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S Chiangga, W Pornkaveerat, T D Frank
Three studies were considered in which jasmonate-isoleucine levels were observed for several hours after plant wounding. The data from these studies were fitted to a first order kinetical model describing jasmonate-isoleucine complex formation and dissociation. It was found that the model could explain up to 97 percent of the variations in the data sets. In general, the data re-analysis confirmed that the protein-protein interactions involved in the biosynthesis and dissociation of the jasmonate-isoleucine complex are fast relative to the dynamics of the jasmonate levels themselves...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Plant Physiology
Si-Yong Qin, Ai-Qing Zhang, Si-Xue Cheng, Lei Rong, Xian-Zheng Zhang
Carrier-assistant drug delivery systems (DDSs) have been rapidly established for cancer therapy and great strides have been made in recent years. However, further development of DDSs is retarded by the aspects such as the low drug carrying capacity, carrier-induced toxicity and immunogenicity, complex synthesis manipulation. Drug self-delivery systems (DSDSs), in which active drugs exhibit nanoscale characteristic to realize intracellular delivery by themselves without the help of nanocarriers, have been rapidly developed to address these issues...
October 13, 2016: Biomaterials
Giulia Suarato, Seong-Il Lee, Weiyi Li, Sneha Rao, Tanvir Khan, Yizhi Meng, Maya Shelly
During mammalian embryonic development, neurons polarize to create distinct cellular compartments of axon and dendrite that inherently differ in form and function, providing the foundation for directional signaling in the nervous system. Polarization results from spatio-temporal segregation of specific proteins' activities to discrete regions of the neuron to dictate axonal vs. dendritic fate. We aim to manipulate axon formation by directed subcellular localization of crucial intracellular protein function...
October 8, 2016: Biomaterials
Rebecca L Lamason, Effie Bastounis, Natasha M Kafai, Ricardo Serrano, Juan C Del Álamo, Julie A Theriot, Matthew D Welch
Spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiae are human pathogens that infect cells in the vasculature. They disseminate through host tissues by a process of cell-to-cell spread that involves protrusion formation, engulfment, and vacuolar escape. Other bacterial pathogens rely on actin-based motility to provide a physical force for spread. Here, we show that SFG species Rickettsia parkeri typically lack actin tails during spread and instead manipulate host intercellular tension and mechanotransduction to promote spread...
October 20, 2016: Cell
Divya Singh, Ghanshyam Upadhyay, Ananya Sengupta, Mohammed A Biplob, Shaleen Chakyayil, Tiji George, Shireen Saleque
Understanding the production and differentiation of megakaryocytes from progenitors is crucial for realizing the biology and functions of these vital cells. Previous gene ablation studies demonstrated the essential role of the transcriptional repressor Gfi1b (growth factor independence 1b) in the generation of both erythroid and megakaryocytic cells. However, our recent work has demonstrated the down-regulation of this factor during megakaryocytic differentiation. In this study we identify two new gene targets of Gfi1b, the cytoskeletal proteins Kindlin3 and Talin1, and demonstrate the inverse expression and functions of these cytoskeletal targets relative to Gfi1b, during megakaryocytic differentiation...
2016: PloS One
Nicole A Hawkins, Nicole J Zachwieja, Alison R Miller, Lyndsey L Anderson, Jennifer A Kearney
A substantial number of mutations have been identified in voltage-gated sodium channel genes that result in various forms of human epilepsy. SCN1A mutations result in a spectrum of severity ranging from mild febrile seizures to Dravet syndrome, an infant-onset epileptic encephalopathy. Dravet syndrome patients experience multiple seizures types that are often refractory to treatment, developmental delays, and elevated risk for SUDEP. The same sodium channel mutation can produce epilepsy phenotypes of varying clinical severity...
October 2016: PLoS Genetics
Takeshi Suzuki, Rohan Singh, Manfred Bayer, Arne Ludwig, Andreas D Wieck, Steven T Cundiff
Coherent control of a strongly inhomogeneously broadened system, namely, InAs self-assembled quantum dots, is demonstrated. To circumvent the deleterious effects of the inhomogeneous broadening, which usually masks the results of coherent manipulation, we use prepulse two-dimensional coherent spectroscopy to provide a size-selective readout of the ground, exciton, and biexciton states. The dependence on the timing of the prepulse is due to the dynamics of the coherently generated populations. To further validate the results, we performed prepulse polarization dependent measurements and confirmed the behavior expected from selection rules...
