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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245071/dual-task-training-in-older-adults-the-effect-of-additional-motor-tasks-on-mobility-performance
#1
Paolo Riccardo Brustio, Emanuela Rabaglietti, Sabrina Formica, Monica Emma Liubicich
OBJECTIVES: Dual-task (DT) performance is common to most activities of daily living and difficulties in DT activities may reduce quality of life in older adults. This study investigated the effect of DT training in a sample of older adults. METHODS: Sixty older adults (mean=74.4±3.1years) participated in the study. Twenty-two older adults were included in the control (CG), 19 in the single-task (ST) training and 19 in DT training group. ST group received balance and walking training twice a week for16 weeks, while DT training group performed the same training with additional motor tasks...
December 10, 2017: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245035/multiple-long-term-trends-and-trend-reversals-dominate-environmental-conditions-in-a-man-made-freshwater-reservoir
#2
Petr Znachor, Jiří Nedoma, Josef Hejzlar, Jaromír Seďa, Jiří Kopáček, David Boukal, Tomáš Mrkvička
Man-made reservoirs are common across the world and provide a wide range of ecological services. Environmental conditions in riverine reservoirs are affected by the changing climate, catchment-wide processes and manipulations with the water level, and water abstraction from the reservoir. Long-term trends of environmental conditions in reservoirs thus reflect a wider range of drivers in comparison to lakes, which makes the understanding of reservoir dynamics more challenging. We analysed a 32-year time series of 36 environmental variables characterising weather, land use in the catchment, reservoir hydrochemistry, hydrology and light availability in the small, canyon-shaped Římov Reservoir in the Czech Republic to detect underlying trends, trend reversals and regime shifts...
December 12, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244898/climate-driven-diversity-change-in-annual-grasslands-drought-plus-deluge-does-not-equal-normal
#3
Susan P Harrison, Marina L LaForgia, Andrew M Latimer
Climate forecasts agree that increased variability and extremes will tend to reduce the availability of water in many terrestrial ecosystems. Increasingly severe droughts may be exacerbated both by warmer temperatures and by the relative unavailability of water that arrives in more sporadic and intense rainfall events. Using long-term data and an experimental water manipulation, we examined the resilience of a heterogeneous annual grassland community to a prolonged series of dry winters that led to a decline in plant species richness (2000-2014), followed by a near-record wet winter (2016-2017), a climatic sequence that broadly resembles the predicted future in its high variability...
December 15, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244872/the-ubiquitin-proteasome-system-is-required-for-african-swine-fever-replication
#4
Lucía Barrado-Gil, Inmaculada Galindo, Diego Martínez-Alonso, Sergio Viedma, Covadonga Alonso
Several viruses manipulate the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) to initiate a productive infection. Determined viral proteins are able to change the host's ubiquitin machinery and some viruses even encode their own ubiquitinating or deubiquitinating enzymes. African swine fever virus (ASFV) encodes a gene homologous to the E2 ubiquitin conjugating (UBC) enzyme. The viral ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (UBCv1) is expressed throughout ASFV infection and accumulates at late times post infection. UBCv is also present in the viral particle suggesting that the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway could play an important role at early ASFV infection...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244714/identification-of-novel-human-nk-cell-progenitor-subsets
#5
Priyanka Sathe, Swee Heng Milon Pang, Rebecca Delconte, Ngaire Elwood, Nicholas D Huntington
Understanding the pathways and regulation of human haematopoiesis, in particular, lymphopoiesis, is vital to manipulation of these processes for therapeutic purposes. However, although haematopoiesis has been extensively characterised in mice, translation of these findings to human biology remains rudimentary. Here, we describe the isolation of three progenitor subsets from human foetal bone marrow that represent differential stages of commitment to the natural killer (NK) cell lineage based on IL-15 responsiveness...
December 15, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244639/oscillatory-mechanisms-of-response-conflict-elicited-by-color-and-motion-direction-an-individual-differences-approach
#6
Marlies E Vissers, K Richard Ridderinkhof, Michael X Cohen, Heleen A Slagter
Goal-directed behavior requires control over automatic behavior, for example, when goal-irrelevant information from the environment captures an inappropriate response and conflicts with the correct, goal-relevant action. Neural oscillations in the theta band (∼6 Hz) measured at midfrontal electrodes are thought to form an important substrate of the detection and subsequent resolution of response conflict. Here, we examined the extent to which response conflict and associated theta-band activity depend on the visual stimulus feature dimension that triggers the conflict...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244509/fabrication-of-supramolecular-chirality-from-achiral-molecules-at-the-liquid-liquid-interface-studied-by-second-harmonic-generation
#7
Lu Lin, Zhen Zhang, Yuan Guo, Minghua Liu
We present the investigation into the supramolecular chirality of 5-octadecyloxy-2-(2-pyridylazo)phenol (PARC18) at water/1,2-dichloroethane interface by second harmonic generation (SHG). We observe that PARC18 molecules form supramolecular chirality through self-assembly at the liquid/liquid interface although they are achiral molecules. The bulk concentration of PARC18 in the organic phase has profound effects on the supramolecular chirality. By increasing bulk concentration, the enantiomeric excess at the interface firstly grows and then decreases until it eventually vanishes...
