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Weed use

Saurabh Mishra, Abhijit Maiti
Water is a basic necessity of life, but due to overextraction and heavy input of nutrients from domestic and industrial sources, the contamination level of water bodies increase. In the last few decades, a potential interest has been aroused to treat wastewater by biological methodologies before discharge into the natural water bodies. Phytoremediation using water hyacinth is found to be an effective biological wastewater treatment method. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), a notorious weed, being the most promising plant for removal of contaminants from wastewater is studied extensively in this regard...
January 16, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
R M Satpute, P P Pawar, S Puttewar, S D Sawale, P D Ambhore
Paraquat (PQ) is a nonselective bipyridyl herbicide widely used in agriculture to control weeds, but its accidental, occupational, or intentional exposure in humans is known to cause pneumo- and neurotoxicity which may proves fatal. Oxidative stress is reported as an underlined mechanism of PQ-induced toxicity in alveolar cells, neurons, and astroglia. PQ generates superoxides both through electron transport reaction (ETC) with nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent oxidoreductase and by the redox cycling via reaction with molecular oxygen...
January 1, 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
Richard Lizotte, Martin Locke, Ronald Bingner, R Wade Steinriede, Sammie Smith
The study examined the influence of land-use (cropping patterns) and integrated agricultural best management practices (BMPs) on spring herbicide levels in an agricultural watershed. Atrazine and metolachlor were applied for weed control during spring of 1998-2002, 2005, and 2007-2013. Watershed-wide mass of applied herbicides ranged from 12.7 to 209.2 g atrazine and 10.9-302.2 g metolachlor with greatest application during 1998, 2009-2010 (atrazine) and 2007-2013 (metolachlor). Spring herbicide concentrations in Beasley Lake water ranged from below detection to 3...
January 11, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Hao Wu, Juli Carrillo, Jianqing Ding
The impact of invasive species on native biodiversity varies across environments, with invasion effects of amphibious plant species across terrestrial and aquatic systems especially poorly understood. In this study, we established 29 terrestrial plots and 23 aquatic plots which were invaded by the alien plant alligator weed, Alternanthera philoxeroides in Southern China. We measured α-species diversity (Shannon-Wiener and Simpson index), species richness and evenness, species cover and the importance value (a comprehensive index of cover, height and abundance) of A...
January 6, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Dasheng Liu, Rui Wang, Doria R Gordon, Xihua Sun, Lu Chen, Yanwen Wang
China's South to North Water Diversion (SNWD) project connects portions of the Yangtze River in the south to the Yellow River system in the north, overcoming biogeographic barriers to water movement. The diversion will supply potable water to over 110 million people and provide multiple other socio-economic benefits. However, an inadvertent negative impact of this connection includes creation of conduits for species invasions. Alligator weed (Alternanthera philoxeroides), water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), and water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes) are the only aquatic plant species on China's shortlists for special control...
January 6, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Rafael M Pedroso, Kassim Al-Khatib, Bradley D Hanson, Albert J Fischer
Cyperus difformis L. (CYPDI) and Schoenoplectus mucronatus (L.) Palla (SCHMU) are major weeds of California (CA) rice, where resistance to acetolactate synthase (ALS)-inhibitors was identified in several CYPDI and SCHMU populations that have also evolved resistance to photosystem II (PSII)-inhibiting herbicides. The mechanism of ALS resistance in these populations remains to be clarified but this information is crucial in a weed management program, especially in a scenario where resistance to multiple herbicides has been identified...
January 2017: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Boyan Liu, Lili Cao, Lijun Zhang, Xiaofan Yuan, Bing Zhao
Eupatorium adenophorum is widely distributed throughout the world's tropical and temperate regions. It has become a harmful weed of crops and natural environments. Its leaves contain bioactive compounds such as chlorogenic acid and may be used as feed additives. In this study, chlorogenic acid was extracted and separated from leaves of E. adenophorum. Three chlorogenic acid products were prepared with different purities of 6.11%, 22.17%, and 96.03%. Phytochemical analysis demonstrated that the main toxins of sesquiterpenes were almost completely removed in sample preparation procedure...
