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Weed use

Shishir Tandon, Ravi Pant
Phenylureas group are persistent herbicides compared to other groups. However, their dissipation in different ecosystem should be investigated as they are major pollutant to soil and water. Dissipation kinetics of diuron at two application rates, in texturally different soils under sugarcane field conditions was investigated. Diuron was extracted from the soil with acetone and florisil SPE cleanup and extracted diuron was characterized by HPLC-UV. Diuron dissipated slowly in soils and persisted for more than 100 days...
September 18, 2017: Environmental Technology
Manoj K Dhar, Gurmeet Kour, Sanjana Kaul
Plantago lagopus is a diploid (2n = 2x =12) weed belonging to family Plantaginaceae. We reported a novel B chromosome in this species composed of 5S and 45S ribosomal DNA and other repetitive elements. In the present work, presence of B chromosome(s) was confirmed through FISH on root tip and pollen mother cells. Several experiments were done to determine the transmission of B chromosome through male and female sex tracks. Progenies derived from the reciprocal crosses between plants with (1B) and without (0B) B chromosomes were studied...
2017: Comparative Cytogenetics
Toyib Olaniyan, Mohamed Jeebhay, Martin Röösli, Rajen Naidoo, Roslynn Baatjies, Nino Künzil, Ming Tsai, Mark Davey, Kees de Hoogh, Dilys Berman, Bhawoodien Parker, Joy Leaner, Mohamed Aqiel Dalvie
BACKGROUND: There is evidence from existing literature that ambient air pollutant exposure in early childhood likely plays an important role in asthma exacerbation and other respiratory symptoms, with greater effect among asthmatic children. However, there is inconclusive evidence on the role of ambient air pollutant exposures in relation to increasing asthma prevalence as well as asthma induction in children. At the population level, little is known about the potential synergistic effects between pollen allergens and air pollutants since this type of association poses challenges in uncontrolled real life settings...
September 16, 2017: BMC Public Health
Yu Mei, Chong Si, Mingjie Liu, Lihong Qiu, Mingqi Zheng
Large crabgrass is a major grass weed widely distributed across China. This weed infests maize fields and has evolved resistance to the acetolactate synthase (ALS)-inhibiting herbicide nicosulfuron due to continuous and intensive use. In this study, a total of 25 out of 26 large crabgrass populations collected from maize field demonstrated resistance to nicosulfuron. Amino acid modifications in ALS known to confer resistance to ALS-inhibiting herbicides in other weeds, were not found in the 9 tested resistant populations...
September 2017: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Caio A C G Brunharo, Bradley D Hanson
Lolium perenne L. spp. multiflorum (Lam.) Husnot (LOLMU) is a winter annual weed, common to row crops, orchards and roadsides. Glyphosate-resistant populations of LOLMU are widespread in California. In many situations, growers have switched to paraquat or other postemergence herbicides to manage glyphosate-resistant LOLMU populations. Recently, poor control of LOLMU with paraquat was reported in a prune orchard in California where paraquat has been used several times. We hypothesize that the low efficacy observed is due to the selection of a paraquat-resistant biotype of LOLMU...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Catarine Markus, Ales Pecinka, Ratna Karan, Jacob N Barney, Aldo Merotto
Continuous use of herbicides has resulted in the evolution of resistance to all major herbicide modes of action worldwide. Besides the well-documented cases of newly acquired resistance by genetic changes, epigenetic regulation may also contribute to herbicide resistance in weeds. Epigenetics involves processes that modify the expression of specific genetic elements without changes in the DNA sequence, and present an important role for re-programming gene expression. Epigenetic modifications can be induced spontaneously, genetically or environmentally...
September 9, 2017: Pest Management Science
K R Chethana, Fatma Sezer Senol, Ilkay Erdogan Orhan, K R Anilakumar, Rangappa S Keri
BACKGROUND: Drug discovery from natural products as alternatives for Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a current trend. For which plant is an alternative for searching potential molecule for treating AD. Availability of Cassia tora as weed and abundance in nature makes it as potential source. Many plants group under Leguminosae family has potential medicinal property of which Cassia tora is an appropriate choice, to know potency against AD. Etiology of AD is described by senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles...
