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prescriptive analytics

Caroline Charette, Krista L Best, Emma M Smith, William C Miller, François Routhier
Background: Mobility limitations represent the third most prevalent cause of disability, affecting more than 1.9 million community-dwelling Canadians. Walking aids are often prescribed to reduce the impacts of mobility impairments. There are limited data on walking aids since 2004. Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of walking aid use in Canada and to explore demographic characteristics among users of walking aids. Design: The design used was a secondary analysis of a cross-sectional national survey...
March 14, 2018: Physical Therapy
Michael James Zoorob
BACKGROUND: Although polydrug incidents comprise a substantial proportion of overdose deaths, scholarly and popular focus has centered on prescription opiates. This study examines the role of benzodiazepine and opioid prescriptions on overdose-both individually and synergistically-using data from Medicare Part D, a source of prescription drug claims for about 35 million Americans. METHODS: Prescribing data from the Medicare Part D Public Use Files for 2013, 2014, and 2015 (approximately 3...
March 14, 2018: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
Hongbing Zhang, Xin Wu, Jun Xu, Suxiao Gong, Yanqi Han, Tiejun Zhang, Changxiao Liu
BACKGROUND: According to the compatibility theory, therapeutic effects of Chinese medicine prescription are generally attributed to the synergism of multi-herbs. Quality-markers, as the crucial effective components, play a key role in the interaction of compatibility. Pharmacokinetic studies could illustrate the interaction between multiple components in dynamics perspective. PURPOSE: This study aims to establish a rapid, reliable and sensitive ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry method for simultaneous determination of corydaline, tetrahydropalmatine, protopine, imperatorin and isoimperatorin (quality-markers of Yuanhu Zhitong prescription) in rat plasma, and then applied to the comparative pharmacokinetic study for clearing the interaction of compatibility in Yuanhu Zhitong prescription...
February 21, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Kelly R Peck, Malcolm M Roland, Todd A Smitherman
BACKGROUND: Although risk factors for medication-overuse headache have been identified within the general population, most studies have neglected clinical samples. The present study examined the relative and combined associations of these factors with medication-overuse headache in a sample of US adults seeking treatment for primary headache disorders. METHODS: Treatment-seeking headache patients provided data on demographics, headache variables, psychiatric variables, use of headache medications, and use of other prescription medications and substances...
March 9, 2018: Headache
Susan G Sherman, Marisa Hast, Ju Nyeong Park, Michele R Decker, Colin Flynn, Danielle German
Sex exchange is associated with HIV and other morbidities yet has received little research, surveillance, and programmatic attention in the U.S. This study identified correlates of exchange sex and among low-income women in Baltimore, Maryland. Participants were recruited into the National HIV Behavioral Surveillance (NHBS) system in 2013 using respondent driven sampling (RDS) and completed a survey and HIV testing. The analytic sample (n = 253) consisted of women aged ≥18 years who had recent (past year) heterosexual sex...
March 8, 2018: AIDS Care
Mark Warner, Cyrus Mostajeran
We solve the forward and inverse problems associated with the transformation of flat sheets with circularly symmetric director fields to surfaces of revolution with non-trivial topography, including Gaussian curvature, without a stretch elastic cost. We deal with systems slender enough to have a small bend energy cost. Shape change is induced by light or heat causing contraction along a non-uniform director field in the plane of an initially flat nematic sheet. The forward problem is, given a director distribution, what shape is induced? Along the way, we determine the Gaussian curvature and the evolution with induced mechanical deformation of the director field and of material curves in the surface (proto-radii) that will become radii in the final surface...
February 2018: Proceedings. Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
Athena K Petrides, Stacy E F Melanson, Michalis Kantartjis, Rachel D Le, Christiana A Demetriou, James G Flood
BACKGROUND: Oral fluid (OF) has become an increasingly popular matrix to assess compliance in pain management and addiction settings as it reduces the likelihood of adulteration. However, drug concentrations and windows of detection are not as well studied in OF as in urine (UR). We compared the clinical utility and analytical performance of OF and UR as matrices for detecting common benzodiazepines and opioids. METHODS: OF and UR concentrations of 5 benzodiazepines and 7 opioids were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in 263 paired OF and UR specimens...
