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prescriptive analytics

Ireneous N Soyiri, Aziz Sheikh, Stefan Reis, Kimberly Kavanagh, Massimo Vieno, Tom Clemens, Edward J Carnell, Jiafeng Pan, Abby King, Rachel C Beck, Hester J T Ward, Chris Dibben, Chris Robertson, Colin R Simpson
INTRODUCTION: Asthma has a considerable, but potentially, avoidable burden on many populations globally. Scotland has some of the poorest health outcomes from asthma. Although ambient pollution, weather changes and sociodemographic factors have been associated with asthma attacks, it remains unclear whether modelled environment data and geospatial information can improve population-based asthma predictive algorithms. We aim to create the afferent loop of a national learning health system for asthma in Scotland...
May 20, 2018: BMJ Open
James M P Stewart, Shawn Stapleton, Naz Chaudary, Patricia E Lindsay, David A Jaffray
The flexibility and sophistication of modern radiotherapy treatment planning and delivery methods have advanced techniques to improve the therapeutic ratio. Contemporary dose optimization and calculation algorithms facilitate radiotherapy plans which closely conform the three-dimensional dose distribution to the target, with beam shaping devices and image guided field targeting ensuring the fidelity and accuracy of treatment delivery. Ultimately, dose distribution conformity is limited by the maximum deliverable dose gradient; shallow dose gradients challenge techniques to deliver a tumoricidal radiation dose while minimizing dose to surrounding tissue...
May 15, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
John M Kane, Christoph U Correll, Andrew A Nierenberg, Stanley N Caroff, Martha Sajatovic
OBJECTIVE: To provide an historic overview of the Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale (AIMS) in clinical trials of tardive dyskinesia (TD), with current recommendations for analyzing and interpreting AIMS data. PARTICIPANTS: Seven psychiatrists and 1 neurologist were selected by the workshop sponsor based on each individual's clinical expertise and research experience. EVIDENCE: Using PubMed entries from January 1970 to August 2017, participants selected studies that used the AIMS to evaluate TD treatments...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
Dikson Claudino, Milton-Carlos Kuga, Lauriê Belizário, Jefferson-Ricardo Pereira
Background: The bonding of accessories in the dental crown during the orthodontic treatment creates microporosities, thus promoting micromechanical retention of the adhesive to the enamel structure. After debonding brackets, at the end of the active orthodontic treatment, a certain amount of adhesive remnants must be mechanically removed from the enamel. The objective of this study was to compare, by means of scanning electron microscopy, three different methods to remove the adhesive remnants after orthodontic bracket removal...
March 2018: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Dentistry
Ryan Clark, Duygu Bozkaya, Mark Levenberg, Steven Faulkner, Timothy W Smith, Robert A Gerber
BACKGROUND: Atopic dermatitis (AD), a chronic inflammatory skin disease, is often treated with topical corticosteroids (TCS) and topical calcineurin inhibitors (TCI). Crisaborole ointment is a nonsteroidal, phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitor for the treatment of mild to moderate AD. In December 2016, crisaborole was approved in the US for mild to moderate AD in patients ≥2 years of age. AIMS: To evaluate real-world utilization and cost of TCS and TCI in the US and estimate the budget impact of crisaborole over 2-years from a third-party payer perspective...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Medical Economics
Karen Daniela Romero Mena, Olga Lucia Pinzón Espitia, José Alejandro Daza Vergara
Parenteral support has increased the possibility of neonatal recovery. However, complications associated with its use have been documented. One commercial method developed to decrease the complications of this type of support is the ready-to-use parenteral nutrition (PN), a 3-chamber bag that provides a complete nutrient mix. This systematic review seeks, through the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses methodology, to establish the benefits in newborns. Seven databases and gray literature were used...
