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Jacques Prieur, Simone Pika, Catherine Blois-Heulin, Stéphanie Barbu
Understanding variations of apes' laterality between activities is a central issue when investigating the evolutionary origins of human hemispheric specialization of manual functions and language. We assessed laterality of 39 chimpanzees in a non-communication action similar to termite fishing that we compared with data on five frequent conspecific-directed gestures involving a tool previously exploited in the same subjects. We evaluated, first, population-level manual laterality for tool-use in non-communication actions; second, the influence of sociodemographic factors (age, sex, group, and hierarchy) on manual laterality in both non-communication actions and gestures...
April 14, 2018: Behavioural Processes
Mattias Prytz, Anna Ledebo, Eva Angenete, David Bock, Eva Haglind
The aim of this prospective registry-based population study was to investigate the association between QoL 3 years after surgery for rectal cancer and intrusive thoughts and to assess the association with the type of surgery (i.e., APE or ELAPE) in a population-based national cohort. ELAPE has been proposed as a superior surgical technique for distal rectal cancer, but long-term effects on QoL are not known. There are also no studies on the association of negative intrusive thoughts on patients' self-reported Quality of Life following surgery for distal rectal cancer...
April 17, 2018: Cancer Medicine
Naoki Morimoto
The increasing availability of developmental data on humans and great apes has become essential for furthering our understanding of human evolution. Although postnatal ontogeny is relatively well documented, our knowledge about variation of developmental patterns during the prenatal period among primate species remains lacking. There are various limitations to studying fetuses, but investigating the fetal period, directly or indirectly, has the potential to answer questions that are otherwise difficult to tackle with postnatal examination...
April 16, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Jayden O van Horik, Nathan J Emery
Serial reversal learning of colour discriminations was assessed as an index of behavioural flexibility in two captive species of Neotropical parrots. Both species showed similar performances across serial reversals and no between species differences were observed. In a second task subjects' performances were assessed after they experienced either a low or high pre-reversal learning criterion. If reversal performances improve through processes of associative learning, a high pre-reversal criterion is expected to strengthen previously learned associations and hence impede post-reversal performances...
April 12, 2018: Behavioural Processes
Tom Hildebrandt, Ashley Heywood, Daniel Wesley, Kurt Schulz
Synthetic androgens (i. e., anabolic-androgenic steroids) are the primary component to the majority of problematic appearance and performance enhancing drug (APED) use. Despite evidence that these substances are associated with increased risk for aggression, violence, body image disturbances, and polypharmacy and can develop a pattern of chronic use consistent with drug dependence, there are no formal definitions of androgen intoxication. Consequently, the purpose of this paper is to establish a testable theory of androgen intoxication...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Barbora Pafčo, Dagmar Čížková, Jakub Kreisinger, Hideo Hasegawa, Peter Vallo, Kathryn Shutt, Angelique Todd, Klára J Petrželková, David Modrý
Strongylid nematodes in large terrestrial herbivores such as great apes, equids, elephants, and humans tend to occur in complex communities. However, identification of all species within strongylid communities using traditional methods based on coproscopy or single nematode amplification and sequencing is virtually impossible. High-throughput sequencing (HTS) technologies provide opportunities to generate large amounts of sequence data and enable analyses of samples containing a mixture of DNA from multiple species/genotypes...
April 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Adwait Deshpande, Shreejata Gupta, Anindya Sinha
Comparative studies of nonhuman communication systems could provide insights into the origins and evolution of a distinct dimension of human language: intentionality. Recent studies have provided evidence for intentional communication in different species but generally in captive settings. We report here a novel behaviour of food requesting from humans displayed by wild bonnet macaques Macaca radiata, an Old World cercopithecine primate, in the Bandipur National Park of southern India. Using both natural observations and field experiments, we examined four different behavioural components-coo-calls, hand-extension gesture, orientation, and monitoring behaviour-of food requesting for their conformity with the established criteria of intentional communication...
