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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222107/il-33-promotes-the-egress-of-group-2-innate-lymphoid-cells-from-the-bone-marrow
#1
Matthew T Stier, Jian Zhang, Kasia Goleniewska, Jacqueline Y Cephus, Mark Rusznak, Lan Wu, Luc Van Kaer, Baohua Zhou, Dawn C Newcomb, R Stokes Peebles
Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) are effector cells within the mucosa and key participants in type 2 immune responses in the context of allergic inflammation and infection. ILC2s develop in the bone marrow from common lymphoid progenitor cells, but little is known about how ILC2s egress from the bone marrow for hematogenous trafficking. In this study, we identified a critical role for IL-33, a hallmark peripheral ILC2-activating cytokine, in promoting the egress of ILC2 lineage cells from the bone marrow...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221849/molecular-regulation-of-fatty-acid-oxidation-in-skeletal-muscle-during-aerobic-exercise
#2
REVIEW
Anne-Marie Lundsgaard, Andreas Mæchel Fritzen, Bente Kiens
This review summarizes how fatty acid (FA) oxidation is regulated in skeletal muscle during exercise. From the available evidence it seems that acetyl-CoA availability in the mitochondrial matrix adjusts FA oxidation to exercise intensity and duration. This is executed at the step of mitochondrial fatty acyl import, as the extent of acetyl group sequestration by carnitine determines the availability of carnitine for the carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1) reaction. The rate of glycolysis seems therefore to be central to the amount of β-oxidation-derived acetyl-CoA that is oxidized in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle...
December 5, 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221117/inhibition-of-chemerin-cmklr1-axis-in-neuroblastoma-cells-reduces-clonogenicity-and-cell-viability-in-vitro-and-impairs-tumor-growth-in-vivo
#3
Conny Tümmler, Igor Snapkov, Malin Wickström, Ugo Moens, Linda Ljungblad, Lotta Helena Maria Elfman, Jan-Olof Winberg, Per Kogner, John Inge Johnsen, Baldur Sveinbjørnsson
Pro-inflammatory cells, cytokines, and chemokines are essential in promoting a tumor supporting microenvironment. Chemerin is a chemotactic protein and a natural ligand for the receptors CMKLR1, GPR1, and CCRL2. The chemerin/CMKLR1 axis is involved in immunity and inflammation, and it has also been implicated in obesity and cancer. In neuroblastoma, a childhood tumor of the peripheral nervous system we identified correlations between high CMKLR1 and GPR1 expression and reduced overall survival probability. CMKLR1, GPR1, and chemerin RNA and protein were detected in neuroblastoma cell lines and neuroblastoma primary tumor tissue...
November 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220652/mechanistic-insights-into-autoinhibition-of-the-oncogenic-chromatin-remodeler-alc1
#4
Laura C Lehmann, Graeme Hewitt, Shintaro Aibara, Alexander Leitner, Emil Marklund, Sarah L Maslen, Varun Maturi, Yang Chen, David van der Spoel, J Mark Skehel, Aristidis Moustakas, Simon J Boulton, Sebastian Deindl
Human ALC1 is an oncogene-encoded chromatin-remodeling enzyme required for DNA repair that possesses a poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR)-binding macro domain. Its engagement with PARylated PARP1 activates ALC1 at sites of DNA damage, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Here, we establish a dual role for the macro domain in autoinhibition of ALC1 ATPase activity and coupling to nucleosome mobilization. In the absence of DNA damage, an inactive conformation of the ATPase is maintained by juxtaposition of the macro domain against predominantly the C-terminal ATPase lobe through conserved electrostatic interactions...
December 7, 2017: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220548/haem-oxygenase-a-functionally-diverse-enzyme-of-photosynthetic-organisms-and-its-role-in-phytochrome-chromophore-biosynthesis-cellular-signalling-and-defence-mechanisms
#5
REVIEW
Lovely Mahawar, G S Shekhawat
Haem oxygenase (HO) is a universal enzyme that catalyzes stereospecific clevage of haem to BV IX α and liberates Fe+2 ion and CO as byproduct. Beside haem degradation, it has important functions in plants that include cellular defence, stomatal regulation, iron mobilization, phytochrome chromophore synthesis and lateral root formation. Phytochromes are an extended family of photoreceptors with a molecular mass of 250 kDa and occur as a dimer made up of two equivalent subunits of 125 kDa each. Each subunit is made of two components; the chromophore, a light capturing pigment molecule and the apoprotein...
