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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449264/macroscopically-oriented-porous-materials-with-periodic-ordered-structures-from-zeolites-and-metal-organic-frameworks-to-liquid-crystal-templated-mesoporous-materials
#1
REVIEW
Joonil Cho, Yasuhiro Ishida
Porous materials with molecular-sized periodic structures, as exemplified by zeolites, metal-organic frameworks, or mesoporous silica, have attracted increasing attention due to their range of applications in storage, sensing, separation, and transformation of small molecules. Although the components of such porous materials have a tendency to pack in unidirectionally oriented periodic structures, such ideal types of packing cannot continue indefinitely, generally ceasing when they reach a micrometer scale...
April 27, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449248/betanodavirus-dissection-of-the-viral-life-cycle
#2
REVIEW
C-F Low, B Syarul Nataqain, H-Y Chee, M Z H Rozaini, M Najiah
Progressive research has been recently made in dissecting the molecular biology of Betanodavirus life cycle, the causative pathogen of viral encephalopathy and retinopathy in economic important marine fish species. Establishment of betanodavirus infectious clone allows the manipulation of virus genome for functional genomic study, which elucidates the biological event of the viral life cycle at molecular level. The betanodavirus strategizes its replication by expressing anti-apoptosis/antinecrotic proteins to maintain the cell viability during early infection...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Fish Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448919/mechanochemical-mechanism-of-integrin-clustering-modulated-by-nanoscale-ligand-spacing-and-rigidity-of-extracellular-substrates
#3
Jing Yu, Jianyong Huang, John A Jansen, Chunyang Xiong, X Frank Walboomers
Experimental findings indicate that cell function and behavior such as cell growth, division, migration and differentiation, are subtly regulated via integrin-dependent cell adhesion. Cell adhesion is influenced by nanoscale ligand spacing and rigidity of extracellular substrates, as cell adhesion drops greatly when the ligand spacing is larger than ~60nm, and cell adhesion is stronger on stiff than soft substrates. However, how nanoscale ligand spacing and substrate stiffness jointly affect integrin clustering and hence nascent cell adhesion remains to be elucidated...
April 14, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448915/ozone-exposure-affects-tree-defoliation-in-a-continental-climate
#4
Alessandra De Marco, Marcello Vitale, Ionel Popa, Alessandro Anav, Ovidiu Badea, Diana Silaghi, Stefan Leca, Augusto Screpanti, Elena Paoletti
Ground-level ozone (O3) affects trees through visible leaf injury, accelerating leaf senescence, declining foliar chlorophyll content, photosynthetic activity, growth, carbon sequestration, predisposing to pests attack and a variety of other physiological effects. Tree crown defoliation is one of the most important parameters that is representative of forest health and vitality. Effects of air pollution on forests have been investigated through manipulative experiments that are not representative of the real environmental conditions observed in the field...
April 24, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448851/accurate-3d-reconstruction-of-bony-surfaces-using-ultrasonic-synthetic-aperture-techniques-for-robotic-knee-arthroplasty
#5
William Kerr, Philip Rowe, Stephen Gareth Pierce
Robotically guided knee arthroplasty systems generally require an individualized, preoperative 3D model of the knee joint. This is typically measured using Computed Tomography (CT) which provides the required accuracy for preoperative surgical intervention planning. Ultrasound imaging presents an attractive alternative to CT, allowing for reductions in cost and the elimination of doses of ionizing radiation, whilst maintaining the accuracy of the 3D model reconstruction of the joint. Traditional phased array ultrasound imaging methods, however, are susceptible to poor resolution and signal to noise ratios (SNR)...
April 19, 2017: Computerized Medical Imaging and Graphics: the Official Journal of the Computerized Medical Imaging Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448738/site-specific-recruitment-of-epigenetic-factors-with-a-modular-crispr-cas-system
#6
Tobias Anton, Sebastian Bultmann
Dissecting the complex network of epigenetic modifications requires tools that combine precise recognition of DNA sequences with the capability to modify epigenetic marks. The CRISPR/Cas system has been proven to be a valuable addition to existing methodologies that fulfill these tasks. So far, sequence-specific editing of epigenetic modifications such as DNA methylation and histone posttranslational modifications relied on direct fusions of enzymatically inactivated Cas9 (dCas9) with epigenetic effectors. Here, we report a novel, modular system that facilitates the recruitment of any GFP-tagged protein to desired genomic loci...
February 23, 2017: Nucleus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448462/targeting-the-atr-chk1-axis-in-cancer-therapy
#7
REVIEW
Stuart Rundle, Alice Bradbury, Yvette Drew, Nicola J Curtin
Targeting the DNA damage response (DDR) is a new therapeutic approach in cancer that shows great promise for tumour selectivity. Key components of the DDR are the ataxia telangiectasia mutated and Rad3 related (ATR) and checkpoint kinase 1 (CHK1) kinases. This review article describes the role of ATR and its major downstream target, CHK1, in the DDR and why cancer cells are particularly reliant on the ATR-CHK1 pathway, providing the rationale for targeting these kinases, and validation of this hypothesis by genetic manipulation...
