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micronucleus test in chromium and nickel

Amal Mohamed Kamal El Safty, Aisha Mohamed Samir, Mona Kamal Mekkawy, Marwa Mohamed Fouad
Using chromium and nickel for electroplating is important in many industries. This process induces variable adverse health effects among exposed workers. The aim of this study is to detect the genotoxic effects of combined exposure to chromium and nickel among electroplating workers. This study was conducted on 41 male workers occupationally exposed to chromium and nickel in the electroplating section of a factory compared to 41 male nonexposed individuals, where full history and clinical examination were performed...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of Toxicology
Sylwia Terpilowska, Andrzej Krzysztof Siwicki
The aim of this study was to examine the effect of chromium(III) and iron(III) and molybdenum(III) and nickel(II) and their combinations on cyto-, genotoxicity and mutagenicity in BALB/3T3 and HepG2 cells. The results obtained from cytotoxicity assays indicate that there are differences between BALB/3T3 and HepG2 cell lines in their sensitivity to chromium chloride, iron chloride, molybdenum trioxide and nickel chloride. The statistically significant increase of DNA damage of all used microelements in both cell lines was observed...
March 10, 2018: Chemosphere
Gülce Alp, Gonca Çakmak, Murat Sert, Yavuz Burgaz
Nickel-chromium(Ni-Cr) based alloys account for the majority of the porcelain-fused-to-metal fixed dental prostheses(PFM-FDPs) on account of their superior properties despite both nickel and chromium being known as human carcinogens. Understanding the genotoxicity and the cytotoxicity alongside the characteristics of corrosion behavior of the alloy is vital for understanding their biocompatibility. This study has evaluated whether the Ni-Cr based alloys corroded in artificial saliva by analyzing alloy decomposition at different pH levels and immersion durations(7, 14, 21, and 28 days) using inductively coupled plasma-optic emission spectrophotometry(ICP-OES)...
March 2018: Mutation Research
Adriane Perachi Nordin, Juliana da Silva, Claudia Telles de Souza, Liana A B Niekraszewicz, Johnny Ferraz Dias, Kátia da Boit, Marcos L S Oliveira, Ivana Grivicich, Ana Letícia Hilario Garcia, Luis Felipe Silva Oliveira, Fernanda Rabaioli da Silva
Coal processing generates a large volume of waste that can damage human health and the environment. Often these wastes produce acid drainage in which several minerals are crystallized (evaporites). This study aimed to identify secondary minerals, as well as the genotoxic potential of these materials. The samples were collected at two sites along the Rocinha River in Santa Catarina state (Brazil): (1) directly from the source of the acid drainage (evaporite 1), and (2) on the river bank (evaporite 2). The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction and by particle-induced X-ray emission techniques...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Thaís Dalzochio, Leonardo Airton Ressel Simões, Mateus Santos de Souza, Gabriela Zimmermann Prado Rodrigues, Ismael Evandro Petry, Natália Bordin Andriguetti, Gláucia Joselaine Herbert Silva, Günther Gehlen, Luciano Basso da Silva
The Ilha River is one of the main tributaries of the Sinos River, southern Brazil, and it is located in an area characterized by low population density and presence of agricultural activities. Thus, this study aimed to assess the water quality of two sites of the Ilha River (source and mouth, S1 and S2 respectively) in five sampling periods using water physicochemical and microbiological analyses, biomarkers, such as condition factor, micronucleus test, gill histopathological analysis, and metal bioaccumulation in the native fish Bryconamericus iheringii...
December 2017: Chemosphere
Balasubramanyam Annangi, Stefano Bonassi, Ricard Marcos, Alba Hernández
Various metals have demonstrated genotoxic and carcinogenic potential via different mechanisms. Until now, biomonitoring and epidemiological studies have been carried out to assess the genotoxic risk to exposed human populations. In this sense, the use of the micronucleus assay in peripheral blood lymphocytes has proven to be a useful tool to determine increased levels of DNA damage, as a surrogate biomarker of cancer risk. Here we review those biomonitoring studies focused on people exposed to arsenic, chromium, nickel, vanadium and complex mixtures of metals...
