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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792597/increasing-plant-diversity-with-border-crops-reduces-insecticide-use-and-increases-crop-yield-in-urban-agriculture
#1
Nian-Feng Wan, You-Ming Cai, Yan-Jun Shen, Xiang-Yun Ji, Xiang-Wen Wu, Xiang-Rong Zheng, Wei Cheng, Jun Li, Yao-Pei Jiang, Xin Chen, Jacob Weiner, Jie-Xian Jiang, Ming Nie, Rui-Ting Ju, Tao Yuan, Jian-Jun Tang, Wei-Dong Tian, Hao Zhang, Bo Li
Urban agriculture is making an increasing contribution to food security in large cities around the world. The potential contribution of biodiversity to ecological intensification in urban agricultural systems has not been investigated. We present monitoring data collected from rice fields in 34 community farms in mega-urban Shanghai, China, from 2001 to 2015, and show that the presence of a border crop of soybeans and neighboring crops (maize, eggplant and Chinese cabbage), both without weed control, increased invertebrate predator abundance, decreased the abundance of pests and dependence on insecticides, and increased grain yield and economic profits...
May 24, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790908/grass-legume-mixtures-sustain-strong-yield-advantage-over-monocultures-under-cool-maritime-growing-conditions-over-a-period-of-5-years
#2
Áslaug Helgadóttir, Matthias Suter, Thórey Ó Gylfadóttir, Thórdís A Kristjánsdóttir, Andreas Lüscher
Background and Aims: Grassland-based livestock systems in cool maritime regions are commonly dominated by grass monocultures receiving relatively high levels of fertilizer. The current study investigated whether grass-legume mixtures can improve the productivity, resource efficiency and robustness of yield persistence of cultivated grassland under extreme growing conditions over a period of 5 years. Methods: Monocultures and mixtures of two grasses (Phleum pratense and Festuca pratensis) and two legumes (Trifolium pratense and Trifolium repens), one of which was fast establishing and the other temporally persistent, were sown in a field trial...
May 22, 2018: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789922/temperature-affects-phenological-synchrony-in-a-tree-killing-bark-beetle
#3
J A Lombardo, A S Weed, C F Aoki, B T Sullivan, M P Ayres
Phenological synchrony can promote population growth in species with positive density dependence. Variation among life stages in the thermal thresholds for development can foster phenological synchrony under thermal regimes that include frequent occurrence of temperatures between developmental thresholds. The southern pine beetle is an insect with positive density dependence that has recently undergone important shifts in population abundance at the northern extremes of their distribution. We evaluated the hypothesis that cooler winter temperatures in their northern range cause a convergence of the population life stage structure that leads to synchrony in spring flight phenology...
May 22, 2018: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787969/efficacy-of-batch-mode-rotary-drum-composter-for-management-of-aquatic-weed-hydrilla-verticillata-l-f-royle
#4
Mayur Shirish Jain, Ajay S Kalamdhad
Invasive aquatic weed management is one of the biggest challenges in the field of solid waste management. Eichhornia crassipes, Pistia stratiotes and Hydrilla verticillata (L.f.) Royle pose some of the world's most noted aquatic weed problems. Previously reported studies on management of H. verticillata, a submersed aquatic plant, have shown that temporary removal, chemical treatment or biological control methods each have advantages and disadvantages. Removal programs that propose to compost harvested H. verticillata biomass may provide a novel technique to manage this issue...
May 19, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783231/allergenic-weed-pollen-forecast-under-the-mathematical-modeling-method-implementation-in-ukraine
#5
Irina I Motruk, Michael Yu Antomonov, Victoria V Rodinkova, Olena E Aleksandrova, Oleh V Yermishev
OBJECTIVE: Introduction: Allergies are the most common reason of the chronic diseases in developed countries and represent an important medical, social and economic issue, the relevance of which is growing both in these countries and in Ukraine. The most famous of these allergens group is the pollen of ambrosia and pollen of poaceae, which are ubiquitously distributed in the subtropical and temperate climate. The aim: The objective of our study was to develop the mathematical models, which will be able to indicate the probability of the pollen circulation, and thus these models can simplify the forecast of symptoms risk and improve the prophylaxis of pollinosis...