October 7, 2016: Physical Review Letters
Zuojia Wang, Kan Yao, Min Chen, Hongsheng Chen, Yongmin Liu
Swift electrons moving closely parallel to a periodic grating produce far-field radiation of light, which is known as the Smith-Purcell effect. In this letter, we demonstrate that designer Babinet metasurfaces composed of C-aperture resonators offer a powerful control over the polarization state of the Smith-Purcell emission, which can hardly be achieved via traditional gratings. By coupling the intrinsically nonradiative energy bound at the source current sheet to the out-of-plane electric dipole and in-plane magnetic dipole of the C-aperture resonator, we are able to excite cross-polarized light thanks to the bianisotropic nature of the metasurface...
October 7, 2016: Physical Review Letters
Allison B Norvil, Christopher J Petell, Lama Abdullah Alabdi, Lanchen Wu, Sandra Rossie, Humaira Gowher
The catalytic domains of the de novo DNA methyltransferases, Dnmt3a-C and Dnmt3b-C are highly homologous. However their unique biochemical properties could potentially contribute to differences in the substrate preferences or biological functions of these enzymes. Dnmt3a-C forms tetramers through interactions at the dimer interface, which also promote multimerization on DNA and cooperativity. Similar to processive enzymes, cooperativity allows Dnmt3a-C to methylate multiple sites on the same DNA molecule, however it is unclear whether Dnmt3b-C methylates DNA by cooperative or processive mechanism...
October 21, 2016: Biochemistry
Kristin Bösch, Lamprinos Frantzeskakis, Miroslav Vraneš, Jörg Kämper, Kerstin Schipper, Vera Göhre
Gene deletion plays an important role in the analysis of gene function. One of the most efficient methods to disrupt genes in a targeted manner is the replacement of the entire gene with a selectable marker via homologous recombination. During homologous recombination, exchange of DNA takes place between sequences with high similarity. Therefore, linear genomic sequences flanking a target gene can be used to specifically direct a selectable marker to the desired integration site. Blunt ends of the deletion construct activate the cell's DNA repair systems and thereby promote integration of the construct either via homologous recombination or by non-homologous-end-joining...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Paolo Gabrieli, Francesca Scolari
The Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is a pest species with extremely high agricultural relevance. This is due to its reproductive behavior: females damage the external surface of fruits and vegetables when they lay eggs and the hatched larvae feed on their pulp. Wild C. capitata populations are traditionally controlled through insecticide spraying and/or eco-friendly approaches, the most successful being the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). The SIT relies on mass-rearing, radiation-based sterilization and field release of males that retain their capacity to mate but are not able to generate fertile progeny...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Jennifer H Madenspacher, Michael B Fessler
Although community-acquired pneumonia remains a major public health problem, murine models of bacterial pneumonia have recently facilitated significant preclinical advances in our understanding of the underlying cellular and molecular pathogenesis. In vivo mouse models capture the integrated physiology and resilience of the host defense response in a manner not revealed by alternative, simplified ex vivo approaches. Several methods have been described in the literature for intrapulmonary inoculation of bacteria in mice, including aerosolization, intranasal delivery, peroral endotracheal cannulation under 'blind' and visualized conditions, and transcutaneous endotracheal cannulation...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Philipp Leinen, Matthew F B Green, Taner Esat, Christian Wagner, F Stefan Tautz, Ruslan Temirov
Considering organic molecules as the functional building blocks of future nanoscale technology, the question of how to arrange and assemble such building blocks in a bottom-up approach is still open. The scanning probe microscope (SPM) could be a tool of choice; however, SPM-based manipulation was until recently limited to two dimensions (2D). Binding the SPM tip to a molecule at a well-defined position opens an opportunity of controlled manipulation in 3D space. Unfortunately, 3D manipulation is largely incompatible with the typical 2D-paradigm of viewing and generating SPM data on a computer...
