keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Apes

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910886/sequential-information-in-a-great-ape-utterance
#1
Pawel Fedurek, Klaus Zuberbühler, Christoph D Dahl
Birdsong is a prime example of acoustically sophisticated vocal behaviour, but its complexity has evolved mainly through sexual selection to attract mates and repel sexual rivals. In contrast, non-human primate calls often mediate complex social interactions, but are generally regarded as acoustically simple. Here, we examine arguably the most complex call in great ape vocal communication, the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) 'pant hoot'. This signal consists of four acoustically distinct phases: introduction, build-up, climax and let-down...
December 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903877/assessing-the-manipulative-potentials-of-monkeys-apes-and-humans-from-hand-proportions-implications-for-hand-evolution
#2
Ming-Jin Liu, Cai-Hua Xiong, Di Hu
The hand structure possesses a greater potential for performing manipulative skills than is typically observed, whether in humans or non-human anthropoids. However, a precise assessment of the potential manipulative skills of hands has been challenging, which hampers our understanding of the evolution of manipulative abilities in anthropoid hands. Here, we establish a functional model to quantitatively infer the manipulative potentials of anthropoid hands based on hand proportions. Our results reveal a large disparity of manipulative potentials among anthropoid hands...
November 30, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903628/the-role-of-plantigrady-and-heel-strike-in-the-mechanics-and-energetics-of-human-walking-with-implications-for-the-evolution-of-the-human-foot
#3
James T Webber, David A Raichlen
Human bipedal locomotion is characterized by a habitual heel-strike (HS) plantigrade gait, yet the significance of walking foot-posture is not well understood. To date, researchers have not fully investigated the costs of non-heel-strike (NHS) walking. Therefore, we examined walking speed, walk-to-run transition speed, estimated locomotor costs (lower limb muscle volume activated during walking), impact transient (rapid increase in ground force at touchdown) and effective limb length (ELL) in subjects (n=14) who walked at self-selected speeds using HS and NHS gaits...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890304/awareness-of-goal-oriented-behavior-during-infancy-and-early-childhood-in-human-and-non-human-primates
#4
Heidi L Marsh, Maria Legerstee
We review the literature surrounding the phylogenetic and developmental emergence of goal-oriented behavior, among human and non-human primates. We define goal-oriented awareness as the ability to perceive goals and perceptions in others. We examine empirical literature involving gaze-following, shared attention, distinguishing between actions and intentions, and the ability to generate and understand communicative cues. We conclude that at least a rudimentary awareness of goal-oriented behavior is present from birth in humans, and in adult great apes...
November 24, 2016: Infant Behavior & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890017/extremely-low-nucleotide-diversity-in-the-x-linked-region-of-papaya-caused-by-a-strong-selective-sweep
#5
Robert VanBuren, Ching Man Wai, Jisen Zhang, Jennifer Han, Jie Arro, Zhicong Lin, Zhenyang Liao, Qingyi Yu, Ming-Li Wang, Francis Zee, Richard C Moore, Deborah Charlesworth, Ray Ming
BACKGROUND: The papaya Y-linked region showed clear population structure, resulting in the detection of the ancestral male population that domesticated hermaphrodite papayas were selected from. The same populations were used to study nucleotide diversity and population structure in the X-linked region. RESULTS: Diversity is very low for all genes in the X-linked region in the wild dioecious population, with nucleotide diversity π syn = 0.00017, tenfold lower than the autosomal region (π syn = 0...
November 28, 2016: Genome Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886808/comparative-isotope-ecology-of-african-great-apes
#6
Vicky M Oelze, Geraldine Fahy, Gottfried Hohmann, Martha M Robbins, Vera Leinert, Kevin Lee, Henk Eshuis, Nicole Seiler, Erin G Wessling, Josephine Head, Christophe Boesch, Hjalmar S Kühl
The isotope ecology of great apes is a useful reference for palaeodietary reconstructions in fossil hominins. As extant apes live in C3-dominated habitats, variation in isotope signatures is assumed to be low compared to hominoids exploiting C4-plant resources. However, isotopic differences between sites and between and within individuals are poorly understood due to the lack of vegetation baseline data. In this comparative study, we included all species of free-ranging African great apes (Pan troglodytes, Pan paniscus, Gorilla sp...