December 8, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220530/impaired-lipolysis-diminished-fat-oxidation-and-metabolic-inflexibility-in-obese-girls-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#6
Joon Young Kim, Hala Tfayli, Sara F Michaliszyn, Silva Arslanian
CONTEXT: Metabolic flexibility reflects the ability to switch from lipid to carbohydrate oxidation during insulin stimulation manifested in increased respiratory quotient (RQ). Despite insulin resistance in glucose metabolism in PCOS women and adolescents, little is known about adipose tissue metabolism and metabolic flexibility. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whole-body lipolysis, substrate oxidation and metabolic flexibility in obese PCOS vs. non-PCOS girls. PATIENTS/DESIGN: Twenty-one obese (BMI 32...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220080/high-salinity-impacts-germination-of-the-halophyte-cakile-maritima-but-primes-seeds-for-rapid-germination-upon-stress-release
#7
Ahmed Debez, Ikram Belghith, Andreas Pich, Wael Taamalli, Chedly Abdelly, Hans-Peter Braun
Seed germination recovery aptitude is an adaptive trait of overriding significance for the successful establishment and dispersal of extremophile plants in their native ecosystems. Cakile maritima is an annual halophyte frequent on Mediterranean coasts, which transiently produces transiently dormant seeds under high salinity, but that germinate fast when soil salinity is lowered by rainfall. Here, we report eco-physiological and proteomic data about (i) the effect of high salt (200 mM NaCl) on the early developmental stages (germination and seedling) and (ii) the seed germination recovery capacity of this species...
December 8, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219935/intrathecal-morphine-for-laparoscopic-segmental-colonic-resection-as-part-of-an-enhanced-recovery-protocol-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#8
Mark V Koning, Aart Jan W Teunissen, Erwin van der Harst, Elisabeth J Ruijgrok, Robert Jan Stolker
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Management of postoperative pain after laparoscopic segmental colonic resections remains controversial. We compared 2 methods of analgesia within an Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) program. The goal of the study was to investigate whether administration of intrathecal bupivacaine/morphine would lead to an enhanced recovery. METHODS: A single-center, randomized, double-blind controlled trial was performed (NL43488.101.13). Patients scheduled for laparoscopic segmental intestinal resections were considered...
December 6, 2017: Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219924/combined-laparoscopic-and-perineal-approach-to-omental-interposition-repair-of-complex-rectovaginal-fistula
#9
Hester de Bruijn, Yasuko Maeda, Jamie Murphy, Janindra Warusavitarne, Carolynne J Vaizey
INTRODUCTION: Surgical repair of rectovaginal fistula remains a challenge. Complex and recurrent rectovaginal fistula repairs often fail because of scarring and devascularization of the surrounding tissue. Omental interposition may promote healing by introducing bulky vascularized tissue into the rectovaginal septum. TECHNIQUE: With the patient in the lithotomy position, the rectovaginal septum was dissected transperineally up to the fistula tract and the openings on both vaginal and rectal sides were closed using interrupted, absorbable sutures...
