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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447753/kinematics-of-the-anthropoid-os-centrale-and-the-functional-consequences-of-scaphoid-centrale-fusion-in-african-apes-and-hominins
#1
Caley M Orr
In most primates, the os centrale is interposed between the scaphoid, trapezoid, trapezium, and head of the capitate, thus constituting a component of the wrist's midcarpal complex. Scaphoid-centrale fusion is among the clearest morphological synapomorphies of African apes and hominins. Although it might facilitate knuckle-walking by increasing the rigidity and stability of the radial side of the wrist, the exact functional significance of scaphoid-centrale fusion is unclear. If fusion acts to produce a more rigid radial wrist that stabilizes the hand and limits shearing stresses, then in taxa with a free centrale, it should anchor ligaments that check extension and radial deviation, but exhibit motion independent of the scaphoid...
January 2018: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445870/extralevator-versus-standard-abdominoperineal-excision-in-locally-advanced-rectal-cancer-a-retrospective-study-with-long-term-follow-up
#2
Anu Carpelan, J Karvonen, P Varpe, A Rantala, A Kaljonen, J Grönroos, H Huhtinen
PURPOSE: To analyze the results of abdominoperineal excisions (APE) for locally advanced rectal cancer at our institution before and after the adoption of extralevator abdominoperineal excision (ELAPE) with a special reference to long-term survival. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study conducted in a tertiary referral center. All consecutive patients operated for locally advanced (TNM classification T3-4) rectal cancer with APE in 2004-2009 were compared to patients with similar tumors operated with ELAPE in 2009-2016...
February 14, 2018: International Journal of Colorectal Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438424/vestibular-schwannomas-accuracy-of-tumor-volume-estimated-by-ice-cream-cone-formula-using-thin-sliced-mr-images
#3
Hsing-Hao Ho, Ya-Hui Li, Jih-Chin Lee, Chih-Wei Wang, Yi-Lin Yu, Dueng-Yuan Hueng, Hsin-I Ma, Hsian-He Hsu, Chun-Jung Juan
PURPOSE: We estimated the volume of vestibular schwannomas by an ice cream cone formula using thin-sliced magnetic resonance images (MRI) and compared the estimation accuracy among different estimating formulas and between different models. METHODS: The study was approved by a local institutional review board. A total of 100 patients with vestibular schwannomas examined by MRI between January 2011 and November 2015 were enrolled retrospectively. Informed consent was waived...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434803/clinical-value-of-cardiac-color-ultrasound-and-cardiac-troponin-t-combined-with-dynamic-electrocardiogram-in-treatment-of-acute-pulmonary-embolism
#4
Hongjun Li, Lixin Kang, Yongqiang Sun
The clinical value of cardiac color ultrasound and cardiac troponin T (cTnT) combined with dynamic electrocardiogram in evaluating the treatment effect on acute pulmonary embolism (APE) was investigated. Ninety-eight patients with APE treated in Jinan Zhangqiu District Hospital of TCM from March 2016 to February 2017 were selected, and they were examined via the cardiac color ultrasound, cTnT and dynamic electrocardiogram to evaluate the clinical value in the treatment of pulmonary embolism. Electrocardiogram showed that there was no significant difference in the poor prognosis rate between right ventricular strain group and non-right ventricular strain group (P>0...
