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glucose monitoring

Ana C Fernandes, Benjamin Petersen, Lars Møller, Krist V Gernaey, Ulrich Krühne
The need for fast and comprehensive characterization of biocatalysts has pushed the development of new screening platforms based on microfluidics, capable of monitoring several parameters simultaneously, with new configurations of liquid handling, sample treatment and sensing. Modular microfluidics allows the integration of these newly developed approaches in a more flexible way towards increasing applicability of the microfluidic chips to different types of biocatalysts and reactions. A highly relevant operation in such a system is biocatalyst inactivation, which can enable the precise control of reaction time by avoiding the continuation of the reaction in another module or connecting tubes...
April 20, 2018: New Biotechnology
Sebastian Schlafer, Anja Kamp, Javier E Garcia
pH in fungal biofilms is important for a variety of fungal infections and industrial applications involving fungal biofilms, but to date, it has never been measured directly inside the biofilm matrix. In the present study, a new methodology was developed allowing for confocal microscopy based monitoring of extracellular pH inside fungal biofilms. Monospecies biofilms of Aspergillus fumigatus, Candida albicans, Candida dubliniensis and Cryptococcus neoformans were stained with the pH dependent ratiometric probe C-SNARF-4, imaged with a confocal microscope, and a digital image analysis procedure was developed to determine pH in the extracellular matrix...
April 19, 2018: FEMS Yeast Research
Laura A Scrimgeour, Brittany A Potz, Frank W Sellke, M Ruhul Abid
Perioperative glucose control is highly important, particularly for patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Variable glucose levels before, during and after cardiac surgery lead to increased post-operative complications and patient mortality. [1] Current methods for intensive monitoring and treating hyperglycemia in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) usually involve hourly glucose monitoring and continuous intravenous insulin infusions. With the advent of more accurate subcutaneous glucose monitoring systems, the role of improved glucose control with newer systems deserves consideration for widespread adoption...
November 2017: Clin Med Res (N Y)
Paul H Park, Sonak D Pastakia
Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) continues to have the highest diabetes-related mortality rate in the world. While there exists a multitude of health system barriers driving poor diabetes control, rural facilities particularly in SSA lack access to proper monitoring of glucose and other key biologic tests. At best, most of these diabetes patients receive random blood sugar readings only on the day of their clinic visit. This approach has very limited clinical value in determining dosage adjustments for narrow therapeutic index medications such as insulin...
2018: Journal of Diabetes Research
Monpichar Srisa-Art, Scott D Noblitt, Amber T Krummel, Charles S Henry
Coupling infrared (IR) spectroscopy to microfluidic devices provides a powerful tool for characterizing complex chemical and biochemical reactions. Examples of microfluidic devices coupled with infrared spectroscopy have been limited, however, largely due to the difficulties associated with fabricating systems in common infrared transparent materials like CaF2 . Recent reports have shown that polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) can be used as an IR transparent substrate when fabricated with thin layers. The use of soft lithography with PDMS expands the library of possible designs that can be achieved for IR measurements in microfluidics...
August 27, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
Florian Reiterer, Matthias Reiter, Luigi Del Re, Merete Bechmann Christensen, Kirsten Nørgaard
BACKGROUND: The ongoing improvement of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) sensors and of insulin pumps are paving the way for a fast implementation of artificial pancreas (AP) for type 1 diabetes (T1D) patients. The case for type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients is less obvious since usually some residual beta cell function allows for simpler therapy approaches, and even multiple daily injections (MDI) therapy is not very widespread. However, the number of insulin dependent T2D patients is vastly increasing and therefore a need for understanding chances and challenges of an automated insulin therapy arises...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology
Robert Brett McQueen, Marc D Breton, Joyce Craig, Hayden Holmes, Melanie D Whittington, Markus A Ott, Jonathan D Campbell
OBJECTIVE: The objective was to model clinical and economic outcomes of self-monitoring blood glucose (SMBG) devices with varying error ranges and strip prices for type 1 and insulin-treated type 2 diabetes patients in England. METHODS: We programmed a simulation model that included separate risk and complication estimates by type of diabetes and evidence from in silico modeling validated by the Food and Drug Administration. Changes in SMBG error were associated with changes in hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and separately, changes in hypoglycemia...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology
Zhuo Zhang, Weicai Chen, Yuzheng Zhao, Yi Yang
The brain has very high energy requirements and consumes 20% of the oxygen and 25% of the glucose in the human body. Therefore, the molecular mechanism underlying how the brain metabolizes substances to support neural activity is a fundamental issue for neuroscience studies. A well-known model in the brain, the astrocyte-neuron lactate shuttle, postulates that glucose uptake and glycolytic activity are enhanced in astrocytes upon neuronal activation and that astrocytes transport lactate into neurons to fulfill their energy requirements...
