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Lisa T Hong, Theodore G Liou, Rishi Deka, Jordan B King, Vanessa Stevens, David C Young
BACKGROUND: Several clinical trials have demonstrated the efficacy of continuous infusion (CI) beta-lactam (BL) antibiotics in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients; however, little is known regarding pharmacokinetic changes during treatment of an acute pulmonary exacerbation (APE). Identifying and understanding these changes may assist in optimizing antibiotic dosing during APE treatment. METHODS: This study is a retrospective cohort study of 162 adult CF patients admitted to the University of Utah Hospital between January 1, 2008 and May 15, 2014 for treatment of an APE with both a CI BL and intravenous tobramycin...
June 13, 2018: Chest
Madushi Wanaguru, David J Barry, Donald J Benton, Nicola J O'Reilly, Kate N Bishop
The murine leukaemia virus (MLV) Gag cleavage product, p12, is essential for both early and late steps in viral replication. The N-terminal domain of p12 binds directly to capsid (CA) and stabilises the mature viral core, whereas defects in the C-terminal domain (CTD) of p12 can be rescued by addition of heterologous chromatin binding sequences (CBSs). We and others hypothesised that p12 tethers the pre-integration complex (PIC) to host chromatin ready for integration. Using confocal microscopy, we have observed for the first time that CA localises to mitotic chromatin in infected cells in a p12-dependent manner...
June 15, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Sheng Wang, Yiqun Lei, Zeling Cai, Xiaoman Ye, Lianhong Li, Xiagang Luo, Chunzhao Yu
Girdin functions as an Akt phosphorylation enhancer (APE), which expedites the proliferation and survival of many types of tumours. However, the influence of Girdin on pancreatic cancer and the underlying molecular mechanisms have yet to be uncovered. Hence, in the present study, we sought to elucidate the function of Girdin in pancreatic cancer malignancy, particularly its role in pancreatic cancer cell proliferation, migration and apoptosis. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was used to evaluate Girdin expression in pancreatic cancer tissues and to analyse its correlation with pathological grade...
May 31, 2018: Oncology Reports
Maya S Kummrow, Martin Brüne
  Despite the growing knowledge and literature on primate medicine, assessment and treatment of behavioral abnormalities in nonhuman primates (NHPs) is an underdeveloped field. There is ample evidence for similarity between humans and great apes, including basic neurologic physiology and emotional processes, and no substantial argument exists against a concept of continuity for abnormal conditions in NHPs that emerge in response to adverse experiences, akin to human psychopathology. NHPs have served as models for human psychopathologies for many decades, but the acquired knowledge has only hesitantly been applied to primates themselves...
June 2018: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Peter Aerts, Kristiaan D'Août, Susannah Thorpe, Gilles Berillon, Evie Vereecke
The well-developed Achilles tendon in humans is generally interpreted as an adaptation for mechanical energy storage and reuse during cyclic locomotion. All other extant great apes have a short tendon and long-fibred triceps surae, which is thought to be beneficial for locomotion in a complex arboreal habitat as this morphology enables a large range of motion. Surprisingly, highly arboreal gibbons show a more human-like triceps surae with a long Achilles tendon. Evidence for a spring-like function similar to humans is not conclusive...
June 13, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Dennis Kostka, Alisha K Holloway, Katherine S Pollard
Some of the fastest evolving regions of the human genome are conserved non-coding elements with many human-specific DNA substitutions. These Human Accelerated Regions (HARs) are enriched nearby regulatory genes, and several HARs function as developmental enhancers. To investigate if this evolutionary signature is unique to humans, we quantified evidence of accelerated substitutions in conserved genomic elements across multiple lineages and applied this approach simultaneously to the genomes of five apes: human, chimpanzee, gorilla, orangutan, and gibbon...
June 12, 2018: Molecular Biology and Evolution
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No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Nature
Niharika Aggarwal, Ramakrishnan Ayloor Seshadri, Antony Arvind, Sunil Bhanu Jayanand
Extralevator abdominoperineal excision (ELAPE) results in a large perineal defect which needs reconstruction by a flap or biological mesh. The incidence of perineal wound complications is thought to be higher following an ELAPE compared to conventional abdominoperineal excision (APE). WE aimed to analyze the perineal wound complications following ELAPE in our institution. This was a retrospective analysis of all consecutive patients who underwent an APE (conventional and ELAPE) procedure in our institution between 2012 and 2015...
