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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324622/screening-wild-and-semi-free-ranging-great-apes-for-putative-sexually-transmitted-diseases-evidence-of-trichomonadidae-infections
#1
Julie Rushmore, Andrew B Allison, Erin E Edwards, Ujwal Bagal, Sonia Altizer, Mike R Cranfield, Travis C Glenn, Hsi Liu, Antoine Mudakikwa, Lawrence Mugisha, Martin N Muller, Rebecca M Stumpf, Melissa Emery Thompson, Richard Wrangham, Michael J Yabsley
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319268/developmental-changes-in-feeding-behaviors-of-infant-chimpanzees-at-mahale-tanzania-implications-for-nutritional-independence-long-before-cessation-of-nipple-contact
#2
Takuya Matsumoto
OBJECTIVES: Weaning of chimpanzees is considered to occur at 4-5-years-old with complete cessation of nipple contact and timing of reconception calculated by inter-birth interval minus gestation length. This is also the basis of "early weaning" in humans (i.e., approximately 2.5-years-old). However, recent studies of the survival of orphans and the first molar (M1) eruption in wild chimpanzees have predicted that infants move toward nutritional independence at 3-years-old. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate ontogeny of feeding behavior at around 3-years-old in wild infant chimpanzees...
March 20, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317557/the-role-of-allometry-and-posture-in-the-evolution-of-the-hominin-subaxial-cervical-spine
#3
Mikel Arlegi, Asier Gómez-Olivencia, Lou Albessard, Ignacio Martínez, Antoine Balzeau, Juan Luis Arsuaga, Ella Been
Cervical vertebrae not only protect the spinal cord but also are the insertion and origin points for muscles related to the movement of the head, upper limb, and trunk, among others, and are thus important elements in primate evolution. While previous work has been undertaken on the first two cervical vertebrae, there is a dearth of studies on the subaxial cervical spine in hominines. In this paper, we provide detailed morphological information on two important aspects of the subaxial cervical vertebrae (C3 - C7): mid-sagittal morphology and superior facet orientation...
March 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317555/the-cervical-spine-of-australopithecus-sediba
#4
Marc R Meyer, Scott A Williams, Peter Schmid, Steven E Churchill, Lee R Berger
Cervical vertebrae are rare in the early hominin fossil record, presenting a challenge for understanding the evolution of the neck and head carriage in hominin evolution. Here, we examine the cervical vertebrae of Australopithecus sediba, which unlike other South African taxa is known from associated cervical vertebrae. The A. sediba cervical vertebrae exhibit human-like values for wedging, pedicle cross-sectional areas, and articular facet heights, indicating reduced ventral loading relative to African apes...
March 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317554/chimpanzee-and-human-midfoot-motion-during-bipedal-walking-and-the-evolution-of-the-longitudinal-arch-of-the-foot
#5
Nicholas B Holowka, Matthew C O'Neill, Nathan E Thompson, Brigitte Demes
The longitudinal arch of the human foot is commonly thought to reduce midfoot joint motion to convert the foot into a rigid lever during push off in bipedal walking. In contrast, African apes have been observed to exhibit midfoot dorsiflexion following heel lift during terrestrial locomotion, presumably due to their possession of highly mobile midfoot joints. This assumed dichotomy between human and African ape midfoot mobility has recently been questioned based on indirect assessments of in vivo midfoot motion, such as plantar pressure and cadaver studies; however, direct quantitative analyses of African ape midfoot kinematics during locomotion remain scarce...
