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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212939/the-heptad-repeat-c-domain-of-the-respiratory-syncytial-virus-fusion-protein-plays-a-key-role-in-membrane-fusion
#1
Imogen M Bermingham, Keith J Chappell, Daniel Watterson, Paul R Young
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) mediates host cell entry through the fusion (F) protein, which undergoes a conformational change to facilitate the merger of viral and host lipid membrane envelopes. RSV F comprises a trimer of disulfide bonded F1 and F2 subunits that is present on the virion surface in a 'metastable' pre-fusion state. This pre-fusion form is readily triggered to undergo refolding to bring two heptad repeats (HRA and HRB) into close proximity to form a six-helix bundle that stabilizes the post-fusion form and provides the free energy required for membrane fusion...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204065/anal-cancer-and-anal-cancer-precursors-in-women-with-a-history-of-hpv-related-dysplasia-and-cancer
#2
Elizabeth A Stier, Elizabeth Y Chiao
The epidemiology of anal cancer in the U.S. has changed over the past 3 decades. During this period the incidence of anal cancer has increased among both men and women. Of note, women with a history of anogenital HPV infection are at higher risk than the general population for anal cancer. The increased risk ranged from increased incidence rate ratios ranging from 1.82 to 6.3 in women with a history of cervical cancer, to 4.2-16.4 in women with a history of prior cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 3 (CIN 3)...
June 2017: Seminars in Colon & Rectal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190817/screening-for-precancerous-anal-lesions-with-p16-ki67-immunostaining-in-hiv-infected-msm
#3
Sergio Serrano-Villar, Beatriz Hernández-Novoa, Amparo de Benito, Jorge Del Romero, Antonio Ocampo, José Ramón Blanco, Mar Masiá, Elena Sendagorta, Gonzalo Sanz, Santiago Moreno, José A Pérez-Molina
BACKGROUND: Screening of anal cancer in HIV-infected MSM with anal cytology results in high rates of false positive results and elevated burden of high-resolution anoscopies. High-risk HPV up-regulates p16 and Ki67 expression in epithelial cells. We assessed the usefulness of P16/Ki-67 immunostaining cytology for the diagnosis of precancerous anal lesions. METHODOLOGY: Cross-sectional multicenter study. Concomitant anal liquid cytology with p16/Ki-67 immunostaining and HRA with biopsy of acetowhite lugol-negative lesions was performed in HIV-infected MSM...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179709/measuring-inconsistency-in-research-ethics-committee-review
#4
Samantha Trace, Simon Erik Kolstoe
BACKGROUND: The review of human participant research by Research Ethics Committees (RECs) or Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) is a complex multi-faceted process that cannot be reduced to an algorithm. However, this does not give RECs/ IRBs permission to be inconsistent in their specific requirements to researchers or in their final opinions. In England the Health Research Authority (HRA) coordinates 67 committees, and has adopted a consistency improvement plan including a process called "Shared Ethical Debate" (ShED) where multiple committees review the same project...
November 28, 2017: BMC Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177477/impact-of-antimicrobial-stewardship-interventions-on-clostridium-difficile-infection-and-clinical-outcomes-segmented-regression-analyses
#5
Andrea Patton, Peter Davey, Stephan Harbarth, Dilip Nathwani, Jacqueline Sneddon, Charis A Marwick
Background: Antimicrobial exposure is associated with increased risk of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), but the impact of prescribing interventions on CDI and other outcomes is less clear. Objectives: To evaluate the effect of an antimicrobial stewardship intervention targeting high-risk antimicrobials (HRA), implemented in October 2008, and to compare the findings with similar studies from a systematic review. Methods: All patients admitted to Medicine and Surgery in Ninewells Hospital from October 2006 to September 2010 were included...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170309/12%C3%A2-a-multi-centre-randomised-feasibility-study-evaluating-the-impact-of-a-prognostic-model-for-management-of-blunt-chest-wall-trauma-patients-stumbl-trial
#6
Ceri Battle, Hayley Hutchings, Zoe Abbott, Claire O'neill, Sam Groves, Alan Watkins, Fiona Lecky, Sally Jones, James Gagg, Rick Body, Phillip Evans
INTRODUCTION: A new prognostic model has been developed and externally validated, the aim of which is to assist in the management of the blunt chest wall trauma patient in the Emergency Department (ED). A definitive randomised controlled trial (impact trial), is required to assess the clinical and cost effectiveness of the new model, before it can be accepted in clinical practice. The purpose of this trial is to assess the feasibility and acceptability of such a definitive trial and inform its design...
