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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350944/navigation-and-robotics-in-spinal-surgery-where-are-we-now
#1
Samuel C Overley, Samuel K Cho, Ankit I Mehta, Paul M Arnold
Spine surgery has experienced much technological innovation over the past several decades. The field has seen advancements in operative techniques, implants and biologics, and equipment such as computer-assisted navigation and surgical robotics. With the arrival of real-time image guidance and navigation capabilities along with the computing ability to process and reconstruct these data into an interactive three-dimensional spinal "map", so too have the applications of surgical robotic technology. While spinal robotics and navigation represent promising potential for improving modern spinal surgery, it remains paramount to demonstrate its superiority as compared to traditional techniques prior to assimilation of its use amongst surgeons...
March 1, 2017: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350863/the-relationship-between-least-cost-and-resistance-distance
#2
Robby R Marrotte, Jeff Bowman
Least-cost modelling and circuit theory are common analogs used in ecology and evolution to model gene flow or animal movement across landscapes. Least-cost modelling estimates the least-cost distance, whereas circuit theory estimates resistance distance. The bias added in choosing one method over the other has not been well documented. We designed an experiment to test whether both methods were linearly related. We also tested the sensitivity of these metrics to variation in Euclidean distance, spatial autocorrelation, the number of pixels representing the landscape, and data aggregation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350803/pharmacogenomic-identification-of-small-molecules-for-lineage-specific-manipulation-of-subventricular-zone-germinal-activity
#3
Kasum Azim, Diane Angonin, Guillaume Marcy, Francesca Pieropan, Andrea Rivera, Vanessa Donega, Claudio Cantù, Gareth Williams, Benedikt Berninger, Arthur M Butt, Olivier Raineteau
Strategies for promoting neural regeneration are hindered by the difficulty of manipulating desired neural fates in the brain without complex genetic methods. The subventricular zone (SVZ) is the largest germinal zone of the forebrain and is responsible for the lifelong generation of interneuron subtypes and oligodendrocytes. Here, we have performed a bioinformatics analysis of the transcriptome of dorsal and lateral SVZ in early postnatal mice, including neural stem cells (NSCs) and their immediate progenies, which generate distinct neural lineages...
March 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350798/research-priorities-for-harnessing-plant-microbiomes-in-sustainable-agriculture
#4
Posy E Busby, Chinmay Soman, Maggie R Wagner, Maren L Friesen, James Kremer, Alison Bennett, Mustafa Morsy, Jonathan A Eisen, Jan E Leach, Jeffery L Dangl
Feeding a growing world population amidst climate change requires optimizing the reliability, resource use, and environmental impacts of food production. One way to assist in achieving these goals is to integrate beneficial plant microbiomes-i.e., those enhancing plant growth, nutrient use efficiency, abiotic stress tolerance, and disease resistance-into agricultural production. This integration will require a large-scale effort among academic researchers, industry researchers, and farmers to understand and manage plant-microbiome interactions in the context of modern agricultural systems...
March 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350681/evolution-of-a-surgical-philosophy-in-orthognathic-surgery
#5
Harvey M Rosen
A surgical philosophy of orthognathic surgery is presented. It has evolved over an entire surgical career as orthognathic surgical goals have evolved to become primarily aesthetic. In this context, the occlusal result serves as a means of achieving the aesthetic ends. It relies on the physical examination, using qualitative concepts of facial appearance, to be the most important determinant of treatment plans. It makes a distinction between a quantitatively normal face and one that is visually well proportioned and emphasizes the attributes of the soft tissue...
April 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346818/regulation-of-low-temperature-stress-in-plants-by-micrornas
#6
REVIEW
Swati Megha, Urmila Basu, Nat N V Kav
Low temperature is one of the most common environmental stresses that seriously affects the growth and development of plants. However, plants have the plasticity in their defense mechanisms enabling them to tolerate and, sometimes, even survive adverse environmental conditions. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs, approximately 19-21 nucleotides in length, and are being increasingly recognized as regulators of gene expression at the post-transcriptional level and have the ability to influence a broad range of biological processes...
March 27, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346816/child-adult-differences-in-using-dual-task-paradigms-to-measure-listening-effort
#7
Erin M Picou, Lauren M Charles, Todd A Ricketts
Purpose: The purpose of the project was to investigate the effects modifying the secondary task in a dual-task paradigm to measure objective listening effort. To be specific, the complexity and depth of processing were increased relative to a simple secondary task. Method: Three dual-task paradigms were developed for school-age children. The primary task was word recognition. The secondary task was a physical response to a visual probe (simple task), a physical response to a complex probe (increased complexity), or word categorization (increased depth of processing)...
