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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692065/-responses-of-stem-hydraulic-traits-in-salix-psammophila-and-caragana-korshinskii-to-manipulated-precipitation-variation
#1
Li Ru Chen, Yang Yang Li
With a precipitation manipulation experiment (Control, +45% and -50%), the responses of stem hydraulic traits in two dominant shrubs (Salix psammophila and Caragana korshinskii) of water-wind erosion crisscross region of the Loess Plateau to projected precipitation variation were examined to elucidate their adaptability to future precipitation changes. Results showed that the specific hydraulic conductivity (Ks ), leaf specific conductivity (Kl ) and Huber value in S. psammophila increased significantly by irrigation but showed no responses to drought...
February 2018: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691935/mitochondria-and-wolbachia-titers-are-positively-correlated-during-maternal-transmission
#2
Lucas P Henry, Irene L G Newton
Mothers provide their offspring with symbionts. Maternally transmitted, intracellular symbionts must disperse from mother to offspring with other cytoplasmic elements, like mitochondria. Here, we investigated how the intracellular symbiont Wolbachia interacts with mitochondria during maternal transmission. Mitochondria and Wolbachia may interact antagonistically and compete as each population tries to ensure its own evolutionary success. Alternatively, mitochondria and Wolbachia may cooperate as both benefit from ensuring the fitness of the mother...
April 25, 2018: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691929/optical-dampening-of-the-refractive-error-to-axial-length-ratio-implications-for-outcome-measures-in-myopia-control-studies
#3
Fiona E Cruickshank, Nicola S Logan
PURPOSE: To gauge the extent to which differences in the refractive error axial length relationship predicted by geometrical optics are observed in actual refractive/biometric data. METHODS: This study is a retrospective analysis of existing data. Right eye refractive error [RX] and axial length [AXL] data were collected on 343 6-to-7-year-old children [mean 7.18 years (S.D. 0.35)], 294 12-to-13-year-old children [mean 13.12 years (S.D. 0.32)] and 123 young adults aged 18-to-25-years [mean 20...
May 2018: Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics: the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691845/establishment-of-a-new-fish-cell-line-from-the-caudal-fin-of-golden-pompano-trachinotus-ovatus-and-its-susceptibility-to-iridovirus
#4
S Wei, Y Yu, Q Qin
A new cell line derived from the caudal fin of golden pompano Trachinotus ovatus (TOCF) was successfully established and characterized. TOCF cells grew well at 28° C in L-15 medium supplemented with 10% foetal bovine serum (FBS). The cell line has been subcultured in more than 100 passages. Molecular characterization of 18S ribosomal (r)RNA and cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI) confirmed that the TOCF cells were derived indeed from T. ovatus. TOCF cells have a modal chromosome number of 54. It was further showed that TOCF cells were transfected successfully with pEGFP-N3 and pDsRED-N1 plasmid, suggesting that TOCF cells could be used to research gene functions in vitro...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691825/the-use-of-electrospinning-technique-on-osteochondral-tissue-engineering
#5
Marta R Casanova, Rui L Reis, Albino Martins, Nuno M Neves
Electrospinning, an electrostatic fiber fabrication technique, has attracted significant interest in recent years due to its versatility and ability to produce highly tunable nanofibrous meshes. These nanofibrous meshes have been investigated as promising tissue engineering scaffolds since they mimic the scale and morphology of the native extracellular matrix. The sub-micron diameter of fibers produced by this process presents various advantages like the high surface area to volume ratio, tunable porosity, and the ability to manipulate the nanofiber composition in order to get desired properties and functionality...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691764/remember-to-blink-reduced-attentional-blink-following-instructions-to-forget
#6
Tracy L Taylor
This study used rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) to determine whether, in an item-method directed forgetting task, study word processing ends earlier for forget words than for remember words. The critical manipulation required participants to monitor an RSVP stream of black nonsense strings in which a single blue word was embedded. The next item to follow the word was a string of red fs that instructed the participant to forget the word or green rs that instructed the participant to remember the word...
April 24, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691762/object-width-modulates-object-based-attentional-selection
#7
Joseph C Nah, Marco Neppi-Modona, Lars Strother, Marlene Behrmann, Sarah Shomstein
Visual input typically includes a myriad of objects, some of which are selected for further processing. While these objects vary in shape and size, most evidence supporting object-based guidance of attention is drawn from paradigms employing two identical objects. Importantly, object size is a readily perceived stimulus dimension, and whether it modulates the distribution of attention remains an open question. Across four experiments, the size of the objects in the display was manipulated in a modified version of the two-rectangle paradigm...