December 2017: Emergency Medicine Journal: EMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149804/systematic-literature-review-and-network-meta-analysis-of-cladribine-tablets-versus-alternative-disease-modifying-treatments-for-relapsing-remitting-multiple-sclerosis
#7
M K Siddiqui, I S Khurana, S Budhia, R Hettle, G Harty, S L Wong
OBJECTIVE: To assess the comparative efficacy and safety of cladribine tablets versus alternative disease modifying treatments (DMTs) in patients with active relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS), and in a subgroup with high disease activity (HRA+DAT), using systematic literature review (SLR) and network meta-analysis (NMA). METHODS: MEDLINE, Embase, MEDLINE In-Process and CENTRAL databases were systematically searched to identify English-language publications of relevant studies of approved DMTs for RRMS...
November 17, 2017: Current Medical Research and Opinion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135605/novel-method-to-detect-corneal-lymphatic-vessels-in-vivo-by-intrastromal-injection-of-fluorescein
#8
Viet Nhat Hung Le, Yanhong Hou, Jens Horstmann, Felix Bock, Claus Cursiefen
PURPOSE: Corneal lymphatic vessels are clinically invisible because of their thin walls and clear lymph fluid. There is no easy and established method for in vivo imaging of corneal lymphatic vessels so far. In this study, we present a novel approach to visualize corneal lymphatic vessels in vivo by injecting intrastromal fluorescein sodium. METHODS: Six- to eight-week-old female BALB/c mice were used in the mouse model of suture-induced corneal neovascularization...
November 9, 2017: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129022/heat-acclimation-decay-and-re-induction-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#9
REVIEW
Hein A M Daanen, Sebastien Racinais, Julien D Périard
BACKGROUND: Although the acquisition of heat acclimation (HA) is well-documented, less is known about HA decay (HAD) and heat re-acclimation (HRA). The available literature suggests 1 day of HA is lost following 2 days of HAD. Understanding this relationship has the potential to impact upon the manner in which athletes prepare for major competitions, as a HA regimen may be disruptive during final preparations (i.e., taper). OBJECTIVE: The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to determine the rate of HAD and HRA in three of the main physiological adaptations occurring during HA: heart rate (HR), core temperature (T c), and sweat rate (SR)...
November 11, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128596/comparison-of-the-histologic-risk-assessment-model-between-lower-lip-and-oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#10
M Alaeddini, S Etemad-Moghadam
INTRODUCTION: The histologic risk assessment (HRA) grading system was proposed as a practical measure to predict clinical outcome and its effectiveness has been shown in several studies. It has been suggested that the HRA model might exhibit differences among various oral subsites. The aim of the present study was to compare this system between squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) of the lower lip (LL) and oral cavity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All primary SCCs located in the LL and oral cavity were retrieved and graded using the HRA model...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Stomatology, Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121217/effect-of-ulipristal-acetate-and-mifepristone-at-emergency-contraception-dose-on-the-embryo-endometrial-attachment-using-an-in-vitro-human-trophoblastic-spheroid-and-endometrial-cell-co-culture-model
#11
Hang-Wun Raymond Li, Ying-Xing Li, Tian-Tian Li, Hongjie Fan, Ernest Hung-Yu Ng, William Shu-Biu Yeung, Pak-Chung Ho, Kai-Fai Lee
STUDY QUESTION: Do both ulipristal acetate (UPA) and mifepristone inhibit embryo-endometrial attachment at concentrations corresponding to the emergency contraception (EC) dose? SUMMARY ANSWER: Both UPA and mifepristone at concentrations corresponding to the EC dose do not have an inhibitory effect on embryo implantation, although mifepristone at a higher concentration appeared to have such an effect. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Levonorgestrel is commonly used for EC, but it only acts through inhibition of ovulation...