April 20, 2018: Neuroscience Bulletin
Ondřej Hodek, Tomáš Křížek, Pavel Coufal, Helena Ryšlavá
Pancreatic α-amylase plays an important role in dietary starch hydrolysis in the small intestine and participates in enhanced glucose concentration after meals. It seems to be a problem for diabetic patients, who suffer from longer postprandial hyperglycemia after meal consumption than healthy people. There are commercially available drugs that inhibit α-amylase and thus reduce the postprandial hyperglycemia effect. However, these drugs may cause severe side effects. Conversely, some naturally occurring flavonoids were suggested to have an α-amylase-inhibiting effect without any side effects...
April 20, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Chunhua Xi, Chuxiong Pan, Tianzuo Li
BACKGROUND: Hypoglycemia is one of the most fatal complications during the perioperative period. General anesthesia or sedation can mask a hypoglycemia-altered mental status. Acute hypoglycemia might result in permanent brain injury. There is no way to detect hypoglycemia during general anesthesia, except for intermittent blood glucose monitoring. CASE PRESENTATION: Hypoglycemia is associated with changes in electroencephalogram readings. Here, we report two cases of patients with an abnormally low Bispectral Index (BIS) associated with diabetic retinopathy surgery, one in the recovery stage of general anesthesia and the other in the maintenance of general anesthesia...
April 20, 2018: BMC Anesthesiology
Elisa Salvi, Lucia Sacchi, Alexandra Madè, Valeria Calcaterra, Riccardo Bellazzi, Cristiana Larizza
In this paper, we present AID-GM, a web application for the analysis and summarization of continuous blood glucose monitoring data in patients with Type 1 Diabetes. AID-GM allows patients and their care providers to share data and analyze them thanks to a set of advanced and personalized intelligent data analysis tools. Such tools enable the extraction of complex multivariate temporal patterns from data. We present a preliminary evaluation of the functionalities of the tool, both on a set of healthy volunteers, and on real patients' data in the pediatric context...
2018: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
Jean-Charles Preiser, Olivier Lheureux, Aurelie Thooft, Serge Brimioulle, Jacques Goldstein, Jean-Louis Vincent
OBJECTIVES: Tight glycemic control using intermittent blood glucose measurements is associated with a risk of hypoglycemia. Glucose concentrations can now be measured near continuously (every 5-15 min). We assessed the quality and safety of glycemic control guided by a near-continuous glucose monitoring system in ICU patients. DESIGN: Prospective, cluster-randomized, crossover study. SETTING: Thirty-five-bed medico-surgical department of intensive care with four separate ICUs...
April 19, 2018: Critical Care Medicine
Xuejun Zhang, Ze Wu, Fu Liu, Qiangqiang Fu, Xiaoyong Chen, Jian Xu, Zhaochuan Zhang, Yunyun Huang, Yong Tang, Tuan Guo, Jacques Albert
We propose and demonstrate hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) and glucose concentration measurements using a plasmonic optical fiber sensor. The sensor utilizes a tilted fiber Bragg grating (TFBG) written in standard single mode communication fiber. The fiber is over coated with an nm-scale film of silver that supports surface plasmon resonances (SPRs). Such a tilted grating SPR structure provides a high density of narrow spectral resonances (Q-factor about 105 ) that overlap with the broader absorption band of the surface plasmon waves in the silver film, thereby providing an accurate tool to measure small shifts of the plasmon resonance frequencies...