December 15, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244479/discovery-of-intermetallic-compounds-from-traditional-to-machine-learning-approaches
#8
Anton O Oliynyk, Arthur Mar
Intermetallic compounds are bestowed by diverse compositions, complex structures, and useful properties for many materials applications. How metallic elements react to form these compounds and what structures they adopt remain challenging questions that defy predictability. Traditional approaches offer some rational strategies to prepare specific classes of intermetallics, such as targeting members within a modular homologous series, manipulating building blocks to assemble new structures, and filling interstitial sites to create stuffed variants...
December 15, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244178/manipulating-the-microbiota-to-improve-human-health-throughout-life
#9
Julie Tran, Kirsty Wilson, Magdalena Plebanski, Katie L Flanagan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 13, 2017: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243982/endoscopic-transorbital-superior-eyelid-approach-anatomical-study-from-a-neurosurgical-perspective
#10
Alberto Di Somma, Norberto Andaluz, Luigi Maria Cavallo, Matteo de Notaris, Iacopo Dallan, Domenico Solari, Lee A Zimmer, Jeffrey T Keller, Mario Zuccarello, Alberto Prats-Galino, Paolo Cappabianca
OBJECTIVE Recent studies have proposed the superior eyelid endoscopic transorbital approach as a new minimally invasive route to access orbital lesions, mostly in otolaryngology and maxillofacial surgeries. The authors undertook this anatomical study in order to contribute a neurosurgical perspective, exploring the anterior and middle cranial fossa areas through this purely endoscopic transorbital trajectory. METHODS Anatomical dissections were performed in 10 human cadaveric heads (20 sides) using 0° and 30° endoscopes...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243940/methods-and-practices-to-diversify-cell-based-products
#11
Alain A Vertès
Medicinal signaling cell (MSC)-based products represent emerging treatments in various therapeutic areas including cardiometabolic, inflammation, autoimmunity, orthopedics, wound healing and oncology. Exploring innovation beyond minimally manipulated plastic-adherent ex vivo expanded allogeneic MSCs enables product delineation. Product delineation is on the critical path to maximize clinical benefits and market access. An innovation framework is presented here along various innovation dimensions comprising composition-of-matter by means of positive cell surface markers, formulation varying for example the cell dose or the preservation mode and medium, manufacturing to adapt the secretome of MSCs to the condition of interest, the mode of delivery and corresponding delivery devices, as well as molecular engineering and biomarkers...
December 15, 2017: Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243588/dynamic-modulation-of-activity-in-cerebellar-nuclei-neurons-during-pavlovian-eyeblink-conditioning-in-mice
#12
Michiel Manuel Ten Brinke, Shane Heiney, Xiaolu Wang, Martina Proietti-Onori, Henk-Jan Boele, Jacob Bakermans, Javier F Medina, Zhenyu Gao, Chris I De Zeeuw
While research on the cerebellar cortex is crystallizing our understanding of its function in learning behavior, many questions surrounding its downstream targets remain. Here, we evaluate the dynamics of cerebellar interpositus nucleus (IpN) neurons over the course of Pavlovian eyeblink conditioning. A diverse range of learning-induced neuronal responses was observed, including increases and decreases in activity during the generation of conditioned blinks. Trial-by-trial correlational analysis and optogenetic manipulation demonstrate that facilitation in the IpN drives the eyelid movements...
December 15, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243270/an-experimental-examination-of-alcohol-consumption-alcohol-expectancy-and-self-blame-on-willingness-to-report-a-hypothetical-rape
#13
Heather D Flowe, John Maltby
This study experimentally examined the role of victim alcohol intoxication, and self-blame in perceiving and reporting rape to the police using a hypothetical interactive rape scenario. Participants (N = 79) were randomly assigned to consume alcohol (mean BAC = 0.07%) or tonic water before they engaged in the scenario. Alcohol expectancy was manipulated, and participant beliefs about the beverage they thought they had consumed and their feelings of intoxication were measured. Alcohol consumption and expectancy did not affect the likelihood that the nonconsensual intercourse depicted in the scenario was perceived and would be reported as rape...
December 15, 2017: Aggressive Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243254/graduating-otolaryngology-resident-preparedness-for-fellowship-as-assessed-by-fellowship-faculty
#14
Julie Highland, Cristina Cabrera-Muffly
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: The purpose of this study was to evaluate fellowship program directors' perceptions of incoming clinical fellows' preparedness for subspecialty training and to thereby identify strengths and shortcomings in otolaryngology training programs' ability to prepare residents for fellowship. STUDY DESIGN: Validated e-mail survey. METHODS: Two hundred eleven otolaryngology subspecialty fellowship program directors and faculty directly involved with training fellows were contacted...