January 2018: Diseases of the Colon and Rectum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219132/assessment-of-the-performance-of-community-directed-treatment-with-ivermectin-strategy-for-the-control-and-elimination-of-onchocerciasis-in-edo-state-nigeria
#10
Amenze Oritsemofe Onowhakpor, Obehi Hilda Okojie, Victoria A Wagbatsoma
BACKGROUND: Community-directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI) was developed in the mid 1990's as a solution for the control and elimination of onchocerciasis. It requires that ivermectin be administered continuously over a period of at least 14 years with community involvement before elimination can be achieved. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study is to assess the performance of CDTI strategy for control and elimination of onchocerciasis in endemic Local Government areas of Edo State...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218302/canine-soft-tissue-sarcomas-can-being-a-dog-s-best-friend-help-a-child
#11
Bernard Séguin
Soft tissue sarcomas (STSs) remain a therapeutic challenge for pediatric and adolescent and young adult (AYA) patients. Still today, surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy remain the mainstay of treatment. Obstacles in developing new treatment approaches to improve the outcome are: few patients to enroll in clinical trials, and the diversity of tumor biology between histologic subtypes. Pet dogs may offer an additional strategy to discover and test new therapeutic avenues. The number of dogs diagnosed with a STS each year in the United States is estimated to be around 27,000 to 95,000...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218051/sphingosine-1-phosphate-and-c-c-chemokine-receptor-2-dependent-activation-of-cd4-plasmacytoid-dendritic-cells-in-the-bone-marrow-contributes-to-signs-of-sepsis-induced-immunosuppression
#12
Anna Smirnov, Stephanie Pohlmann, Melanie Nehring, Shafaqat Ali, Ritu Mann-Nüttel, Stefanie Scheu, Anne-Charlotte Antoni, Wiebke Hansen, Manuela Büettner, Miriam J Gardiasch, Astrid M Westendorf, Florian Wirsdörfer, Eva Pastille, Marcel Dudda, Stefanie B Flohé
Sepsis is the dysregulated response of the host to systemic, mostly bacterial infection, and is associated with an enhanced susceptibility to life-threatening opportunistic infections. During polymicrobial sepsis, dendritic cells (DCs) secrete enhanced levels of interleukin (IL) 10 due to an altered differentiation in the bone marrow and contribute to the development of immunosuppression. We investigated the origin of the altered DC differentiation using murine cecal ligation and puncture (CLP), a model for human polymicrobial sepsis...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218035/characterization-of-two-cryptic-plasmids-isolated-in-haiti-from-clinical-vibrio-cholerae-non-o1-non-o139
#13
Daniela Ceccarelli, Geneviève Garriss, Seon Y Choi, Nur A Hasan, Ramunas Stepanauskas, Mihai Pop, Anwar Huq, Rita R Colwell
We report the complete sequence of two novel plasmids, pSDH-1 and pSDH-2, isolated from clinical Vibrio cholerae non-O1/non-O139 during the early phase of the 2010 Haitian cholera epidemic. Plasmids were revealed by employing single-cell genomics and their genome content suggests self-mobilization and, for pSDH-2, a toxin-antitoxin (TA) system for plasmid stabilization was identified. The putative origin of replication of pSDH-2 was mapped suggesting it replicates following the ColE1 model of plasmid replication...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217157/functional-histamine-h3-and-adenosine-a2a-receptor-heteromers-in-recombinant-cells-and-rat-striatum
#14
Ricardo Márquez-Gómez, Meridith T Robins, Citlaly Gutiérrez-Rodelo, Juan-Manuel Arias, Jesús-Alberto Olivares-Reyes, Richard M van Rijn, José-Antonio Arias-Montaño
In the striatum, histamine H3 receptors (H3Rs) are co-expressed with adenosine A2A receptors (A2ARs) in the cortico-striatal glutamatergic afferents and the GABAergic medium-sized spiny neurons that originate from the indirect pathway of the basal ganglia. This location allows H3Rs and A2ARs to regulate the striatal GABAergic and glutamatergic transmission. However, whether these receptors can physically interact has not yet been assessed. To test this hypothesis, a heteromer-selective in vitro assay was used to detect functional complementation between a chimeric A2AR302-Gαqi4 and wild-type H3Rs in transfected HEK-293 cells...
December 4, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217105/influence-of-muscle-strength-on-early-mobility-in-critically-ill-adult-patients-systematic-literature-review
#15
REVIEW
Audrey R Roberson, Angela Starkweather, Catherine Grossman, Edmund Acevedo, Jeanne Salyer
BACKGROUND: Muscle strength may be one indicator of readiness to mobilize that can be used to guide decisions regarding early mobility efforts and to progressively advance mobilization. OBJECTIVES: To provide a synthesis of current measures of muscle strength in the assessment of early mobilization in critically ill adult patients who are receiving MV therapy. METHODS: Research studies conducted between 2000-2015 were identified using PubMed, CINHAL, MEDLINE, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews databases using the search terms "muscle strength", "intensive care", "mechanical ventilation" and "muscle weakness"...