March 27, 2017: American Journal of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346814/nicotinamide-riboside-a-form-of-vitamin-b3-and-nad-precursor-relieves-the-nociceptive-and-aversive-dimensions-of-paclitaxel-induced-peripheral-neuropathy-in-female-rats
#8
Marta V Hamity, Stephanie R White, Roxanne Y Walder, Mark S Schmidt, Charles Brenner, Donna L Hammond
Injury to sensory afferents may contribute to the peripheral neuropathies that develop after administration of chemotherapeutic agents. Manipulations that increase levels of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) can protect against neuronal injury. This study examined whether nicotinamide riboside (NR), a third form of vitamin B3 and precursor of NAD, diminishes tactile hypersensitivity and place escape-avoidance behaviors in a rodent model of paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy. Female Sprague-Dawley rats received 3 intravenous injections of 6...
January 30, 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346734/when-meta-analysis-fails-a-case-about-stomata
#9
Christian Körner
In a recent paper, Yan et al. (2017) offered a statistical re-assessment of the response of stomata density in leaves to environmental conditions using published data sets, including (pre-)historical time series, environmental gradients and manipulative experiments. The authors arrive at a few trends and they conclude that the issue is complicated, responses vary and there is a need for better research. This meta-analysis, like many previous ones, suffered from insufficient or missing data stratification and employing inappropriate assumptions...
March 27, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346658/spatially-heterogeneous-selection-in-nature-favors-phenotypic-plasticity-in-anuran-larvae
#10
Josh Van Buskirk
Theory holds that adaptive phenotypic plasticity evolves under spatial or temporal variation in natural selection. I tested this prediction in a classic system of predator-induced plasticity: frog tadpoles (Rana temporaria) reacting to predaceous aquatic insects. An outdoor mesocosm experiment manipulating exposure to Aeshna dragonfly larvae revealed plasticity in most characters: growth, development, behavior, and external morphology. I measured selection by placing 1927 tadpoles into enclosures within natural ponds; photographs permitted identification of the survivors 6-9 days later...
March 27, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346602/attitudes-of-family-medicine-program-directors-toward-osteopathic-residents-under-the-single-accreditation-system
#11
Laura K Hempstead, Todd D Shaffer, Karen B Williams, Lt Col James Arnold
BACKGROUND: Between 2015 and 2020, residency programs accredited through the American Osteopathic Association (AOA) are preparing the single graduate medical education (GME) system through the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME). OBJECTIVES: (1) To assess the attitudes of family medicine program directors in programs accredited dually by the AOA and ACGME (AOA/ACGME) or ACGME only toward the clinical and academic preparedness of osteopathic residency candidates and (2) to determine program director attitudes toward the perceived value of osteopathic-focused education, including osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT) curricula...
April 1, 2017: Journal of the American Osteopathic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346336/enzymatic-processes-in-marine-biotechnology
#12
REVIEW
Antonio Trincone
In previous review articles the attention of the biocatalytically oriented scientific community towards the marine environment as a source of biocatalysts focused on the habitat-related properties of marine enzymes. Updates have already appeared in the literature, including marine examples of oxidoreductases, hydrolases, transferases, isomerases, ligases, and lyases ready for food and pharmaceutical applications. Here a new approach for searching the literature and presenting a more refined analysis is adopted with respect to previous surveys, centering the attention on the enzymatic process rather than on a single novel activity...
March 25, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346119/counterpoint
#13
Frank H Durgin
Claims about alterations in perception based on manipulations of the energetics hypothesis (and other influences) are often framed as interesting specifically because they affect our perceptual experience. Many control experiments conducted on such perceptual effects suggest, however, that they are the result of attribution effects and other kinds of judgmental biases influencing the reporting process rather than perception itself. Schnall (2017, this issue), appealing to Heider's work on attribution, argues that it is fruitless to try to distinguish between perception and attribution...
March 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346090/identifying-inhibitors-of-the-hsp90-aha1-protein-complex-a-potential-target-to-drug-cystic-fibrosis-by-alpha-technology
#14
Verena Ihrig, Wolfgang M J Obermann
Deletion of a single phenylalanine residue at position 508 of the protein CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator), a chloride channel in lung epithelium, is the most common cause for cystic fibrosis. As a consequence, folding of the CFTRΔF508 protein and delivery to the cell surface are compromised, resulting in degradation of the polypeptide. Accordingly, decreased surface presence of CFTRΔF508 causes impaired chloride ion conductivity and is associated with mucus accumulation, a hallmark of cystic fibrosis...