December 2016: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886267/in-vivo-characterization-of-hair-and-skin-derived-carbon-quantum-dots-with-high-quantum-yield-as-long-term-bioprobes-in-zebrafish
#7
Jing-Hui Zhang, Aping Niu, Jing Li, Jian-Wei Fu, Qun Xu, De-Sheng Pei
Carbon quantum dots (CDs) were widely investigated because of their tunable fluorescence properties and low toxicity. However, so far there have been no reports on in vivo functional studies of hair and skin derived CDs. Here, hair derived CDs (HCDs) and skin derived CDs (SCDs) were produced by using human hair and pig skin as precursors. The quantum yields (QYs) of HCDs and SCDs were quite high, compared to citric acid derived CDs (CCDs). HCDs and SCDs possess optimal photostability, hypotoxicity and biocompatibility in zebrafish, indicating that HCDs and SCDs possess the capacity of being used as fluorescence probes for in vivo biological imaging...
November 25, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884401/the-make-love-not-war-ape-bonobos-and-late-twentieth-century-explanations-for-war-and-peace
#8
Deborah Weinstein
Why do people fight wars? Following the devastation of the Second World War, this question became particularly pressing. Postwar scholars in the human sciences, from political science to anthropology, investigated the role of human nature in the causes of war even as they debated the very meaning of human nature itself. Among the wide-ranging efforts of postwar social and behavioral scientists to explain the causes of war, research on primate aggression became a compelling approach to studying the evolution of human warfare...
November 21, 2016: Endeavour
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881766/bridging-the-gap-parkour-athletes-provide-new-insights-into-locomotion-energetics-of-arboreal-apes
#9
Lewis G Halsey, Samuel R L Coward, Susannah K S Thorpe
The tree canopy is an energetically challenging environment to traverse. Along with compliant vegetation, gaps in the canopy can prove energetically costly if they force a route-extending detour. Arboreal apes exhibit diverse locomotion strategies, including for gap crossing. Which one they employ in any given scenario may be influenced by the energy costs to do so, which are affected by the details of the immediate environment in combination with their body size. Measuring energetics of arboreal apes is not tractable; thus our knowledge in this area is limited...
November 2016: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876849/characterization-of-two-distinct-early-post-entry-blocks-to-hiv-1-in-common-marmoset-lymphocytes
#10
Beatriz Pacheco, Luis Menéndez-Arias, Joseph Sodroski
In nature, primate lentiviruses infect humans and several Old World monkeys and apes. However, to date, lentiviruses infecting New World monkeys have not been described. We studied the susceptibility of common marmoset cells to HIV-1 infection and observed the presence of post-entry blocks to the early phase of HIV-1 infection in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) and a B lymphocytic cell line (B-LCL). The blocks present in these cells are dominant and phenotypically different from each other. In PBLs, the block occurs at the level of reverse transcription, reducing the accumulation of early and late transcripts, similar to the block imposed by TRIM5α...
November 23, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875700/metacognition-pre-verbal-infants-adapt-their-behaviour-to-their-knowledge-states
#11
Teodora Gliga, Victoria Southgate
Metacognitive abilities, such as knowing we know something or that we made the wrong decision, can be powerful tools for adapting behaviour and accelerating learning. Apes, dolphins, and even rats demonstrate some such abilities; a new study provides evidence that human infants can too.
November 21, 2016: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872723/a-human-reproductive-approach-to-the-study-of-infertility-in-chimpanzees-an-experience-at-leon-s-zoological-park-mexico
#12
Raul Eduardo Piña-Aguilar, Janet López-Saucedo, Lilia Ivone Ruiz-Galaz, José de Jesús Barroso-Padilla, Mayra Celina Gallegos-Rivas, Claudia González-Ortega, Antonio Martin Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez
Great apes are mammals close to humans in their genetic, behavioral, social and evolutionary characteristics and new genomic information is revolutionizing our understanding of evolution in primates. However, all these species are endangered. While there are many global programs to protect these species, the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) projects that in a near future the wild populations will decrease significantly. Nowadays, the relevance of captive populations of great apes is becoming critical for research and understanding of pathophysiology of diseases...
2016: Veterinary Research Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871788/do-monkeys-have-a-theory-of-mind-how-to-answer-the-question
#13
REVIEW
Hélène Meunier
Since Premack and Woodruf (1978), the study of mindreading abilities in nonhumans, especially primates, has been thoroughly investigated. But attempts to understand the evolution of this aspect of human intelligence have mainly focused on comparisons between apes and human infants, while relatively little is known about the abilities of monkeys. This lack of data on monkeys seems mainly due to the hypothesis of a cognitive "gap" between apes and monkeys. However, in recent years monkeys have been featuring more prominently in the landscape of social cognition research, and some of these systematic studies appear promising...