January 2018: Heart & Lung: the Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216695/-factor-associated-in-the-failure-of-the-ostheosyntesis-of-transtrocantheric-fractures
#16
L D Aguilar-Alcalá, J Atri-Levy, A Torres-Gómez, L Ochoa-Olvera
Pertrochanteric fractures account approximately a half of the proximal femoral fractures. Incidence of these fractures is highest in women, age > 65 years and presents a mortality rate of 14 to 50%. Treatment goals include stable fixation, immediate mobilization and restore activities. Complications after treatment present in 17% and include: nonunion, cut out and varus displacement. OBJECTIVE: Correlation between complications after surgical treatment and presence of instability, inadequate reduction, Tip Apex Index (TAI) > 25 mm, Tip Apex Index to calcar (TAIcal) > 20 mm and parker index...
July 2017: Acta Ortopédica Mexicana
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216473/the-natural-sesquiterpene-lactones-arglabin-grosheimin-agracin-parthenolide-and-estafiatin-inhibit-t-cell-receptor-tcr-activation
#17
Igor A Schepetkin, Liliya N Kirpotina, Pete T Mitchell, Аnarkul S Kishkentaeva, Zhanar R Shaimerdenova, Gayane A Atazhanova, Sergazy M Adekenov, Mark T Quinn
Inhibition of the T cell receptor (TCR) pathway represents an effective strategy for the treatment of T cell-mediated inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. To identify natural compounds that could inhibit inflammatory T cell responses, we screened 13 sesquiterpene lactones, including achillin, arglabin, argolide, argracin, 3β-hydroxyarhalin, artesin, artemisinin, estafiatin, grosheimin, grossmisin, leucomisine, parthenolide, and taurine, for their ability to modulate activation-induced Ca2+ mobilization in Jurkat T cells...
December 4, 2017: Phytochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216220/retarded-germination-of-nicotiana-tabacum-seeds-following-insertion-of-exogenous-dna-mimics-the-seed-persistent-behavior
#18
Elisabetta Onelli, Alessandra Moscatelli, Assunta Gagliardi, Mauro Zaninelli, Luca Bini, Antonella Baldi, Marco Caccianiga, Serena Reggi, Luciana Rossi
Tobacco seeds show a coat-imposed dormancy in which the seed envelope tissues (testa and endosperm) impose a physical constraint on the radicle protrusion. The germination-limiting process is represented by the endosperm rupture which is induced by cell-wall weakening. Transgenic tobacco seeds, obtained by insertion of exogenous genes codifying for seed-based oral vaccines (F18 and VT2eB), showed retarded germination with respect to the wild type and modified the expression of endogenous proteins. Morphological and proteomic analyses of wild type and transgenic seeds revealed new insights into factors influencing seed germination...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215316/endothelial-progenitor-cells-for-cellular-angiogenesis-and-repair-lessons-learned-from-experimental-animal-models
#19
Khawaja Husnain Haider, Salim Aziz, Mateq Ali Al-Reshidi
Stem/progenitor cell-based therapy has been extensively studied for angiomyogenic repair of the ischemic heart by regeneration of the damaged myocytes and neovascularization of the ischemic tissue through biological bypassing. Given their inherent ability to assume functionally competent endothelial phenotype and release of broad array of proangiogenic cytokines, endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs)-based therapy is deemed as most appropriate for vaculogenesis in the ischemic heart. Emulating the natural repair process that encompasses mobilization and homing-in of the bone marrow and peripheral blood EPCs, their reparability has been extensively studied in the animal models of myocardial ischemia with encouraging results...
December 7, 2017: Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215074/structural-analysis-of-the-complex-between-influenza-b-nucleoprotein-and-human-importin-%C3%AE
#20
Alice Labaronne, Sigrid Milles, Amélie Donchet, Malene Ringkjøbing Jensen, Martin Blackledge, Jean-Marie Bourhis, Rob W H Ruigrok, Thibaut Crépin
Influenza viruses are negative strand RNA viruses that replicate in the nucleus of the cell. The viral nucleoprotein (NP) is the major component of the viral ribonucleoprotein. In this paper we show that the NP of influenza B has a long N-terminal tail of 70 residues with intrinsic flexibility. This tail contains the Nuclear Location Signal (NLS). The nuclear trafficking of the viral components mobilizes cellular import factors at different stages, making these host-pathogen interactions promising targets for new therapeutics...
December 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
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