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Jing Li, Aping Niu, Chun-Jiao Lu, Jing-Hui Zhang, Muhammad Junaid, Phyllis R Strauss, Ping Xiao, Xiao Wang, Yi-Wei Ren, De-Sheng Pei
Landfill leachate (LL) is harmful to aquatic environment because it contains high concentrations of dissolved organic matter, inorganic components, heavy metals, and other xenobiotics. Thus, the remediation of LL is crucial for environmental conservation. Here, a potential application of the forward osmosis (FO) filtration process with ammonium bicarbonate (NH4HCO3) as a draw solution (DS) was investigated to remediate membrane bioreactor-treated LL (M-LL). After the leachate treatment, the toxicity and removal efficiencies of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were evaluated using zebrafish and cultured human cells...
October 21, 2016: Chemosphere
Sarah J Davis, Gillian L Vale, Steven J Schapiro, Susan P Lambeth, Andrew Whiten
A vital prerequisite for cumulative culture, a phenomenon often asserted to be unique to humans, is the ability to modify behaviour and flexibly switch to more productive or efficient alternatives. Here, we first established an inefficient solution to a foraging task in five captive chimpanzee groups (N = 19). Three groups subsequently witnessed a conspecific using an alternative, more efficient, solution. When participants could successfully forage with their established behaviours, most individuals did not switch to this more efficient technique; however, when their foraging method became substantially less efficient, nine chimpanzees with socially-acquired information (four of whom witnessed additional human demonstrations) relinquished their old behaviour in favour of the more efficient one...
October 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
Steve Ahuka-Mundeke, Octavie Lunguya-Metila, Valentin Mbenzo-Abokome, Christelle Butel, Bila-Isia Inogwabini, Valentin Omasombo, Jean-Jacques Muyembe-Tamfum, Alexander V Georgiev, Martin N Muller, Jean-Bosco N Ndjango, Yingying Li, Eric Delaporte, Beatrice H Hahn, Martine Peeters, Ahidjo Ayouba
There are currently four known primate T-cell lymphotropic virus groups (PTLV1-4), each of which comprises closely related simian (STLV) and human (HTLV) viruses. For PTLV-1 and PTLV-3, simian and human viruses are interspersed, suggesting multiple cross-species transmission events; however, for PTLV-2 this is not so clear because HTLV-2 and STLV-2 strains from captive bonobos (Pan paniscus) form two distinct clades. To determine to what extent bonobos are naturally infected with STLV, we screened fecal samples (n = 633) from wild-living bonobos (n = 312) at six different sites in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) for the presence of STLV nucleic acids...
January 2016: Virus Evolution
Michael L Power, Jay Schulkin, Heather Drought, Lauren A Milligan, Katie L Murtough, Robin M Bernstein
In addition to nutrients, milk contains signaling molecules that influence offspring development. Human milk is similar in nutrient composition to that of apes, but appears to differ in other aspects such as immune function. We examine the longitudinal patterns across lactation of macronutrients, the metabolic hormone adiponectin, the growth factors epidermal growth factor (EGF) and transforming growth factor β2 (TGF-β2), and two receptors for these growth factors (EGF-R and TGF-β2-RIII) in milk samples collected between days 175 and 313 postpartum from a Sumatran orangutan (Pongo abelii) and between days 3 and 1,276 from a western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla), and compare the results with human data from the literature...
October 21, 2016: American Journal of Primatology
Andrew J Plumptre, Stuart Nixon, Deo K Kujirakwinja, Ghislain Vieilledent, Rob Critchlow, Elizabeth A Williamson, Radar Nishuli, Andrew E Kirkby, Jefferson S Hall
Grauer's gorilla (Gorilla beringei graueri), the World's largest primate, is confined to eastern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and is threatened by civil war and insecurity. During the war, armed groups in mining camps relied on hunting bushmeat, including gorillas. Insecurity and the presence of several militia groups across Grauer's gorilla's range made it very difficult to assess their population size. Here we use a novel method that enables rigorous assessment of local community and ranger-collected data on gorilla occupancy to evaluate the impacts of civil war on Grauer's gorilla, which prior to the war was estimated to number 16,900 individuals...
