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Lucas A Zena, Danielle Dillon, Kathleen E Hunt, Carlos A Navas, Kênia C Bícego, C Loren Buck
The tegu lizard Salvator merianae is a large, widely distributed teiid lizard endemic to South America that exhibits annual cycles of high activity during the spring and summer, and hibernation during winter. This pattern of activity and hibernation is accompanied by profound seasonal changes in physiology and behavior, including endothermy during the austral spring. The unusual combination of seasonal endothermy, hibernation and oviparity, in a non-avian, non-mammalian species, makes S. merianae an interesting subject for study of comparative aspects of endocrine regulation of seasonal changes in physiology...
June 15, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Ali Parsa, Maryam Mirzaie, Mohammad H Ebrahimzadeh, Ali Birjandinejad, Abdolreza Malek, Alireza Mousavian
About 15 % of all musculoskeletal tuberculosis (TB) have hip involvement. Early anti-tubercular drug therapy and other conservative treatment including short-term traction and mobilization programs could prevent hip joint destruction. Reactivation of TB accounts for a significant of active TB incidence, especially in the developed countries with a low TB prevalence. The risk of TB activation for population with the latent form of disease is about 5-10%. According to the existing literature surgery in tubercular hip arthritis would be safe once sufficient debridement and precise anti tubercular chemotherapy has been done...
May 2018: Archives of Bone and Joint Surgery
Germán Montoya-Sanhueza, Anusuya Chinsamy
The patterns of bone modeling and mineral mobilization (skeletal homeostasis) among mammals other than humans and laboratory rodents are still poorly known. In this study we assessed the pattern of bone formation and bone resorption in the femur of a wild population of Cape dune molerats, Bathyergus suillus ( n = 41) (Bathyergidae), a solitary subterranean mammal with a marked extended longevity among rodents, and which also lives in a naturally deficient state of vitamin D. In order to determine ontogenetic and sex effects on histomorphometric parameters of transversal undecalcified bone sections, two-way ANOVA, linear mixed-effects model and regression statistical analyses were performed...
2018: PeerJ
Jessica Franzen, Kerstin Brinkmann, Guido H E Gendolla, Othman Sentissi
BACKGROUND: The present study tested the hypothesis of a differential pattern of reward and punishment responsiveness in depression measuring effort mobilization during anticipation and facial expressions during consumption. METHODS: Twenty patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and 20 control participants worked on a memory task under neutral, reward, and punishment instructions. Effort mobilization was operationalized as cardiovascular reactivity, while facial expressions were measured by facial electromyographic reactivity...
June 18, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Jenny Bulstrode
In the stores of the British Museum are three exquisite springs, made in the late 1820s and 1830s, to regulate the most precise timepieces in the world. Barely the thickness of a hair, they are exquisite because they are made entirely of glass. Combining new documentary evidence, funded by the Antiquarian Horological Society, with the first technical analysis of the springs, undertaken in collaboration with the British Museum, the research presented here uncovers their extraordinary significance to the global extension of nineteenth century capitalism through the repeal of the Corn Laws...
June 1, 2018: History of Science; An Annual Review of Literature, Research and Teaching
Karl Schwaiger, Stephanie Tiede, Wolfgang Hitzl, Rene Kaplan, Frederik DeMeyer, Klemens Heinrich, Michaela Hladik, Gottfried Wechselberger, Elisabeth Russe
BACKGROUND: Abdominoplasty is a common procedure in postbariatric surgery. Over the years, a high number of technical refinements of the procedure have been established to improve safety and reduce associated complications. Nevertheless, the complication rate is high. The purpose of this study was to examine the incidence of postoperative complications in patients undergoing abdominoplasty in association with prolonged postoperative immobilization. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of 82 patients who underwent abdominoplasty was performed...
June 16, 2018: Obesity Surgery
Wenjie Zhang, Ying Ding, Li Sun, Qing Hong, Yumei Sun, Liangliang Han, Mengting Zi, Yuekang Xu
Dendritic cells (DCs) contain heterogeneous populations, with classical DCs developed at steady state and monocyte-derived DCs mobilized under inflammatory conditions, although their total numbers in vivo are scares. To obtain enough quantity for immunological study or clinical application, we have previously established that bone marrow-derived DCs in the presence of Flt-3L (FL-DCs) or GM-CSF (GM-DCs) in vitro are equivalent to the steady state DCs and inflammatory DCs in vivo respectively. What difference, however, exists between these two most commonly used culture systems in DC functions and survival, and how does it correlate to the division of works by their corresponding counterparts in vivo remain ill-defined...
