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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161677/nanotechnology-based-recent-approaches-for-sensing-and-remediation-of-pesticides
#1
REVIEW
Deepak Rawtani, Nitasha Khatri, Sanjiv Tyagi, Gaurav Pandey
Pesticides are meant to control and destroy the pests and weeds. They are classified into different categories on the basis their origin and type of pest they target. Chemical pesticides such as insecticides, herbicides and fungicides are commonly used in agricultural fields. However, the excessive use of these agrochemicals have adverse effects on environment such as reduced population of insect pollinators, threat to endangered species and habitat of birds. Upon consumption; chemical pesticides also cause various health issues such as skin, eye and nervous system related problems and cancer upon prolonged exposure...
November 18, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151844/pym-a-new-affordable-image-based-method-using-a-raspberry-pi-to-phenotype-plant-leaf-area-in-a-wide-diversity-of-environments
#2
Benoît Valle, Thierry Simonneau, Romain Boulord, Francis Sourd, Thibault Frisson, Maxime Ryckewaert, Philippe Hamard, Nicolas Brichet, Myriam Dauzat, Angélique Christophe
Background: Plant science uses increasing amounts of phenotypic data to unravel the complex interactions between biological systems and their variable environments. Originally, phenotyping approaches were limited by manual, often destructive operations, causing large errors. Plant imaging emerged as a viable alternative allowing non-invasive and automated data acquisition. Several procedures based on image analysis were developed to monitor leaf growth as a major phenotyping target. However, in most proposals, a time-consuming parameterization of the analysis pipeline is required to handle variable conditions between images, particularly in the field due to unstable light and interferences with soil surface or weeds...
2017: Plant Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151143/salinity-reduces-2-4-d-efficacy-in-echinochloa-crusgalli-by-affecting-redox-balance-nutrient-acquisition-and-hormonal-regulation
#3
Faisal Islam, Yuan Xie, Muhammad A Farooq, Jian Wang, Chong Yang, Rafaqat A Gill, Jinwen Zhu, Weijun Zhou
Distinct salinity levels have been reported to enhance plants tolerance to different types of stresses. The aim of this research is to assess the interaction of saline stress and the use of 2,4-D as a means of controlling the growth of Echinochloa crusgalli. The resultant effect of such interaction is vital for a sustainable approach of weed management and food production. The results showed that 2,4-D alone treatment reduces the chlorophyll contents, photosynthetic capacity, enhanced MDA, electrolyte leakage, and ROS production (H2O2, O2(·-)) and inhibited the activities of ROS scavenging enzymes...
November 18, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149711/enantiomeric-characterization-of-herbicide-lactofen-enantioseparation-absolute-configuration-assignment-and-enantioselective-activity-and-toxicity
#4
Jingqian Xie, Lu Zhao, Kai Liu, Fangjie Guo, Zunwei Chen, Weiping Liu
Chiral herbicides consist of two or more enantiomers, which usually differ in their biological properties and behave enantioselectively in biochemical process. Scant studies have been published in the past decades to characterize the enantiomers of herbicide lactofen. In this study, a laboratory method was developed to prepare the lactofen enantiomers using normal phase high performance liquid chromatography with an AD-H column, and μg level production yield was achieved in a single run. The two separated enantiomers had purity of ≫99%, with their absolute configurations assigned by experimental and calculated electronic and vibrational circular dichroism...
October 31, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148615/farmers-perspective-on-herbicide-resistant-weeds-and-application-of-resistance-management-strategies-results-from-a-german-survey
#5
Lena Ulber, Dagmar Rissel
BACKGROUND: A herbicide resistance survey was conducted in Germany to determine farmers' awareness of herbicide resistance and experience with resistant weeds, the used information sources on herbicide resistance and methods employed to confirm resistance. In addition, the application pattern and perception of resistance management strategies by farmers were assessed. RESULTS: The majority of farmers (88%) was aware of the presence of herbicide resistance cases in Germany and 64% and 50% of farmers reported that resistant weeds were detected in their county or on their farm, respectively...
November 17, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148613/ambrosia-artemisiifolia-as-a-potential-resource-for-management-of-golden-apple-snails-pomacea-canaliculata-lamarck
#6
Wenbing Ding, Rui Huang, Zhongshi Zhou, Hualiang He, Youzhi Li
BACKGROUND: Ambrosia artemisiifolia, an invasive weed in Europe and Asia, is highly toxic to the golden apple snail (GAS; Pomacea canaliculata) in laboratory test. However, little is known about the chemical components of A. artemisiifolia associated with the molluscicidal activity or about its potential application for GAS control in rice fields. This study evaluated the molluscicidal activities of powders, methanol extracts, and individual compounds from A. artemisiifolia against GAS in rice fields and under laboratory conditions...
November 17, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148165/dinitroaniline-herbicide-resistance-in-a-multiple-resistant-lolium-rigidum-population
#7
Jinyi Chen, Qin Yu, Mechelle Owen, Heping Han, Stephen Powles
BACKGROUND: The pre-emergence dinitroaniline herbicides (such as trifluralin and pendimethalin) are vital to Australian no-till farming systems. A Lolium rigidum population collected from the Western Australian grain belt with a 12-year trifluralin use history was characterised for resistance to dinitroaniline, acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACCase)- and acetolactate synthase (ALS)-inhibiting herbicides. Target-site resistance mechanisms were investigated. RESULTS: This L...