March 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301970/disclosing-the-parameters-leading-to-high-productivity-of-retroviral-producer-cells-lines-evaluating-random-vs-targeted-integration
#6
Vanessa Sofia Bandeira, Hélio A Tomás, Evren Alici, Manuel J C T Carrondo, Ana Sofia Coroadinha
Gammaretrovirus and lentivirus are the preferred viral vectors to genetically modify T- and NK- cells to be used in immune-cell therapies. The transduction efficiency of hematopoietic and T cells is more efficient using Gibbon ape leukemia virus (GaLV) pseudotyping. In this context gammaretroviral vector producer cells offer competitive higher titers than transient lentiviral vectors productions. The main aim of this work was to identify the key parameters governing GalV pseudotyped gammaretroviral vector productivity in stable producer cells using a retroviral vector expression cassette enabling positive (facilitating cell enrichment) and negative cell selection (allowing cell elimination)...
March 16, 2017: Human Gene Therapy Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297176/anatomy-development-and-function-of-the-human-pelvis
#7
Jeremy M DeSilva, Karen R Rosenberg
The pelvis is an anatomically complex and functionally informative bone that contributes directly to both human locomotion and obstetrics. Because of the pelvis' important role in obstetrics, it is one of the most sexually dimorphic bony elements of the human body. The complex intersection of pelvic dimorphism, locomotion, and obstetrics has been reenergized by exciting new research, and many papers in this special issue of the pelvis help provide clarity on the relationship between pelvic form (especially female) and locomotor function...
April 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280939/insightful-problem-solving-and-emulation-in-brown-capuchin-monkeys
#8
Elizabeth Renner, Allison M Abramo, M Karen Hambright, Kimberley A Phillips
We investigated problem solving abilities of capuchin monkeys via the "floating object problem," a task in which the subject must use creative problem solving to retrieve a favored food item from the bottom of a clear tube. Some great apes have solved this problem by adding water to raise the object to a level at which it can be easily grabbed. We presented seven capuchins with the task over eight trials (four "dry" and four "wet"). None of the subjects solved the task, indicating that no capuchin demonstrated insightful problem solving under these experimental conditions...
March 9, 2017: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277549/the-final-oral-ebola-vaccine-trial-on-captive-chimpanzees
#9
Peter D Walsh, Drishya Kurup, Dana L Hasselschwert, Christoph Wirblich, Jason E Goetzmann, Matthias J Schnell
Could new oral vaccine technologies protect endangered wildlife against a rising tide of infectious disease? We used captive chimpanzees to test oral delivery of a rabies virus (RABV) vectored vaccine against Ebola virus (EBOV), a major threat to wild chimpanzees and gorillas. EBOV GP and RABV GP-specific antibody titers increased exponentially during the trial, with rates of increase for six orally vaccinated chimpanzees very similar to four intramuscularly vaccinated controls. Chimpanzee sera also showed robust neutralizing activity against RABV and pseudo-typed EBOV...
March 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274887/bayesian-inference-reveals-ancient-origin-of-simian-foamy-virus-in-orangutans
#10
Michael J C Reid, William M Switzer, Michael A Schillaci, Amy R Klegarth, Ellsworth Campbell, Manon Ragonnet, Isabelle Joanisse, Kyna Caminiti, Carl A Lowenberger, Birute Mary F Galdikas, Hope Hollocher, Paul A Sandstrom, James I Brooks
Simian foamy viruses (SFVs) infect most nonhuman primate species and appears to co-evolve with its hosts. This co-evolutionary signal is particularly strong among great apes, including orangutans (genus Pongo). Previous studies have identified three distinct orangutan SFV clades. The first of these three clades is composed of SFV from P. abelii from Sumatra, the second consists of SFV from P. pygmaeus from Borneo, while the third clade is mixed, comprising an SFV strain found in both species of orangutan. The existence of the mixed clade has been attributed to an expansion of P...
March 5, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272854/comparative-study-of-extralevator-vs-conventional-abdominoperineal-excision-in-a-single-centre-in-the-developing-world
#11
M Oostenbroek, E Coetzee, A Boutall, R Baigrie, P Goldberg
ABSTRACT: Abdominoperineal excision (APE) is used to resect cancers in the distal rectum and anus where sphincterpreserving surgery is not possible. It is associated with increased local recurrence rates compared to anterior resection. The extralevator abdominoperineal excision (ELAPE) was developed to reduce local recurrence and was widely adopted without sound evidence. AIM: To compare the short-term (2 years) outcomes of patients managed with ELAPE to those with conventional APE in a single institution in a developing country...
