is associated with abnormal ciliary structure and/or function leading to chronic upper and lower respiratory tract infections, male infertility, and situs inversus. The estimated prevalence of primary ciliary dyskinesia is approximately one in 10,000-40,000 live births. Diagnosis depends on clinical presentation, nasal nitric oxide, high-speed video-microscopy analysis, transmission electron microscopy, genetic testing, and immunofluorescence...
2017: Application of Clinical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033435/clinical-features-of-nontuberculous-mycobacterial-pleurisy-a-review-of-12-cases
#13
Maiko Naito, Toshiya Maekura, Yu Kurahara, Masahiro Tahara, Naoya Ikegami, Yohei Kimura, Shoko Sonobe, Takehiko Kobayashi, Shojiro Minomo, Taisuke Tsuji, Kazunari Tsuyuguchi, Seiji Hayashi, Katsuhiro Suzuki
Objective The incidence of pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) infections has increased in recent decades. Nevertheless, NTM pleurisy is still a rare disease. The objective of the present study was to elucidate the clinical features and outcomes of NTM pleurisy. Methods A retrospective study was undertaken of consecutive patients whose pleural effusion culture yielded NTM, from 2002 to 2016 at a respiratory hospital in Japan. The clinical features, treatment, and outcomes of these patients were analyzed...
October 16, 2017: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033350/phenotypical-characterization-of-human-rhinovirus-infections-in-severely-premature-children
#14
Geovanny F Perez, Bassem Kurdi, Rosemary Megalaa, Krishna Pancham, Shehlanoor Huseni, Natalia Isaza, Carlos E Rodriguez-Martinez, Dinesh Pillai, Gustavo Nino
BACKGROUND: Human Rhinovirus (HRV) has been identified as the most common cause of acute respiratory infections and hospitalizations in premature children. It is unclear if premature children are more susceptible to HRV due to their decreased pulmonary reserve or because they have enhanced lower airway reactivity to HRV. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of the clinical respiratory presentation of all PCR-confirmed HRV infections in full-term and premature children aged ≤3 years in our institution...
September 27, 2017: Pediatrics and Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033202/-pyopneumothorax-in-rheumatoid-arthritis
#15
B Huret, S Boulanger, L Benhamed, X Deprez, D Caparros
INTRODUCTION: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease affecting the joints but which frequently includes extra articular effects, including pulmonary nodules, which grow faster under immunosuppressive treatment. CASE REPORT: A 74 years old man, with mild asbestosis, underwent treatment with methotrexate then leflunomide (LEF) for seropositive RA. In February 2014, during monitoring of his asbestosis, chest CT scan showed the appearance of thick-walled cavitating lung nodules, with a central and sub pleural distribution...
October 12, 2017: Revue des Maladies Respiratoires
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033131/oxysterol-restraint-of-cholesterol-synthesis-prevents-aim2-inflammasome-activation
#16
Eric V Dang, Jeffrey G McDonald, David W Russell, Jason G Cyster
Type I interferon restrains interleukin-1β (IL-1β)-driven inflammation in macrophages by upregulating cholesterol-25-hydroxylase (Ch25h) and repressing SREBP transcription factors. However, the molecular links between lipid metabolism and IL-1β production remain obscure. Here, we demonstrate that production of 25-hydroxycholesterol (25-HC) by macrophages is required to prevent inflammasome activation by the DNA sensor protein absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2). We find that in response to bacterial infection or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation, macrophages upregulate Ch25h to maintain repression of SREBP2 activation and cholesterol synthesis...
October 7, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032949/correction-of-hyperleucinemia-in-msud-patients-on-leucine-free-dietary-therapy
#17
Anna I Scott, Kristina Cusmano-Ozog, Gregory M Enns, Tina M Cowan
PURPOSE: Maple Syrup Urine Disease (MSUD) is a rare disorder of branched-chain amino acid catabolism associated with encephalopathy from accumulation of leucine. Leucine is closely monitored during normal growth and particularly during acute illness. As most hospitals do not have access to rapid plasma amino acid quantification, the initial management is often empirical. A model describing the reduction of plasma leucine in hyperleucinemic patients on leucine-free formula would help to guide management and optimize testing frequency...
October 5, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032897/prevnar-13-vaccine-failure-in-a-mouse-model-for-vitamin-a-deficiency
#18
Rhiannon R Penkert, Amy Iverson, Jason W Rosch, Julia L Hurwitz
Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is responsible for serious pediatric respiratory infections, and kills close to one million children under the age of five each year. Unfortunately, the Prevnar-13 vaccine (PCV-13) that is used to protect children from the serious consequences of pneumococcus infections is not always successful. Given that vitamin A deficiency (VAD) is known to affect children in both developed and developing countries, we asked if VAD could be responsible, at least in part, for PCV-13 vaccine failures...
November 1, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032572/effect-of-enterovirus-infections-on-asthma-in-young-children-a-national-cohort-study
#19
Jun-Jun Yeh, Cheng-Li Lin, Wu-Huei Hsu
BACKGROUND: We conducted a cohort study to determine the relationship between enterovirus (EV) infection and asthma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan, we identified patients who received a new diagnosis of asthma and concurrent treatment between January 2000 and December 2011 (EV cohort: n = 208,213; non-EV cohort: n = 208,213). Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was performed to determine and compare the adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) of asthma between these 2 cohorts...
October 15, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032237/hospital-charges-and-length-of-stay-following-radical-cystectomy-in-the-eras-era
#20
Alice Semerjian, Niv Milbar, Max Kates, Michael A Gorin, Hiten D Patel, Heather J Chalfin, Steven M Frank, Christopher L Wu, William W Yang, Deb Hobson, Lindsay Robertson, Elizabeth Wick, Mark P Schoenberg, Phillip M Pierorazio, Michael H Johnson, C J Stimson, Trinity J Bivalacqua
OBJECTIVE: To report our center's experience with Enhanced Recovery after Surgery (ERAS) pathway for radical cystectomy (RC), specifically evaluating complications, LOS, 30- and 90-day readmissions, and hospital charges. Pathways of this type have been shown to decrease length of stay (LOS) and post-operative ileus. However, concerns persist that ERAS is costly and increases readmissions. To date, limited studies have evaluated these concerns. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Our ERAS protocol was implemented for RC in December 2015...
October 12, 2017: Urology
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