2016: PloS One
Angelo Sisto, Diomira Luongo, Lucia Treppiccione, Palmira De Bellis, Donato Di Venere, Paola Lavermicocca, Mauro Rossi
The most recent trend in research on probiotic bacteria aims at the exploitation of bioactive bacterial compounds that are responsible for health-promoting effects and suitable for medical applications. Therefore, the main purpose of this study was to ascertain if the immunomodulatory effects of L. paracasei strains on dendritic cells (DCs) were caused by bacterial metabolites released in the culture medium. For that reason, bacterial strains were grown in two media generally used for the culture of DCs, and the effects of culture filtrates on the maturation of DCs and cytokine production were evaluated...
October 14, 2016: Nutrients
Emma C Tecwyn, Stephanie Denison, Emily J E Messer, Daphna Buchsbaum
The ability to reason about probabilities has ecological relevance for many species. Recent research has shown that both preverbal infants and non-human great apes can make predictions about single-item samples randomly drawn from populations by reasoning about proportions. To further explore the evolutionary origins of this ability, we conducted the first investigation of probabilistic inference in a monkey species (capuchins; Sapajus spp.). Across four experiments, capuchins (N = 19) were presented with two populations of food items that differed in their relative distribution of preferred and non-preferred items, such that one population was more likely to yield a preferred item...
October 15, 2016: Animal Cognition
Karen Vignale, Justina V Caldas, Judy A England, Nirun Boonsinchai, Phiphob Sodsee, Monticha Putsakum, Erik D Pollock, Sami Dridi, Craig N Coon
A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of four different feeding regimens on breast muscle protein turnover in broiler breeder Cobb-500 parent stock (PS) pullets and breeder hens. The four feeding regimens based on BW curves utilized for the study were as follows: Everyday feeding (STD-ED) (Cobb Standard BW curve), skip-a-day feeding (STD-SKIP) (Cobb Standard BW curve), lighter BW (LBW-SKIP) (BW curve 20% under), and heavier BW (HBW-SKIP) (BW curve 20% over). Each feeding regimen was provided to pullets from 4 wk to 21 wk of age...
October 12, 2016: Poultry Science
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 12, 2016: Nature
Brian Hare
The challenge of studying human cognitive evolution is identifying unique features of our intelligence while explaining the processes by which they arose. Comparisons with nonhuman apes point to our early-emerging cooperative-communicative abilities as crucial to the evolution of all forms of human cultural cognition, including language. The human selfdomestication hypothesis proposes that these early-emerging social skills evolved when natural selection favored increased in-group prosociality over aggression in late human evolution...
October 12, 2016: Annual Review of Psychology
Ahmet Goktug Ertem, Cagri Yayla, Burak Acar, Ozgur Kirbas, Sefa Unal, Melahat Uzel Sener, Mehmet Kadri Akboga, Tolga Han Efe, Serkan Sivri, Fatih Sen, Serkan Gokaslan, Serkan Topaloglu
INTRODUCTION: The relationship between inflammation and mortality after acute pulmonary embolism (APE) has previously been investigated with different variables (platelet/lymphocyte ratio, etc). OBJECTIVES: We investigated the predictive value of lymphocyte to monocyte ratio (LMR) for mortality in first 30 days after APE. METHODS: The study population included 264 APE patients of which 230 patients were survivors, 34 patients were non-survivors...
October 11, 2016: Clinical Respiratory Journal
Patrick Mahoney, Justyna J Miszkiewicz, Rosie Pitfield, Chris Deter, Debbie Guatelli-Steinberg
The Havers-Halberg Oscillation (HHO) hypothesis links evidence for the timing of a biorhythm retained in permanent tooth enamel (Retzius periodicity) to adult body mass and life history traits across mammals. Potentially, these links provide a way to access life history of fossil species from teeth. Recently we assessed intra-specific predictions of the HHO on human children. We reported Retzius periodicity (RP) corresponded with enamel thickness, and cusp formation time, when calculated from isolated deciduous teeth...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Anatomy
Masahito Yamamoto, Takeshi Takayama, Hiromasa Takata, Yasuhito Shiraishi, Naomitsu Tomita, Kouichirou Sakanaka, Gen Murakami, Jose Francisco Rodríguez-Vázquez, Shin-Ichi Abe
In comparative anatomy, the musculocutaneous nerve is hypothesized to pass between the superficial and deep muscle bellies of the coracobrachialis muscle. The superficial belly is supplied by nerve branches of the lateral cord of the brachial plexus, while the deep belly by the musculocutaneous nerve. Observations of longitudinal sections of ten human embryonic arms (7 weeks; crown-rump length 26-32 mm) demonstrated that the coracobrachialis muscle was always continuous with the short head of the biceps muscle...