January 1, 2017: SLAS Discov
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346064/modeling-and-simulation-of-two-wheelchair-accessories-for-pushing-doors
#15
Soran Jalal Abdullah, Javeed Shaikh Mohammed
Independent mobility is vital to individuals of all ages, and wheelchairs have proven to be great personal mobility devices. The tasks of opening and navigating through a door are trivial for healthy people, while the same tasks could be difficult for some wheelchair users. A wide range of intelligent wheelchair controllers and systems, robotic arms, or manipulator attachments integrated with wheelchairs have been developed for various applications, including manipulating door knobs. Unfortunately, the intelligent wheelchairs and robotic attachments are not widely available as commercial products...
March 27, 2017: Assistive Technology: the Official Journal of RESNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346012/lymphangiogenesis-fuel-smoke-or-extinguisher-of-inflammation-s-fire
#16
Gabriella R Abouelkheir, Bradley D Upchurch, Joseph M Rutkowski
Lymphangiogenesis is a recognized hallmark of inflammatory processes in tissues and organs as diverse as the skin, heart, bowel, and airways. In clinical and animal models wherein the signaling processes of lymphangiogenesis are manipulated, most studies demonstrate that an expanded lymphatic vasculature is necessary for the resolution of inflammation. The fundamental roles that lymphatics play in fluid clearance and immune cell trafficking from the periphery make these results seemingly obvious as a mechanism of alleviating locally inflamed environments: the lymphatics are simply providing a drain...
April 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345945/gaze-control-during-interceptive-actions-with-different-spatiotemporal-demands
#17
José A Navia, Matt Dicks, John van der Kamp, Luis M Ruiz
It is widely accepted that the sources of information used to guide interceptive actions depend on conflicting spatiotemporal task demands. However, there is a paucity of evidence that shows how information pick-up during interceptive actions is adapted to such conflicting constraints. The present study therefore examined the effects of systematic manipulations of spatiotemporal constraints on performance, timing and gaze in an in situ interceptive action. To this end, expert futsal goalkeepers faced penalty kicks taken from 10 m and 6 m...
April 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345756/the-dawn-of-dentistry-in-the-late-upper-paleolithic-an-early-case-of-pathological-intervention-at-riparo-fredian
#18
Gregorio Oxilia, Flavia Fiorillo, Francesco Boschin, Elisabetta Boaretto, Salvatore A Apicella, Chiara Matteucci, Daniele Panetta, Rossella Pistocchi, Franca Guerrini, Cristiana Margherita, Massimo Andretta, Rita Sorrentino, Giovanni Boschian, Simona Arrighi, Irene Dori, Giuseppe Mancuso, Jacopo Crezzini, Alessandro Riga, Maria C Serrangeli, Antonino Vazzana, Piero A Salvadori, Mariangela Vandini, Carlo Tozzi, Adriana Moroni, Robin N M Feeney, John C Willman, Jacopo Moggi-Cecchi, Stefano Benazzi
OBJECTIVES: Early evidence for the treatment of dental pathology is found primarily among food-producing societies associated with high levels of oral pathology. However, some Late Pleistocene hunter-gatherers show extensive oral pathology, suggesting that experimentation with therapeutic dental interventions may have greater antiquity. Here, we report the second earliest probable evidence for dentistry in a Late Upper Paleolithic hunter-gatherer recovered from Riparo Fredian (Tuscany, Italy)...
March 27, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345696/interfacially-al-doped-zno-nanowires-greatly-enhanced-near-band-edge-emission-through-suppressed-electron-phonon-coupling-and-confined-optical-field
#19
Yiming Wu, Yanmeng Dai, Shenlong Jiang, Chao Ma, Yue Lin, Dongxue Du, Yukun Wu, Huaiyi Ding, Qun Zhang, Nan Pan, Xiaoping Wang
Aluminium (Al)-doped zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires (NWs) with a unique core-shell structure and a Δ-doping profile at the interface were successfully grown using a combination of chemical vapor deposition re-growth and few-layer AlxOy atomic layer deposition. Unlike the conventional heavy doping which degrades the near-band-edge (NBE) luminescence and increases the electron-phonon coupling (EPC), it was found that there was an over 20-fold enhanced NBE emission and a notably-weakened EPC in this type of interfacially Al-doped ZnO NWs...
March 27, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345592/community-temporal-variability-increases-with-fluctuating-resource-availability
#20
Wei Li, M Henry H Stevens
An increase in the quantity of available resources is known to affect temporal variability of aggregate community properties. However, it is unclear how might fluctuations in resource availability alter community-level temporal variability. Here we conduct a microcosm experiment with laboratory protist community subjected to manipulated resource pulses that vary in intensity, duration and time of supply, and examine the impact of fluctuating resource availability on temporal variability of the recipient community...
March 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
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