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Ashley Vena, Andrea King, Royce Lee, Harriet de Wit
INTRODUCTION: Preclinical and clinical evidence suggest that the neuropeptide oxytocin may be of value in treating alcohol use disorder, either by reducing the rewarding effects of alcohol or reducing negative affect induced by alcohol withdrawal. However, the effect of a single dose of oxytocin on subjective and psychomotor responses to alcohol in social drinkers is not known. METHODS: The present study examined the effect of intranasal oxytocin on subjective, behavioral, and physiological responses to a moderate dose of alcohol (0...
June 19, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Xiaoqing Liu, Suzhen Li, Wenzhu Yang, Bona Mu, Yong Jiao, Xiaojin Zhou, Chunyi Zhang, Yunliu Fan, Rumei Chen
Tissue-specific promoters play an important role in plant molecular farming. Here, we describe a strategy to modify the tissue specificity of a maize embryo-specific bidirectional promoter PZmBD1. Six types of cis elements: RY repeats (R), GCN4 (G), the prolamin box (P), Skn-1 (S), and the ACGT and AACA (A) motifs, were collected and fused to PZmBD1 to generate eight chimeric putative bidirectional promoters. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of reporter genes driven by the promoters showed that two promoters exhibited high seed-specific bidirectional activity in maize transient and stable transformed system...
June 15, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Theepakorn Jithitikulchai, Tatiana Andreyeva
BACKGROUND: Excessive consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages is a major concern in the efforts to improve diet and reduce obesity in USA, particularly among low-income populations. One of the most commonly proposed strategies to reduce sugar-sweetened beverage consumption is increasing beverage prices through taxation. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate whether and how price-based policies could reduce sugar-sweetened beverage consumption among participants in the federal Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program...
June 19, 2018: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy
Jeong Soo Lee, Young Song, Ji Young Kim, Joon Seong Park, Dong Sup Yoon
BACKGROUND: While carbohydrate loading is an important component of enhanced patient recovery after surgery, no study has evaluated the effects of preoperative carbohydrate loading after laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) on patient satisfaction and overall recovery. Thus, we aimed to investigate the impact of preoperative oral carbohydrates on scores from the quality of recovery 40-item (QoR-40) questionnaire after LC. METHODS: A total of 153 adults who underwent LC were randomized into three groups...
June 18, 2018: World Journal of Surgery
Masanobu Hibi, Hideto Takase, Masaki Iwasaki, Noriko Osaki, Yoshihisa Katsuragi
This post hoc pooled analysis assessed the effectiveness of green tea catechins (GTC) to reduce the risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS) associated with abdominal fat reduction, because previous findings are unclear. Data were pooled from six human trials (n=921, 505 men) comparing the effects of GTC-containing beverages (540-588 mg GTC/beverage) and a placebo beverage. Outcome measures were abdominal fat [total fat area (TFA), visceral fat area (VFA), subcutaneous fat area (SFA)], and MetS risk. We estimated mean changes from baseline and calculated confidence intervals (CI) to assess reductions in abdominal fat accumulation and MetS improvement...
July 2018: Nutrition Research
Yumei Qian, Shuxiang Zhang, Shengbo Yao, Jinxin Xia, Yanzhi Li, Xinlong Dai, Wenzhao Wang, Xiaolan Jiang, Yajun Liu, Mingzhuo Li, Liping Gao, Tao Xia
BACKGROUND: Tea plants [Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze] can produce one of the three most widely popular non-alcoholic beverages throughout the world. Polyphenols and volatiles are the main functional ingredients determining tea's quality and flavor; however, the biotic or abiotic factors affecting tea polyphenol biosynthesis are unclear. This paper focuses on the molecular mechanisms of sucrose on polyphenol biosynthesis and volatile composition variation in tea plants. RESULTS: Metabolic analysis showed that the total content of anthocyanins, catechins, and proanthocyanidins(PAs) increased with sucrose, and they accumulated most significantly after 14 days of treatment...
June 18, 2018: BMC Plant Biology
Katharina S Weber, Marie-Christine Simon, Klaus Strassburger, Daniel F Markgraf, Anette E Buyken, Julia Szendroedi, Karsten Müssig, Michael Roden
The association between the amount and sources of fructose intake with insulin sensitivity and liver fat needs further elucidation. This study aimed at examining whether habitual intake of sucrose plus non-sucrose bound as well as of non-sucrose bound fructose (total fructose, fruit-derived, juice-derived, sugar sweetened beverages (SSB)-derived fructose) is cross-sectionally associated with insulin sensitivity and fatty liver index (FLI). Fructose intake was estimated using the EPIC food frequency questionnaire from 161 participants with type 2 diabetes (T2D) in the ongoing German Diabetes Study (GDS) (age 53 ± 9 years; HbA1c 6...