April 27, 2017: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448223/the-alerrt-%C3%A2-instrument-a-quantitative-measure-of-the-effort-required-to-compromise-prescription-opioid-abuse-deterrent-tablets
#8
Edward J Cone, August R Buchhalter, Karsten Lindhardt, Torben Elhauge, Jeffrey M Dayno
BACKGROUND: US FDA guidance recommends measuring the degree of effort needed to manipulate abuse-deterrent (AD) opioids. The ALERRT(®) instrument (PinneyAssociates; Bethesda, MD) uses visual analog scales to assess the labor, effort, and resources necessary to physically compromise AD product candidates in standardized settings. OBJECTIVE: Use the ALERRT(®) instrument for testing morphine abuse-deterrent, extended-release, injection-molded tablets (ADER-IMT) 60 and 100 mg and the comparators immediate-release (IR) morphine sulfate 30 mg and extended-release (ER) morphine sulfate 60 mg...
May 2017: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448034/using-a-fluorescent-pcr-capillary-gel-electrophoresis-technique-to-genotype-crispr-cas9-mediated-knockout-mutants-in-a-high-throughput-format
#9
Muhammad Khairul Ramlee, Jing Wang, Alice M S Cheung, Shang Li
The development of programmable genome-editing tools has facilitated the use of reverse genetics to understand the roles specific genomic sequences play in the functioning of cells and whole organisms. This cause has been tremendously aided by the recent introduction of the CRISPR/Cas9 system-a versatile tool that allows researchers to manipulate the genome and transcriptome in order to, among other things, knock out, knock down, or knock in genes in a targeted manner. For the purpose of knocking out a gene, CRISPR/Cas9-mediated double-strand breaks recruit the non-homologous end-joining DNA repair pathway to introduce the frameshift-causing insertion or deletion of nucleotides at the break site...
April 8, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448030/synthesis-of-biocompatible-liquid-crystal-elastomer-foams-as-cell-scaffolds-for-3d-spatial-cell-cultures
#10
Marianne E Prévôt, Senay Ustunel, Leah E Bergquist, Richard Cukelj, Yunxiang Gao, Taizo Mori, Lindsay Pauline, Robert J Clements, Elda Hegmann
Here, we present a step-by-step preparation of a 3D, biodegradable, foam-like cell scaffold. These scaffolds were prepared by cross-linking star block co-polymers featuring cholesterol units as side-chain pendant groups, resulting in smectic-A (SmA) liquid crystal elastomers (LCEs). Foam-like scaffolds, prepared using metal templates, feature interconnected microchannels, making them suitable as 3D cell culture scaffolds. The combined properties of the regular structure of the metal foam and of the elastomer result in a 3D cell scaffold that promotes not only higher cell proliferation compared to conventional porous templated films, but also better management of mass transport (i...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448021/detection-of-ligand-activated-g-protein-coupled-receptor-internalization-by-confocal-microscopy
#11
Jingwen Yang, Yunjun Yan, Xiaowei Xiang, Yuchao Xu, Naiming Zhou, Tianming Wang
Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) is an optical imaging technique for high-contrast imaging. It is a powerful approach to visualize fluorescent fusion proteins, such as green fluorescent protein (GFP), to determine their expression, localization, and function. The subcellular localization of target proteins is important for identification, characterization, and functional analyses. Internalization is one of the predominant mechanisms controlling G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling to ensure the appropriate cellular responses to stimuli...