October 2, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Szu-I Yeh, Wei-Feng Fang, Chao-Jyun Huang, Tzu-Ming Wang, Jing-Tang Yang
A simple and visual method to detect multi-nucleotide polymorphism (MNP) was performed on a pneumatic droplet manipulation platform on an open surface. This approach to colorimetric DNA detection was based on the hybridization-mediated growth of gold nanoparticle probes (AuNP probes). The growth size and configuration of the AuNP are dominated by the number of DNA samples hybridized with the probes. Based on the specific size- and shape-dependent optical properties of the nanoparticles, the number of mismatches in a sample DNA fragment to the probes is able to be discriminated...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Kerui Gong, Peter T Ohara, Luc Jasmin
Patch clamp studies from dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) neurons have increased our understanding of the peripheral nervous system. Currently, the majority of recordings are conducted on dissociated DRG neurons, which is a standard preparation for most laboratories. Neuronal properties, however, can be altered by axonal injury resulting from enzyme digestion used in acquiring dissociated neurons. Further, dissociated neuron preparations cannot fully represent the microenvironment of the DRG since loss of contact with satellite glial cells that surround the primary sensory neurons is an unavoidable consequence of this method...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
A Priezzhev, K Lee
Laser trapping and manipulation of blood cells without mechanical contact have become feasible with implication of laser tweezers. They open up new horizons for the hemorheologic researches, offer new possibilities for studying live cells interactions on individual cell level under the influence of different endogenous and exogenous factors. The operation principle of laser tweezers is based on the property of strongly focused laser beam to act on a dielectric microparticle located in the vicinity of the beam waist with a force that drives the particle to the equilibrium location and holds it there...
October 21, 2016: Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation
Seetharam Shiva Prasad, L Ramachandra, Vijay Kumar, Aniket Dave, Lalit K Mestha, Krithika Venkatarmani
BACKGROUND: Thermographic imaging is a non-invasive and radiation free imaging modality that measures the infrared radiation released by the body. Recently, there is a renewed interest regarding the scope of thermal imaging for breast cancer. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of thermographic breast imaging in detecting breast cancer. METHODS: A Prospective observational study was carried out from January 2014 to December 2014 at Kasturba Hospital, Manipal, India...
October 17, 2016: Breast Disease
Juan Luis Gómez-Amador, Luis Alberto Ortega-Porcayo, Isaac Jair Palacios-Ortíz, Alexander Perdomo-Pantoja, Felipe Eduardo Nares-López, Alfredo Vega-Alarcón
Brainstem cavernous malformations are challenging due to the critical anatomy and potential surgical risks. Anterolateral, lateral, and dorsal surgical approaches provide limited ventral exposure of the brainstem. The authors present a case of a midline ventral pontine cavernous malformation resected through an endoscopic endonasal transclival approach based on minimal brainstem transection, negligible cranial nerve manipulation, and a straightforward trajectory. Technical and reconstruction technique advances in endoscopic endonasal skull base surgery provide a direct, safe, and effective corridor to the brainstem...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery
Eric Banan-Mwine Daliri, Shuai Wei, Deog H Oh, Byong H Lee
The mammalian gastrointestinal tract has co-developed with a large number of microbes in a symbiotic relationship over millions of years. Recent studies indicate that indigenous bacteria are intimate with the intestine and play essential roles in health and disease. In the quest to maintain a stable niche, these prokaryotes influence multiple host metabolic pathways, resulting from an interactive host-microbiota metabolic signaling and impacting strongly on the metabolic phenotypes of the host. Since dysbiosis of the gut bacteria result in alteration in the levels of certain microbial and host co-metabolites, identifying these markers could enhance early detection of diseases...
October 21, 2016: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Gil Henkin, Daniel Berard, Francis Stabile, Marjan Shayegan, Jason S Leith, Sabrina R Leslie
We present a dynamically adjustable nanofluidic platform for formatting the conformations of and visualizing the interaction kinetics between biomolecules in solution, offering new time resolution and control of the reaction processes. This platform extends Convex Lens-induced Confinement (CLiC), a technique for imaging molecules under confinement, by introducing a system for in-situ modification of the chemical environment; this system uses a deep microchannel to diffusively exchange reagents within the nanoscale imaging region, whose height is fixed by a nanopost array...
October 21, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
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