February 27, 2018: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
Brian Kinslow, Hendrik D De Heer, Meghan Warren
PURPOSE: Functional limitations are associated with decreased physical activity and increased body mass index. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of functional limitations among adults who reported receiving health professional advice to exercise more or lose weight, and to assess involvement of health professionals, including physical therapists, in weight loss efforts with these individuals. DESIGN: A cross-sectional analysis of U.S. adults from the 2011 to 2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (n = 5,480)...
March 2, 2018: Physiotherapy Theory and Practice
Jennifer C Samp, Min J Joo, Glen T Schumock, Gregory S Calip, A Simon Pickard, Todd A Lee
BACKGROUND: With increasing health care costs that have outpaced those of other industries, payers of health care are moving from a fee-for-service payment model to one in which reimbursement is tied to outcomes. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a disease where this payment model has been implemented by some payers, and COPD exacerbations are a quality metric that is used. Under an outcomes-based payment model, it is important for health systems to be able to identify patients at risk for poor outcomes so that they can target interventions to improve outcomes...
March 2018: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
Isabel Aguilar-Palacio, Sara Malo, Cristina Feja, MªJesús Lallana, Montserrat León-Latre, José Antonio Casasnovas, MªJosé Rabanaque, Eliseo Guallar
Benefits of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors control are well known, but goals achievement remains low. The objective of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of CVD risk factors among men ina worker's cohort with no previous CVD, to study control variations across time and the factors associated with poor control. To this end, we conducted a cohort reexamination (2010-2014) within the context of the Aragon Workers Health Study (AWHS). Data from working characteristics, analytical values and pharmacological prescription were included in the analysis...
2018: PloS One
Nikhil Khandelwal, Beverly Johns, Zsolt Hepp, Jane Castelli-Haley
AIMS: To compare hypothyroidism-related costs for patients who continuously used Synthroid® and patients who switched from Synthroid® to alternative therapies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Truven's Health Analytics MarketScan® Commercial Claims and Encounters database from January 1, 2007 to June 30, 2014 was queried for US adults diagnosed with hypothyroidism who initiated Synthroid® and adhered to such therapy for at least 6 months. Propensity score matching matched continuous users of Synthroid® to patients who switched from Synthroid® to alternative levothyroxine agents...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Medical Economics
Lilie Wang, Anthony J Cmelak, George X Ding
Radiation dermatitis during radiotherapy is correlated with skin dose and is a common clinical problem for head and neck and thoracic cancer patients. Therefore, accurate prediction of skin dose during treatment planning is clinically important. The objective of this study is to evaluate the accuracy of skin dose calculated by a commercial treatment planning system (TPS). We evaluated the accuracy of skin dose calculations by the anisotropic analytical algorithm (AAA) implemented in Varian Eclipse (V.11) system...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
Cath Quinn, Katie Denman, Philippa Smithson, Christabel Owens, Rod Sheaff, John Campbell, Ian Porter, Jill Annison, Richard Byng
BACKGROUND: Offenders frequently have substantial healthcare needs and, like many other socially marginalised groups, often receive healthcare in inverse proportion to their needs. Improved continuity of healthcare over time could contribute to addressing these needs. General Practitioners need to be able to support people with complex social and medical problems, even in systems that are not specifically designed to manage individuals with such degrees of complexity. We aimed to examine offenders' perspectives on factors that contributed to, or worked against, creating and sustaining their access to healthcare...
February 2, 2018: BMC Family Practice
Nathan J Bennett, Tara S Whitty, Elena Finkbeiner, Jeremy Pittman, Hannah Bassett, Stefan Gelcich, Edward H Allison
There has been increasing attention to and investment in local environmental stewardship in conservation and environmental management policies and programs globally. Yet environmental stewardship has not received adequate conceptual attention. Establishing a clear definition and comprehensive analytical framework could strengthen our ability to understand the factors that lead to the success or failure of environmental stewardship in different contexts and how to most effectively support and enable local efforts...