September 15, 2017: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
A Nancy, A Praveena
Nature is God's gift to human beings. Natural products are a source of new chemical diversity and are the choice of today's world. Nature itself gives remedy to all our health problems. The sources of natural product are plants, animals and microorganisms. Among them plant and its products are more reliable for its renewability and therefore, considered as fortunate thing for human welfare. Our traditional system of medicine which has been followed by our ancestors has its own impact on human life. Due to the inadequate knowledge many plant derived products (drugs) has not yet been explored to the society...
August 30, 2017: Cardiovascular & Hematological Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
Faisal Islam, Muhammad A Farooq, Rafaqat A Gill, Jian Wang, Chong Yang, Basharat Ali, Guang-Xi Wang, Weijun Zhou
Growth regulator herbicides are widely used in paddy fields to control weeds, however their role in conferring environmental stress tolerance in the crop plants are still elusive. In this study, the effects of recommended dose of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D)  on growth, oxidative damage, antioxidant defense, regulation of cation transporter genes and anatomical changes in the roots of rice cultivars XS 134 (salt resistant) and ZJ 88 (salt sensitive) were investigated under different levels of saline stress...
September 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
Xin Tang, Xiaobin Shi, Deyong Zhang, Fan Li, Fei Yan, Youjun Zhang, Yong Liu, Xuguo Zhou
BACKGROUND: In recent years, two of the crinivirus, Tomato chlorosis virus (ToCV) and Cucurbit chlorotic yellows virus (CCYV) have gained increasing attention due to their rapid spread and devastating impacts on vegetable production worldwide. Both of these viruses are transmitted by the sweet potato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius), in a semi-persistent manner. Up to now, there is still lack of report in Hainan, the south of China. METHODS: We used observational and experimental methods to explore the prevalence and incidence dynamic of CCYV and ToCV transmitted by whiteflies in Hainan of China...
September 4, 2017: Virology Journal
Daniel C Schlatter, Chuntao Yin, Scot Hulbert, Ian Burke, Timothy Paulitz
Glyphosate is the most widely used herbicide worldwide and a critical tool for weed control in no-till cropping systems. However, there are concerns about non-target impacts of long-term glyphosate use on soil microbial communities. We investigated the impacts of repeated glyphosate treatments on bacterial communities in the soil and rhizosphere of wheat in soils with and without long-term history of glyphosate use. We cycled wheat in the greenhouse using soils from 4 paired fields under no-till (20+ years history of glyphosate) or no history of use...
September 1, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Thomas K Alexandridis, Afroditi Alexandra Tamouridou, Xanthoula Eirini Pantazi, Anastasia L Lagopodi, Javid Kashefi, Georgios Ovakoglou, Vassilios Polychronos, Dimitrios Moshou
In the present study, the detection and mapping of Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn. weed using novelty detection classifiers is reported. A multispectral camera (green-red-NIR) on board a fixed wing unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) was employed for obtaining high-resolution images. Four novelty detection classifiers were used to identify S. marianum between other vegetation in a field. The classifiers were One Class Support Vector Machine (OC-SVM), One Class Self-Organizing Maps (OC-SOM), Autoencoders and One Class Principal Component Analysis (OC-PCA)...
September 1, 2017: Sensors
Nina Singh, Matthew T Sit, Marissa K Schutte, Gabriel E Chan, Jeyson E Aldana, Diana Cervantes, Clyde H Himmelstein, Pamela J Yeh
BACKGROUND: Although evolution is the driving force behind many of today's major public health and agriculture issues, both journalists and scientific researchers often do not use the term "evolve" in discussions of these topics. METHODS: In a total of 1,066 articles and 716 papers selected from 25 US newspapers and 34 scientific journals, we assess usage of the word "evolve" and its substitute words in the contexts of cancer tumor drug resistance, HIV drug resistance, mosquito insecticide resistance, and weed pesticide resistance...