April 27, 2018: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Alexandra Guebert, Leigh Conroy, Sarah Weppler, Majed Alghamdi, Jessica Conway, Lindsay Harper, Tien Phan, Ivo A Olivotto, Wendy L Smith, Sarah Quirk
PURPOSE: Two dose calculation algorithms are available in Varian Eclipse software: Anisotropic Analytical Algorithm (AAA) and Acuros External Beam (AXB). Many Varian Eclipse-based centers have access to AXB; however, a thorough understanding of how it will affect plan characteristics and, subsequently, clinical practice is necessary prior to implementation. We characterized the difference in breast plan quality between AXB and AAA for dissemination to clinicians during implementation...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
Ibrahim Chikowe, Sarah L Bliese, Samuel Lucas, Marya Lieberman
This study evaluated a newly developed paper analytical device (PAD) for screening amoxicillin samples in Blantyre urban townships. Covert shoppers attempted to buy amoxicillin from a geographically stratified selection of private pharmacies ( N = 22 out of 26) and drug stores ( N = 23 out of 103) in the township area. According to the PAD results, all 42 samples obtained by the shoppers contained amoxicillin and none contained suspicious filler materials. Next, the products were assayed using high-performance liquid chromatography...
April 23, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Yun-Long Liu, Hai-Ping Wu, Qiang Zhou, Qin-Xin Song, Jian-Zhong Rui, Xiao-Xiang Guan, Guo-Hua Zhou, Bing-Jie Zou
A DNA logic sensor was constructed for gene mutation analysis based on a novel signal amplification cascade by controllably extending a hairpin-structured flap to bridge two invasive reactions. The detection limit was as low as 0.07 fM, and the analytical specificity is high enough to unambiguously pick up 0.02% mutants from a large amount of wild-type DNA. Gene mutations related to the personalized medicine of gefitinib, a typical tyrosine kinase inhibitor, were analyzed by the DNA logic sensor with only a 15 minute response time...
February 14, 2018: Chemical Science
James Henry Obol, Peter Akera, Pamela Ochola Atim, Sylvia Awor, Ronald Wanyama, Kenneth Luryama Moi, Bongomin Bodo, Patrick Olwedo Odong, Emmanuel Otto Omony, Hussein Oria, David Musoke, Felix Kaducu
BACKGROUND: The use of prescription medications without the involvement of medical professionals is a growing public health concern. Therefore this study was conducted to determine the prevalence of borrowing and sharing prescription medicines and associated socio-demographic factors among community members who had sought health care from COBERS health centres. METHODS: We conducted analytical cross - sectional study among former patients who sought treatment during the two months period prior to data collection in nine COBERS health centres...
April 18, 2018: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
Daniel Létourneau, Harald Keller, Nathan Becker, Md Nurul Amin, Bernhard Norrlinger, David A Jaffray
PURPOSE: The delivery accuracy of highly conformal dose distributions generated using intensity modulation and collimator, gantry and couch degrees of freedom is directly affected by the quality of the alignment between the radiation beam and the mechanical axes of a linear accelerator. For this purpose, quality control (QC) guidelines recommend a tolerance of ± 1 mm for the coincidence of the radiation and mechanical isocenters. Traditional QC methods for assessment of radiation and mechanical axes alignment (based on pointer alignment) are time consuming and complex tasks that provide limited accuracy...
April 12, 2018: Medical Physics
Zhenia Gopalakrishnan, Raghuram K Nair, P Raghukumar, B Sarin
The aim of this study is to compare the physical wedge (PW) with enhanced dynamic wedge (EDW) to determine the difference in the dose distribution affecting the treated breast and the contralateral breast, lungs, heart, esophagus, spine, and surrounding skin in the radiotherapy of breast cancer. Computed tomography (CT) data sets of 30 breast cancer patients were selected from the database for the study. The treatment plans which were executed with PW were re-planned with EDW without changing the beam parameters...
January 2018: Journal of Medical Physics
M Moine, L Hachon, D Sankhare, A Ade, I Madelaine, N Jourdan
INTRODUCTION: In 2011, the anticancer preparation unit in a teaching hospital implemented a circuit for batch preparation of anticancer drugs. In this circuit, a manual and a semi-automatic production process coexist. The aim of the study is to describe the circuit in 2016 and to assess the impact of batch preparation in a anticancer preparation unit. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eligible anticancer drugs for batch preparation satisfy two conditions: solution stability up to 28 days, prescription frequency up to one every two days...