April 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Ashish Kumar Nayak, Anjali Pal
In this research, the performance of naturally abundant lignocellulosic by-product, Abelmoschus esculentus, and its processed seed powder referred as AESP, as a potential biosorbent for the removal of acridine orange (AO) from the aqueous environment was examined. The AESP biosorbent was characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and pHZPC analyses. The average size of the biosorbent according to particle size distribution analysis was found to be ∼132 μm...
April 9, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Gleb A Kuzmin, Matthew M Mille, Jae Won Jung, Choonik Lee, Christopher Pelletier, Gamal Akabani, Choonsik Lee
Epidemiological investigation is an important approach to assessing the risk of late effects after radiotherapy, and organ dosimetry is a crucial part of such analysis. Computed tomography (CT) images, if available, can be a valuable resource for individualizing the dosimetry, because they describe the specific anatomy of the patient. However, CT images acquired for radiation treatment planning purposes cover only a portion of the body near the target volume, whereas for epidemiology, the interest lies in the more distant normal tissues, which may be located outside the scan range...
April 4, 2018: Radiation Research
Nicholas R Meyerson, Cody J Warren, Daniel A S A Vieira, Felipe Diaz-Griffero, Sara L Sawyer
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1006906.].
April 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Elaine E Kozma, Nicole M Webb, William E H Harcourt-Smith, David A Raichlen, Kristiaan D'Août, Mary H Brown, Emma M Finestone, Stephen R Ross, Peter Aerts, Herman Pontzer
The evolutionary emergence of humans' remarkably economical walking gait remains a focus of research and debate, but experimentally validated approaches linking locomotor capability to postcranial anatomy are limited. In this study, we integrated 3D morphometrics of hominoid pelvic shape with experimental measurements of hip kinematics and kinetics during walking and climbing, hamstring activity, and passive range of hip extension in humans, apes, and other primates to assess arboreal-terrestrial trade-offs in ischium morphology among living taxa...
April 2, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Dong-Youb Lee, Kyung-Jong Won, Kang Pa Lee, Seung Hyo Jung, Suji Baek, Hyun Woo Chung, Wahn Soo Choi, Hwan Myung Lee, Byeong Han Lee, Byeong Hwa Jeon, Bokyung Kim
Angiotensin II (Ang II) is implicated in the development of cardiovascular disorders including hypertension and atherosclerosis. However, the role of Ang II in the interaction between apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease/redox factor-1 (APE/Ref-1) and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) signals in relation to vascular disorders remains to be clarified. This study aimed to determine whether APE/Ref-1 plays a role in epigenetic regulation of the S1P receptor (S1PR) in response to Ang II in vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) migration and vascular neointima formation...
March 30, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Stephanie A Poindexter, Kathleen D Reinhardt, Vincent Nijman, K A I Nekaris
It has been suggested that strepsirrhines (lemurs, lorises, and galagos) retain the more primitive left-hand preference, whilst monkeys and apes more regularly display a right-hand preference at the individual-level. We looked to address questions of laterality in the slow loris (Nycticebus spp.) using spontaneous observations of 7 wild individuals, unimanual tests in 6 captive individuals, and photos of 42 individuals in a bilateral posture assessing handedness at the individual- and group-level. During the unimanual reach task, we found at the individual-level, only 4 slow lorises showed a hand use bias (R: 3, L: 1), Handedness index (HI) ranged from -0...
April 1, 2018: Laterality
Brigitte M Weiß, Marlen Kücklich, Ruth Thomsen, Stefanie Henkel, Susann Jänig, Lars Kulik, Claudia Birkemeyer, Anja Widdig
Abstract: Scents play an important role in the life of most terrestrial mammals and may transmit valuable information about conspecifics. Olfaction was long considered of low importance in Old World monkeys due to their relative reduction of olfactory structures and low incidence of scent-marking behavior but has been increasingly recognized for mediating social relationships in recent years. Yet, studies investigating the composition of their chemical cues remain scarce. In the present study, we analyzed the potential information content of chemicals present on the skin of rhesus macaques ( Macaca mulatta )...