October 2016: Mutation Research
Priscila Francisca Tschaen Schunk, Ieda Carneiro Kalil, Elisangela Flavia Pimentel-Schmitt, Dominik Lenz, Tadeu Uggere de Andrade, Juliano Souza Ribeiro, Denise Coutinho Endringer
Increased tea consumption in combination with intensive pesticide use is generating heavy metal contaminations amongst Brazilian tea consumers, causing health concerns. Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) was applied to quantify minerals and heavy metals such as aluminum, barium, cadmium, lead, cobalt, copper, chromium, tin, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, silver, thallium, vanadium and zinc in Brazilian chamomile, lemongrass, fennel and yerba mate teas. Teas, purchased in local supermarkets, were prepared using infusion and acid digestion...
July 2016: Biological Trace Element Research
Mahino Fatima, Nazura Usmani, Fakiha Firdaus, Mohammad Faraz Zafeer, Shafeeque Ahmad, Kafil Akhtar, S M Dawar Husain, Mir Hilal Ahmad, Ehraz Anis, M Mobarak Hossain
Heavy metals can significantly bioaccumulate in fish tissues. The step wise mechanism of heavy metal toxicities on fish health is still limited. The present study assessed the tissue-specific antioxidant response and oxidative stress biomarkers of commercially important fish species namely, Channa striatus and Heteropneustes fossilis inhabiting Kali River of northern India where heavy-metal load is beyond the World Health Organisation - maximum permissible limits. Heavy metals chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) were elevated in both fish species compared to recommended values of the Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA), 1999 for edible fishes...
October 2015: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
Mahino Fatima, Nazura Usmani, M Mobarak Hossain, Mohammad Faisal Siddiqui, Mohammad Faraz Zafeer, Fakiha Firdaus, Shafeeque Ahmad
The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of heavy-metal contamination on two fish species (Channa striatus and Heteropneustes fossilis) inhabiting a small freshwater body of northern India. After being captured, each specimen was weighed, measured, and analyzed for heavy metals (chromium [Cr], nickel [Ni], and lead [Pb]). Accumulation of heavy metals was found to be significantly greater (p < 0.05) in different tissues (gill, liver, kidney, and muscle) of fishes captured from the reservoir than from the reference site...
August 2014: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Madhumitha Natarajan, Sridevi Padmanabhan, Arun Chitharanjan, Malathi Narasimhan
INTRODUCTION: The release of metal ions from fixed orthodontic appliances is a source of concern. The aim of this study was to evaluate genotoxic damage in the oral mucosal cells of patients wearing fixed appliance, and the nickel and chromium ion contents in these cells. METHODS: Twenty patients undergoing orthodontic treatment formed the experimental group, and 20 untreated subjects comprised the control group. Oral mucosal smears were collected at 2 times: at debonding and 30 days after debonding...
September 2011: American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics
Saba Qayyum, Anjum Ara, Jawed Ahmad Usmani
The electroplating industry commonly involves the use of nickel and chromium. An assessment of the genotoxic effects of these metals can be carried out by micronucleus (MN) test in buccal cells. Other nuclear anomalies (NA) observed in buccal cells viz., karyorrhexis, pyknosis and karyolysis are also the indicators of genotoxicity. The current study aims at determining the extent of genotoxic damage in relation to the duration of exposure to nickel and hexavalent chromium via micronuclei induction and other nuclear anomalies...
February 2012: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Markus Roller
Literature data of epidemiological studies, carcinogenicity studies and in vitro studies on inorganic substances were surveyed with the aim to determine sensitivity and specificity of in vitro tests of nanomaterials. Asbestos, quartz and chromium and cadmium compounds were assigned to classes of highest carcinogenic potency. After 20 years of occupational exposure to long-term average concentrations of 0.5mg/m(3) of these dusts - or to even lower concentrations - an epidemiologically detectable increased lung cancer risk has to be expected...
May 2011: Mutation Research
Fernanda Angelieri, Viviane Carlin, Renato A Martins, Daniel A Ribeiro
INTRODUCTION: The aim of the present study was to evaluate DNA damage (micronucleus) and cellular death (pyknosis, karyolysis, and karyorrhexis) in exfoliated buccal mucosa cells from adults after fixed orthodontic therapy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 23 healthy adults (10 men and 13 women) undergoing orthodontic therapy were included in this setting. RESULTS: The results pointed out no significant statistically differences (P >0.05) of micronucleated oral mucosa cells...