June 7, 2018: Cellular Immunology
Shaoyu Wu, Qiang Yu, Anli Lai, Jing Tian
Pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) are effective in healing fractures and improving osteoporosis. However, their effect on mesenchymal cells remains largely unknown. In this study, the effects of PEMF on osteoblastogenesis and its underlying molecular signaling mechanisms were systematically investigated in C3H10T1/2 cells. C3H10T1/2 mesenchymal cells were exposed to 30-Hz PEMF bursts at various intensities for 3 consecutive days. The optimal PEMF exposure (30 Hz, 1 mT, 2 h/day) was applied in subsequent experiments...
June 14, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
G Santaniello, P Ferré, P Rodríguez-Gómez, C Poch, M Moreno Eva, J A Hinojosa
Evidence from prior studies has shown an advantage in recognition memory for emotional compared to neutral words. Whether this advantage is short-lived or rather extends over longer periods, as well as whether the effect depends on words' valence (i.e., positive or negative), remains unknown. In the present ERP/EEG study, we investigated this issue by manipulating the lag distance (LAG-2, LAG-8 and LAG-16) between the presentation of old and new words in an online recognition memory task. LAG differences were observed at behavior, ERPs and in the theta frequency band...
June 14, 2018: Neuropsychologia
M Weigeldt, M Paul, S Schulz-Drost, M D Schmittner
The management of anesthesia plays a central role in the treatment of thoracic trauma, both in the initial phase when safeguarding the difficult airway and in the intensive care unit. A rapid transfer to a trauma center should be considered in order to recognize and treat organ dysfunction in time. Development of atelectasis, pneumonia and acute lung failure are common pulmonary complications. Non-invasive ventilation combined with physiotherapy and respiratory training can help to minimize these pulmonary complications...
June 15, 2018: Der Unfallchirurg
Chan Choo Yap, Laura Digilio, Lloyd P McMahon, A Denise R Garcia, Bettina Winckler
Neurons are large and long lived, creating high needs for regulating protein turnover. Disturbances in proteostasis lead to aggregates and cellular stress. We characterized the behavior of the short-lived dendritic membrane proteins Nsg1 and Nsg2 to determine whether these proteins are degraded locally in dendrites or centrally in the soma. We discovered a spatial heterogeneity of endolysosomal compartments in dendrites. Early EEA1-positive and late Rab7-positive endosomes are found throughout dendrites, whereas the density of degradative LAMP1- and cathepsin (Cat) B/D-positive lysosomes decreases steeply past the proximal segment...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Cell Biology
Cristiana Gomes de Oliveira Dal'Molin, Lake-Ee Quek, Pedro A Saa, Robin Palfreyman, Lars Keld Nielsen
The compartmentalization of C4 plants increases photosynthetic efficiency, while constraining how material and energy must flow in leaf tissues. To capture this metabolic phenomenon, a generic plant metabolic reconstruction was replicated into four connected spatiotemporal compartments, namely bundle sheath (B) and mesophyll (M) across the day and night cycle. The C4 leaf model was used to explore how amenable polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) production is with these four compartments working cooperatively. A strategic pattern of metabolite conversion and exchange emerged from a systems-level network that has very few constraints imposed; mainly the sequential two-step carbon capture in mesophyll, then bundle sheath and photosynthesis during the day only...
August 2018: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Annia Schreiber, Michele Bertoni, Ewan C Goligher
Both limb muscle weakness and respiratory muscle weakness are exceedingly common in critically ill patients. Respiratory muscle weakness prolongs ventilator dependence, predisposing to nosocomial complications and death. Limb muscle weakness persists for months after discharge from intensive care and results in poor long-term functional status and quality of life. Major mechanisms of muscle injury include critical illness polymyoneuropathy, sepsis, pharmacologic exposures, metabolic derangements, and excessive muscle loading and unloading...