February 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428874/a-novel-hepatitis-b-virus-species-discovered-in-capuchin-monkeys-sheds-new-light-on-the-evolution-of-primate-hepadnaviruses
#5
Breno Frederico de Carvalho Dominguez Souza, Alexander König, Andrea Rasche, Ianei de Oliveira Carneiro, Nora Stephan, Victor Max Corman, Pia Luise Roppert, Nora Goldmann, Ramona Kepper, Simon Franz Müller, Christof Völker, Alex Junior Souza de Souza, Michele Soares Gomes-Gouvêa, Andrés Moreira-Soto, Andreas Stöcker, Michael Nassal, Carlos Roberto Franke, João Renato Rebello Pinho, Manoel do Carmo Pereira Soares, Joachim Geyer, Philippe Lemey, Christian Drosten, Eduardo Martins Netto, Dieter Glebe, Jan Felix Drexler
BACKGROUND & AIMS: All known hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotypes occur in humans and hominoid Old World nonhuman primates (NHP). The divergent Woolly Monkey HBV (WMHBV) forms another orthohepadnavirus species. The evolutionary origins of HBV are unclear. METHODS: We analyzed sera from 124 Brazilian monkeys collected during 2012-2016 for hepadnaviruses using molecular and serological tools and conducted evolutionary analyses. RESULTS: We identified a novel orthohepadnavirus species in capuchin monkeys (CMHBV)...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426408/potential-for-the-cross-species-transmission-of-swine-torque-teno-viruses
#6
Gagandeep Singh, Sheela Ramamoorthy
Torque teno viruses [TTVs] are negative sense, single-stranded, DNA viruses, which are distributed globally in several mammalian hosts such as humans, apes, sheep and swine in a species-specific manner. While the pathogenic potential of TTVs is under debate, recent experimental studies in gnotobiotic pigs indicate that swine TTVs, TTSuV1 in particular, can act as a primary or co-infecting pathogen. Hence, determining whether TTSuV1 can infect other mammals would eventually further our understanding of viral pathogenesis, especially in coinfections...
February 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29418123/why-do-knuckle-walking-african-apes-knuckle-walk
#7
Scott W Simpson, Bruce Latimer, C Owen Lovejoy
Among living mammals, only the African apes and some anteaters adopt knuckle-walking as their primary locomotor behavior. That Pan and Gorilla both knuckle-walk has been cited as evidence of their common ancestry and a primitive condition for a combined Homo, Pan, and Gorilla clade. Recent research on forelimb ontogeny and anatomy, in addition to recently described hominin fossils, indicate that knuckle-walking was independently acquired after divergence of the Pan and Gorilla lineages. Although the large-bodied, largely suspensory orangutan shares some aspects of the African ape bauplan, it does not regularly knuckle-walk when terrestrial...
March 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417991/nocturnal-behavior-by-a-diurnal-ape-the-west-african-chimpanzee-pan-troglodytes-verus-in-a-savanna-environment-at-fongoli-senegal
#8
Jill D Pruetz
OBJECTIVES: I report on the nocturnal behavior of Fongoli chimpanzees in a savanna mosaic during different seasons and lunar phases and test the hypothesis that hot daytime temperatures influence activity at night. I predicted that apes would be more active at night during periods of greater lunar illuminosity given diurnal primates' lack of visual specializations for low-light conditions and in dry season months when water scarcity exacerbated heat stress. MATERIALS AND METHODS: I observed chimpanzees for 403 hrs on 40 nights between 2007 and 2013 and categorized their activity as social, movement, or vocalization...
February 8, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417986/three-dimensional-anatomy-of-the-anthropoid-bony-pelvis
#9
Carol V Ward, Scott D Maddux, Emily R Middleton
OBJECTIVES: Pelvic form is hypothesized to reflect locomotor adaptation in anthropoids. Most observed variation is found in the ilium, which traditionally is thought to reflect thoracic and shoulder morphology. This article examines the articulated bony pelvis of anthropoids in three dimensions (3D) to test hypothesized variation in pelvic anatomy related to overall torso form. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty landmarks were collected on articulated pelves from 240 anthropoid individuals...
