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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822134/genome-scale-modeling-of-photorespiratory-pathway-manipulation
#1
Anika Küken, Zoran Nikoloski
Quantifying the redistribution of metabolic reaction fluxes under experimental scenarios that affect the photorespiratory pathway can provide insights about the coupling of this pathway with other parts of metabolism. However, differential flux profiling on a genome-scale level remains the biggest challenge in modern systems biology. Here we present a protocol for applying a constraint-based approach, termed iReMet-Flux, that integrates data about relative metabolite levels in a stoichiometric metabolic model to predict differential fluxes at a genome-scale level under mild modeling assumptions...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821843/broadband-polarization-conversion-with-anisotropic-plasmonic-metasurfaces
#2
Wei Cao, Xiaodong Yang, Jie Gao
Metasurfaces offer exciting opportunities that enable precise control of light propagation, optical intensity, phase and polarization. Plasmonic metasurface based quarter-wave plates have been recently studied to realize the conversion between linear polarization and circular polarization. However, it is still quite challenging to directly measure the birefringent phase retardation introduced by metasurface wave plates with a reliable technique. Here, we report a high-performance broadband metasurface quarter-wave plate made of anisotropic T-shaped plasmonic antennas in near-infrared wavelength range, where the achromatic nearly 90° transmitted phase retardation through the metasurface is precisely characterized with an optical vortex based interferometric approach...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821829/neuromodulatory-circuit-effects-on-drosophila-feeding-behaviour-and-metabolism
#3
Anders Eriksson, Marlena Raczkowska, Rapeechai Navawongse, Deepak Choudhury, James C Stewart, Yi Ling Tang, Zhiping Wang, Adam Claridge-Chang
Animals have evolved to maintain homeostasis in a changing external environment by adapting their internal metabolism and feeding behaviour. Metabolism and behaviour are coordinated by neuromodulation; a number of the implicated neuromodulatory systems are homologous between mammals and the vinegar fly, an important neurogenetic model. We investigated whether silencing fly neuromodulatory networks would elicit coordinated changes in feeding, behavioural activity and metabolism. We employed transgenic lines that allowed us to inhibit broad cellular sets of the dopaminergic, serotonergic, octopaminergic, tyraminergic and neuropeptide F systems...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821812/crows-rival-monkeys-in-cognitive-capacity
#4
Dmitry Balakhonov, Jonas Rose
The present study compares the 'bandwidth of cognition' between crows and primates. Working memory is the ability to maintain and manipulate information over short periods of time - a core component of cognition. The capacity of working memory is tightly limited, in humans correlated with individual intelligence and commonly used synonymously with cognitive capacity. Crows have remarkable cognitive skills and while birds and mammals share neural principles of working memory, its capacity has not been tested in crows...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821808/repetition-suppression-to-objects-is-modulated-by-stimulus-specific-expectations
#5
Christian Utzerath, Elexa St John-Saaltink, Jan Buitelaar, Floris P de Lange
Repeated exposure to the same stimulus results in an attenuated brain response in cortical regions that are activated during the processing of that stimulus. This phenomenon, called repetition suppression (RS), has been shown to be modulated by expectation. Typically, this is achieved by varying the probability of stimulus repetitions (Prep) between blocks of an experiment, generating an abstract expectation that 'things will repeat'. Here, we examined whether stimulus-specific expectations also modulate RS...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821733/three-recombinantly-expressed-apple-tyrosinases-suggest-the-amino-acids-responsible-for-mono-versus-diphenolase-activity-in-plant-polyphenol-oxidases
#6
Ioannis Kampatsikas, Aleksandar Bijelic, Matthias Pretzler, Annette Rompel
Tyrosinases and catechol oxidases belong to the polyphenol oxidase (PPO) enzyme family, which is mainly responsible for the browning of fruits. Three cDNAs encoding PPO pro-enzymes have been cloned from leaves of Malus domestica (apple, MdPPO). The three pro-enzymes MdPPO1-3 were heterologously expressed in E. coli yielding substantial amounts of protein and have been characterized with regard to their optimum of activity resulting from SDS, acidic and proteolytic activation. Significant differences were found in the kinetic characterization of MdPPO1-3 when applying different mono- and diphenolic substrates...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821719/neural-physiological-and-behavioral-correlates-of-visuomotor-cognitive-load
#7
S M Hadi Hosseini, Jennifer L Bruno, Joseph M Baker, Andrew Gundran, Lene K Harbott, J Christian Gerdes, Allan L Reiss