April 2011: American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics
S C Tripuraneni, S K Namburi
This study was conducted to evaluate the genotoxicity of nickel-chromium (Ni-Cr) base metal alloys in their reused state at different time intervals. Two commercially available Ni-Cr alloys (Wiron 99, remanium Cse) were evaluated. Three groups of alloy specimens (disks 3 mm x 5 mm) were fabricated from each of these alloys. The first groups were made with 100% new alloy, the second groups with 50 wt% of new alloy and 50 wt% of once used alloy and the third groups with 100% once used alloy. Distilled water conditioned with the alloy specimens for four time intervals of 1, 2, 4 and 8 weeks was used for testing the genotoxicity on Chinese hamster V79-HG04 fibroblasts using the micronucleus assay...
January 2008: Journal of Applied Biomaterials & Biomechanics: JABB
G H Westphalen, L M Menezes, D Prá, G G Garcia, V M Schmitt, J A P Henriques, R Medina-Silva
Orthodontic appliances are usually made of stainless steel, which contains metals such as nickel, chromium and iron that have been associated with DNA damage. The aim of the present study was to determine the genetic toxicity associated with orthodontic fixed appliances in twenty healthy patients (16 +/- 2.5 years) undergoing orthodontic treatment (fixed appliances - basic composition: stainless steel alloy), using the micronucleus (MN) and comet (CA) assays in buccal cells. Primary DNA damage level, as assessed by the CA, was low either before the beginning (1...
2008: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
S H Jadhav, S N Sarkar, H C Tripathit
The current study examines the genotoxic effects of subchronic exposure via drinking water to a mixture of eight metals (arsenic, cadmium, lead, mercury, chromium, nickel, manganese and iron) found as contaminants of water sources in different parts of India and its possible association with oxidative stress. Male rats were exposed to the mixture at 0, 1, 10 and 100 times the mode concentration of each metal daily for 90 days. Another dose group at concentration equivalent to maximum permissible limit (MPL) for each metal and a reference group given ip cyclophosphamide were incorporated...
December 2006: Indian Journal of Experimental Biology
Saurabh Chandra, Lalit K S Chauhan, Alok Dhawan, Ramesh C Murthy, Shrawan K Gupta
Contamination of ground water by industrial waste poses potential health hazards for man and his environment. The improper disposal of toxic wastes could allow genotoxic chemicals to percolate into ground waters, and these contaminated ground waters may produce toxicity, including mutation and eventually cancer, in exposed individuals. In the present study, we evaluated the in vivo genotoxic potential of leachates made from three different kinds of industrial waste (tannery waste, metal-based waste, and waste containing dyes and pigments) that are disposed of in areas adjoining human habitation...
June 2006: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
G Iarmarcovai, I Sari-Minodier, F Chaspoul, C Botta, M De Méo, T Orsière, J L Bergé-Lefranc, P Gallice, A Botta
The aims of the present study were to assess the occupational risk of welders using analysis of metals in biological fluids, DNA damage evaluation by complementary genotoxic endpoints and the incidence of polymorphisms in DNA repair genes. A biomonitoring study was conducted that included biometrology (blood and urinary concentrations of aluminium, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, lead, manganese, nickel, zinc by ICP-MS), comet and cytokinesis-block micronucleus assays in peripheral lymphocytes and genetic polymorphisms of XRCC1 (p...
November 2005: Mutagenesis
Olivera Milosevic-Djordjevic, Darko Grujicic, Slobodan Arsenijevic, Dragoslav Marinkovic
The air strikes on "Zastava" complex in Kragujevac, in the spring of 1999, caused extensive environmental pollution with damage to soil, water and air. Since the main problem was the leakage of several tones of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) as well as heavy metals Cr and Ni into the environment and groundwater, we decided to evaluate influence of the environmental contamination on eventual changes of genetic constitution of human body cells. The subjects analyzed were 36 phenotypically healthy newborn babies, who were born 12 months (n=22) and 18 months (n=14) after environmental contamination, and 25 newborns in 1998 as a control group...
January 2005: Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
B Daley, A T Doherty, B Fairman, C P Case
Wear debris was extracted from 21 worn hip and knee replacements. Its mutagenic effects were tested on human cells in tissue culture using the micronucleus assay and fluorescent in situ hybridisation. The extracted wear debris increased the level of micronuclei in a linear dose-dependent manner but with a tenfold difference between samples. The concentration of titanium +/- vanadium and aluminium within the wear debris was linearly related both to the level of centromere-positive micronuclei in tissue culture, indicating an aneuploid event, and to the level of aneuploidy in vivo in peripheral blood lymphocytes...
May 2004: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. British Volume
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