November 2016: South African Journal of Surgery. Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272699/alteration-of-endothelial-nitric-oxide-synthase-expression-in-acute-pulmonary-embolism-a-study-from-bench-to-bioinformatics
#12
R Miao, D Leng, M Liu, X-X Huang, J-F Li, J-N Gong, Y Liang, Z-G Zhai, Y-H Yang, Y Wang, J Wan
OBJECTIVE: This study sought to explore endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression in acute pulmonary thromboembolism (APE). MATERIALS AND METHODS: eNOS expression in lung tissue and bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells (BM-EPCs) from APE mouse models was assessed by immunohistochemistry and real-time PCR. A gene expression profile meta-analysis was performed on human venous thromboembolism (VTE) whole blood samples recorded in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) repository...
February 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272489/development-of-long-term-event-memory-in-preverbal-infants-an-eye-tracking-study
#13
Tamami Nakano, Shigeru Kitazawa
The development of long-term event memory in preverbal infants remains elusive. To address this issue, we applied an eye-tracking method that successfully revealed in great apes that they have long-term memory of single events. Six-, 12-, 18- and 24-month-old infants watched a video story in which an aggressive ape-looking character came out from one of two identical doors. While viewing the same video again 24 hours later, 18- and 24-month-old infants anticipatorily looked at the door where the character would show up before it actually came out, but 6- and 12-month-old infants did not...
March 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265880/study-design-and-rationale-of-a-multicenter-open-labeled-randomized-controlled-trial-comparing-midazolam-versus-morphine-in-acute-pulmonary-edema-mimo-trial
#14
Alberto Dominguez-Rodriguez, Guillermo Burillo-Putze, Maria Del Mar Garcia-Saiz, Ana Aldea-Perona, Magali González-Colaço Harmand, Oscar Mirò, Pedro Abreu-Gonzalez
PURPOSE: Morphine has been used for several decades in cases of acute pulmonary edema (APE) due to the anxiolytic and vasodilatory properties of the drug. The non-specific depression of the central nervous system is probably the most significant factor for the changes in hemodynamics in APE. Retrospective studies have shown both negative and neutral effects in patients with APE and therefore some authors have suggested benzodiazepines as an alternative treatment. The use of intravenous morphine in the treatment of APE remains controversial...
March 7, 2017: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265767/the-y-chromosomes-of-the-great-apes
#15
REVIEW
Pille Hallast, Mark A Jobling
The great apes (orangutans, gorillas, chimpanzees, bonobos and humans) descended from a common ancestor around 13 million years ago, and since then their sex chromosomes have followed very different evolutionary paths. While great-ape X chromosomes are highly conserved, their Y chromosomes, reflecting the general lability and degeneration of this male-specific part of the genome since its early mammalian origin, have evolved rapidly both between and within species. Understanding great-ape Y chromosome structure, gene content and diversity would provide a valuable evolutionary context for the human Y, and would also illuminate sex-biased behaviours, and the effects of the evolutionary pressures exerted by different mating strategies on this male-specific part of the genome...
March 6, 2017: Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265736/extralevator-abdominal-perineal-excision-versus-standard-abdominal-perineal-excision-impact-on-quality-of-the-resected-specimen-and-postoperative-morbidity
#16
Angelita Habr-Gama, Guilherme P São Julião, Adrian Mattacheo, Luiz Felipe de Campos-Lobato, Edgar Aleman, Bruna B Vailati, Joaquim Gama-Rodrigues, Rodrigo Oliva Perez
BACKGROUND: Abdominal perineal excision (APE) has been associated with a high risk of positive circumferential resection margin (CRM+) and local recurrence rates in the treatment of rectal cancer. An alternative extralevator approach (ELAPE) has been suggested to improve the quality of resection by avoiding coning of the specimen decreasing the risk of tumor perforation and CRM+. The aim of this study is to compare the quality of the resected specimen and postoperative complication rates between ELAPE and "standard" APE...