2016: Okajimas Folia Anatomica Japonica
Martin Kuhlwilm, Marc de Manuel, Alexander Nater, Maja P Greminger, Michael Krützen, Tomas Marques-Bonet
The great apes are the closest living relatives of humans. Chimpanzees and bonobos group together with humans, while gorillas and orangutans are more divergent from humans. Here, we review insights into their evolution pertaining to the topology of species and subspecies and the reconstruction of their demography based on genome-wide variation. These advances have only become possible recently through next-generation sequencing technologies. Given the close relationship to humans, they provide an important evolutionary context for human genetics...
October 4, 2016: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
Aishwarya Balap, Sathiyanarayanan Lohidasan, Arulmozhi Sinnathambi, Kakasaheb Mahadik
The aim of the study was to investigate the herb-drug interaction of Andrographis paniculata Nees (Acanthaceae) and Andrographolide (AN) with nabumetone (NAB) in wistar rats. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions were studied after co-administration of APE and AN with NAB in Wistar rats. In pharmacokinetic studies, significant decrease in Cmax, AUC0-t and AUC0-∞ of 6-MNA after co-administration with pure AN and APE has been observed. Tmax of 6-MNA has been increased to 2 h from 1.5 h in AN + NAB treated group...
October 7, 2016: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
Zofia M Sikorska-Piwowska, Antoni L Dawidowicz
The authors examined a large random sample of skulls from two species of macaques: rhesus monkeys and cynomolgus monkeys. The skulls were measured, divided into age and sex groups and thoroughly analysed using statistical methods. The analysis shows that skulls of young rhesuses are considerably more domed, i.e. have better-developed neurocrania, than their adult counterparts. Male and female skulls, on the other hand, were found to be very similar, which means that sexual dimorphism of the rhesus macaque was suppressed...
October 7, 2016: Folia Morphologica (Warsz)
Hale Ates, Ihsan Ates, Harun Kundi, Fatma Meric Yilmaz
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to determine the hematologic parameter with the highest diagnostic differentiation in the identification of massive acute pulmonary embolism (APE). METHODS: A retrospective study was performed on patients diagnosing with APE between June 2014 and June 2016. All radiological and laboratory parameters of patients were scanned through the electronic information management system of the hospital. PLR was obtained from the ratio of platelet count to lymphocyte count, NLR was obtained from the ratio of neutrophil count to lymphocyte count, WMR was obtained from white blood cell in mean platelet volume ratio, MPR was obtained from the ratio of mean platelet volume to platelet count, and RPR was obtained from the ratio of red distribution width to platelet count...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis
Paweł Stankiewicz
BACKGROUND: In contrast to Great Apes, who have 48 chromosomes, modern humans and likely Neandertals and Denisovans have and had, respectively, 46 chromosomes. The reduction in chromosome number was caused by the head-to-head fusion of two ancestral chromosomes to form human chromosome 2 (HSA2) and may have contributed to the reproductive barrier with Great Apes. RESULTS: Next generation sequencing and molecular clock analyses estimated that this fusion arose prior to our last common ancestor with Neandertal and Denisovan hominins ~ 0...
2016: Molecular Cytogenetics
Caroline Schuppli, Sofia I F Forss, Ellen J M Meulman, Nicole Zweifel, Kevin C Lee, Evasari Rukmana, Erin R Vogel, Maria A van Noordwijk, Carel P van Schaik
BACKGROUND: Orangutans have one of the slowest-paced life histories of all mammals. Whereas life-history theory suggests that the time to reach adulthood is constrained by the time needed to reach adult body size, the needing-to-learn hypothesis instead suggests that it is limited by the time needed to acquire adult-level skills. To test between these two hypotheses, we compared the development of foraging skills and growth trajectories of immature wild orangutans in two populations: at Tuanan (Pongo pygmaeus wurmbii), Borneo, and Suaq Balimbing (Pongo abelii), Sumatra...
2016: Frontiers in Zoology
Pooja Narang, Melissa A Wilson Sayres
Male mutation bias, when more mutations are passed on via the male germline than via the female germline, is observed across mammals. One common way to infer the magnitude of male mutation bias, α, is to compare levels of neutral sequence divergence between genomic regions that spend different amounts of time in the male and female germline. For great apes, including human, we show that estimates of divergence are reduced in putatively unconstrained regions near genes relative to unconstrained regions far from genes...
October 4, 2016: Genome Biology and Evolution
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