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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319784/the-effect-of-isabelin-a-sesquiterpene-lactone-from-ambrosiaartemisiifolia-on-soil-microorganisms-and-human-pathogens
#1
Francesco Molinaro, Olaf Tyc, Jules Beekwilder, Katarina Cankar, Cinzia Margherita Bertea, Michèle Negre, Paolina Garbeva
Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. (common ragweed) is an invasive weed, well-known for the strong allergenic effect of its pollen, as well as for its invasiveness and impact in crop fields (e.g. causing yield losses). This species produces a broad range of sesquiterpenoids. In recent years, new bioactive molecules have been discovered in this plant, e.g. isabelin, a sesquiterpene dilactone. The bioactivity of isabelin has been already demonstrated on allergy-related receptors and its inhibitory effect on seeds of various plant species...
January 8, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314635/semiochemicals-to-enhance-herbivory-by-diorhabda-carinulata-aggregations-in-saltcedar-tamarix-spp-infestations
#2
Alexander M Gaffke, Sharlene E Sing, Tom L Dudley, Daniel W Bean, Justin A Russak, Agenor Mafra-Neto, Paul A Grieco, Robert K D Peterson, David K Weaver
BACKGROUND: Semiochemicals for monitoring, attracting or repelling pest and beneficial organisms are increasingly deployed in agricultural and forest systems for pest management activities. However, the use of aggregation pheromones and host plant attractants for the express purpose of increasing the efficacy of classical biological control agents of weeds has not been widely reported. Therefore, we conducted field-based assays to determine if a specialized wax based matrix impregnated with an aggregation pheromone of the northern tamarisk beetle Diorhabda carinulata (Desbrochers) or host plant volatiles could increase the efficacy of D...
January 3, 2018: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306033/a-glyphosate-micro-emulsion-formulation-displays-teratogenicity-in-xenopus-laevis
#3
Patrizia Bonfanti, M Saibene, R Bacchetta, P Mantecca, A Colombo
Glyphosate is the active ingredient in broad-spectrum herbicide formulations used in agriculture, domestic area and aquatic weed control worldwide. Its market is growing steadily concurrently with the cultivation of glyphosate-tolerant transgenic crops and emergence of weeds less sensitive to glyphosate. Ephemeral and lentic waters near to agricultural lands, representing favorite habitats for amphibian reproduction and early life-stage development, may thus be contaminated by glyphosate based herbicides (GBHs) residues...
December 24, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289242/natural-products-in-the-discovery-of-agrochemicals
#4
Olivier Loiseleur
Natural products have a long history of being used as, or serving as inspiration for, novel crop protection agents. Many of the discoveries in agrochemical research in the last decades have their origin in a wide range of natural products from a variety of sources. In light of the continuing need for new tools to address an ever-changing array of fungal, weed and insect pests, new agricultural practices and evolving regulatory requirements, the needs for new agrochemical tools remains as critical as ever. In that respect, nature continues to be an important source for novel chemical structures and biological mechanisms to be applied for the development of pest control agents...
December 1, 2017: Chimia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278495/comparative-metabolomic-analyses-of-ipomoea-lacunosa-biotypes-with-contrasting-glyphosate-tolerance-captures-herbicide-induced-differential-perturbations-in-cellular-physiology
#5
Amith Sadananda Maroli, Vijay K Nandula, Stephen O Duke, Partick Gerard, Nishanth Tharayil
Glyphosate tolerant Ipomoea lacunosa is emerging as a problematic weed in the southeastern U.S. Metabolomic profiling was conducted to examine the innate physiology and the glyphosate induced perturbations in two biotypes of I. lacunosa (WAS and QUI) that had contrasting glyphosate tolerance. Compared to the QUI, the innate metabolism of the more tolerant WAS-biotype was characterized by a higher abundance of amino acids, and pyruvate; whereas the sugar profile of less tolerant QUI biotype was dominated by the transport sugar sucrose...