2018: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
Michael A Berthaume, Lucas K Delezene, Kornelius Kupczik
Though late Middle Pleistocene in age, Homo naledi is characterized by a mosaic of Australopithecus-like (e.g., curved fingers, small brains) and Homo-like (e.g., elongated lower limbs) traits, which may suggest it occupied a unique ecological niche. Ecological reconstructions inform on niche occupation, and are particularly successful when using dental material. Tooth shape (via dental topography) and size were quantified for four groups of South African Plio-Pleistocene hominins (specimens of Australopithecus africanus, Paranthropus robustus, H...
May 2018: Journal of Human Evolution
Jeremy A O'Sullivan, Yadong Wei, Daniela J Carroll, Liliana Moreno-Vinasco, Yun Cao, Fengrui Zhang, James J Lee, Zhou Zhu, Bruce S Bochner
Sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectin (Siglec)-8 is a human cell surface protein expressed exclusively on eosinophils, mast cells, and basophils that, when engaged, induces eosinophil apoptosis and inhibits mast cell mediator release. This makes Siglec-8 a promising therapeutic target to treat diseases involving these cell types. However, preclinical studies of Siglec-8 targeting in vivo are lacking because this protein is only found in humans, apes, and some monkeys. Therefore, we have developed a mouse strain in which SIGLEC8 transcription is activated by Cre recombinase and have crossed this mouse with the eoCre mouse to achieve eosinophil-specific expression...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
Jun-Rui Zhao, Xiao-Liang Ren, Meng Wang
Nuciferin is the main active ingredients in Nelumbinis Folium, which was proved to have good hypolipidemic, antioxidative and anti-inflammatory bioactivities. Currently, in vivo pharmacokinetic studies of nuciferin showed different results based on different animal models. In vitro evaluation experiments were low-cost, stable and controllable. Biopharmaceutical classification system(BCS) was an effective and reliable in vitro simulation method to evaluate the bioavailability of oral drugs. It was a scientific framework for classifying drugs or active pharmaceutical ingredients(API) according to their solubility and impermeability in vitro ...
February 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Jerome Kagan
This article discusses three major, but related, controversies surrounding the idea of morality. Is the complete pattern of features defining human morality unique to this species? How context dependent are moral beliefs and the emotions that often follow a violation of a moral standard? What developmental sequence establishes a moral code? This essay suggests that human morality rests on a combination of cognitive and emotional processes that are missing from the repertoires of other species. Second, the moral evaluation of every behavior, whether by self or others, depends on the agent, the action, the target of the behavior, and the context...
March 1, 2018: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
Charles Kumakamba, Ipos Ngay Lukusa, Placide Mbala Kingebeni, Frida N'Kawa, Joseph Atibu Losoma, Prime M Mulembakani, Maria Makuwa, Jean-Jacques Muyembe Tamfum, Raphaël Belais, Amethyst Gillis, Stephen Harris, Anne W Rimoin, Nicole A Hoff, Joseph N Fair, Corina Monagin, James Ayukekbong, Edward M Rubin, Nathan D Wolfe, Christian E Lange
Bocaparvoviruses are members of the family Parvovirinae and human bocaviruses have been found to be associated with respiratory and gastrointestinal disease. There are four known human bocaviruses, as well as several distinct ones in great apes. The goal of the presented study was to detect other non-human primate (NHP) bocaviruses in NHP species in the Democratic Republic of the Congo using conventional broad-range PCR. We found bocavirus DNA in blood and tissues samples in 6 out of 620 NHPs, and all isolates showed very high identity (>97 %) with human bocaviruses 2 or 3...
March 27, 2018: Journal of General Virology
Jennifer Kotler, David Haig
Relative to the life history of other great apes, that of humans is characterized by early weaning and short interbirth intervals (IBIs). We propose that in modern humans, birth until adrenarche, or the rise in adrenal androgens, developmentally corresponds to the period from birth until weaning in great apes and ancestral hominins. According to this hypothesis, humans achieved short IBIs by subdividing ancestral infancy into a nurseling phase, during which offspring fed at the breast, and a weanling phase, during which offspring fed specially prepared foods...
March 2018: Evolutionary Anthropology
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