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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029327/the-exonization-and-functionalization-of-an-alu-j-element-in-the-protein-coding-region-of-glycoprotein-hormone-alpha-gene-represent-a-novel-mechanism-to-the-evolution-of-hemochorial-placentation-in-primates
#1
Haidi Chen, Li Chen, Yune Wu, Hao Shen, Guang Yang, Cheng Deng
Alu elements contribute considerably to gene regulation and genome evolution in primates. The generation of new exons from Alu elements has been found in various human genes, and the regulatory function of the Alu exon has been investigated in many studies. However, the functionalization of Alu elements in protein coding regions remains unknown. Here, we reported that an Alu-J element exonized in the glycoprotein hormone alpha (GPHA) gene and encoded an additional N-terminal peptide (Alu-J encoding peptide) of the mature GPHA peptide, leading to a splicing variant of Alu-GPHA in anthropoid primates approximately 35 million years ago...
September 26, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028112/the-role-of-declining-adaptive-homeostasis-in-ageing
#2
Laura C D Pomatto, Kelvin J A Davies
Adaptive homeostasis is, 'the transient expansion or contraction of the homeostatic range for any given physiological parameter in response to exposure to sub-toxic, non-damaging, signalling molecules or events, or the removal or cessation of such molecules or events (Davies, 2016a)." Adaptive homeostasis enables biological systems to make continuous short-term adjustments for optimal functioning despite ever-changing internal and external environments. Initiation of adaptation in response to an appropriate signal allows organisms to successfully cope with much greater, normally toxic, stresses...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027082/factors-associating-with-the-presence-of-residual-thrombosis-after-3-month-treatment-of-acute-pulmonary-embolism
#3
Jingluan Wang, Mingling Xu, Nina Sun, Zhaozhong Cheng, Jingjing Sui
The present study aimed to investigate the factors associating with the presence of residual thrombosis in patients with acute pulmonary embolism (APE) after at least 3-month anticoagulant therapy. Demographic and clinical data of 180 cases in the affiliated hospital of Qingdao University from January 2005 to June 2015 were retrospectively analyzed. APE in all patients were confirmed by computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA). Patients were then detected for the presence of residual thrombosis according to a second CTPA...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026075/evidence-of-a-chimpanzee-sized-ancestor-of-humans-but-a-gibbon-sized-ancestor-of-apes
#4
Mark Grabowski, William L Jungers
Body mass directly affects how an animal relates to its environment and has a wide range of biological implications. However, little is known about the mass of the last common ancestor (LCA) of humans and chimpanzees, hominids (great apes and humans), or hominoids (all apes and humans), which is needed to evaluate numerous paleobiological hypotheses at and prior to the root of our lineage. Here we use phylogenetic comparative methods and data from primates including humans, fossil hominins, and a wide sample of fossil primates including Miocene apes from Africa, Europe, and Asia to test alternative hypotheses of body mass evolution...
October 12, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023639/an-anatomical-and-mechanical-analysis-of-the-douc-monkey-genus-pygathrix-and-its-role-in-understanding-the-evolution-of-brachiation
#5
C D Byron, M C Granatosky, H H Covert
OBJECTIVES: Pygathrix is an understudied Asian colobine unusual among the Old World monkeys for its use of arm-swinging. Little data exists on the anatomy and mechanics of brachiation in this genus. Here, we consider this colobine to gain insight into the parallel evolution of suspensory behavior in primates. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study compares axial and appendicular morphological variables of Pygathrix with other Asian colobines. Additionally, to assess the functional consequences of Pygathrix limb anatomy, kinematic and kinetic data during arm-swinging are included to compare the douc monkey to other suspensory primates (Ateles and Hylobates)...
