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Yan Yan, Li Liu, Jing Zeng, Liang Zhang
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to improve the management quality of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in rural areas. METHODS: Two hundred forty discharged COPD patients were divided into an intervention group and a control group. In the intervention group, 120 patients established contact with doctors through the network consulting room, namely doctor's mobile platform, and were managed through video, voice, and text by the doctors, and kept in close contact with the doctors after discharge (education, consultation), and received electronic prescriptions, and drugs were sent to the door by online retailers...
March 20, 2018: Medical Principles and Practice: International Journal of the Kuwait University, Health Science Centre
Rebecca J Beeken, Sundus Mahdi, Fiona Johnson, Susanne F Meisel
OBJECTIVES: This study investigates whether health and appearance consequences predict intentions to prevent weight gain and whether these relationships differ in younger versus older adults and in men versus women. METHODS: UK adults aged 18-26 years (younger adults; n = 584) or >45 years (older adults; n = 107) participated in an online survey. Logistic regression assessed associations between intentions to avoid gaining weight and age, gender as well as perceived negative consequences of weight gain for health and appearance...
March 21, 2018: Obesity Facts
Andreas Baumann, Nikolaus Ritt
Language acquisition and change are thought to be causally connected. We demonstrate a method for quantifying the strength of this connection in terms of the 'basic reproductive ratio' of linguistic constituents. It represents a standardized measure of reproductive success, which can be derived both from diachronic and from acquisition data. By analyzing phonotactic English data, we show that the results of both types of derivation correlate, so that phonotactic acquisition indeed predicts phonotactic change, and vice versa...
March 17, 2018: Cognition
Melissa T Merrick, Megan Henly, Heather A Turner, Corinne David-Ferdon, Sherry Hamby, Akadia Kacha-Ochana, Thomas R Simon, David Finkelhor
Predictability in a child's environment is a critical quality of safe, stable, nurturing relationships and environments, which promote wellbeing and protect against maltreatment. Research has focused on residential mobility's effect on this predictability. This study augments such research by analyzing the impact of an instability index-including the lifetime destabilization factors (LDFs) of natural disasters, homelessness, child home removal, multiple moves, parental incarceration, unemployment, deployment, and multiple marriages--on childhood victimizations...
March 17, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Dolores Sánchez-Rodríguez, Cédric Annweiler, Natalia Ronquillo-Moreno, Andrea Tortosa-Rodríguez, Anna Guillén-Solà, Olga Vázquez-Ibar, Ferran Escalada, Josep M Muniesa, Ester Marco
BACKGROUND: Malnutrition is a prevalent condition related to adverse outcomes in older people. Our aim was to compare the diagnostic capacity of the malnutrition criteria of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (ESPEN) with other classical diagnostic tools. METHODS: Cohort study of 102 consecutive in-patients ≥70 years admitted for postacute rehabilitation. Patients were considered malnourished if their Mini-Nutritional Assessment-Short Form (MNA-SF) score was ≤11 and serum albumin <3 mg/dL or MNA-SF ≤ 11, serum albumin <3 mg/dL, and usual clinical signs and symptoms of malnutrition...
March 16, 2018: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
Beth E Meyerson, Alissa Davis, Jon D Agley, David J Shannon, Carrie A Lawrence, Priscilla T Ryder, Karleen Ritchie, Ruth Gassman
BACKGROUND: Pharmacies have much to contribute to the health of people who inject drugs (PWID) and to community efforts in HIV and hepatitis C (HCV) prevention through syringe access. However, little is known about what predicts pharmacy syringe sales without a prescription. OBJECTIVE: To identify factors predicting pharmacy syringes sales to PWID. METHODS: A hybrid staggered online survey of 298 Indiana community pharmacists occurred from July-September 2016 measuring pharmacy policy, practice, and pharmacist perceptions about syringe sales to PWID...
March 17, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
Yanyong Guo, Zhibin Li, Yao Wu, Chengcheng Xu
Bicyclists running the red light at crossing facilities increase the potential of colliding with motor vehicles. Exploring the contributing factors could improve the prediction of running red-light probability and develop countermeasures to reduce such behaviors. However, individuals could have unobserved heterogeneities in running a red light, which make the accurate prediction more challenging. Traditional models assume that factor parameters are fixed and cannot capture the varying impacts on red-light running behaviors...