June 2018: Indian Journal of Surgical Oncology
Shun Deng, Pan-Pan Jia, Jing-Hui Zhang, Muhammad Junaid, Aping Niu, Yan-Bo Ma, Ailing Fu, De-Sheng Pei
Graphene quantum dots (GQDs) are widely used for biomedical applications. Previously, the low-level toxicity of GQDs in vivo and in vitro has been elucidated, but the underlying molecular mechanisms remained largely unknown. Here, we employed the Illumina high-throughput RNA-sequencing to explore the whole-transcriptome profiling of zebrafish larvae after exposure to GQDs. Comparative transcriptome analysis identified 2116 differentially expressed genes between GQDs exposed groups and control. Functional classification demonstrated that a large proportion of genes involved in acute inflammatory responses and detoxifying process were significantly up-regulated by GQDs...
May 29, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Zev N Kronenberg, Ian T Fiddes, David Gordon, Shwetha Murali, Stuart Cantsilieris, Olivia S Meyerson, Jason G Underwood, Bradley J Nelson, Mark J P Chaisson, Max L Dougherty, Katherine M Munson, Alex R Hastie, Mark Diekhans, Fereydoun Hormozdiari, Nicola Lorusso, Kendra Hoekzema, Ruolan Qiu, Karen Clark, Archana Raja, AnneMarie E Welch, Melanie Sorensen, Carl Baker, Robert S Fulton, Joel Armstrong, Tina A Graves-Lindsay, Ahmet M Denli, Emma R Hoppe, PingHsun Hsieh, Christopher M Hill, Andy Wing Chun Pang, Joyce Lee, Ernest T Lam, Susan K Dutcher, Fred H Gage, Wesley C Warren, Jay Shendure, David Haussler, Valerie A Schneider, Han Cao, Mario Ventura, Richard K Wilson, Benedict Paten, Alex Pollen, Evan E Eichler
Genetic studies of human evolution require high-quality contiguous ape genome assemblies that are not guided by the human reference. We coupled long-read sequence assembly and full-length complementary DNA sequencing with a multiplatform scaffolding approach to produce ab initio chimpanzee and orangutan genome assemblies. By comparing these with two long-read de novo human genome assemblies and a gorilla genome assembly, we characterized lineage-specific and shared great ape genetic variation ranging from single- to mega-base pair-sized variants...
June 8, 2018: Science
Marlen Fröhlich, Carel P van Schaik
Language is commonly narrowed down to speech, but human face-to-face communication is in fact an intrinsically multimodal phenomenon. Despite growing evidence that the communication of non-human primates, our main model for the evolution of language, is also inherently multimodal, most studies on primate communication have focused on either gestures or vocalizations in isolation. Accordingly, the biological function of multimodal signalling remains poorly understood. In this paper, we aim to merge the perspectives of comparative psychology and behavioural ecology on multimodal communication, and review existing studies in great apes for evidence of multimodal signal function based on content-based, efficacy-based and inter-signal interaction hypotheses...
June 6, 2018: Animal Cognition
Corinne Muirhead, Jeong Y Lim, Jodi Lapidus, Kelvin MacDonald
Background The risk for acute kidney injury (AKI) has been associated with both tobramycin and vancomycin. Objective To determine whether the rate of drug therapy-related nephrotoxicity is greater in Cystic Fibrosis (CF) patients receiving concomitant vancomycin and tobramycin than patients receiving either agent alone. Methods Adult CF patients admitted for acute pulmonary exacerbation (APE) over a seven-year period (2008-2014), who received at least 72 hours of intravenous vancomycin, tobramycin or a combination of the two agents were evaluated for AKI...
December 6, 2017: Curēus
Lorenzo Rossi, Spartaco Gippoliti, Francesco Maria Angelici
Although empirical data are necessary to describe new species, their discoveries can be guided from the survey of the so-called circumstantial evidence (that indirectly determines the existence or nonexistence of a fact). Yet this type of evidence, generally linked to traditional ecological knowledge (TEK), is often disputed by field biologists due to its uncertain nature and, on account of that, generally untapped by them. To verify this behavior and the utility of circumstantial evidence, we reviewed the existing literature about the species of apes and monkeys described or rediscovered since January 1, 1980 and submitted a poll to the authors...