December 26, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278389/novel-weed-extracted-silver-nanoparticles-and-their-antibacterial-appraisal-against-a-rare-bacterium-from-river-and-sewage-treatment-plan
#6
Achmad Syafiuddin, Tony Hadibarata, Ahmad Beng Hong Kueh, Mohd Razman Salim
This is the first investigation to demonstrate the use of biochemical contents present within Cyperus rotundus, Eleusin indica, Euphorbia hirta, Melastoma malabathricum, Clidemia hirta and Pachyrhizus erosus extracts for the reduction of silver ion to silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) form. In addition, the antibacterial capability of the synthesized AgNPs and plant extracts alone against a rare bacterium, Chromobacterium haemolyticum (C. haemolyticum), was examined. Moreover, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICPOES) of the synthesized AgNPs were characterized...
December 26, 2017: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276772/subcutaneous-injection-of-oxyfluorfen-herbicide-to-the-forearm-case-report
#7
José Couceiro, Gonzalo Garcia-Portal, Olga Garcia
Background  Oxyfluorfen, a commercially available pesticide, commonly used for weed control in crop production, has been studied in terms of its toxicity, its carcinogenic properties, and its teratogenicity. We have found no reports, however, of the effects produced by an oxyfluorfen injection to the upper limb. Methods  We present the case of a 40 years old psychiatric patient, who reportedly injected her forearm accidentally while fumigating her garden. She was treated with irrigation and open forearm fasciectomy...
October 2017: Surgery Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261293/biodegradable-pbat-pla-blend-with-bioactive-mcpa-phbv-conjugate-suppresses-weed-growth
#8
Iwona Kwiecień, Grazyna Adamus, Guozhan Jiang, Iza Radecka, Timothy C Baldwin, Habib R Khan, Brian Johnston, Valentina Pennetta, David Hill, Inna Bretz, Marek M Kowalczuk
The herbicide 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (MCPA) conjugated with poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) was prepared via a melt transesterification route. The resultant bioactive oligomer was then mixed with a blend of polylactide (PLA) and poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT) with different loadings; to manufacture films to be used as a bioactive, biodegradable mulch to deliver the herbicide to target broadleaf weed species. The biological targeting of the MCPA-PHBV conjugate in the mulch film was investigated under glasshouse conditions using faba bean (Vicia faba) as a selective (non-target) model crop species having broadleaf morphology...
December 20, 2017: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258215/estimation-of-the-botanical-composition-of-clover-grass-leys-from-rgb-images-using-data-simulation-and-fully-convolutional-neural-networks
#9
Søren Skovsen, Mads Dyrmann, Anders Krogh Mortensen, Kim Arild Steen, Ole Green, Jørgen Eriksen, René Gislum, Rasmus Nyholm Jørgensen, Henrik Karstoft
Optimal fertilization of clover-grass fields relies on knowledge of the clover and grass fractions. This study shows how knowledge can be obtained by analyzing images collected in fields automatically. A fully convolutional neural network was trained to create a pixel-wise classification of clover, grass, and weeds in red, green, and blue (RGB) images of clover-grass mixtures. The estimated clover fractions of the dry matter from the images were found to be highly correlated with the real clover fractions of the dry matter, making this a cheap and non-destructive way of monitoring clover-grass fields...
December 17, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250898/protein-identification-before-and-after-glyphosate-exposure-in-lolium-multiflorum-genotypes
#10
Arthur Am Barroso, Marilia G de S Costa, Nelson J Neto, Juciléia I Dos Santos, Tiago S Balbuena, Caio A Carbonari, Pedro Lca Alves
BACKGROUND: Weeds reduce crop yields, and among the methods used to control these plants, chemical use is preferred. However, the repeated application of herbicides with the same mechanism of action selects for resistant populations. The aim of this study was to evaluate glyphosate resistance in Lolium multiflorum (Lam.) and relate the resistance to protein expression in the absence and presence of the herbicide using a metabolic-proteomic approach. RESULTS: Glyphosate resistance was confirmed, with a sevenfold difference in resistance between susceptible and resistant genotypes...