November 18, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853612/new-genetic-and-morphological-evidence-suggests-a-single-hoaxer-created-piltdown-man
#14
Isabelle De Groote, Linus Girdland Flink, Rizwaan Abbas, Silvia M Bello, Lucia Burgia, Laura Tabitha Buck, Christopher Dean, Alison Freyne, Thomas Higham, Chris G Jones, Robert Kruszynski, Adrian Lister, Simon A Parfitt, Matthew M Skinner, Karolyn Shindler, Chris B Stringer
In 1912, palaeontologist Arthur Smith Woodward and amateur antiquarian and solicitor Charles Dawson announced the discovery of a fossil that supposedly provided a link between apes and humans: Eoanthropus dawsoni (Dawson's dawn man). The publication generated huge interest from scientists and the general public. However, 'Piltdown man's' initial celebrity has long been overshadowed by its subsequent infamy as one of the most famous scientific frauds in history. Our re-evaluation of the Piltdown fossils using the latest scientific methods (DNA analyses, high-precision measurements, spectroscopy and virtual anthropology) shows that it is highly likely that a single orang-utan specimen and at least two human specimens were used to create the fake fossils...
August 2016: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853603/play-solicitation-gestures-in-chimpanzees-in-the-wild-flexible-adjustment-to-social-circumstances-and-individual-matrices
#15
Marlen Fröhlich, Roman M Wittig, Simone Pika
Social play is a frequent behaviour in great apes and involves sophisticated forms of communicative exchange. While it is well established that great apes test and practise the majority of their gestural signals during play interactions, the influence of demographic factors and kin relationships between the interactants on the form and variability of gestures are relatively little understood. We thus carried out the first systematic study on the exchange of play-soliciting gestures in two chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) communities of different subspecies...
August 2016: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849056/observations-of-severe-and-lethal-coalitionary-attacks-in-wild-mountain-gorillas
#16
Stacy Rosenbaum, Veronica Vecellio, Tara Stoinski
In humans and chimpanzees, most intraspecific killing occurs during coalitionary intergroup conflict. In the closely related genus Gorilla, such behavior has not been described. We report three cases of multi-male, multi-female wild mountain gorilla (G. beringei) groups attacking extra-group males. The behavior was strikingly similar to reports in chimpanzees, but was never observed in gorillas until after a demographic transition left ~25% of the population living in large social groups with multiple (3+) males...
November 16, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847337/herb-drug-interaction-of-andrographis-paniculata-nees-extract-and-andrographolide-on-pharmacokinetic-and-pharmacodynamic-of-naproxen-in-rats
#17
Aishwarya Balap, Sathiyanarayanan Lohidasan, Arulmozhi Sinnathambi, Kakasaheb Mahadik
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Andrographis paniculata Nees (Acanthacae) have broad range of pharmacological effects such as hepatoprotective, antifertility, antimalarial, antidiabetic, suppression of various cancer cells and anti-inflammatory properties and is widely used medicinal plant in the traditional Unani and Ayurvedic medicinal systems. Andrographolide (AN) is one of the active constituent of the Andrographis paniculata Nees extract (APE). They have been found in many traditional herbal formulations in India and proven to be effective as anti-inflammatory drug...
November 12, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846501/great-apes-anticipate-that-other-individuals-will-act-according-to-false-beliefs
#18
Christopher Krupenye, Fumihiro Kano, Satoshi Hirata, Josep Call, Michael Tomasello
Humans operate with a "theory of mind" with which they are able to understand that others' actions are driven not by reality but by beliefs about reality, even when those beliefs are false. Although great apes share with humans many social-cognitive skills, they have repeatedly failed experimental tests of such false-belief understanding. We use an anticipatory looking test (originally developed for human infants) to show that three species of great apes reliably look in anticipation of an agent acting on a location where he falsely believes an object to be, even though the apes themselves know that the object is no longer there...
October 7, 2016: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846486/apes-know-what-others-believe
#19
Frans B M de Waal
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 7, 2016: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843675/evidence-for-the-paleoethnobotany-of-the-neanderthal-a-review-of-the-literature
#20
REVIEW
Gerhard P Shipley, Kelly Kindscher
Our perception of our closest human relatives, the Neanderthals, has evolved in the last few decades from brutish ape-men to intelligent archaic human peoples. Our understanding and appreciation of their cultural sophistication has only recently extended to their diet. Only within the last few years, with new techniques and a shift in focus, have we begun to truly investigate and understand the role of plants in their diet and culture. The more we learn about Neanderthals, the more we realize that biological and cultural distinctions between them and us were relatively small...
2016: Scientifica
keyword
keyword
118651
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"