2018: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783169/applying-multi-criteria-analysis-for-preliminary-assessment-of-the-properties-of-alginate-immobilized-myriophyllum-spicatum-in-lake-water-samples
#6
Jelena V Milojković, Jelena B Popović-Djordjević, Lato L Pezo, Ilija D Brčeski, Aleksandar Ž Kostić, Vladan D Milošević, Mirjana D Stojanović
The preliminary assessment of the properties of alginate immobilized aquatic weed Myriophyllum spicatum beads-MsAlg in a multi-element system of nine Serbian lakes water samples was done. Herein, the results obtained in the biosorption experiment with MsAlg contents of twenty-two elements analysed by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry, biosorption capacity, element removal efficiency, total hardness (TH) and quality index of water (WQI) are presented. Scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy was used for the characterization of M...
May 11, 2018: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777486/physiological-and-quantitative-proteomic-analyses-unraveling-potassium-deficiency-stress-response-in-alligator-weed-alternanthera-philoxeroides-l-root
#7
Li-Qin Li, Lun Liu, Wei Zhuo, Qian Chen, Sheng Hu, Shuang Peng, Xi-Yao Wang, Yi-Fei Lu, Li-Ming Lu
Physiological and iTRAQ based proteomic analysis provided new insights into potassium deficiency stress response in alligator weed root. Alligator weed (Alternanthera philoxeroides) has a strong ability to adapt to potassium deficiency (LK) stress. Proteomic changes in response to this stress are largely unknown in alligator weed. In this study, we investigated physiological and molecular mechanisms under LK using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation to characterize proteome-level changes in this plant...
May 18, 2018: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773742/wicked-evolution-can-we-address-the-sociobiological-dilemma-of-pesticide-resistance
#8
REVIEW
Fred Gould, Zachary S Brown, Jennifer Kuzma
Resistance to insecticides and herbicides has cost billions of U.S. dollars in the agricultural sector and could result in millions of lives lost to insect-vectored diseases. We mostly continue to use pesticides as if resistance is a temporary issue that will be addressed by commercialization of new pesticides with novel modes of action. However, current evidence suggests that insect and weed evolution may outstrip our ability to replace outmoded chemicals and other control mechanisms. To avoid this outcome, we must address the mix of ecological, genetic, economic, and sociopolitical factors that prevent implementation of sustainable pest management practices...
May 18, 2018: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772666/weed-growth-stage-estimator-using-deep-convolutional-neural-networks
#9
Nima Teimouri, Mads Dyrmann, Per Rydahl Nielsen, Solvejg Kopp Mathiassen, Gayle J Somerville, Rasmus Nyholm Jørgensen
This study outlines a new method of automatically estimating weed species and growth stages (from cotyledon until eight leaves are visible) of in situ images covering 18 weed species or families. Images of weeds growing within a variety of crops were gathered across variable environmental conditions with regards to soil types, resolution and light settings. Then, 9649 of these images were used for training the computer, which automatically divided the weeds into nine growth classes. The performance of this proposed convolutional neural network approach was evaluated on a further set of 2516 images, which also varied in term of crop, soil type, image resolution and light conditions...