July 2018: Critical Care Clinics
William D Cornwell, Victor Kim, Xiaoxuan Fan, Marie Elena Vega, Frederick V Ramsey, Gerard J Criner, Thomas J Rogers
BACKGROUND: The ability of circulating monocytes to develop into lung macrophages and promote lung tissue damage depends upon their phenotypic pattern of differentiation and activation. Whether this phenotypic pattern varies with COPD severity is unknown. Here we characterize the activation and differentiation status of circulating monocytes in patients with moderate vs. severe COPD. METHODS: Blood monocytes were isolated from normal non-smokers (14), current smokers (13), patients with moderate (9), and severe COPD (11)...
June 15, 2018: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
Olatz Zenarruzabeitia, Joana Vitallé, Iñigo Terrén, Ane Orrantia, Itziar Astigarraga, Leire Dopazo, Carlos Gonzalez, Laura Santos-Díez, Carlos Tutau, Pedro M Gamboa, Agurtzane Bilbao, Francisco Borrego
BACKGROUND: Basophils express high-affinity IgE receptors (FcεRI), which play an essential role in allergic diseases. To design promising immunomodulatory therapies, it is important to characterize new cell surface receptors that modulate immunoglobulin (Ig)E-mediated basophil activation threshold. OBJECTIVES: To analyze the expression of CD300 receptors on human basophils and their implication in IgE-mediated basophil activation processes. METHODS: Blood samples from healthy and cow´s milk allergic patients were collected through the Basque Biobank under an institutional review board-approved protocol...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Dan Kawamori
Glucagon secreted by pancreatic α-cells plays pivotal roles in the systemic energy homeostasis mainly by regulating systemic glucose mobilization together with another important metabolic hormone, insulin. Recent application of the incretin-based therapies to clinical diabetes refocused on the central roles of glucagon in the development of diabetic hyperglycemia. This revival of glucagon also enhanced the progress of basic research in α-cell biology, as targeting glucagon is now expected to be the next therapeutic approach in diabetes treatment...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
Justin Mascitelli, Sirin Gandhi, Ernest Wright, Michael T Lawton
Surgical resection of insular lesions is challenging due to their proximity to critical neurovascular structures such as the middle cerebral arteries (MCA), Sylvian veins, thalamus, internal capsule (IC), and lenticulostriate arteries. A surgical series using the transsylvian-transinsular approach to treat cerebrovascular pathologies reported ∼5% permanent neurological morbidity.1,2 This case demonstrates the utility of this approach for resecting an insular cavernous malformation (CM).A 25-yr-old female presented with an acute-onset right homonymous hemianopsia...
June 14, 2018: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
Yupeng Liao, Rui Hu, Zhisheng Wang, Quanhui Peng, Xianwen Dong, Xiangfei Zhang, Huawei Zou, Qijian Pu, Bai Xue, Lizhi Wang
This study was to determine differences in the global metabolic profiles of serum and urine of Xuanhan yellow cattle, Simmental crossbred cattle (Simmental × Xuanhan yellow cattle) and cattle-yaks (Jersey × Maiwa yak) under heat stress (temperature-humidity index remained above 80 for 1 week). A total of 55 different metabolites associated with the three breeds were identified in the serum and urine samples by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The metabolic adaptations to heat stress are heterogeneous...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Jian Zhang, Kui Shi, Hongfeng Jia
Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is highly associated with post-operative pain. The present randomized trial aimed to explore the possible post-operative pain management by a different combination of analgesics or opioids (ketamine and bupivacaine) following TKA. A total of 84 patients were randomly divided into four groups. All subjects were anesthetized for TKA surgery and received post-operative pain management via intra-articular saline (control group; n=23), ketamine (2 mg/kg) infused with saline (ket group; n=21) bupivacaine (0...
June 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Audrey Bioteau, Kévin Huguet, Vincent Burrus, Swapan Banerjee
Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a clinically significant marine bacterium implicated in gastroenteritis among consumers of raw or undercooked seafood. This report presents the whole-genome sequence of a unique strain of V. parahaemolyticus isolated from oysters harvested in Canada.
June 14, 2018: Genome Announcements
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