June 15, 2018: Nutrients
Grant E Donnelly, Laura Y Zatz, Dan Svirsky, Leslie K John
Governments have proposed text warning labels to decrease consumption of sugary drinks-a contributor to chronic diseases such as diabetes. However, they may be less effective than more evocative, graphic warning labels. We field-tested the effectiveness of graphic warning labels (vs. text warning labels, calorie labels, and no labels), provided insight into psychological mechanisms driving effectiveness, and assessed consumer sentiment. Study 1 indicated that graphic warning labels reduced the share of sugary drinks purchased in a cafeteria from 21...
June 1, 2018: Psychological Science
Lindsey Smith Taillie, Anna H Grummon, Donna R Miles
INTRODUCTION: Policymakers have focused on the food retail environment for improving the dietary quality for Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) participants. Yet little is known about where SNAP households make food and beverage purchases or how purchases may vary by store type, SNAP participation, and income level. The objective of this study was to examine the association between SNAP-income status (participant, income-eligible non-participant, higher-income non-participant) and healthfulness of household purchases across store types...
June 14, 2018: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Fernanda Weber Mello, Fernanda Marcello Scotti, Gilberto Melo, Saman Warnakulasuriya, Eliete Neves Silva Guerra, Elena Riet Correa Rivero
Maté is a beverage regularly consumed by Latin American populations. Upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) cancers are frequent in this region and are suspected to be associated with maté consumption. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to answer a focused question: "Is there an association between maté consumption and occurrence of the UADT cancer?". Studies investigating any association between maté consumption and occurrence of UADT cancer were included. Out of the 569 studies, 18 met the inclusion criteria for qualitative and 15 for quantitative analysis...
July 2018: Oral Oncology
Yao Qu, Ki-Hyun Kim, Jan E Szulejko
The effect of flavors on carbonyl compound (CC) emission factors (EF) from electronic cigarettes (ECs) vaping was investigated at the default vaping (voltage) setting in all experiments using a total of 21 lab-made e-liquid samples (five different types of retail flavorant bases: beverage/dessert/fruit/mint/tobacco). Each flavorant base was added to a separate unflavored base composed of a 1:1 mixture of propylene glycol/vegetable glycerol (PG/VG) at four levels (5/10/30/50% (v/v)). The e-liquid CC levels increased linearly with flavorant base content, 1...
June 14, 2018: Environmental Research
Elizabeth M Cespedes Feliciano, Mirja Quante, Sheryl L Rifas-Shiman, Susan Redline, Emily Oken, Elsie M Taveras
: media-1vid110.1542/5778442247001PEDS-VA_2017-4085 Video Abstract BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Shorter sleep duration is associated with childhood obesity. Few studies measure sleep quantity and quality objectively or examine cardiometabolic biomarkers other than obesity. METHODS: This cross-sectional study of 829 adolescents derived sleep duration, efficiency and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity from >5 days of wrist actigraphy recording for >10 hours/day. The main outcome was a metabolic risk score (mean of 5 sex-specific z-scores for waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol scaled inversely, and log-transformed triglycerides and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance), for which higher scores indicate greater metabolic risk...
June 15, 2018: Pediatrics
Mary DeGrezia, Dorcas Baker, Ingrid McDowell
Testing for Turkeys (TFT) HIV/hepatitis C virus (HCV) and sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing initiative is a joint effort between Older Women Embracing Life (OWEL), Inc., a nonprofit faith-based community HIV support and advocacy organization; the Johns Hopkins University Regional Partner MidAtlantic AIDS Education and Training Center (MAAETC); and the University of Maryland, Baltimore JACQUES Initiative (JI), and is now in its 11th year of providing HIV outreach, testing, and linkage to care. Since 2008, the annual TFT daylong community HIV testing and linkage to care initiative has been held 2 weeks before Thanksgiving at a faith-based center in Baltimore, Maryland, in a zip code where one in 26 adults and adolescents ages 13 years and older are living with HIV (Maryland Department of Health, Center for HIV Surveillance, Epidemiology, and Evaluation, 2017)...