December 15, 2017: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242992/dynamic-adaptation-in-neurosteroid-networks-in-response-to-alcohol
#15
Deborah A Finn, Vanessa A Jimenez
The term neurosteroid refers to rapid membrane actions of steroid hormones and their derivatives that can modulate physiological functions and behavior via their interactions with ligand-gated ion channels. This chapter will highlight recent advances pertaining to the modulatory effects of a select group of neurosteroids that are primarily potent positive allosteric modulators of γ-aminobutyric acidA receptors (GABAARs). Nanomolar concentrations of neurosteroids, which occur in vivo, potentiate phasic and tonic forms of GABAAR-mediated inhibition, indicating that both synaptic and extrasynaptic GABAARs possess sensitivity to neurosteroids and contribute to the overall ability of neurosteroids to modulate central nervous system excitability...
December 15, 2017: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242819/effects-of-e-cigarette-advertising-messages-and-cues-on-cessation-outcomes
#16
Catherine L Jo, Shelley D Golden, Seth M Noar, Christine Rini, Kurt M Ribisl
Objectives: We examined effects of e-cigarette ad messages and visual cues on outcomes related to combustible cigarette smoking cessation: smoking cessation intention, smoking urges, and immediate smoking behavior. Methods: US adult smokers (N = 3293) were recruited through Amazon Mechanical Turk and randomized to condition in a 3 (message: e-cigarette use anywhere, harm reduction, control) × 2 (e-cigarette cue presence or absence) between-subjects experiment. Stimuli were print ads for cigarette-like e-cigarettes ("cigalikes") that were manipulated for the experimental conditions...
January 1, 2018: Tobacco Regulatory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242381/therapeutic-targeting-of-non-coding-rnas-in-cancer
#17
REVIEW
Ondrej Slaby, Richard Laga, Ondrej Sedlacek
The majority of the human genome encodes RNAs that do not code for proteins. These non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) affect normal expression of the genes, including oncogenes and tumour suppressive genes, which make them a new class of targets for drug development in cancer. Although microRNAs (miRNAs) are the most studied regulatory ncRNAs to date, and miRNA-targeted therapeutics have already reached clinical development, including the mimics of the tumour suppressive miRNAs miR-34 and miR-16, which reached phase I clinical trials for the treatment of liver cancer and mesothelioma, the importance of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) is increasingly being recognised...
December 14, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242343/monitoring-and-manipulating-higgs-and-goldstone-modes-in-a-supersolid-quantum-gas
#18
Julian Léonard, Andrea Morales, Philip Zupancic, Tobias Donner, Tilman Esslinger
Higgs and Goldstone modes are collective excitations of the amplitude and phase of an order parameter that is related to the breaking of a continuous symmetry. We directly studied these modes in a supersolid quantum gas created by coupling a Bose-Einstein condensate to two optical cavities, whose field amplitudes form the real and imaginary parts of a U(1)-symmetric order parameter. Monitoring the cavity fields in real time allowed us to observe the dynamics of the associated Higgs and Goldstone modes and revealed their amplitude and phase nature...
December 15, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242341/purcell-effect-for-active-tuning-of-light-scattering-from-semiconductor-optical-antennas
#19
Aaron L Holsteen, Søren Raza, Pengyu Fan, Pieter G Kik, Mark L Brongersma
Subwavelength, high-refractive index semiconductor nanostructures support optical resonances that endow them with valuable antenna functions. Control over the intrinsic properties, including their complex refractive index, size, and geometry, has been used to manipulate fundamental light absorption, scattering, and emission processes in nanostructured optoelectronic devices. In this study, we harness the electric and magnetic resonances of such antennas to achieve a very strong dependence of the optical properties on the external environment...
December 15, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242137/sleep-deprivation-decreases-neuronal-excitability-and-responsiveness-in-rats-both-in-vivo-and-ex-vivo
#20
Sándor Borbély, Ildikó Világi, Zsófia Haraszti, Örs Szalontai, Tünde Hajnik, Attila Tóth, László Détári
Sleep deprivation has severe consequences for higher nervous functions. Its effects on neuronal excitability may be one of the most important factors underlying functional deterioration caused by sleep loss. In the present work, excitability changes were studied using two complementary in vivo and ex vivo models. Auditory evoked potentials were recorded from freely-moving animals in vivo. Amplitude of evoked responses showed a near-continuous decrease during deprivation. Prevention of sleep also reduced synaptic efficacy ex vivo, measured from brain slices derived from rats that underwent sleep deprivation...
December 11, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
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