March 17, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Lindsay Glicksberg, Sumandeep Rana, Sarah Kerrigan
PURPOSE: Synthetic cathinones are encountered in a variety of antemortem and postmortem forensic toxicology investigations. Earlier experimental studies using fortified urine have evaluated analyte, temperature and pH-dependent variables associated with their stability. The purpose of this study was to compare experimental findings with those obtained using authentic urine from cathinone users. METHODS: In this report we compare cathinone concentrations in 180 authentic unpreserved urine specimens, following known periods of refrigerated storage...
March 8, 2018: Forensic Science International
Xiangzhi Meng, Thomas Kaever, Bo Yan, Paula Traktman, Dirk M Zajonc, Bjoern Peters, Shane Crotty, Yan Xiang
Vaccinia virus (VACV) A14 is a major envelope protein and a dominant antibody target in the smallpox vaccine. However, the role of anti-A14 antibodies in immunity against orthopoxviruses is unclear. Here, we characterized 22 A14 monoclonal antibodies (mAb) from two mice immunized with VACV. Epitope mapping showed that 21 mAbs targeted the C-terminal hydrophilic region, while one mAb recognized the middle region predicted to be across the viral envelope from the C-terminus. However, none of the mAbs bound to virions in studies with electron microscopy...
March 17, 2018: Virology
Allan McGroarty, Rebecca McCartan
PURPOSE: Although considerable efforts have been made to investigate the effectiveness of pharmacological treatments for stuttering, little is known about how the stuttering community perceives these treatments. This study aimed to assess and quantify beliefs regarding pharmacotherapy for adults who stutter and to establish whether behavioural intentions to undertake treatment were related to these beliefs. METHOD: An adapted version of the Beliefs about Medicine Questionnaire was completed by adults who stutter...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Communication Disorders
Leila Saedi, Maryam Maskanati, Majede Modheji, Hamed Soleymanabadi
The effect of replacing an Si atom of a silicon nanocone (SiNC) by Al or P atom on its electronic and field emission properties was investigated using density functional theory calculations. Molecular electrostatic potential surface indicates that the electrons do not spread out on the surface of SiNC evenly, and they tend to accumulate more at the apex, facilitating the electron emission from this site. Replacing an Si atom of the apex of nanocone by Al and P atoms is energetically more favorable than that of the wall by about 12...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
Chi Zhang, Peizhe Zhang, Hongxia Li, Lianhua Han, Lei Zhang, Lei Zhang, Xiangjun Yang
OBJECTIVES: Dabigatran etexilate is widely used for stroke prevention in the patients with atrial fibrillation. The anticoagulation activity of dabigatran is not necessary monitored in routine clinical practice. We aimed to study the effect of dabigatran on thrombin generation (TG) and coagulation assays in rabbit and human plasma. METHODS: Rabbits received different concentrations of dabigatran etexilate (5 mg/kg, 10 mg/kg). Patients with atrial fibrillation took 110 mg dabigatran etexilate twice daily...