June 4, 2018: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care: JANAC
Gabriela Cormick, Ana Pilar Betrán, Janetta Harbron, Tina Dannemann Purnat, Catherine Parker, David Hall, Armando H Seuc, James M Roberts, José M Belizán, G Justus Hofmeyr
BACKGROUND: Maternal nutritional status before and during pregnancy is an important contributor to pregnancy outcomes and early child health. The aim of this study was to describe the preconceptional nutritional status and dietary intake during pregnancy in high-risk women from South Africa and Zimbabwe. METHODS: This is a prospective observational study, nested to the CAP trial. Anthropometric measurements before and during pregnancy and dietary intake using 24-h recall during pregnancy were assessed...
June 15, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Zala Zorenc, Robert Veberic, Maja Mikulic-Petkovsek
Bilberries are processed into different food products and beverages. Therefore, we studied how various bilberry items (puree, infusion, liqueur, and fresh and pasteurized juices) differ in secondary metabolites as compared to the fresh fruit. For this purpose, we identified phenolics with a liquid chromatography-mass spectrophotometry (LC-MS) system and compared phenolic profiles and phenolic contents in various bilberry products prepared from the same raw material. Our results show that processing significantly affected the biochemical pattern and levels of phenolics...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Food Science
Zhaozhi Huang, Ingolf Gruen, Bongkosh Vardhanabhuti
The goal of our study was to investigate the effect of alginate on in vitro gastric digestion and sucrose release of soy protein isolate (SPI) in model beverages. Model beverages containing 5% w/w SPI, 0% to 0.20% w/w alginate, and 10% w/w sucrose were prepared by heating the mixtures at 85 °C for 30 min at pH 6.0 or 7.0. Characterizations of beverages included determination of zeta potential, particle size and rheological properties. Digestion patterns and sucrose release profiles were determined during 2 hr in vitro gastric digestion using SDS-PAGE and HPLC analysis, respectively...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Food Science
Alyssa J Moran, Christina A Roberto
INTRODUCTION: Noncarbonated sugar-sweetened beverages, such as fruit drinks, sports drinks, and sweetened teas are increasingly promoted to and consumed by youth. These beverages may be perceived as healthier options than soda. To educate consumers about beverages high in added sugar, several cities and states have proposed policies mandating health warning labels on sugar-sweetened beverages. METHODS: In 2015, a total of 2,381 parents were randomized to a no label, calorie label, or warning label condition...
June 11, 2018: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Jiguo Zhang, Zhihong Wang, Wenwen Du, Chang Su, Ji Zhang, Hongru Jiang, Feifei Huang, Xiaofang Jia, Yifei Ouyang, Yun Wang, Li Li, Bing Zhang, Huijun Wang
OBJECTIVE: To examine pre-packaged foods intake in a sample of Chinese adults aged 18-59 years old. METHODS: Data was collected from 2015 China Nutritional Transition Cohort Study. A total of 10 240 participants aged 18-59 years were included in the final analysis. Three consecutive 24 h recalls were used to collect dietary data. Chisquare analysis and nonparametric analysis were used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: Prepackaged foods consumption rate was 59...
March 2018: Wei Sheng Yan Jiu, Journal of Hygiene Research
Yun Wang, Xiaofang Jia, Wenwen Du, Feifei Huang, Ji Zhang, Hongru Jiang, Chang Su, Jiguo Zhang, Li Li, Yifei Ouyang, Zhihong Wang, Bing Zhang, Huijun Wang
OBJECTIVE: To understand the current status of liquid beverage consumption of adult residents in 15 provinces and cities in China, and discuss relevant factors that may affect the consumption of liquid beverage of adult residents, and provide data support to guide the rational consumption of liquid beverage. METHODS: Using data from China Nutritional Transition Cohort Survey in 2015 on the subjects aged 18 to 59 years old in 15 provinces and cities in China with complete 24-hour-dietary for 3 days and food consumption frequency method, chi-square was used to analyze liquid beverage consumption rate, nonparametric test was used to analyze beverage consumption intake levels of different gender, age, education degree, urban and rural areas, income, region...
March 2018: Wei Sheng Yan Jiu, Journal of Hygiene Research
Haijun Guo, Liyun Zhao, Xiaoli Xu, Wentao Yu, Lahong Ju, Dongmei Yu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages among Chinese adults in 2010-2012. METHODS: Data was collected from Chinese Nutrition and Health Surveillance: 2010-2012. Multi-stage stratified random cluster and probability proportionate sampling method was used, and 45 203 respondents aged 18 and over from 150 sites of 31 provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities were involved in the analysis. The consumption rate of sugar-sweetened beverages, distribution of the classification of the consumption frequency and percentage of variety beverages consumption frequency were calculated...
January 2018: Wei Sheng Yan Jiu, Journal of Hygiene Research
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