December 31, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Anna A Slavokhotova, Andrey A Shelenkov, Tatyana V Korostyleva, Eugene A Rogozhin, Nataliya V Melnikova, Anna V Kudryavtseva, Tatyana I Odintsova
Being perfectly adapted to diverse environments, chickweed (Stellaria media (L.) Vill), a ubiquitous garden weed, grows widely in Europe and North America. As opposed to the model plants, many weeds, and S. media in particular, have been poorly studied, although they are likely to contain promising components of immunity and novel resistance genes. In this study, for the first time RNA-seq analysis of healthy and infected with Fusarium oxysporum chickweed seedlings, as well as de novo transcriptome assembly and annotation, are presented...
December 27, 2016: Biochimie
Shi-Lei Geng, Quan Chen, Wen-Li Cai, Ao-Cheng Cao, Can-Bin Ou-Yang
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Roads as corridors of seed or fruit spatial dispersal have major impacts on the establishment and spread of invasive species, but their precise role in population genetic variation remains poorly understood. The South American weed Mikania micrantha has spread rapidly across southern China since its introduction to the Shenzhen area in 1984. This study investigated how its genetic diversity is distributed along highways, and whether highways have acted as corridors for the rapid expansion of M...
December 27, 2016: Annals of Botany
Gayle J Somerville, Stephen B Powles, Michael J Walsh, Michael Renton
BACKGROUND: Across several agricultural systems the evolution of herbicide resistance has occurred more rapidly to post-emergence than pre-emergence herbicides, however, the reasons for this are not clear. We used a new simulation model to investigate whether interactions between differences in order of application and weed cohorts affected could explain this historically observed difference between the herbicide groups. RESULTS: A ten year delay in resistance evolution was predicted for a shorter-acting residual pre-emergence (c...
December 26, 2016: Pest Management Science
Alejandro Pérez-de-Luque, Fernando Flores, Diego Rubiales
Root parasitic weeds are a major limiting production factor in a number of crops, and control is difficult. Genetic resistance and chemical control lead the fight, but without unequivocal success. Models that help to describe and even predict the evolution of parasitism underground are a valuable tool for herbicide applications, and even could help in breeding programs. Legumes are heavily affected by Orobanche crenata (crenate broomrape) in the Mediterranean basin. This work presents a descriptive model based on thermal time and correlating growing degree days (GDD) with the different developmental stages of the parasite...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Hilal A Ganaie, Md Niamat Ali, Bashir A Ganai, Maryum Meraj, Mudasar Ahmad
Ajuga bracteosa Wall ex. Benth. (Lamiaceae) commonly known as Bungle Weed has been in use since ancient times and is mentioned Ayurvedic literature. The upper ground parts of the plant are used for treatment of various diseases. The weed is credited with astringent, febrifugal, stimulant, aperient, tonic, diuretic and depurative properties and is used for the treatment of gout and rheumatism, palsy and amenorrhoea. Two compounds 1) 14, 15-dihydroajugapitin and 2) 8-o-acetylharpagide were isolated from the aerial parts of the plant and tested for antibacterial activity against various pathogenic bacteria by agar well diffusion method...
December 21, 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
V M Rodriguez, M S Mendoza-Trejo, I Hernandez-Plata, M Giordano
Atrazine (ATR) is an herbicide broadly used in the world to control weeds in corn and sorghum fields, and it is potentially toxic for the dopaminergic system. Alterations in dopaminergic markers after ATR administration in rats and C57BL/6 mice have been reported. Behaviorally, it has been observed that ATR exposure causes hypoactivity shortly after its administration. To understand how acute ATR administration induces hypoactivity, we set out to map the brain areas responsive to ATR using c-Fos as a marker of neuronal activity, and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) as a marker of dopaminergic neurons...
December 21, 2016: Neurotoxicology
L F da S Constantino, L B Dos S Nascimento, L M Casanova, N Dos S Moreira, E A Menezes, R L Esteves, S S Costa, E S Tavares
Crepis japonica (L.) D.C. (Asteraceae), a weed with antioxidant, antiallergenic, antiviral and antitumor properties displays both medicinal properties and nutritional value. This study aims to assess the effects of a supplementation of blue light and UV-A radiation on the growth, leaf anatomical structure and phenolic profile of the aerial parts of Crepis japonica. Plants were grown under two light treatments: W (control - white light), W + B (white light supplemented with blue light) and W + UV-A (white light supplemented with UV-A radiation)...