November 7, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062531/a-framework-for-public-involvement-at-the-design-stage-of-nhs-health-and-social-care-research-time-to-develop-ethically-conscious-standards
#12
EDITORIAL
Raksha Pandya-Wood, Duncan S Barron, Jim Elliott
PLAIN ENGLISH SUMMARY: Researchers who conduct studies in health and social care are encouraged to involve the public as early as possible in the process of designing their studies. Before their studies are allowed to start researchers must seek approval from a Research Ethics Committee, which will assess whether the study is going to be safe and ethical for patients or healthy volunteers to take part in. The process of ethical review does not consider how researchers work with patients and the public early on to design their studies...
2017: Research Involvement and Engagement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061126/faecal-immunochemical-tests-fit-can-help-to-rule-out-colorectal-cancer-in-patients-presenting-in-primary-care-with-lower-abdominal-symptoms-a-systematic-review-conducted-to-inform-new-nice-dg30-diagnostic-guidance
#13
Marie Westwood, Shona Lang, Nigel Armstrong, Sietze van Turenhout, Joaquín Cubiella, Lisa Stirk, Isaac Corro Ramos, Marianne Luyendijk, Remziye Zaim, Jos Kleijnen, Callum G Fraser
BACKGROUND: This study has attempted to assess the effectiveness of quantitative faecal immunochemical tests (FIT) for triage of people presenting with lower abdominal symptoms, where a referral to secondary care for investigation of suspected colorectal cancer (CRC) is being considered, particularly when the 2-week criteria are not met. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review following published guidelines for systematic reviews of diagnostic tests. Twenty-one resources were searched up until March 2016...
October 24, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057371/dysflective-cones-visual-function-and-cone-reflectivity-in-long-term-follow-up-of-acute-bilateral-foveolitis
#14
Joanna H Tu, Katharina G Foote, Brandon J Lujan, Kavitha Ratnam, Jia Qin, Michael B Gorin, Emmett T Cunningham, William S Tuten, Jacque L Duncan, Austin Roorda
PURPOSE: Confocal adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope (AOSLO) images provide a sensitive measure of cone structure. However, the relationship between structural findings of diminished cone reflectivity and visual function is unclear. We used fundus-referenced testing to evaluate visual function in regions of apparent cone loss identified using confocal AOSLO images. METHODS: A patient diagnosed with acute bilateral foveolitis had spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) (Spectralis HRA + OCT system [Heidelberg Engineering, Vista, CA, USA]) images indicating focal loss of the inner segment-outer segment junction band with an intact, but hyper-reflective, external limiting membrane...
September 2017: American Journal of Ophthalmology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049723/a-comparison-of-en-face-optical-coherence-tomography-and-fundus-autofluorescence-in-stargardt-disease
#15
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Vivienne C Greenstein, Jason Nunez, Winston Lee, Kaspar Schuerch, Brad Fortune, Stephen H Tsang, Rando Allikmets, Janet R Sparrow, Donald C Hood
Purpose: To compare morphologic changes on en face images derived from wide-field swept-source optical coherence tomography (ssOCT) to hypo- and hyperautofluorescent (hypoAF, hyperAF) areas on short-wavelength autofluorescence (SW-AF), and near-infrared (NIR)-AF in recessive Stargardt disease (STGD1). Methods: Wide-field ssOCT cube scans were obtained from 16 patients (16 eyes). Averaged B-scans and SW-AF images were obtained using Spectralis HRA+OCT. NIR-AF images were obtained from 6 eyes...