Visuomotor ability is quite crucial for everyday functioning, particularly in driving and sports. While there is accumulating evidence regarding neural correlates of visuomotor transformation, less is known about the brain regions that accommodate visuomotor mapping under different cognitive demands. We concurrently measured cortical activity and pupillary response, using functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) and eye-tracking glasses, to examine the neural systems linked to pupil dilation under varying cognitive demands...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821655/goal-directed-visual-processing-differentially-impacts-human-ventral-and-dorsal-visual-representations
#8
Maryam Vaziri-Pashkam, Yaoda Xu
Recent studies have challenged the ventral/"what" and dorsal/"where" two-visual-processing-pathway view by showing the existence of "what" and "where" information in both pathways. Is the two-pathway distinction still valid? Here, we examined how goal-directed visual information processing may differentially impact visual representations in these two pathways. Using fMRI and MVPA, in three experiments on human participants (57% females), by manipulating whether color or shape were task relevant and how they were conjoined, we examined shape-based object category decoding in occipito-temporal and parietal regions...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821654/wnt9a-can-influence-cell-fates-and-neural-connectivity-across-the-radial-axis-of-the-developing-cochlea
#9
Vidhya Munnamalai, Ulrike J Sienknecht, R Keith Duncan, M Katie Scott, Ankita Thawani, Kristen N Fantetti, Nadia M Atallah, Deborah J Biesemeier, Kuhn H Song, Kirsten Luethy, Eric Traub, Donna M Fekete
Vertebrate hearing organs manifest cellular asymmetries across the radial axis that underlie afferent versus efferent circuits between the inner ear and the brain. Thus, understanding the molecular control of patterning across this axis has important functional implications. Radial axis patterning begins before the cells become postmitotic, and is likely linked to the onset of asymmetric expression of secreted factors adjacent to the sensory primordium. This study explores one such asymmetrically-expressed gene, Wnt9a, that becomes restricted to the neural edge of the avian auditory organ, the basilar papilla, by embryonic day (E) 5...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821650/feedback-signal-from-motoneurons-influences-a-rhythmic-pattern-generator
#10
Horacio G Rotstein, Elisa Schneider, Lidia Szczupak
Motoneurons are not mere output units of neuronal circuits that control motor behavior, but participate in pattern generation. Research on the circuit that controls the crawling motor behavior in leeches indicated that motoneurons participate as modulators of this rhythmic motor pattern. Crawling results from successive bouts of elongation and contraction of the whole leech body. In the isolated segmental ganglia dopamine can induce a rhythmic antiphasic activity of the motoneurons that control contraction (DE-3 motoneurons) and elongation (CV motoneurons)...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821645/mutant-huntingtin-is-secreted-via-a-late-endosomal-lysosomal-unconventional-secretory-pathway
#11
Katarina Trajkovic, Hyunkyong Jeong, Dimitri Krainc
Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder caused by the expansion of a CAG triplet in the gene encoding for huntingtin. The resulting mutant protein huntingtin (mHtt) with extended polyglutamine (polyQ) sequence at the N-terminus leads to neuronal degeneration both in cell-autonomous and non-cell-autonomous manners. Recent studies identified mHtt in the extracellular environment and suggested that its spreading contributes to toxicity, but the mechanism of mHtt release from the cell of origin remains unknown...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821462/ferritin-nanocage-with-intrinsically-disordered-proteins-and-affibody-a-platform-for-tumor-targeting-with-extended-pharmacokinetics
#12
Na Kyeong Lee, Eun Jung Lee, Soyoun Kim, Gi-Hoon Nam, Minwoo Kih, Yeonsun Hong, Cherlhyun Jeong, Yoosoo Yang, Youngro Byun, In-San Kim
Ferritin nanocages are of particular interest as a novel platform for drug and vaccine delivery, diagnosis, biomineralization scaffold and more, due to their perfect and complex symmetry, ideal physical properties, high biocompatibility, low toxicity profiles as well as easy manipulation by genetic or chemical strategies. However, a short half-life is still a hurdle for the translation of ferritin-based nanomedicines into the clinic. Here, we developed a series of rationally designed long circulating ferritin nanocages (LCFNs) with 'Intrinsically Disordered Proteins (IDP)' as a stealth layer for extending the half-life of ferritin nanocages...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820894/short-term-apparent-brain-tissue-changes-are-contributed-by-cerebral-blood-flow-alterations
#13
Qiu Ge, Wei Peng, Jian Zhang, Xuchu Weng, Yong Zhang, Thomas Liu, Yu-Feng Zang, Ze Wang
Structural MRI (sMRI)-identified tissue "growth" after neuropsychological training has been reported in many studies but the origins of those apparent tissue changes (ATC) still remain elusive. One possible contributor to ATC is brain perfusion since T1-weighted MRI, the tool used to identify ATC, is sensitive to perfusion-change induced tissue T1 alterations. To test the hypothetical perfusion contribution to ATC, sMRI data were acquired before and after short-term global and regional perfusion manipulations via intaking a 200 mg caffeine pill and performing a sensorimotor task...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820742/spatial-valley-separation-in-strained-graphene-pn-junction
#14
HongYu Tian, Jun Wang