February 8, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417409/a-new-method-of-ct-for-the-cardiac-measurement-correlation-of-computed-tomography-measured-cardiac-parameters-and-pulmonary-obstruction-index-to-assess-cardiac-morphological-changes-in-acute-pulmonary-embolism-patients
#10
Zhi-Jun Guo, Hai-Tao Liu, Ze-Mei Bai, Qiang Lin, Bao-Hong Zhao, Qian Xu, Yan-Hong Zeng, Wen-Qiu Feng, Hai-Tao Zhou, Fei Liang, Ji-Yan Cui
Acute pulmonary embolism (APE) is a serious disease which is life-threatening. Since it is crucial for APE patients to assess the changes of cardiac function safely and timely, the imaging research of cardiac morphology and function is becoming more and more important. The correlation of computed tomography (CT) measured cardiac parameters and pulmonary obstruction index (POI) was analyzed to discuss the morphological changes of the heart of APE patients in order to provide a new method to evaluate cardiac functions accurately and effectively...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407373/spumaretroviruses-updated-taxonomy-and-nomenclature
#11
REVIEW
Arifa S Khan, Jochen Bodem, Florence Buseyne, Antoine Gessain, Welkin Johnson, Jens H Kuhn, Jacek Kuzmak, Dirk Lindemann, Maxine L Linial, Martin Löchelt, Magdalena Materniak-Kornas, Marcelo A Soares, William M Switzer
Spumaretroviruses, commonly referred to as foamy viruses, are complex retroviruses belonging to the subfamily Spumaretrovirinae, family Retroviridae, which naturally infect a variety of animals including nonhuman primates (NHPs). Additionally, cross-species transmissions of simian foamy viruses (SFVs) to humans have occurred following exposure to tissues of infected NHPs. Recent research has led to the identification of previously unknown exogenous foamy viruses, and to the discovery of endogenous spumaretrovirus sequences in a variety of host genomes...
February 1, 2018: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405367/the-influence-of-evolution-on-cam-deformity-and-its-impact-on-biomechanics-of-the-human-hip-joint
#12
REVIEW
Helen Anwander, Martin Beck, Lorenz Büchler
Anatomy and biomechanics of the human hip joint are a consequence of the evolution of permanent bipedal gait. Habitat and behaviour have an impact on hip morphology and significant differences are present even within the same biological family. The forces acting upon the hip joint are mainly a function of gravitation and strength of the muscles. Acetabular and femoral anatomy ensure an inherently stable hip with a wide range of motion. The femoral head in first human ancestors with upright gait was spherical (coxa rotunda)...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29386644/femoral-ontogeny-in-humans-and-great-apes-and-its-implications-for-their-last-common-ancestor
#13
Naoki Morimoto, Masato Nakatsukasa, Marcia S Ponce de León, Christoph P E Zollikofer
Inferring the morphology of the last common ancestor of humans, chimpanzees and gorillas is a matter of ongoing debate. Recent findings and reassessment of fossil hominins leads to the hypothesis that the last common ancestor was not extant African ape-like. However, an African great-ape-like ancestor with knuckle walking features still remains plausible and the most parsimonious scenario. Here we address this question via an evolutionary developmental approach, comparing taxon-specific patterns of shape change of the femoral diaphysis from birth to adulthood in great apes, humans, and macaques...
January 31, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29384902/standard-versus-extralevator-abdominoperineal-excision-and-oncologic-outcomes-for-patients-with-distal-rectal-cancer-a-meta-analysis
#14
Yunfeng Zhang, Duo Wang, Lizhe Zhu, Bin Wang, Xiaoxia Ma, Bohui Shi, Yu Yan, Can Zhou
BACKGROUND: The role of extralevator abdominoperineal excision (ELAPE) for distal rectal cancer remains controversial, and the procedure is not widely accepted or practiced. METHODS: An electronic search of Medline, EMBASE, Web of Science, and similar databases for articles in English was performed from the inception of the study until October 31, 2017. Two reviewers extracted information and independently assessed the quality of included studies by the methodological index for nonrandomized studies, then data were analyzed with Review Manager 5...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29375106/tricuspid-regurgitation-peak-gradient-trpg-tricuspid-annulus-plane-systolic-excursion-tapse-%C3%A3-a-novel-parameter-for-stepwise-echocardiographic-risk-stratification-in-normotensive-patients-with-acute-pulmonary-embolism
#15
Michał Ciurzyński, Katarzyna Kurnicka, Barbara Lichodziejewska, Marta Kozłowska, Magdalena Pływaczewska, Piotr Sobieraj, Olga Dzikowska-Diduch, Sylwia Goliszek, Piotr Bienias, Maciej Kostrubiec, Piotr Pruszczyk
BACKGROUND: Patients with intermediate-risk acute pulmonary embolism (APE) are a heterogeneous group with an early mortality rate of 2-15%. The tricuspid annulus plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) and tricuspid regurgitation peak gradient (TRPG) can be used for risk stratification, so we analyzed the prognostic value of a new echo parameter (TRPG/TAPSE) for prediction of APE-related 30-day death or need for rescue thrombolysis in initially normotensive APE patients.Methods and Results:The study group consists of 400 non-high-risk APE patients (191 men, age: 63...