2017: PeerJ
Laura Vilanova, Neus Teixidó, Josep Usall, Marta Balsells-Llauradó, Amparo Gotor-Vila, Rosario Torres
BACKGROUND: Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain CPA-8 has been described as an effective biocontrol agent to control brown rot in stone fruit for both preharvest and postharvest applications. However, no information about the environmental fate and behaviour of this strain under field conditions is available. RESULTS: The dispersion of the CPA-8 application was evaluated using water-sensitive papers, and complete coverage was observed on the leaves of treated trees, while less than 1 % of non-treated tree leaves had CPA-8...
August 28, 2017: Pest Management Science
Joseph Dauer, Andrew Hulting, Dale Carlson, Luke Mankin, John Harden, Carol Mallory-Smith
BACKGROUND: Provisia™ rice (PV), a non-genetically engineered (GE) quizalofop-resistant rice, will provide growers with an additional option for weed management to use in conjunction with Clearfield® rice (CL) production. Modeling compared the impact of stacking resistance traits versus single traits in rice on introgression of the resistance trait to weedy rice (also called red rice). Common weed management practices were applied to 2-, 3-, and 4-year crop rotations and resistant and multiple-resistant weedy rice seeds, seedlings, and mature plants were tracked for 15 years...
August 23, 2017: Pest Management Science
Vivianne Aggestam, Jon Buick
Agricultural industrialisation and globalisation have steadily increased the transportation of food across the world. In efforts to promote sustainability and self-sufficiency, organic milk producers in Sweden are required to produce a higher level of cattle feed on-farm in the hope that increased self-sufficiency will reduce reliance on external inputs and reduce transport-related greenhouse gas emissions. Using data collected from 20 conventional and 20 organic milk producers in Sweden this paper aims to assess the global warming impact of farmyard vehicles and the transportation of feed produced 'off-farm' in order to compare the impact of vehicle-related emissions from the different production methods...
August 2017: Journal of Dairy Research
Yingchao Ji, Wen Luo, Ganyu Zhang, Junbao Wen
Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle and its variant A. altissima var. Qiantouchun are notorious invasive weeds. Two weevils, Eucryptorrhynchus scrobiculatus (ESC) and E. brandti (EBR) are considered as candidates for biological control of A. altissima. The aim of this study was to model the potential distributions of ESC and EBR using CLIMEX 4.0. The projected potential distributions of ESC and EBR included almost all current distribution areas of A. altissima, except Southeast Asia. Under historical climate, potential distribution area of EBR is larger than that of ESC, 46...
August 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
Yi-Ping Yuan, Hua-Qiang Zhai, Zhao-Juan Guo, Li-Ting Kong, Xiao-Yu Jia, Ning-Ning Wang, Ying Dai, Pin-Hao Yu
To understand the history development and changes of Citri Grandis Exocarpium and initially establish its standard system after exploring the historical origins and modern development of Citri Grandis Exocarpium. In CNKI, Wanfang database and other academic search platforms were searched for literature on Citri Grandis Exocarpium and Chinese medicine standard system; the books related to its modern cultivation techniques and processing technology were also accessed, and after combining with the actual situation analysis, the prospective design of the standard system of Citri Grandis Exocarpium was finally established with research conclusion...
June 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Mahmut Sinan Taspinar, Murat Aydin, Burcu Sigmaz, Nalan Yildirim, Guleray Agar
Picloram (4-amino-3,5,6-trichloropicolinic acid) is a liquid auxinic herbicide used to control broad-leaved weeds. Picloram is representing a possible hazard to ecosystems and human health. Therefore, in this study, DNA methylation changes and DNA damage levels in Phaseolus vulgaris exposed to picloram, as well as whether humic acid (HA) has preventive effects on these changes were investigated. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) techniques were used for identification of DNA damage and coupled restriction enzyme digestion-random amplification (CRED-RA) techniques were used to detect the changed pattern of DNA methylation...
August 17, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Lindsey S Weed, Jason A Mills
Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are specialized self-renewing cells that are generated by exogenously expressing pluripotency-associated transcription factors in somatic cells such as fibroblasts, peripheral blood mononuclear cells, or lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs). iPSCs are functionally similar to naturally pluripotent embryonic stem cells (ESCs) in their capacity to propagate indefinitely and potential to differentiate into all human cell types, and are devoid of the associated ethical complications of origin...
2017: Stem Cell Investigation
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