April 24, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691715/influence-of-sewage-sludge-as-a-substrate-in-the-plasticity-of-functional-characteristics-of-plants
#8
Vicente Elício Porfiro Sales Gonçalves da Silva, Patrícia Marques Carneiro Buarque, Wanessa Nepomuceno Ferreira, Hugo Leonardo de Brito Buarque, Maria Amanda Menezes Silva
This work aimed to evaluate the effect of sewage sludge application as fertilizer on the plasticity of functional characteristics of species commonly found in the Caatinga. The research was developed in the nursery of the Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Ceará (IFCE), Quixadá campus, located in northeastern Brazil. Three treatments were applied: raw sludge, sanitized sludge, and no manipulation. In each treatment, five species were planted, each with five individuals, totaling 75 individuals, which were tagged, and 4 months after germination, they were destroyed to obtain dry matter content (TMSF) from leaf, stem (TMSC), fine root (TMSRF), and thick root (TMSRG); leaf area; height and diameter of the seedling; and length above and below the ground...
April 24, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691650/first-unitary-then-divided-the-temporal-dynamics-of-dividing-attention
#9
Lisa N Jefferies, Joseph B Witt
Whether focused visual attention can be divided has been the topic of much investigation, and there is a compelling body of evidence showing that, at least under certain conditions, attention can be divided and deployed as two independent foci. Three experiments were conducted to examine whether attention can be deployed in divided form from the outset, or whether it is first deployed as a unitary focus before being divided. To test this, we adapted the methodology of Jefferies, Enns, and Di Lollo (Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 40: 465, 2014), who used a dual-stream Attentional Blink paradigm and two letter-pair targets...
April 24, 2018: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691601/development-of-an-online-spe-uhplc-ms-ms-method-for-the-multiresidue-analysis-of-the-17-compounds-from-the-eu-watch-list
#10
Lucia Gusmaroli, Sara Insa, Mira Petrovic
During the last decades, the quality of aquatic ecosystems has been threatened by increasing levels of pollutions, caused by the discharge of man-made chemicals, both via accidental release of pollutants as well as a consequence of the constant outflow of inadequately treated wastewater effluents. For this reason, the European Union is updating its legislations with the aim of limiting the release of emerging contaminants. The Commission Implementing Decision (EU) 2015/495 published in March 2015 drafts a "Watch list" of compounds to be monitored Europe-wide...
April 24, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691482/why-does-the-microbiome-affect-behaviour
#11
REVIEW
Katerina V-A Johnson, Kevin R Foster
Growing evidence indicates that the mammalian microbiome can affect behaviour, and several symbionts even produce neurotransmitters. One common explanation for these observations is that symbionts have evolved to manipulate host behaviour for their benefit. Here, we evaluate the manipulation hypothesis by applying evolutionary theory to recent work on the gut-brain axis. Although the theory predicts manipulation by symbionts under certain conditions, these appear rarely satisfied by the genetically diverse communities of the mammalian microbiome...
April 24, 2018: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691413/fine-manipulation-of-sound-via-lossy-metamaterials-with-independent-and-arbitrary-reflection-amplitude-and-phase
#12
Yifan Zhu, Jie Hu, Xudong Fan, Jing Yang, Bin Liang, Xuefeng Zhu, Jianchun Cheng
The fine manipulation of sound fields is critical in acoustics yet is restricted by the coupled amplitude and phase modulations in existing wave-steering metamaterials. Commonly, unavoidable losses make it difficult to control coupling, thereby limiting device performance. Here we show the possibility of tailoring the loss in metamaterials to realize fine control of sound in three-dimensional (3D) space. Quantitative studies on the parameter dependence of reflection amplitude and phase identify quasi-decoupled points in the structural parameter space, allowing arbitrary amplitude-phase combinations for reflected sound...
April 24, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691403/bio-inspired-nano-traps-for-uranium-extraction-from-seawater-and-recovery-from-nuclear-waste
#13
Qi Sun, Briana Aguila, Jason Perman, Aleksandr S Ivanov, Vyacheslav S Bryantsev, Lyndsey D Earl, Carter W Abney, Lukasz Wojtas, Shengqian Ma
Nature can efficiently recognize specific ions by exerting second-sphere interactions onto well-folded protein scaffolds. However, a considerable challenge remains to artificially manipulate such affinity, while being cost-effective in managing immense amounts of water samples. Here, we propose an effective approach to regulate uranyl capture performance by creating bio-inspired nano-traps, illustrated by constructing chelating moieties into porous frameworks, where the binding motif's coordinative interaction towards uranyl is enhanced by introducing an assistant group, reminiscent of biological systems...
April 24, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691336/a-viral-suppressor-modulates-the-plant-immune-response-early-in-infection-by-regulating-microrna-activity
#14
Robert Pertermann, Selvaraj Tamilarasan, Torsten Gursinsky, Giorgio Gambino, Jana Schuck, Claus Weinholdt, Hauke Lilie, Ivo Grosse, Ralph Peter Golbik, Vitantonio Pantaleo, Sven-Erik Behrens
Many viral suppressors (VSRs) counteract antiviral RNA silencing, a central component of the plant's immune response by sequestration of virus-derived antiviral small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). Here, we addressed how VSRs affect the activities of cellular microRNAs (miRNAs) during a viral infection by characterizing the interactions of two unrelated VSRs, the Tombusvirus p19 and the Cucumovirus 2b, with miRNA 162 (miR162), miR168, and miR403. These miRNAs regulate the expression of the important silencing factors Dicer-like protein 1 (DCL1) and Argonaute proteins 1 and 2 (AGO1 and AGO2), respectively...