December 18, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245107/impacts-on-the-seagrass-zostera-nigricaulis-from-the-herbicide-fusilade-forte%C3%A2-used-in-the-management-of-spartina-anglica-infestations
#11
Megan Carve, Timothy L Coggan, Jackie H Myers, Bradley Clarke, Dayanthi Nugegoda, Jeff Shimeta
The herbicide Fusilade Forte® (FF) is widely applied in agricultural weed management and in the management of the invasive saltmarsh grass, Spartina anglica (ricegrass or cordgrass). FF (active ingredient fluazifop-P acid, FPA) is selective for poaceous grasses. Its primary mode of action is inhibition of the acetyl coenzyme-A carboxylase (ACCase) specific to this taxonomic group, and its secondary mode is by promotion of oxidative stress. FF is applied to S. anglica infestations in the intertidal zone, in proximity to seagrass meadows...
December 1, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241140/ammonium-haloacetates-an-alternative-to-glyphosate
#12
Marika Turek, Robert Biczak, Barbara Pawłowska, Ewa Różycka-Sokołowska, Bernard Marciniak, Małgorzata Deska, Joanna Skalik, Piotr Bałczewski
This study shows the design, synthesis and evaluation of eco(phyto)toxic and herbicidal activities of quaternary ammonium salts (QASs), derived from haloacetic acids, in context of the search for safer alternatives to the commonly used herbicide, N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine (glyphosate). The structure of the investigated QASs refers to the heteroatom sequence in the anion of glyphosate in which the (P-C)-N nitrogen atom was replaced by one or more halogens (F, Cl). The ecotoxicity of the synthesized QASs was tested against luminescent marine bacteria Vibrio fischeri (Microtox® test) and the crustaceans Heterocypris incongruens (Ostracodtoxkit F™)...
December 9, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241067/weed-seed-spread-and-its-prevention-the-role-of-roadside-wash-down
#13
Ali Ahsan Bajwa, Thi Nguyen, Sheldon Navie, Chris O'Donnell, Steve Adkins
Vehicles are one of the major vectors of long-distance weed seed spread. Viable seed removed from vehicles at roadside wash down facilities was studied at five locations in central Queensland, Australia over a 3-year period. Seed from 145 plant species, belonging to 34 different families, were identified in the sludge samples obtained from the wet particulate matter collection pit of the wash down facilities. Most of the species were annual forbs (50%) with small or very small seed size (<2 mm in diameter)...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236312/hazard-assessment-of-the-pesticides-kraft%C3%A2-36-ec-and-score%C3%A2-in-a-tropical-natural-soil-using-an-ecotoxicological-test-battery
#14
Vanessa Bezerra De Menezes Oliveira, Miriam De Oliveira Bianchi, Evaldo Luiz Gaeta Espíndola
Pesticides are widely used in agricultural fields to control plant diseases, weeds and pests, however, the unforeseeable consequences of releasing these compounds into the soil and their effects on terrestrial invertebrates are a matter of grave concern. The aim of this study was to determine the direct impact of two pesticides, KRAFT® 36 EC (an insecticide; a.i abamectin) and SCORE® (a fungicide; a.i. difenoconazole), on non-target terrestrial invertebrates. Ecotoxicological tests were performed to evaluate the chronic and acute toxicity of these compounds to a potworm (Enchytraeus crypticus), a collembolan (Folsomia candida) and a mite (Hypoaspis aculeifer)...
December 13, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235732/weed-resistance-to-synthetic-auxin-herbicides
#15
REVIEW
Roberto Busi, Danica E Goggin, Ian Heap, Michael J Horak, Mithila Jugulam, Robert A Masters, Richard Napier, Dilpreet S Riar, Norbert M Satchivi, Joel Torra, Phillip Westra, Terry R Wright
Herbicides classified as synthetic auxins have been most commonly used to control broadleaf weeds in a variety of crops and in non-cropland areas since the first synthetic auxin herbicide (SAH), 2,4-D, was introduced to the market in the mid-1940s. The incidence of weed species resistant to SAHs is relatively low considering their long-term global application with 29 broadleaf weed species confirmed resistant to date. An understanding of the context and mechanisms of SAH resistance evolution can inform management practices to sustain the longevity and utility of this important class of herbicides...