May 16, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771292/separation-of-four-flavonol-glycosides-from-solanum-rostratum-dunal-using-solvent-sublation-followed-by-hsccc-and-low-column-temperature-preparative-hplc
#10
Qian Shao, Lin Chang, Zhenya Wei, Yun Wei
Hyperoside, 3'-O-methylquercetin 3-O-β-D-galactopyranoside, astragalin and 3'-O-methylquercetin 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside from an invasive weed Solanum rostratum Dunal were separated and purified successfully by high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) with a solvent system composed of n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (1:7:1:7, v/v) and gradient elution mode preparative high-performance liquid chromatography (prep-HPLC) with low column temperature. In the sample pretreatment section, target compounds in aqueous extract of the weed were concentrated using solvent sublation...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Chromatographic Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770582/predator-performance-inferring-predator-switching-behaviors-based-on-nutritional-indices-in-a-coccinellid-psylla-aphid-system
#11
M Amin Jalali, M Reza Mehrnejad, Peter C Ellsworth, Fateme Ranjbar, Mahdi Ziaaddini
BACKGROUND: Knowledge on the nutritional ecology of predatory coccinellids is important to selection of efficient biocontrol agents. We examined five species common to pistachio orchards and nutritional indices when fed on the key psylla pest of the system, Agonoscena pistaciae, in contrast to an alternative prey common on herbaceous plants in orchards, Aphis gossypii. RESULTS: Feeding studies revealed that Oenopia conglobata contaminata and Adalia bipunctata may be more efficient as biocontrol agents for A...
May 16, 2018: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758499/interference-of-three-herbicides-on-iron-acquisition-in-maize-plants
#12
Maria Luce Bartucca, Alessandro Di Michele, Daniele Del Buono
The use of herbicides to control weed species could lead to environmental threats due to their persistence and accumulation in the ecosystems and cultivated fields. Nonetheless, the effect of these compounds on plant mineral nutrition in crops has been barely investigated. This study aimed at ascertaining the effect of three herbicides (S-metolachlor, metribuzin and terbuthylazine) on the capacity of maize to acquire iron (Fe). Interferences on plant growth and reductions on the Fe contents were found in the plants treated...
May 7, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757585/ige-sensitization-to-inhalant-allergens-and-its-association-with-allergic-diseases-in-adults
#13
Raheleh Shokouhi Shoormasti, Mohammad Reza Fazlollahi, Anoshirvan Kazemnejad, Behnoosh Tayebi, Fatemeh Nadali, Maryam Sharif Shoushtari, Shamim Khandan Alamdari, Majid Moslemi, Masoud Movehdi, Adriano Mari, Zahra Pourpak, Mostafa Moin
Allergic sensitization to inhalant allergens could be considered as a predictor in allergic diseases. The objective of this study was to assess IgE-mediated sensitization to inhalant allergens in allergic and non-allergic adults as well as the evaluation of its association with allergic diseases. This cross-sectional study was conducted from 2013 to 2016 in 604 allergic and 102 non-allergic adults selected from blood donor volunteers in Tehran, Iran. After taking informed consent, a standard questionnaire was filled to determine asthma, allergic rhinitis and/or conjunctivitis and atopic dermatitis in participants...
April 2018: Iranian Journal of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754487/aqueous-photolysis-of-benzobicyclon-hydrolysate
#14
Katryn L Williams, Richie Kaur, Alexander S McFall, Jacob Kalbfleisch, Joshua Gladfelder, David B Ball, Cort Anastasio, Ronald S Tjeerdema
Benzobicyclon (3-(2-chloro-4-(methylsulfonyl)benzoyl)-2-phenylthiobicyclo[3.2.1]oct-2-en-4-one) is a pro-herbicide used against resistant weeds in California rice fields. Persistence of its active product, benzobicyclon hydrolysate, is of concern. An acidic herbicide, the neutral species photolyzed faster than the more predominant anionic species (t1/2 = 1 h and 320 h, respectively; natural sunlight), from a >10-fold difference in quantum yield. Dissolved organic matter in natural waters reduced direct photolysis and increased indirect photolysis compared to high-purity water...
May 12, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745188/-effects-of-invasive-cenchrus-spinifex-on-nitrogen-pools-in-sandy-grassland
#15
Ting Zhang, Wei Dong Fu, Rui Hai Zhang, Zhen Song, Chao Bai, Cheng Cheng Huang, Guo Liang Zhang
Cenchrus spinifex is an invasive plant found in large areas of northern China. In this study, we focused on analysis of the effects of C. spinifex on soil nitrogen and plant nitrogen pools in Horqin sandy grassland. In addition, a pot experiment with 15 N tracing techniques was designed to study the biological nitrogen fixation ability of C. spinifex, compared with two native grasses, Elymus dahuricus and Agropyron cristatum. The total soil nitrogen pool in C. spinifex invaded-area increased significantly by 47...