October 11, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020030/the-first-hyaenodont-from-the-late-oligocene-nsungwe-formation-of-tanzania-paleoecological-insights-into-the-paleogene-neogene-carnivore-transition
#6
Matthew R Borths, Nancy J Stevens
Throughout the Paleogene, most terrestrial carnivore niches in Afro-Arabia were occupied by Hyaenodonta, an extinct lineage of placental mammals. By the end of the Miocene, terrestrial carnivore niches had shifted to members of Carnivora, a clade with Eurasian origins. The transition from a hyaenodont-carnivore fauna to a carnivoran-carnivore fauna coincides with other ecological changes in Afro-Arabia as tectonic conditions in the African Rift System altered climatic conditions and facilitated faunal exchange with Eurasia...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018365/searching-for-the-haplorrhine-heterotherm-field-and-laboratory-data-of-free-ranging-tarsiers
#7
Shaun Welman, Andrew A Tuen, Barry G Lovegrove
The observation of heterothermy in a single suborder (Strepsirrhini) only within the primates is puzzling. Given that the placental-mammal ancestor was likely a heterotherm, we explored the potential for heterothermy in a primate closely related to the Strepsirrhini. Based upon phylogeny, body size and habitat stability since the Late Eocene, we selected western tarsiers (Cephalopachus bancanus) from the island of Borneo. Being the sister clade to Strepsirrhini and basal in Haplorrhini (monkeys and apes), we hypothesized that C...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016692/benefit-of-early-discharge-among-patients-with-low-risk-pulmonary-embolism
#8
Li Wang, Onur Baser, Phil Wells, W Frank Peacock, Craig I Coleman, Gregory J Fermann, Jeff Schein, Concetta Crivera
Clinical guidelines recommend early discharge of patients with low-risk pulmonary embolism (LRPE). This study measured the overall impact of early discharge of LRPE patients on clinical outcomes and costs in the Veterans Health Administration population. Adult patients with ≥1 inpatient diagnosis for pulmonary embolism (PE) (index date) between 10/2011-06/2015, continuous enrollment for ≥12 months pre- and 3 months post-index date were included. PE risk stratification was performed using the simplified Pulmonary Embolism Stratification Index...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990745/diagnostic-value-of-circulating-microrna-27a-b-in-patients-with-acute-pulmonary-embolism
#9
Qian Wang, Junfen Ma, Zhiyun Jiang, Fan Wu, Jiedan Ping, Liang Ming
BACKGROUND: Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) have been increasingly suggested as biomarkers for numerous diseases. The aims of this study were to evaluate the expression of plasma miR-27a/b in patients with acute pulmonary embolism (APE) and determine the possibility of miR-27a/b as diagnostic biomarkers for APE. METHODS: 78 APE patients diagnosed by computed tomographic pulmonary angiography (CTPA) and 70 age and gender matched normal volunteers were included in this study...
October 9, 2017: International Angiology: a Journal of the International Union of Angiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980083/adenovirus-infection-in-savanna-chimpanzees-pan-troglodytes-schweinfurthii-in-the-issa-valley-tanzania
#10
Eva Dadáková, Kristýna Brožová, Alex K Piel, Fiona A Stewart, David Modrý, Vladimír Celer, Kristýna Hrazdilová
Adenoviruses are a widespread cause of diverse human infections with recently confirmed zoonotic roots in African great apes. We focused on savanna-dwelling chimpanzees in the Issa Valley (Tanzania), which differ from those from forested sites in many aspects of behavior and ecology. PCR targeting the DNA polymerase gene detected AdV in 36.7% (69/188) of fecal samples. We detected five groups of strains belonging to the species Human mastadenovirus E and two distinct groups within the species Human mastadenovirus C based on partial hexon sequence...
October 4, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978547/validation-of-the-doubly-labeled-water-method-using-off-axis-integrated-cavity-output-spectroscopy-and-isotope-ratio-mass-spectrometry
#11
Edward L Melanson, Tracy Swibas, Wendy M Kohrt, Vicki A Catenacci, Seth A Creasy, Guy Plasqui, Loek Wouters, John R Speakman, Elena S F Berman
When the doubly-labeled water (DLW) method is used to measure total daily energy expenditure (TDEE), isotope measurements are typically performed using isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS). New technologies, such as off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy (OA-ICOS) provide comparable isotopic measurements of standard waters and human urine samples, but the accuracy of carbon dioxide production (VCO2) determined with OA-ICOS has not been demonstrated. We compared simultaneous measurement of VCO2 obtained using whole-room indirect calorimetry (IC) with DLW-based measurements from IRMS and OA-ICOS...
October 3, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970508/rapid-categorization-of-human-and-ape-faces-in-9-month-old-infants-revealed-by-fast-periodic-visual-stimulation
#12
Stefanie Peykarjou, Stefanie Hoehl, Sabina Pauen, Bruno Rossion
This study investigates categorization of human and ape faces in 9-month-olds using a Fast Periodic Visual Stimulation (FPVS) paradigm while measuring EEG. Categorization responses are elicited only if infants discriminate between different categories and generalize across exemplars within each category. In study 1, human or ape faces were presented as standard and deviant stimuli in upright and inverted trials. Upright ape faces presented among humans elicited strong categorization responses, whereas responses for upright human faces and for inverted ape faces were smaller...
October 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961735/transposable-element-exaptation-into-regulatory-regions-is-rare-influenced-by-evolutionary-age-and-subject-to-pleiotropic-constraints
#13
Corinne N Simonti, Mihaela Pavlicev, John A Capra
Transposable element (TE)-derived sequences make up approximately half of most mammalian genomes, and many TEs have been co-opted into gene regulatory elements. However, we lack a comprehensive tissue- and genome-wide understanding of how and when TEs gain regulatory activity in their hosts. We evaluated the prevalence of TE-derived DNA in enhancers and promoters across hundreds of human and mouse cell lines and primary tissues. Promoters are significantly depleted of TEs in all tissues compared to their overall prevalence in the genome (P < 0...