October 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991834/spontaneous-retinal-venous-pulsation-in-unilateral-primary-open-angle-glaucoma-with-low-intraocular-pressure
#16
EunJi Lee, Tae-Woo Kim, Jung-Ah Kim, Ji Ah Kim, Hyunjoong Kim
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of spontaneous retinal venous pulsation (SVP) in patients with unilateral primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and low intraocular pressure (IOP). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The SVP of 93 POAG patients with unilateral glaucoma and untreated IOP of ≤21 mm Hg was assessed using the movie tool of a confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope (Spectralis HRA; Heidelberg Engineering). The frequency of SVP was compared between the glaucomatous and fellow eyes...
October 2017: Journal of Glaucoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988184/influence-of-frailty-in-older-patients-undergoing-emergency-laparotomy-a-uk-based-observational-study
#17
Kat L Parmar, Lyndsay Pearce, Ian Farrell, Jonathan Hewitt, Susan Moug
INTRODUCTION: The National Emergency Laparotomy Audit (NELA) has reported that older patients (≥65 years) form a large percentage of emergency high-risk cases with increased postoperative morbidity and mortality. With the population continuing to age rapidly, it is clear that a greater understanding of the factors affecting surgical outcomes in older patients is required. Frailty is a relatively new concept taking into account a variety of factors that increase an individual's vulnerability to increased dependency and death...
October 6, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987619/genetic-diversity-phylogroup-distribution-and-virulence-gene-profile-of-pks-positive-escherichia-coli-colonizing-human-intestinal-polyps
#18
Meysam Sarshar, Daniela Scribano, Massimiliano Marazzato, Cecilia Ambrosi, Maria Rita Aprea, Marta Aleandri, Annamaria Pronio, Catia Longhi, Mauro Nicoletti, Carlo Zagaglia, Anna Teresa Palamara, Maria Pia Conte
Some Escherichia coli strains of phylogroup B2 harbor a (pks) pathogenicity island that encodes a polyketide-peptide genotoxin called colibactin. It causes DNA double-strand breaks and megalocytosis in eukaryotic cells and it may contribute to cancer development. Study of bacterial community that colonizes the adenomatous polyp lesion, defined as precancerous lesions, could be helpful to assess if such pathogenic bacteria possess a role in the polyp progression to cancer. In this cross-sectional study, a total of 1500 E...
October 5, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973076/effect-of-dietary-supplementation-with-lutein-zeaxanthin-and-%C3%AF-3-on-macular-pigment-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#19
Jean-François Korobelnik, Marie-Bénédicte Rougier, Marie-Noëlle Delyfer, Alain Bron, Bénédicte M J Merle, Hélène Savel, Geneviève Chêne, Cécile Delcourt, Catherine Creuzot-Garcher
Importance: Nutritional uptake of lutein, zeaxanthin, and ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids may increase macular pigment optical density (MPOD) and thereby protect against the development of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Objectives: To estimate the efficiency of dietary supplementation containing lutein, zeaxanthin, ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and vitamins to increase the density of macular pigment in first-generation offspring of parents with neovascular AMD...
November 1, 2017: JAMA Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28953633/risk-factors-for-infection-by-oncogenic-human-papillomaviruses-in-hiv-positive-msm-patients-in-the-art-era-2010-2016
#20
Carmen Hidalgo-Tenorio, Concepción Gil-Anguita, Jessica Ramírez-Taboada, Javier Esquivias, Miguel A López-Ruz, Omar Mohamed Balgahata, Rosario Javier-Martinez, Juan Pasquau
Squamous cell carcinoma of anus (SCCA) is one of the most frequent non-AIDS-defining diseases in HIV patients, mainly in men who have sex with men (MSM), and it is associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection.To determine the prevalence of high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) genotypes, premalignant lesions (HSIL) and SCCA in a cohort of HIV-positive MSM; to study the distribution of HPV genotypes according to anal histology results; and to analyze risk factors for this infection.This prospective single-center study was conducted between May 2010 and September 2016...
September 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
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