Valleytronics in analogy to spintronics aims to use the electron valley degree of freedom to carry and manipulate information, and one of urgent tasks in this field is to generate valley-polarized electrons. In this work, we propose using the electron focusing effect in a strained graphene pn junction to separate valleys spatially through a beam of valley-unpolarized electrons, since the strain-induced pseudo-gauge potentials are opposite for K and [Formula: see text] valleys and severely affect the trajectories of K and [Formula: see text] electron propagation...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820673/asymmetric-compression-of-representational-space-for-object-animacy-categorization-under-degraded-viewing-conditions
#15
Tijl Grootswagers, J Brendan Ritchie, Susan G Wardle, Andrew Heathcote, Thomas A Carlson
Animacy is a robust organizing principle among object category representations in the human brain. Using multivariate pattern analysis methods, it has been shown that distance to the decision boundary of a classifier trained to discriminate neural activation patterns for animate and inanimate objects correlates with observer RTs for the same animacy categorization task [Ritchie, J. B., Tovar, D. A., & Carlson, T. A. Emerging object representations in the visual system predict reaction times for categorization...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820316/cell-cycle-related-metabolism-and-mitochondrial-dynamics-in-a-replication-competent-pancreatic-beta-cell-line
#16
Chiara Montemurro, Suryakiran Vadrevu, Tatyana Gurlo, Alexandra E Butler, Kenny E Vongbunyong, Anton Petcherski, Orian S Shirihai, Leslie S Satin, Daniel Braas, Peter C Butler, Slavica Tudzarova
Cell replication is a fundamental attribute of growth and repair in multicellular organisms. Pancreatic beta-cells in adults rarely enter cell cycle, hindering the capacity for regeneration in diabetes. Efforts to drive beta-cells into cell cycle have so far largely focused on regulatory molecules such as cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). Investigations in cancer biology have uncovered that adaptive changes in metabolism, the mitochondrial network, and cellular Ca(2+) are critical for permitting cells to progress through the cell cycle...
August 18, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820165/extraocular-needle-guided-haptic-insertion-technique-of-scleral-fixation-intraocular-lens-surgeries-x-nit
#17
Prabu Baskaran, Pratyusha Ganne, Sahil Bhandari, Seema Ramakrishnan, Rengaraj Venkatesh, Prashant Gireesh
The most challenging step in sutureless scleral fixation of intraocular lens (SFIOL) is exteriorization of haptics. The conventional handshake technique has a learning curve since it involves intraocular handing over of haptics from one forceps to another. Here, we describe "extraocular needle-guided haptic insertion technique" (X-NIT), a novel technique of exteriorizing haptics that totally eliminates intraocular manipulations. This method involves sequential introduction of two bent 26-gauge needles through the sclera (pars plicata zone) into the eye which are brought out through a sclerocorneal wound...
August 2017: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820140/clarity-of-objectives-and-working-principles-enhances-the-success-of-biomimetic-programs
#18
Jonas Wolff, David Wells, Chris Reid, Sean John Blamires
Biomimetics, the transfer of functional principles from living systems into product designs, is increasingly being utilized by engineers. Nevertheless, recurring problems must be overcome if it is to avoid becoming a short-lived fad. Here we assess the efficiency and suitability of methods typically employed by examining three flagship examples of biomimetic design approaches from different disciplines: (1) the creation of gecko-inspired adhesives; (2) the synthesis of spider silk, and (3) the derivation of computer algorithms from natural self-organizing systems...
August 18, 2017: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820053/neurobiological-mechanisms-of-stress-resilience-and-implications-for-the-aged-population
#19
Charlène Faye, Josephine C Mcgowan, Christine A Denny, Denis J David
Stress is a common reaction to an environmental adversity, but a dysregulation of the stress response can lead to psychiatric illnesses such as major depressive disorder (MDD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and anxiety disorders. Yet, not all individuals exposed to stress will develop psychiatric disorders; those with enhanced stress resilience mechanisms have the ability to adapt successfully to stress without developing persistent psychopathology. Notably, the potential to enhance stress resilience in at-risk populations may prevent the onset of stress-induced psychiatric disorders...
August 17, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819762/separating-the-limbs-of-yoga-limited-effects-on-stress-and-mood
#20
Evangeline A Wheeler, Antonia N Santoro, Alicia F Bembenek
Though millions of people practice yoga to reduce stress and improve their mood, it is unclear which aspect of yoga is responsible for these effects. To investigate relevant aspects, or "limbs" of yoga, participants who were novices in the practice of yoga engaged in a single yoga manipulation (i.e., poses, breath work, meditation, or listening to a lecture about yoga) for 20 min before experiencing a mild stressor. Participants' heart rate, blood pressure, mood, and anxiety level were assessed, both immediately after the yoga manipulation and after the mild stressor...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Religion and Health
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