April 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
Christine L Chan, Emma Hope, Jessica Thurston, Timothy Vigers, Laura Pyle, Philip S Zeitler, Kristen J Nadeau
OBJECTIVE: In cystic fibrosis (CF), HbA1c is thought to underestimate glycemia. However, few studies have directly assessed the relationship between HbA1c and average glucose in CF. We determined the relationships among glycemic markers-HbA1c , fructosamine (FA), glycated albumin (%GA), and 1,5-anhydroglucitol (1,5-AG)-and continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) in CF, hypothesizing that alternate markers would better predict average sensor glucose (ASG) than HbA1c . RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: CF participants and a group of healthy control subjects (HC), ages 6-25 years, wore CGM for up to 7 days...
April 19, 2018: Diabetes Care
WuQiang Fan, Hui Zheng, Nancy Wei, David M Nathan
AIMS: To analyze mathematical relationships between timed Self-Monitored Blood Glucose (SMBG) and HbA1c, and to identify the SMBG values that correlate most strongly with HbA1c. METHODS: We utilized the average premeal (Pre) and 90-min postmeal (Post) SMBG results from 547 A1c-Derived Average Glucose (ADAG) study participants (285 type 1, 178 type 2 and 84 non-diabetic) to analyze the mathematical relationships with HbA1c levels. Specific times of daily SMBG that best correlate with HbA1c were identified...
April 16, 2018: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
Melaku Adal, Rawleigh Howe, Desta Kassa, Abraham Aseffa, Beyene Petros
BACKGROUND: Both under- and over-nutrition may occur among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals and impact on the course of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and its management due to the close interaction between immunity and nutrition. We investigated occurrence of undernutrition, excess weight and lipid abnormalities among antiretroviral naïve HIV-infected adults in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. METHODS: A cross-sectional study on 594 antiretroviral therapy (ART) naïve HIV-infected adults was conducted in four hospitals in Addis Ababa from February to September 2013...
2018: PloS One
T Nakamura, H Tanimoto, Y Mizuno, M Okamoto, M Takeuchi, Y Tsubamoto, H Noda
Objective: Gastric inhibitory polypeptide plays a role in glucose and lipid metabolism and is associated with obesity and insulin resistance. The objective of this study is to confirm the anti-obesity effects of the gastric inhibitory polypeptide receptor antagonist, SKL-14959, on diet-induced obesity mice. Method: Diet-induced obesity mice at 20 weeks of age were administered with or without SKL-14959 for 96 d. Body weight and food intake were monitored throughout the experiment...
April 2018: Obesity Science & Practice
Helga Holm Schultz, Svend Aage Engelholm, Eva Harder Brix, Ulrik Pedersen-Bjergaard, Peter Lommer Kristensen
BACKGROUND: The risk of developing diabetes mellitus (DM) during treatment with high dose glucocorticoids is unknown and monitoring of glucose is random in many settings. OBJECTIVE: To determine incidence of and risk factors for induction of DM during high dose glucocorticoid therapy of metastatic spinal cord compression in patients referred to radiotherapy. Furthermore, to describe the time course of development of DM. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: 140 patients were recruited (131 were included in the analysis) with metastatic spinal cord compression receiving high dose glucocorticoid, ≥100 mg prednisolone per day were included in a prospective, observational cohort study...
April 18, 2018: Endocrine Connections
Ah-Reum Oh, Seonyong Sohn, Junghoon Lee, Jong-Min Park, Ki Taek Nam, Ki-Baik Hahm, Young-Bum Kim, Ho-Jae Lee, Ji-Young Cha
OBJECTIVE: Fructose malabsorption is a common digestive disorder in which absorption of fructose in the small intestine is impaired. An abnormality of the main intestinal fructose transporter proteins has been proposed as a cause for fructose malabsorption. However the underlying molecular mechanism for this remains unclear. In this study, we investigated whether carbohydrate response element-binding protein (ChREBP) plays a role in intestinal fructose absorption through the regulation of genes involved in fructose transport and metabolism and ion transport...
April 15, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Fang-Hong Shi, Hao Li, Min Cui, Zai-Li Zhang, Zhi-Chun Gu, Xiao-Yan Liu
BACKGROUND: It is a great challenge for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients to maintain optimal glycemia, control body weight, blood pressure, and avoiding hypoglycemia. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) can stimulate glucose-dependent insulin while inhibit glucagon secretion, delay gastric emptying, reduce appetite, and energy intake. Recently, a new once-weekly GLP-1 RAs, semaglutide, has been registered to treat patients with T2DM. METHODS: We will search Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library, and the ClinicalTrials...
April 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
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