August 14, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959740/the-exported-chaperone-pfhsp70x-is-dispensable-for-the-plasmodium-falciparum-intraerythrocytic-life-cycle
#14
David W Cobb, Anat Florentin, Manuel A Fierro, Michelle Krakowiak, Julie M Moore, Vasant Muralidharan
Export of parasite proteins into the host erythrocyte is essential for survival of Plasmodium falciparum during its asexual life cycle. While several studies described key factors within the parasite that are involved in protein export, the mechanisms employed to traffic exported proteins within the host cell are currently unknown. Members of the Hsp70 family of chaperones, together with their Hsp40 cochaperones, facilitate protein trafficking in other organisms, and are thus likely used by P. falciparum in the trafficking of its exported proteins...
September 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28949015/the-development-of-feeding-behavior-in-wild-chimpanzees-pan-troglodytes-schweinfurthii
#15
Joel Bray, Melissa Emery Thompson, Martin N Muller, Richard W Wrangham, Zarin P Machanda
OBJECTIVES: Primates have an extended period of juvenility before adulthood. Although dietary complexity plays a prominent role in hypotheses regarding the evolution of extended juvenility, the development of feeding behavior is still poorly understood. Indeed, few studies have investigated the timing and nature of feeding transitions in apes, including chimpanzees. We describe general patterns of feeding development in wild chimpanzees and evaluate predictions of the needing-to-learn hypothesis...
September 26, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948156/short-poly-glutamine-repeat-in-the-androgen-receptor-in-new-world-monkeys
#16
Chihiro Hiramatsu, Annika Paukner, Hika Kuroshima, Kazuo Fujita, Stephen J Suomi, Miho Inoue-Murayama
The androgen receptor mediates various physiological and developmental functions and is highly conserved in mammals. Although great intraspecific length polymorphisms in poly glutamine (poly-Q) and poly glycine (poly-G) regions of the androgen receptor in humans, apes and several Old World monkeys have been reported, little is known about the characteristics of these regions in New World monkeys. In this study, we surveyed 17 species of New World monkeys and found length polymorphisms in these regions in three species (common squirrel monkeys, tufted capuchin monkeys and owl monkeys)...
December 2017: Meta Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947156/bidding-evidence-for-primate-vocal-learning-and-the-cultural-substrates-for-speech-evolution
#17
REVIEW
Adriano R Lameira
Speech evolution seems to defy scientific explanation. Progress on this front has been jammed in an entrenched orthodoxy about what great apes can and (mostly) cannot do vocally, an idea epitomized by the Kuypers/Jürgens hypothesis. Findings by great ape researchers paint, however, starkly different and more optimistic landscapes for speech evolution. Over twenty studies qualify as positive evidence for primate vocal (production) learning following accepted terminology. Additionally, the Kuypers/Jürgens hypothesis shows low etymological, empirical, and theoretical soundness...
September 22, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946893/risk-factors-for-retear-of-large-massive-rotator-cuff-tears-after-arthroscopic-surgery-an-analysis-of-tearing-patterns
#18
Hisao Shimokobe, Masafumi Gotoh, Hirokazu Honda, Hidehiro Nakamura, Yasuhiro Mitsui, Tatsuyuki Kakuma, Takahiro Okawa, Naoto Shiba
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have evaluated the risk factors for retear of large/massive rotator cuff tears (RCTs) that were treated arthroscopically; however, most studies did not evaluate tear patterns. The present study hypothesized that postoperative risk factors are affected by the tearing patterns in large/massive cuff tears in patients undergoing arthroscopic rotator cuff repair (ARCR). METHODS: One hundred fifty patients with large/massive cuff tears underwent ARCR at our institution...
September 25, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929247/are-parrots-poor-at-motor-self-regulation-or-is-the-cylinder-task-poor-at-measuring-it
#19
Can Kabadayi, Anastasia Krasheninnikova, Laurie O'Neill, Joost van de Weijer, Mathias Osvath, Auguste M P von Bayern
The ability to inhibit unproductive motor responses triggered by salient stimuli is a fundamental inhibitory skill. Such motor self-regulation is thought to underlie more complex cognitive mechanisms, like self-control. Recently, a large-scale study, comparing 36 species, found that absolute brain size best predicted competence in motor inhibition, with great apes as the best performers. This was challenged when three Corvus species (corvids) were found to parallel great apes despite having much smaller absolute brain sizes...
November 2017: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919941/a-test-of-the-submentalizing-hypothesis-apes-performance-in-a-false-belief-task-inanimate-control
#20
Christopher Krupenye, Fumihiro Kano, Satoshi Hirata, Josep Call, Michael Tomasello
Much debate concerns whether any nonhuman animals share with humans the ability to infer others' mental states, such as desires and beliefs. In a recent eye-tracking false-belief task, we showed that great apes correctly anticipated that a human actor would search for a goal object where he had last seen it, even though the apes themselves knew that it was no longer there. In response, Heyes proposed that apes' looking behavior was guided not by social cognitive mechanisms but rather domain-general cueing effects, and suggested the use of inanimate controls to test this alternative submentalizing hypothesis...
2017: Communicative & Integrative Biology
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