November 16, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147020/integrative-taxonomy-methods-reveal-high-mealybug-hemiptera-pseudococcidae-diversity-in-southern-brazilian-fruit-crops
#8
Vitor C Pacheco da Silva, Mehmet Bora Kaydan, Thibaut Malausa, Jean-François Germain, Ferran Palero, Marcos Botton
The Serra Gaúcha region is the most important temperate fruit-producing area in southern Brazil. Despite mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) infesting several host plants in the region, there is a lack of information about the composition of species damaging different crops. A survey of mealybug species associated with commercial fruit crops (apple, persimmon, strawberry and grapes) was performed in Serra Gaúcha between 2013 and 2015, using both morphology and DNA analyses for species identification. The most abundant species were Pseudococcus viburni (Signoret), found on all four host plant species, and Dysmicoccus brevipes (Cockerell), infesting persimmon, vines and weeds...
November 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145472/replacing-methyl-bromide-with-a-combination-of-1-3-dichloropropene-and-metam-sodium-for-cucumber-production-in-china
#9
Liangang Mao, Hongyun Jiang, Lan Zhang, Yanning Zhang, Muhammad Umair Sial, Haitao Yu, Aocheng Cao
The combination of 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) and metam sodium (MNa) is a potential resource to replace methyl bromide (MB) as a soil fumigant. The efficacy of 1,3-D+MNa as a crucial factor to limit soil-borne pests was evaluated in one laboratory experiment and two cucumber greenhouse studies conducted in commercial operations. Laboratory results revealed that 1,3-D and MNa (10+20 mg a.i. kg-1 soil) provided the best complementary control of the root-knot nematode, Fusarium oxysporum and two species of weed seeds...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126636/sustainability-of-agro-livestock-integration-implications-and-results-of-emergy-evaluation
#10
Nicoletta Patrizi, Valentina Niccolucci, Cesare Castellini, Federico M Pulselli, Simone Bastianoni
This study aims to assess the sustainability of an agroforestry system: i.e. a system obtained by the union of two productions to get at least two by-products from the same productive space. In particular, this case study presents the integration of a goose raising system with an organic grape production, from an environmental point of view. This integration is mainly designed to have two simultaneous co-products (grape and goose meat) with: i) a less intensive use of machineries for weeding and ii) avoiding use of chemical fertilizers and weeding...
November 7, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123541/rice-seed-germination-underwater-morpho-physiological-responses-and-the-bases-of-differential-expression-of-alcoholic-fermentation-enzymes
#11
Berta Miro, Toshisangba Longkumer, Frederickson D Entila, Ajay Kohli, Abdelbagi M Ismail
The water-, energy-, and labor-intensive system of transplanted puddled rice (Oryza sativa) is steadily being replaced by direct seeding due to the progressive scarcity of these resources. However, the alternate dry direct seeding leads to competition with weeds and poor establishment when soils are flooded. Direct seeded rice capable of anaerobic germination (germination in flooded soil, AG) is ideal, which under rainfed ecosystems would also overcome waterlogging during germination. AG tolerance is associated with faster germination and faster elongation of coleoptiles, with the activities of alcoholic fermentation enzymes replacing aerobic respiration as a source of energy...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120827/detection-and-estimation-of-the-increasing-trend-of-cancer-incidence-in-relatively-small-populations
#12
Rina Chen, Enrique Y Bitchatchi
BACKGROUND: Detection and estimation of trends in cancer incidence rates are commonly achieved by fitting standardized rates to a joinpoint log-linear regression. The efficiency of this approach is inadequate when applied to a relatively low levels of incidence. We compared that approach with the Cuscore test with respect to detecting a log-linear increasing trend of chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) in datasets simulated to match a province of about 700,000 inhabitants. METHODS: For better efficiency, we replaced the standardized rate as the dependent variable with a continuous statistic that reflects the inverse of the standardized incidence ratio (SIR)...
October 2017: Cancer Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117584/environmental-and-health-effects-of-the-herbicide-glyphosate
#13
REVIEW
A H C Van Bruggen, M M He, K Shin, V Mai, K C Jeong, M R Finckh, J G Morris
The herbicide glyphosate, N-(phosphonomethyl) glycine, has been used extensively in the past 40years, under the assumption that side effects were minimal. However, in recent years, concerns have increased worldwide about the potential wide ranging direct and indirect health effects of the large scale use of glyphosate. In 2015, the World Health Organization reclassified glyphosate as probably carcinogenic to humans. A detailed overview is given of the scientific literature on the movement and residues of glyphosate and its breakdown product aminomethyl phosphonic acid (AMPA) in soil and water, their toxicity to macro- and microorganisms, their effects on microbial compositions and potential indirect effects on plant, animal and human health...