January 31, 2018: Environmental Management
Moneera M Al-Shawi, Magdy A Darwish, Moataza M Abdel Wahab, Nouf A Al-Shamlan
BACKGROUND: Misuse of antibiotics has become a global public health issue for several reasons, one of which is the rapid development of antibiotic resistance that leads to high morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to study the misconceptions of parents of primary school children in Dammam, Khobar, and Dhahran about the use of antibiotics for upper respiratory tract (URT) symptoms; and also study perceptions, attitudes, and behavior toward antibiotic use and identify the factors affecting this...
January 2018: Journal of Family & Community Medicine
Kiraat D Munshi, Douglas Mager, Krista M Ward, Brian Mischel, Rochelle R Henderson
BACKGROUND: Formulary or preferred drug list (PDL) management is an effective strategy to ensure clinically efficient prescription drug management by managed care organizations (MCOs). Medicaid MCOs participating in Florida's Medicaid program were required to use a state-mandated PDL between May and August 2014. OBJECTIVE: To examine differences in prescription drug use and plan costs between a single Florida Medicaid managed care (MMC) health plan that implemented a state-mandated PDL policy on July 1, 2014, and a comparable MMC health plan in another state without a state-mandated PDL, controlling for sociodemographic confounders...
February 2018: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
Bernadette Pöllinger, Wolfgang Schmidt, Anna Seiffert, Heidi Imhoff, Martin Emmert
AIMS: We determined adalimumab utilisation and associated drug costs in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC), focusing on patients requiring dose escalation. METHODS: The retrospective cohort study analysed the de-identified prescription data of the Arvato Health Analytics (Munich, Germany) database (2010-2015) in adult UC patients undergoing adalimumab therapy. RESULTS: A total of 154 patients were newly treated with adalimumab (average 39...
January 23, 2018: European Journal of Health Economics: HEPAC: Health Economics in Prevention and Care
Chi-Lin Li, Yung-Yi Cheng, Chen-Hsi Hsieh, Tung-Hu Tsai
Schisandra chinensis has been used as an important component in various prescriptions in traditional Chinese medicine and, more recently, in Western-based medicine for its anti-hepatotoxic effect. The aim of this study was to develop a selective, rapid, and sensitive ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for pharmacokinetic studies of schizandrin in rats. Liquid-liquid extraction was used for plasma sample preparation. A UHPLC reverse-phase C18e column (100 mm × 2.1 mm, 2 μm) coupled with a mobile phase of methanol-0...
January 15, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Yurena Aguilar de la Red, Gema Manrique Martín, Gloria Guerrero López, Concepción González Herrero, Paula López Vázquez, Concepción Míguez Navarro
INTRODUCTION: An inadequate pain management is common in the emergency department. Our objective was to analyze pain management among children with an orofacial infection or trauma in the emergency department and to assess compliance and satisfaction with analgesia prescribed at discharge. POPULATION AND METHODS: Cross-sectional, observational and analytical study in children attending the emergency department for an orofacial infection or trauma over 2 months. Pain management in the emergency department, analgesia prescribed at home and, following a call to parents, treatment provided and its adequacy to control pain were registered...
February 1, 2018: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
João Apóstolo, Richard Cooke, Elzbieta Bobrowicz-Campos, Silvina Santana, Maura Marcucci, Antonio Cano, Miriam Vollenbroek-Hutten, Federico Germini, Barbara D'Avanzo, Holly Gwyther, Carol Holland
OBJECTIVE: To summarize the best available evidence regarding the effectiveness of interventions for preventing frailty progression in older adults. INTRODUCTION: Frailty is an age-related state of decreased physiological reserves characterized by an increased risk of poor clinical outcomes. Evidence supporting the malleability of frailty, its prevention and treatment, has been presented. INCLUSION CRITERIA: The review considered studies on older adults aged 65 and over, explicitly identified as pre-frail or frail, who had been undergoing interventions focusing on the prevention of frailty progression...
January 2018: JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports
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