December 23, 2016: Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences
Enzo Bracamonte, Pablo T Fernández-Moreno, Francisco Barro, Rafael De Prado
Glyphosate has been the most intensely herbicide used worldwide for decades, and continues to be a single tool for controlling weeds in woody crops. However, the adoption of this herbicide in a wide range of culture systems has led to the emergence of resistant weeds. Glyphosate has been widely used primarily on citrus in the Caribbean area, but a study of resistance in the Caribbean islands of Cuba and the Dominican Republic has never been carried out. Unfortunately, Parthenium hysterophorus has developed glyphosate-resistance in both islands, independently...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Don W Morishita
Glyphosate-resistant (GR) sugar beet became commercially available to US sugar beet growers in 2008 and was rapidly adopted. Prior to the availability of GR sugar beet, growers would commonly make three to five herbicide applications. This often resulted in some crop injury, but was accepted to reduce the impact of weeds. In addition, non-GR sugar beet was cultivated one to three times and often followed by hand weeding. The introduction of GR sugar beet drastically reduced the complexity of weed management...
December 19, 2016: Pest Management Science
Kelly M Elkins, Anjelica C U Perez, Alicia A Quinn
The international prevalence of "legal high" drugs necessitates the development of a method for their detection and identification. Herein, we describe the development and validation of a tetraplex multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay used to simultaneously identify morning glory, jimson weed, Hawaiian woodrose, and marijuana detected by high-resolution melt using LCGreen Plus(®) . The PCR assay was evaluated based on the following: (i) specificity and selectivity-primers were tested on DNA extracted from 30 species and simulated forensic samples, (ii) sensitivity-serial dilutions of the target DNA were prepared, and (iii) reproducibility and reliability-sample replicates were tested and remelted on different days...
December 13, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
Andrew J Dillon, Vijay K Varanasi, Tatiana Danilova, Dal-Hoe Koo, Sridevi Nakka, Dallas Peterson, Patrick Tranel, Bernd Friebe, Bikram S Gill, Mithila Jugulam
Recent and rapid evolution of resistance to glyphosate, the most widely used herbicides, in several weed species, including Amaranthus tuberculatus, poses a serious threat to sustained crop production. We report that glyphosate resistance in A. tuberculatus was due to amplification of the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) gene, which encodes the molecular target of glyphosate. There was a positive correlation between EPSPS gene copies and its transcript expression. We analyzed the distribution of EPSPS copies in the genome of A...
December 12, 2016: Plant Physiology
Oratai Neamsuvan, Thamakorn Ruangrit
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Weeds are plants grow naturally and are commonly seen. They are mostly used for feedstuff. However, their use as herbs for treating diseases, including gastrointestinal disorders, is rare. Therefore, the present study aimed to: (1) quantify the number of herbal weeds used for treating gastrointestinal disorders; (2) study local knowledge of weed utilization for treating gastrointestinal disorders in Songkhla and Krabi provinces; and (3) analyse quantitative data with the Informant Consensus Factor (ICF), Use Value (UV) and Fidelity Level (FL)...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
S O Dahunsi, S Oranusi, J B Owolabi, V E Efeovbokhan
The co-digestion of Chromolaena odorata with poultry manure was evaluated in this study. Two samples of the weed: (A: which was pre-treated with mechanical, chemical and thermal methods) and (B: which was pretreated using mechanical and chemical methods only) were separately digested with poultry manure. Biogas generation started from the 2nd to 4th and 4th to 7th day for samples 'A' and 'B' respectively. The most desired actual biogas yield from samples 'A' and 'B' were 3884.20 and 2544.70 (10(-4)m(3)/kg VS) respectively and the gas composition was 68±2% Methane and 20±2% Carbon dioxide for sample A while it was 62±3% Methane and 22±2% Carbon dioxide for sample B...
February 2017: Bioresource Technology
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