April 3, 2018: Annales Pharmaceutiques Françaises
Ana Causanilles, Daniela Rojas Cantillano, Erik Emke, Richard Bade, Jose Antonio Baz-Lomba, Sara Castiglioni, Erika Castrignanò, Emma Gracia-Lor, Félix Hernández, Barbara Kasprzyk-Hordern, Juliet Kinyua, Ann-Kathrin McCall, Alexander L N van Nuijs, Benedek G Plósz, Pedram Ramin, Nikolaos I Rousis, Yeonsuk Ryu, Kevin V Thomas, Pim de Voogt
In this work a step forward in investigating the use of prescription drugs, namely erectile dysfunction products, at European level was taken by applying the wastewater-based epidemiology approach. 24-h composite samples of untreated wastewater were collected at the entrance of eight wastewater treatment plants serving the catchment within the cities of Bristol, Brussels, Castellón, Copenhagen, Milan, Oslo, Utrecht and Zurich. A validated analytical procedure with direct injection of filtered aliquots by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was applied...
April 2, 2018: Environment International
Chelsea E Canan, Geetanjali Chander, Anne K Monroe, Kelly A Gebo, Richard D Moore, Allison L Agwu, G Caleb Alexander, Bryan Lau
BACKGROUND: Prescription opioid use is greater among people living with HIV (PLWH), yet little is known about the prevalence of specific types of high-risk use among these individuals. SETTING: We analyzed clinical and demographic data from the HIV Research Network (HIVRN) and prescribing data from Medicaid for non-cancer patients seeking HIV treatment at four urban clinics between 2006-2010. METHODS: HIVRN patients were included in the analytic sample if they received at least one incident opioid prescription...
March 27, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
D Alan Nelson, Margrét V Bjarnadóttir, Vickee L Wolcott, Ritu Agarwal
Introduction: The use of opioids has increased drastically over the past few years and decades. As a result, concerns have mounted over serious outcomes associated with chronic opioid use (COU), including dependency and death. A greater understanding of the factors that are associated with COU will be critical if prescribers are to navigate potentially competing objectives to provide compassionate care, while reducing the overall opioid use problem. In this study, we study pain levels and opioid prescription volumes and their effects on the risk of COU...
March 26, 2018: Military Medicine
Floris Devriendt, Darie Moldovan, Wouter Verbeke
Prescriptive analytics extends on predictive analytics by allowing to estimate an outcome in function of control variables, allowing as such to establish the required level of control variables for realizing a desired outcome. Uplift modeling is at the heart of prescriptive analytics and aims at estimating the net difference in an outcome resulting from a specific action or treatment that is applied. In this article, a structured and detailed literature survey on uplift modeling is provided by identifying and contrasting various groups of approaches...
March 2018: Big Data
Dheeraj Khetan, Rahul Katharia, Hem Chandra Pandey, Rajendra Chaudhary, Rajesh Harsvardhan, Hemchandra Pandey, Atul Sonkar
BACKGROUND: Blood transfusion chain can be divided into three phases: preanalytical (patient bedside), analytical (steps done at transfusion services), and postanalytical (bedside). Majority (~70%) of events due to blood transfusion have been attributed to errors in bedside blood administration practices. Survey of bedside transfusion practices (pre-analytical and post analytical phase) was done to assess awareness and compliance to guidelines regarding requisition and administration of blood components...
January 2018: Asian Journal of Transfusion Science
Joshua W Elder, Garrett DePalma, Jesse M Pines
The opioid epidemic is the most significant modern-day, public health crisis. Physicians and lawmakers have developed methods and practices to curb opioid use. This article describes one method, prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMP), through the lens of how to optimize use for emergency departments (ED). EDs have rapidly become a central location to combat opioid abuse and drug diversion. PDMPs can provide emergency physicians with comprehensive prescribing information to improve clinical decisions around opioids...
March 2018: Western Journal of Emergency Medicine
Joseph Guarisco, Adam Salup
Background: Pain management is one of the most common reasons patients visit the emergency department. Understanding the contributions of emergency medicine-and specifically Ochsner Health System's emergency providers-to the opioid crisis is important. Benchmark prescribing data indicated that Ochsner Health System emergency medicine providers' opioid prescription rates were significantly higher than the national average in emergency medicine. Methods: Data relevant to visit and opioid prescription counts were extracted from the organization's electronic health record system...
2018: Ochsner Journal
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