May 18, 2017: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741710/response-to-short-term-cold-storage-for-eggs-of-agasicles-hygrophila-coleoptera-chrysomelidae-a-biological-control-agent-of-alligator-weed-alternanthera-philoxeroides-caryophyllales-amaranthaceae
#16
Yan-Hong Liu, Dong Jia, Xiao-Fang Yuan, Yuan-Xin Wang, Hsin Chi, Thomas James Ridsdill-Smith, Rui-Yan Ma
The alligator weed flea beetle, Agasicles hygrophila Selman & Vogt (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) has been used very successfully for the biological control of the widely-distributed invasive weed Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart.) Griseb (Caryophyllales: Amaranthaceae). In order to extend the 'shelf life' of natural enemies released in biological control programs, cold storage has proven to be a valuable commercial procedure. To determine a suitable low temperature for storage of A. hygrophila, we conducted short-term cold storage treatments of eggs (4°C for 0...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738464/allelopathic-responses-of-rice-seedlings-under-some-different-stresses
#17
Tran Dang Khanh, La Hoang Anh, La Tuan Nghia, Khuat Huu Trung, Pham Bich Hien, Do Minh Trung, Tran Dang Xuan
The objective of this study was to evaluate the allelopathic responses of rice seedlings under submergence stress at different temperatures (10, 25, 32, and 37 °C). The results showed that a wide range of allelopathic responses of rice seedlings depended on varieties and stress conditions, with temperature was being a key factor. It showed that the extracts of rice seedlings induced significant suppression on lettuce and radish seedling germination, but had negligible allelopathic effects on growth of barnyardgrass, whilst the emergence and growth of natural weeds was stimulated...
May 8, 2018: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737604/improving-soil-seed-bank-management
#18
REVIEW
Steven C Haring, Michael L Flessner
Problems associated with simplified weed management motivate efforts for diversification. Integrated weed management uses fundamentals of weed biology and applied ecology to provide a framework for diversified weed management programs; the soil seed bank comprises a necessary part of this framework. By targeting seeds, growers can inhibit the propagule pressure on which annual weeds depend for agricultural invasion. Some current management practices affect weed seed banks, such as crop rotation and tillage, but these tools are often used without specific intention to manage weed seeds...
May 8, 2018: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733032/reducing-work-related-musculoskeletal-symptoms-through-implementation-of-kiken-yochi-training-intervention-approach
#19
Noor Afifah Ya'acob, Emilia Zainal Abidin, Irniza Rasdi, Anita Abd Rahman, Suriani Ismail
BACKGROUND: Work tasks in pineapple plantations in Malaysia are characterised by non-ergonomic work postures, repetitive tasks, awkward posture and manual handling of work tools that contribute to the reporting of musculoskeletal symptoms (MSS). There have been very limited studies performed among pineapple plantation workers focusing on ergonomic intervention programs to specifically reduce MSS. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the effects of work improvement module using a Kiken Yochi participatory approach intervention in reducing MSS among male migrant pineapple farm plantation workers in Pontian, Johor...
May 1, 2018: Work: a Journal of Prevention, Assessment, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730324/statistical-optimization-of-process-parameters-for-inulinase-production-from-tithonia-weed-by-arthrobacter-mysorens-strain-no-1
#20
Prajakta P Kamble, Maheshkumar V Kore, Sushama A Patil, Jyoti P Jadhav, Yasmin C Attar
Tithonia rotundifolia is an easily available and abundant inulin rich weed reported to be competitive and allelopathic. This weed inulin is hydrolyzed by inulinase into fructose. Response surface methodology was employed to optimize culture conditions for the inulinase production from Arthrobacter mysorens strain no.1 isolated from rhizospheric area of Tithonia weed. Initially, Plackett- Burman design was used for screening 11 nutritional parameters for inulinase production including inulin containing weeds as cost effective substrate...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Microbiological Methods
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