January 26, 2018: Circulation Journal: Official Journal of the Japanese Circulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29368287/gestural-acquisition-in-great-apes-the-social-negotiation-hypothesis
#16
Simone Pika, Marlen Fröhlich
Scientific interest in the acquisition of gestural signalling dates back to the heroic figure of Charles Darwin. More than a hundred years later, we still know relatively little about the underlying evolutionary and developmental pathways involved. Here, we shed new light on this topic by providing the first systematic, quantitative comparison of gestural development in two different chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes verus and Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) subspecies and communities living in their natural environments...
January 24, 2018: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29362964/pathogen-transmission-from-humans-to-great-apes-is-a-growing-threat-to-primate-conservation
#17
REVIEW
Emily Dunay, Kathleen Apakupakul, Stephen Leard, Jamie L Palmer, Sharon L Deem
All six great ape species are listed as endangered or critically endangered by the IUCN and experiencing decreasing population trends. One of the threats to these non-human primates is the transmission of pathogens from humans. We conducted a literature review on occurrences of pathogen transmission from humans to great apes to highlight this often underappreciated issue. In total, we found 33 individual occurrences of probable or confirmed pathogen transmission from humans to great apes: 23 involved both pathogen and disease transmission, 7 pathogen transmission only, 2 positive antibody titers to zoonotic pathogens, and 1 pathogen transmission with probable disease...
January 23, 2018: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29362238/adaptive-evolution-of-rh5-in-ape-plasmodium-species-of-the-laverania-subgenus
#18
Lindsey J Plenderleith, Weimin Liu, Oscar A MacLean, Yingying Li, Dorothy E Loy, Sesh A Sundararaman, Frederic Bibollet-Ruche, Gerald H Learn, Beatrice H Hahn, Paul M Sharp
Plasmodium falciparum, the major cause of malaria morbidity and mortality in humans, has been shown to have emerged after cross-species transmission of one of six host-specific parasites (subgenus Laverania) infecting wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and western gorillas (Gorilla gorilla). Binding of the parasite-encoded ligand RH5 to the host protein basigin is essential for erythrocyte invasion and has been implicated in host specificity. A recent study claimed to have found two amino acid changes in RH5 that "drove the host shift leading to the emergence of P...
January 23, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29361583/oxidation-of-linoleic-and-palmitic-acid-in-pre-hibernating-and-hibernating-common-noctule-bats-revealed-by-13c-breath-testing
#19
Elisabeth Rosner, Christian C Voigt
Mammals fuel hibernation by oxidizing saturated and unsaturated fatty acids from triacylglycerols in adipocytes, yet the relative importance of these two categories as an oxidative fuel may change during hibernation. We studied the selective use of fatty acids as an oxidative fuel in noctule bats (Nyctalus noctula). Pre-hibernating noctule bats that were fed 13C-enriched linoleic acid (LA) showed 12 times higher tracer oxidation rates compared to conspecifics fed 13C-enriched palmitic acid (PA). After this experiment, we supplemented the diet of bats with the same fatty acids on 5 subsequent days to enrich their fat depots with the respective tracer...
December 21, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356904/an-orangutan-in-paris-pondering-proximity-at-the-mus%C3%A3-um-d-histoire-naturelle-in-1836
#20
Richard W Burkhardt
When the Muséum d'histoire naturelle in Paris learned in 1836 that it had the chance to buy a live, young orangutan, it was excited by the prospect. Specimens were the focus of the Museum's activities, and this particular specimen seemed especially promising, not only because the Museum had very few orangutan specimens in its collection, but also because of what was perceived to be the orangutan's unique place in the natural order of things, namely, at the very boundary between the animal kingdom and humans...
January 22, 2018: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
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