April 9, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448018/live-imaging-of-antifungal-activity-by-human-primary-neutrophils-and-monocytes-in-response-to-a-fumigatus
#12
Shan F Brunel, Jude M Bain, Jill King, Lena J Heung, Shinji Kasahara, Tobias M Hohl, Adilia Warris
Aspergillus fumigatus is an opportunistic fungal pathogen causing invasive infections in immunocompromised hosts with a high case-fatality rate. Research investigating immunological responses against A. fumigatus has been limited by the lack of consistent and reliable assays for measuring the antifungal activity of specific immune cells in vitro. A new method is described to assess the antifungal activity of primary monocytes and neutrophils from human donors against A. fumigatus using FLuorescent Aspergillus REporter (FLARE) conidia...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448017/low-density-primary-hippocampal-neuron-culture
#13
Reiko T Roppongi, Kevin P Champagne-Jorgensen, Tabrez J Siddiqui
The ability to probe the structure and physiology of individual nerve cells in culture is crucial to the study of neurobiology, and allows for flexibility in genetic and chemical manipulation of individual cells or defined networks. Such ease of manipulation is simpler in the reduced culture system when compared to the intact brain tissue. While many methods for the isolation and growth of these primary neurons exist, each has its own limitations. This protocol describes a method for culturing low-density and high-purity rodent embryonic hippocampal neurons on glass coverslips, which are then suspended over a monolayer of glial cells...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448000/high-resolution-imaging-and-analysis-of-individual-astral-microtubule-dynamics-in-budding-yeast
#14
Colby P Fees, Cassi Estrem, Jeffrey K Moore
Dynamic microtubules are fundamental to many cellular processes, and accurate measurements of microtubule dynamics can provide insight into how cells regulate these processes and how genetic mutations impact regulation. The quantification of microtubule dynamics in metazoan models has a number of associated challenges, including a high microtubule density and limitations on genetic manipulations. In contrast, the budding yeast model offers advantages that overcome these challenges. This protocol describes a method to measure the dynamics of single microtubules in living yeast cells...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447996/task-interruption-and-resumption-paradigm-for-testing-the-activation-and-pursuit-of-an-abstract-thinking-goal
#15
Jae-Eun Namkoong, Marlone D Henderson
This protocol is based on the task interruption and resumption paradigm, the premise of which is that active goals lead to persistent behavior and thus a higher resumption rate after a period of delay or interruption. The task interruption and resumption protocol described in this research is tailored to test the activation of cognitive goals (e.g., a goal to think more abstractly). Cognitive goals may be pursued even during the interruption period; thus, to prevent this, the protocol involves cognitive distraction...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447975/measurement-of-quantum-interference-in-a-silicon-ring-resonator-photon-source
#16
Jeffrey A Steidle, Michael L Fanto, Stefan F Preble, Christopher C Tison, Gregory A Howland, Zihao Wang, Paul M Alsing
Silicon photonic chips have the potential to realize complex integrated quantum information processing circuits, including photon sources, qubit manipulation, and integrated single-photon detectors. Here, we present the key aspects of preparing and testing a silicon photonic quantum chip with an integrated photon source and two-photon interferometer. The most important aspect of an integrated quantum circuit is minimizing loss so that all of the generated photons are detected with the highest possible fidelity...
April 4, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447801/droplets-on-microdecorated-surfaces-evolution-of-the-polygonal-contact-line
#17
Alok Kumar, Rishi Raj
Interaction of liquids with surfaces is ubiquitous in our physical environment as well as many engineering applications. Recent advances on this topic have not only provided us with valuable insight into nature's design, but also enabled improved fluidic manipulation for liquid-based printing applications such as bio-microarrays for protein and DNA sequencing, multicolor polymer-based LED displays, inkjet printing, and solder droplet printing, among others. For example, droplet contact lines which are typically circular on a smooth and homogenous surface when deposited on a microdecorated surface may take various common polygonal shapes such as squares, rectangles, hexagons, octagons and dodecagons...
April 27, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447798/spontaneous-droplet-motion-on-a-periodic-compliant-substrate
#18
Tianshu Liu, Nichole K Nadermann, Zhenping He, Steven H Strogatz, Chung-Yuen Hui, Anand Jagota
Droplet motion arises in many natural phenomena, ranging from the familiar gravity-driven slip and arrest of raindrops on windows, to the directed transport of droplets for water harvesting by plants and animals under dry conditions. Delib-erate transportation and manipulation of droplets is also important in many technological applications, including drop-let-based microfluidic chemical reactors and for thermal management. Droplet motion usually requires gradients of sur-face energy or temperature, or external vibration to overcome contact angle hysteresis...
April 27, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447573/improving-neurorepair-in-stroke-brain-through-endogenous-neurogenesis-enhancing-drugs
#19
Kuo-Jen Wu, Seongjin Yu, Jea-Young Lee, Barry Hoffer, Yun Wang
Stroke induces not only cell death but also neurorepair. De novo neurogenesis has been found in the subventricular zone(SVZ) of adult mammalian brain days after stroke. Most of these newly generated cells die shortly after the insult. Recent studies have shown that pharmacological manipulation can improve the survival of endogenous neuroprogenitor cells and neural regeneration in stroke rats. As these drugs target the endogenous reparative processes which occur days after stroke, they may provide a prolonged window for stroke therapy...
April 26, 2017: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447538/imitation-learning-errors-are-affected-by-visual-cues-in-both-performance-and-observation-phases
#20
Takashi Mizuguchi, Ryoko Sugimura, Hideaki Shimada, Takehiro Hasegawa
Mechanisms of action imitation were examined. Previous studies have suggested that success or failure of imitation is determined at the point of observing an action. In other words, cognitive processing after observation is not related to the success of imitation; 20 university students participated in each of three experiments in which they observed a series of object manipulations consisting of four elements (hands, tools, object, and end points) and then imitated the manipulations. In Experiment 1, a specific element that was initially observed was color coded, and the specific object that was manipulated at the imitation stage was identically color coded; participants accurately imitated the color coded element...
January 1, 2017: Perceptual and Motor Skills
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