March 15, 2018: Thrombosis Research
Khushboo Patel, Basant Roondhe, Shweta D Dabhi, Prafulla K Jha
Recently predicted and grown new single element two dimensional (2D) material borophene gathered tremendous research interest due to its structural, electronic and other properties. Using first principles based dispersion corrected density functional calculations, we have studied interaction of two toxic gases phosgene (COCl2 ) and carbon monoxide (CO) with borophene to understand the role of borophene as biosensor and carriers in drug delivery. The sensing behaviour of borophene towards COCl2 and CO has been studied by calculating the binding energy and electronic density of states (DOS)...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Rachel M Butler, Matthew T Boden, Thomas M Olino, Amanda S Morrison, Philippe R Goldin, James J Gross, Richard G Heimberg
We examined (1) differences between controls and patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD) in emotional clarity and attention to emotions; (2) changes in emotional clarity and attention to emotions associated with cognitive-behavioral group therapy (CBGT), mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR), or a waitlist (WL) condition; and (3) whether emotional clarity and attention to emotions moderated changes in social anxiety across treatment. Participants were healthy controls (n = 37) and patients with SAD (n = 108) who were assigned to CBGT, MBSR, or WL in a randomized controlled trial...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
Wei Wu, Jin Wang, Peter Ercius, Nicomario Courtney Wright, Danielle Marie Leppert-Simenauer, Robert A Burke, Madan Dubey, Avinash M Dongare, Michael Thompson Pettes
Transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) are particularly sensitive to mechanical strain as they are capable of experiencing high atomic displacements without nucleating defects to release excess energy. Promising for photonic applications, it has been shown that as certain phases of layered TMDs MX2 (M=Mo, W; X=S, Se, Te) are scaled to a thickness of one monolayer, the photoluminescence response is dramatically enhanced due to the emergence of a direct electronic band gap, compared with their multi-layer or bulk counterparts which typically exhibit indirect band gaps...
March 20, 2018: Nano Letters
Giulia Avvisati, Claudia Cardoso, Daniele Varsano, Andrea Ferretti, Pierluigi Gargiani, Maria Grazia Betti
We report an advanced organic spin-interface architecture with magnetic remanence at room temperature, constituted by metal phthalocyanine molecules magnetically coupled with Co layer(s), mediated by graphene. Fe- and Cu-phthalocyanines assembled on graphene/Co have identical structural configurations, but FePc couples antiferromagnetically with Co, up to room temperature, while CuPc couples ferromagnetically, with weaker coupling and thermal stability, as deduced by element-selective X-ray magnetic circular dichroic signals...
March 20, 2018: Nano Letters
Sabato Santaniello, John T Gale, Sridevi V Sarma
Over the last 30 years, deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been used to treat chronic neurological diseases like dystonia, obsessive-compulsive disorders, essential tremor, Parkinson's disease, and more recently, dementias, depression, cognitive disorders, and epilepsy. Despite its wide use, DBS presents numerous challenges for both clinicians and engineers. One challenge is the design of novel, more efficient DBS therapies, which are hampered by the lack of complete understanding about the cellular mechanisms of therapeutic DBS...
March 20, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Systems Biology and Medicine
Kimberly S Chiew, Jordan Hashemi, Lee K Gans, Laura Lerebours, Nathaniel J Clement, Mai-Anh T Vu, Guillermo Sapiro, Nicole E Heller, R Alison Adcock
Volitional exploration and learning are key to adaptive behavior, yet their characterization remains a complex problem for cognitive science. Exploration has been posited as a mechanism by which motivation promotes memory, but this relationship is not well-understood, in part because novel stimuli that motivate exploration also reliably elicit changes in neuromodulatory brain systems that directly alter memory formation, via effects on neural plasticity. To deconfound interrelationships between motivation, exploration, and memory formation we manipulated motivational state prior to entering a spatial context, measured exploratory responses to the context and novel stimuli within it, and then examined motivation and exploration as predictors of memory outcomes...
2018: PloS One
Vanesa Bellou, Lazaros Belbasis, Ioanna Tzoulaki, Evangelos Evangelou
BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a global epidemic associated with increased health expenditure, and low quality of life. Many non-genetic risk factors have been suggested, but their overall epidemiological credibility has not been assessed. METHODS: We searched PubMed to capture all meta-analyses and Mendelian randomization studies for risk factors of T2DM. For each association, we estimated the summary effect size, its 95% confidence and prediction interval, and the I2 metric...
2018: PloS One
Barnabas Ohst, Brunna Tuschen-Caffier
The catastrophic misinterpretation model of panic disorder (PD) predicts that the catastrophic misinterpretation of bodily sensations is a distinctive characteristic of PD. Existing research on this prediction has produced mixed findings. This paper presents a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies comparing the strength of catastrophic misinterpretation of bodily sensations and external events in patients with PD, patients with other anxiety disorders, and healthy controls. Following a systematic screening, seven studies were included in the meta-analysis...
2018: PloS One
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