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Jimmie C Holland
Worldwide, psychological and social issues in cancer were not the subject of scientific inquiry until the past two decades. Since then, a new subspecialty of oncology has evolved, psycho-oncology. It addresses two dimensions of cancer: the emotional responses of patients at all stages of disease, as well as their families and caretakers (psychosocial); and the pyschological, social and behavioral factors that may influence cancer morbidity and mortality (psychobiological). Obstacles to development have been the facts of small numbers of clinicians and investigators worldwide and the few valid assessment instruments and research methods available to the biomedical community...
May 2018: Psycho-oncology
Antoon A Leenaars, Gudrun Dieserud, Susanne Wenckstern, Kari Dyregrov, David Lester, Jennifer Lyke
BACKGROUND: Theory is the foundation of science; this is true in suicidology. Over decades of studies of suicide notes, Leenaars developed a multidimensional model of suicide, with international (crosscultural) studies and independent verification. AIM: To corroborate Leenaars's theory with a psychological autopsy (PA) study, examining age and sex of the decedent, and survivor's relationship to deceased. METHOD: A PA study in Norway, with 120 survivors/informants was undertaken...
April 5, 2018: Crisis
Leonie Dietl, Birgit Wagner, Thomas Fydrich
BACKGROUND: For the next edition of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases (ICD-11) it is proposed to include prolonged grief disorder as a new diagnosis. The diagnosis describes persistent intensive and disabling grief reactions to bereavement (WHO, 2016b). The aim of the present survey was to determine the extent to which the diagnosis is accepted by practitioners in the healthcare and psychosocial field. METHODS: A total of 2088 German-speaking professionals in the fields of psychotherapy, psychology, counselling, medicine and palliative care completed the online survey...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
N Bouras
Psychiatry and society are interrelated and the biopsychosocial model continues to dominate the clinical psychiatric practice. Some doubts have been expressed in recent years about the value and the wide acceptance of the biopsychosocial model. Ghaemi (2009)1 considers it to be anti-humanistic and advocates the use of less eclectic, less generic, and less vague alternatives. The fundamental changes that have been witnessed in our times across the spectrum of biology, psychology and sociology have made necessary that a conceptual clarity should prevail...
July 2017: Psychiatrikē, Psychiatriki
James L Benedict
Crosscultural encounters are common in the delivery of healthcare, and cultural differences may contribute to misunderstandings and ethical conflict. Encounters between members of the Amish ethno-religious group and modern, science-based healthcare providers hold a high potential for misunderstanding and conflict because the Amish stridently maintain a countercultural outlook and they approach such encounters with suspicion and anxiety. This commentary on the case presented by Amy E. Caruso Brown, MD,1 involving a grandfather's resistance to treating a child with leukemia commends this physician for successfully managing the case and deriving important insights from reflection upon it...
2017: Journal of Clinical Ethics
Malik Elharram, Trish Dinh, Annie Lalande, Susan Ge, Sophie Gao, Geoffroy Noël
BACKGROUND: As health care delivery increasingly requires providers to cross international borders, medical students at McGill University, Canada, developed a multidirectional exchange program with Haiti and Rwanda. The program integrates surgery, pathology, anatomy, research methodology, and medical education. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to explore the global health value of this international training program to improve medical education within the environment of developing countries, such as Haiti and Rwanda, while improving sociocultural learning of Canadian students...
March 2017: Annals of Global Health
Mónica Alejandra Bernal-Vargas, Jorge Alberto Cortés, Ricardo Sánchez
INTRODUCTION: One of the strategies for the rational use of antibiotics is the use of the score for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP Score). This instrument clinically evaluates patients with community-acquired pneumonia, thereby facilitating decision making regarding the early and safe withdrawal of antibiotics. OBJECTIVE: To generate a translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the Community-Acquired Pneumonia (CAP) Score questionnaire in Spanish. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Authorization for cross-cultural adaptation of the Community-Acquired Pneumonia (CAP) Score questionnaire was obtained; the recommendations of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR) and the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) were carried out through the following stages: forward translation, reconciliation, backward translation, harmonization, obtaining a provisional questionnaire, and applying the questionnaire in a pilot test...
January 24, 2017: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
Daniel P O'Connor
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
Seok Jin Kim, Mohnish Singh Basur, Chang Kyu Park, Suri Chong, Yeon Gwi Kang, Moon Ju Kim, Jeong Seong Jeong, Tae Kyun Kim
BACKGROUND: The 2011 Knee Society Score(©) (2011 KS Score(©)) is used to characterize the expectations, symptoms, physical activity, and satisfaction of patients who undergo TKA and is widely used to assess the outcome of TKA. However, it has not been adapted or validated for use in Korea. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: We developed a Korean version of the 2011 KS Score and evaluated the (1) test-retest reliability, (2) convergent validity, and (3) responsiveness of the Korean version...
June 2017: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
Agnieszka Ardeńska, Rajmund Tomik, Serkan Berber, Burak Düz, Barış Çivak, Uğur Çalişkan, Joanna Ogrodnik
Motivation is an important phenomenon in the realm of education, particularly in the university fields connected with physical education and sport, where it is necessary to accommodate and balance intellectual abilities and physical fitness. The present study tested motivation levels among university students in the fields connected with physical education and sport in Poland and Turkey. It was based on the Self-Determination Theory (Deci and Ryan, 1985), namely intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation and amotivation which impact human behaviour...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Human Kinetics
Edwina A Brown, Hilary L Bekker, Sara N Davison, Jonathan Koffman, Jane O Schell
Historic migration and the ever-increasing current migration into Western countries have greatly changed the ethnic and cultural patterns of patient populations. Because health care beliefs of minority groups may follow their religion and country of origin, inevitable conflict can arise with decision making at the end of life. The principles of truth telling and patient autonomy are embedded in the framework of Anglo-American medical ethics. In contrast, in many parts of the world, the cultural norm is protection of the patient from the truth, decision making by the family, and a tradition of familial piety, where it is dishonorable not to do as much as possible for parents...