November 5, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115083/clinical-evaluation-of-techniques-for-measuring-nasal-specific-immunoglobulin-e-in-pediatric-patients
#14
Ji Young Ahn, Suk Jin Hong, Bong Seok Choi
Currently used methods for collecting nasal-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) require administration of a large amount of saline into the nostrils, which is difficult in children. We designed two methods that are easy to use in children. We measured nasal-specific IgE and evaluated clinical characteristics of nasal-specific IgE in pediatric rhinitis. This study included 82 patients who visited Kyungpook National University Children's Hospital from December 2014 to July 2016 with rhinitis symptoms. Thirty patients used the spray method, and 52 patients used the swab method...
December 2017: Journal of Korean Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112836/developing-ionic-liquid-forms-of-picloram-with-reduced-negative-effects-on-the-aquatic-environment
#15
Gang Tang, Baitao Wang, Guanglong Ding, Wenbing Zhang, You Liang, Chen Fan, Hongqiang Dong, Jiale Yang, Dandan Kong, Yongsong Cao
As a widely used herbicide, picloram has been frequently detected in the aquatic environment due to its high leaching potential and low adsorption by soil. To reduce aquatic environmental risk of this herbicide caused by leaching and runoff, five herbicidal ionic liquids (HILs) based on picloram were prepared by pairing isopropylamine, octylamine, octadecylamine, 1-methylimidazole, 4-methylmorpholine respectively. Their physicochemical properties including water solubility, octanol-water partition coefficient, surface activity, leaching, as well as soil adsorption were compared...
November 4, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110779/dosing-collection-and-quality-control-issues-in-cerebrospinal-fluid-research-using-animal-models
#16
Donna M Barten, Gregory W Cadelina, Michael R Weed
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a complex fluid filling the ventricular system and surrounding the brain and spinal cord. Although the bulk of CSF is created by the choroid plexus, a significant fraction derives from the interstitial fluid in the brain and spinal cord parenchyma. For this reason, CSF can often be used as a source of pharmacodynamic and prognostic biomarkers to reflect biochemical changes occurring within the brain. For instance, CSF biomarkers can be used to diagnose and track progression of disease as well as understand pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic relationships in clinical trials...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105256/fusarium-crown-rot-caused-by-fusarium-pseudograminearum-in-cereal-crops-recent-progress-and-future-prospects
#17
Kemal Kazan, Donald Gardiner
Diseases caused by Fusarium pathogens inflict major yield and quality losses on many economically important plant species worldwide, including cereals. Fusarium crown rot (FCR) caused by Fusarium pseudograminearum is a cereal disease that occurs in many arid and semi-arid cropping regions of the world. In recent years, this disease has become more prevalent, in part due to the adoption of moisture-preserving cultural practices such as minimum tillage and stubble retention. In this pathogen profile, we present a brief overview of recent research efforts that not only have advanced our understanding of the interactions between F...
November 4, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095563/the-implications-of-spatially-variable-pre-emergence-herbicide-efficacy-for-weed-management
#18
Helen Metcalfe, Alice E Milne, Richard Hull, Alistair J Murdoch, Jonathan Storkey
BACKGROUND: The efficacy of pre-emergence herbicides within fields is spatially variable due to soil heterogeneity. We quantified the effect of soil organic matter on the efficacy of two pre-emergence herbicides; flufenacet and pendimethalin, against A. myosuroides and investigated the implications of variation in organic matter for weed management using a crop-weed competition model. RESULTS: Soil organic matter played a critical role in determining the level of control achieved...
November 2, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075478/unsuccessful-introduced-biocontrol-agents-can-act-as-pollinators-of-invasive-weeds-bitou-bush-chrysanthemoides-monilifera-ssp-rotundata-as-an-example
#19
Caroline L Gross, Joshua D Whitehead, Camila Silveira de Souza, David Mackay
The extent of self-compatibility and reliance on pollinators for seed set are critical determinants of reproductive success in invasive plant species. Seed herbivores are commonly used as biocontrol agents but may also act as flower visitors, potentially resulting in pollination. However, such contrasting or potentially counterproductive interaction effects are rarely considered or evaluated for biological control programs. We investigated the breeding system and pollinators of Bitou Bush (Chrysanthemoides monilifera ssp...
October 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075355/design-synthesis-and-characterization-of-2-2-bis-2-4-dinitrophenyl-2-phosphonatomethylamino-acetate-as-a-herbicidal-and-biological-active-agent
#20
Vijay Kumar, Simranjeet Singh, Rohit Singh, Niraj Upadhyay, Joginder Singh
The present study was designed to synthesize the bioactive molecule 2,2-bis(2,4-dinitrophenyl)-2-(phosphonatomethylamino)acetate (1), having excellent applications in the field of plant protection as a herbicide. Structure of newly synthesized molecule 1 was confirmed by using the elemental analysis, mass spectrometric, NMR, UV-visible, and FTIR spectroscopic techniques. To obtain better structural insights of molecule 1, 3D molecular modeling was performed using the GAMESS programme. Microbial activities of 1 were checked against the pathogenic strains Aspergillus fumigatus (NCIM 902) and Salmonella typhimurium (NCIM 2501)...
October 2017: Journal of Chemical Biology
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