December 13, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234334/no-vegetative-and-fecundity-fitness-cost-associated-with-acetyl-coenzyme-a-carboxylase-non-target-site-resistance-in-a-black-grass-alopecurus-myosuroides-huds-population
#16
Eshagh Keshtkar, Solvejg K Mathiassen, Per Kudsk
Attention should be devoted to weeds evolving herbicide resistance with non-target-site resistance (NTSR) mechanism due to their unpredictable resistance patterns. Quantification of fitness cost can be used in NTSR management strategies to determine the long-term fate of resistant plants in weed populations. To our knowledge, this is the first report evaluating potential fecundity and vegetative fitness of a NTSR black-grass (Alopecurus myosuroides Huds), the most important herbicide resistant weed in Europe, with controlled genetic background...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228046/genome-wide-microarray-analysis-leads-to-identification-of-genes-in-response-to-herbicide-metribuzin-in-wheat-leaves
#17
Whitney Pilcher, Hana Zandkamiri, Kelly Arceneaux, Stephen Harrison, Niranjan Baisakh
Herbicides are an important component of weed management in wheat, particularly in the southeastern US where weeds actively compete with wheat throughout the winter for nutrients and reduce tillering and ultimately the yield of the crop. Some wheat varieties are sensitive to metribuzin, a low-cost non-selective herbicide, leading to leaf chlorosis, stand loss, and decreased yield. Knowledge of the genetics of herbicide tolerance in wheat is very limited and most new varieties have not been screened for metribuzin tolerance...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223136/allele-exchange-at-the-epsps-locus-confers-glyphosate-tolerance-in-cassava
#18
Aaron W Hummel, Raj Deepika Chauhan, Tomas Cermak, Andrew M Mutka, Anupama Vijayaraghavan, Adam Boyher, Colby G Starker, Rebecca Bart, Daniel F Voytas, Nigel J Taylor
Effective weed control can protect yields of cassava (Manihot esculenta) storage roots (Doll and Piedrahita Cañola, 1978). Farmers could benefit from using herbicide with a tolerant cultivar. We applied traditional transgenesis and gene editing to generate robust glyphosate tolerance in cassava. By comparing promoters regulating expression of transformed 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) genes with various paired amino acid substitutions, we found that strong constitutive expression is required to achieve glyphosate tolerance during in vitro selection and in whole cassava plants...
December 9, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222931/the-challenge-of-herbicide-resistance-around-the-world-a-current-summary
#19
REVIEW
Mark A Peterson, Alberto Collavo, Ramiro Ovejero, Vinod Shivrain, Michael J Walsh
Herbicide resistant weeds have been observed since the early years of synthetic herbicide development in the 1950's and 1960's. Since that time there has been a consistent increase in the number of herbicide resistance cases and the impact of herbicide resistant (HR) weeds. While the nature of crop production varies widely around the world, herbicides have become a primary tool for weed control in most areas. Dependence on herbicides continues to increase as global populations migrate away from rural areas into cities and the agricultural labor force declines...
December 9, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222921/optimizing-rna-seq-studies-to-investigate-herbicide-resistance
#20
REVIEW
Darci A Giacomini, Todd Gaines, Roland Beffa, Patrick J Tranel
Transcriptomic profiling, specifically via RNA-seq, is becoming one of the more commonly used methods for investigating non-target site resistance (NTSR) to herbicides due to its high throughput capabilities and utility in organisms with little to no previous sequence information. A review of the weed science RNA-seq literature has revealed some basic principles behind generating quality data from these types of studies. First, studies that included more replicates per biotype and took steps to control for genetic background had significantly better control of false positives and, consequently, shorter lists of potential resistance genes to sift through...
December 9, 2017: Pest Management Science
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