October 7, 2016: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
Anat Shashua, Yaron Geva, Igal Levran
STUDY DESIGN: The present study's design was translation and crosscultural validation of the Neck Disability Index (NDI). OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to translate and culturally adapt the NDI into Hebrew language and to evaluate the psychometric properties of this version. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: As yet, no Hebrew language neck pain and disability questionnaires exist. The NDI is widely used and validated among different patient populations with neck pain...
June 2016: Spine
Shamini Jain, Jennifer Daubenmier, David Muehsam, Lopsang Rapgay, Deepak Chopra
The word biofield is a term that Western scientists have used to describe various aspects of energy and information fields that guide health processes. Similar concepts and descriptions of energy and information patterns exist in various cultures and have guided whole systems of medicine such as Ayurveda and Tibetan medicine. This article describes Vedic, Jain, and Tibetan philosophical and medical systems' concepts of consciousness and subtle energy and their relationships to health processes in order to foster deeper crosscultural dialogue on the nature of the biofield...
November 2015: Global Advances in Health and Medicine: Improving Healthcare Outcomes Worldwide
Alessandra Petrelli, Ellen J Wehrens, Rianne C Scholman, Berent J Prakken, Sebastian J Vastert, Femke van Wijk
OBJECTIVE: Resistance of Teff cells to Treg cell-mediated suppression contributes to the breakdown of peripheral tolerance in the inflamed joints of patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). However, unanswered questions are whether this resistant phenotype is self-sustained and whether CD8+ and CD4+ Teff cells share the same mechanism of resistance to suppression. We undertook this study to investigate intrinsic resistance of CD8+ Teff cells to suppression and to determine how this can be targeted therapeutically...
January 2016: Arthritis & Rheumatology
Miguel Angel Ruiz-Ibán, Roberto Seijas, Andrea Sallent, Oscar Ares, Oliver Marín-Peña, Alfonso Muriel, Ricardo Cuéllar
BACKGROUND: The international Hip Outcome Tool-33 (iHOT-33) is a 33-item self administered outcome measure based on a Visual Analogue Scale response format designed for young and active population with hip pathology. The aim of the present study is to translate and validate the iHOT-33 into Spanish. METHODS: 97 patients undergoing hip arthroscopy were included in this prospective and multicenter study performed between January 2012 and May 2014. Crosscultural adaptation was used to translate iHOT-33 into Spanish...
2015: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes
Caroline E Ofovwe, Gabriel E Ofovwe, Anneke Meyer
OBJECTIVE: To establish the prevalence of ADHD among school-aged children in Benin City, Nigeria. METHOD: A total of one thousand, three hundred and eighty four (1384) primary school pupils, aged between six and 13 years, were recruited from six primary schools. Teacher's ratings of the 18 DSM-IV symptoms of ADHD were collected and analysed as a function of gender and subtype. RESULTS: The results support a documented trend in ADHD reports: males had a higher prevalence rate...
June 2006: Journal of Child and Adolescent Mental Health
Jennifer C Sarrett
Explanatory models (EMs) are the way people explain the presence and meaning of an illness or disability and are reliant on and reflective of culturally specific values of normalcy, disability, health, and illness. EMs about autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are particularly revealing because there is no known cause, and so people can explain this disability in ways more appropriate for and useful to them. This article presents caretaker EMs about children with autistic characteristics in Kerala, India. I argue that the reliance on biological, but not genetic, causal models is reflective of the state's high access to biomedical heath care...
March 2015: Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry
Thomais Goula, Athanasios Ververidis, Grigorios Tripsianis, Konstantinos Tilkeridis, Georgios I Drosos
The English version of Hand20 questionnaire was translated into Greek and cultural adaptation was performed. The validity was assessed in 134 patients with a variety of upper limb disorders. A comparison of Hand20 and DASH was also performed. All patients completed EQ-5D, Hand20 and DASH questionnaire. Test-retest reliability was assessed in a subgroup of 37 patients. We assessed the convergent validity of Hand20 by correlating its scores to DASH and EQ-5D scores. We also compared the completeness of Hand20 and DASH...
2015: Hand Surgery
Sandra Díaz, Sebsebe Demissew, Carlos Joly, W Mark Lonsdale, Anne Larigauderie
After a long incubation period, the Intergovernmental Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) is now underway. Underpinning all its activities is the IPBES Conceptual Framework (CF), a simplified model of the interactions between nature and people. Drawing on the legacy of previous large-scale environmental assessments, the CF goes further in explicitly embracing different disciplines and knowledge systems (including indigenous and local knowledge) in the co-construction of assessments of the state of the world's biodiversity and the benefits it provides to humans...
January 2015: PLoS Biology
Donia R Baldacchino, Lilian Bonello, Clifford J Debattista
Part I presented the research methodology and the quantitative findings of this descriptive sequential explanatory study. Part 2 will discuss the qualitative findings that explain the impact of the use of spiritual coping strategies on institutionalised older persons. Participants were recruited from six institutions in Malta and Australia: four private homes (two in Australia, n=30; two in Malta, n=43) and two state residences in Malta (n=64). The residents (n=137; 103 women, 34 men), aged 72.8 years (mean) were all Roman Catholics, mobile and with a minimal residence of 6 months...
August 12, 2014: British Journal of Nursing: BJN
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