March 6, 2017: World Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264973/two-orangutan-species-have-evolved-different-kir-alleles-and-haplotypes
#17
Lisbeth A Guethlein, Paul J Norman, Corinne M C Heijmans, Natasja G de Groot, Hugo G Hilton, Farbod Babrzadeh, Laurent Abi-Rached, Ronald E Bontrop, Peter Parham
The immune and reproductive functions of human NK cells are regulated by interactions of the C1 and C2 epitopes of HLA-C with C1-specific and C2-specific lineage III killer cell Ig-like receptors (KIR). This rapidly evolving and diverse system of ligands and receptors is restricted to humans and great apes. In this context, the orangutan has particular relevance because it represents an evolutionary intermediate, one having the C1 epitope and corresponding KIR but lacking the C2 epitope. Through a combination of direct sequencing, KIR genotyping, and data mining from the Great Ape Genome Project, we characterized the KIR alleles and haplotypes for panels of 10 Bornean orangutans and 19 Sumatran orangutans...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255958/cognitive-functions-human-vs-animal%C3%A2-%C3%A2-4-1-advantage-fam72-srgap2
#18
REVIEW
Nguyen Thi Thanh Ho, Pok-Son Kim, Arne Kutzner, Klaus Heese
With the advent of computational genomics, an intensive search is underway for unique biomarkers for Homo sapiens that could be used to differentiate taxa within the Hominoidea, in particular to distinguish Homo from the apes (Pan, Gorilla, Pongo, and Hylobates) and species or subspecies within the genus Homo (H. sapiens, H. heidelbergensis, H. neanderthalensis, H. erectus, and the Denisovans). Here, we suggest that the |-FAM72-SRGAP2-| (family with sequence similarity 72/SLIT-ROBO Rho GTPase activating protein 2) gene pair is a unique molecular biomarker for the genus Homo that could also help to place Australopithecus at its most appropriate place within the phylogenetic tree and may explain the distinctive higher brain cognitive functions of humans...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251607/a-radiographic-study-of-permanent-molar-development-in-wild-virunga-mountain-gorillas-of-known-chronological-age-from-rwanda
#19
Alexandra E Kralick, M Loring Burgess, Halszka Glowacka, Keely Arbenz-Smith, Kate McGrath, Christopher B Ruff, King Chong Chan, Michael R Cranfield, Tara S Stoinski, Timothy G Bromage, Antoine Mudakikwa, Shannon C McFarlin
OBJECTIVES: While dental development is important to life history investigations, data from wild known-aged great apes are scarce. We report on the first radiographic examination of dental development in wild Virunga mountain gorillas, using known-age skeletal samples recovered in Rwanda. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 43 individuals (0.0-14.94 years), we collected radiographs of mandibular molars, and where possible, cone beam CT scans. Molar crown and root calcification status was assessed using two established staging systems, and age prediction equations generated using polynomial regression...
March 2, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251182/unexplored-archaeal-diversity-in-the-great-ape-gut-microbiome
#20
Kasie Raymann, Andrew H Moeller, Andrew L Goodman, Howard Ochman
Archaea are habitual residents of the human gut flora but are detected at substantially lower frequencies than bacteria. Previous studies have indicated that each human harbors very few archaeal species. However, the low diversity of human-associated archaea that has been detected could be due to the preponderance of bacteria in these communities, such that relatively few sequences are classified as Archaea even when microbiomes are sampled deeply. Moreover, the universal prokaryotic primer pair typically used to interrogate microbial diversity has low specificity to the archaeal domain, potentially leaving vast amounts of diversity unobserved...
January 2017: MSphere
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