April 24, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691314/inferring-roles-in-defense-from-metabolic-allocation-of-rice-diterpenoids
#15
Xuan Lu, Juan Zhang, Benjamin Brown, Riqing Li, Julio Rodríguez-Romero, Aileen Berasategui, Bo Liu, Meimei Xu, Dangping Luo, Zhiqiang Pan, Scott Baerson, Jonathan Gershenzon, Zhaohu Li, Ane Sesma, Bing Yang, Reuben J Peters
Among their responses to microbial infection, plants deploy an arsenal of natural antibiotic products. These historically have been identified on the basis of their antibiotic activity in vitro, which leaves open the question of their relevance to defense in planta. The vast majority of such natural products from the important crop plant rice (Oryza sativa) are diterpenoids whose biosynthesis proceeds via either ent- or syn- copalyl diphosphate (CPP) intermediates, and which were isolated on the basis of their antibiotic activity against the fungal blast pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae...
April 24, 2018: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691311/software-for-convenient-correction-of-artifacts-in-sonomicrometry
#16
Alexander W Chen, Walter Herzog
Sonomicrometry is widely applied in biomechanics and physiology to measure precise distances with high temporal resolution. Although commonly used, its usefulness is often limited by the presence of artifacts that require correction. Unfortunately, procedures reported in the literature for artifact correction are often unclear. Furthermore, currently available tools for artifact correction require significant manual manipulations, the consistency of which takes painstaking effort to verify. To improve the efficiency and consistency of sonomicrometry, we have developed a new software tool for the correction of sonomicrometry artifacts...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691291/rapid-integration-of-multi-copy-transgenes-using-optogenetic-mutagenesis-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#17
Kentaro Noma, Yishi Jin
Stably transmitted transgenes are indispensable for labeling cellular components and manipulating cellular functions. In Caenorhabditis elegans , transgenes are generally generated as inheritable multi-copy extrachromosomal arrays, which can be stabilized in the genome through a mutagenesis-mediated integration process. Standard methods to integrate extrachromosomal arrays primarily use protocols involving ultraviolet light plus trimethylpsoralen or gamma- or X-ray irradiation, which are laborious and time-consuming...
April 24, 2018: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691281/loss-of-fgfr1-in-chondrocytes-inhibits-osteoarthritis-through-promoting-autophagic-activity-in-temporomandibular-joint
#18
Zuqiang Wang, Junlan Huang, Siru Zhou, Fengtao Luo, Qiaoyan Tan, Xianding Sun, Zhenhong Ni, Hangang Chen, Xiaolan Du, Yangli Xie, Lin Chen
Temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis (TMJ OA) is common degenerative disease with few effective disease-modifying treatments in clinic. Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling is implicated in articular cartilage homeostasis, but the functional roles of FGFR1 in TMJ OA remain largely unknown. In this study, we report that deletion of Fgfr1 in TMJ chondrocytes delayed the TMJ OA progression in age-associated spontaneous OA model and abnormal dental occlusion OA model. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that Fgfr1 deficiency decreased the expressions of matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP13),A disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs 5 (ADAMTS5) , COL10A1, while increased aggrecan expression level in two TMJ OA models...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691225/suppression-of-epithelial-folding-at-actomyosin-enriched-compartment-boundaries-downstream-of-wingless-signalling-in-drosophila
#19
Jose M Urbano, Huw W Naylor, Elena Scarpa, Leila Muresan, Bénédicte Sanson
Epithelial folding shapes embryos and tissues during development. Here, we investigate the coupling between epithelial folding and actomyosin-enriched compartmental boundaries. The mechanistic relationship between the two is unclear, because actomyosin-enriched boundaries are not necessarily associated with folds. Also, some cases of epithelial folding occur independently of actomyosin contractility. We investigated the shallow folds called parasegment grooves that form at boundaries between anterior and posterior compartments in the early Drosophila embryo...
April 24, 2018: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690999/rheokinetics-of-graft-copolymerization-of-acrylamide-in-concentrated-starch-and-rheological-behaviors-and-microstructures-of-reaction-products
#20
Xianyang Bao, Long Yu, George P Simon, Shirley Shen, Fengwei Xie, Hongsheng Liu, Ling Chen, Lei Zhong
A widely recognized challenge in starch chemistry is to manipulate the graft copolymerization onto starch melt by reactive extrusion (REX). To understand the complex in-situ graft copolymerization in highly concentrated systems, we firstly used a mixer to achieve a homogeneous viscous starch melt, and then undertook dynamic rheological measurements to study the rheokinetics of the reaction. The in-situ synthesis also facilitated the characterization of the microstructures of reaction products. The melt mixture could be regarded to be completely micromixed since the rheokinetics was predominated by the reaction kinetics...
July 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
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