June 4, 2018: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Patrizia Fattoretti, Manuela Malatesta, Barbara Cisterna, Chiara Milanese, Carlo Zancanaro
Aerobic physical exercise (APE) leads to improved brain functions. To better understand the beneficial effect of APE on the aging brain, a morphometric study was carried out of changes in hippocampal synapses of old (>27 months) Balb/c mice undergoing treadmill training (OTT) for 4 weeks in comparison with old sedentary (OS), middle-aged sedentary (MAS) and middle-aged treadmill training (MATT) mice. The inner molecular layer of the hippocampal dentate gyrus (IMLDG) and the molecular stratum of Ammon's horn1 neurons (SMCA1) were investigated...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Iram Aziz, Tahira Bibi, Naeem Rashid, Riku Aono, Haruyuki Atomi, Muhammad Akhtar
The genome of the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrobaculum calidifontis contains an open reading frame Pcal_0041 annotated as PfkB family ribokinase consisting of phosphofructokinase and pyrimidine kinase domains. Among biochemically characterized enzymes, the Pcal_0041 protein was 37% identical to the phosphofructokinase (Ape_0012) from Aeropyrum pernix , which displayed kinase activity towards a broad spectrum of substrates including sugars, sugar phosphates and nucleosides, and 36% identical to a phosphofructokinase from Desulfurococcus amylolyticus In order to examine the biochemical function of the Pcal_0041 protein, we cloned and expressed the gene and purified the recombinant protein...
June 4, 2018: Journal of Bacteriology
Johan J Bolhuis, Gabriel J L Beckers, Marinus A C Huybregts, Robert C Berwick, Martin B H Everaert
The faculty of language is thought to be uniquely human. Recently, it has been claimed that songbirds are able to associate meaning with sound, comparable to the way that humans do. In human language, the meaning of expressions (semantics) is dependent on a mind-internal hierarchical structure (syntax). Meaning is associated with structure through the principle of compositionality, whereby the meaning of a complex expression is a function of the meaning of its constituent parts and the mode of composition. We argue that while recent experimental findings on songbird call sequences offer exciting novel insights into animal communication, despite claims to the contrary, they are quite unlike what we find in human language...
June 4, 2018: PLoS Biology
Johanna Eckert, Hannes Rakoczy, Josep Call, Esther Herrmann, Daniel Hanus
Great apes have been shown to be intuitive statisticians: they can use proportional information within a population to make intuitive probability judgments about randomly drawn samples [1, J.E., J.C., J.H., E.H., and H.R., unpublished data]. Humans, from early infancy onward, functionally integrate intuitive statistics with other cognitive domains to judge the randomness of an event [2-6]. To date, nothing is known about such cross-domain integration in any nonhuman animal, leaving uncertainty about the origins of human statistical abilities...
May 22, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Lauriane Cacheux, Loïc Ponger, Michèle Gerbault-Seureau, François Loll, Delphine Gey, Florence Anne Richard, Christophe Escudé
Alpha satellite is the major repeated DNA element of primate centromeres. Specific evolutionary mechanisms have led to a great diversity of sequence families with peculiar genomic organization and distribution, which have till now been studied mostly in great apes. Using high throughput sequencing of alpha satellite monomers obtained by enzymatic digestion followed by computational and cytogenetic analysis, we compare here the diversity and genomic distribution of alpha satellite DNA in two related Old World monkey species, Cercopithecus pogonias and Cercopithecus solatus, which are known to have diverged about seven million years ago...
June 1, 2018: Genome Biology and Evolution
Katarzyna Majecka, Dariusz Pietraszewski
Object permanence is the ability to represent mentally an object and follow its position even when it has disappeared from view. According to Piaget's 6-stage scale of the sensorimotor period of development, it seems that object permanence appears in Stage 4 and fully develops in Stage 6. In this study, we investigated the ability of some species of monkeys (i.e. pig-tailed macaque, lion-tailed macaque, Celebes crested macaque, barbary macaque, De Brazza's monkey, L'Hoest's monkey, Allen's swamp monkey, black crested mangabeys, collared mangabeys, Geoffroy's spider monkey) to track the displacement of an object, which consisted of a reward hidden under one of two cups...
June 1, 2018: Animal Cognition
Amanda Grant-Orser, Brennan Ballantyne, Wael Haddara
A 68-year-old male presented to the emergency department with retrosternal chest pain, presyncope, and then a pulseless electrical activity cardiac arrest. An ECG prior to his arrest revealed ST elevations in leads V1-V3, Q waves in lead V2, and reciprocal ST depressions in the lateral and inferior leads. He received thrombolytic therapy for a presumptive diagnosis of ST elevation myocardial infarction. Return of spontaneous circulation was achieved and he underwent a coronary angiogram. No critical disease was found and his left ventriculogram showed normal contraction...
2018: Case Reports in Critical Care
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