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Weed use

Julie D Yeterian, Krisanne Bursik, John F Kelly
BACKGROUND: A growing literature on adults with substance use disorders (SUD) suggests that religious and spiritual processes can support recovery, such that higher levels of religiosity and/or spirituality predict better substance use outcomes. However, studies of the role of religion and spirituality in adolescent SUD treatment response have produced mixed findings, and religiosity and spirituality have rarely been examined separately. METHODS: The present study examined religiosity and spirituality as predictors of outcomes in an outpatient treatment adolescent sample (N = 101) in which cannabis was the predominant drug of choice...
March 20, 2018: Substance Abuse
Ill-Min Chung, Sung-Kyu Park, Mohd Ali, Mayakrishnan Prabakaran, Young-Tek Oh, Seung-Hyun Kim, Nasir Ali Siddiqui, Ateeque Ahmad
Five new flavonoids namely, 5-hydroxy-6-isoprenyl-7,4'-dimethoxyflavonol-3- O - β -d-arabinofuranoside ( 1 ), 5,7-dihydroxy-4'-methoxyflavone-7- O - β -d-arabinopyranosyl-2''- n -decan-1'''-oate ( 2 ), 3-butanoyl-5,6,8-trihydroxy-7,4'-dimethoxyflavonol--5- O - β -d-glucopyranoside ( 3 ), 7, 4'-dimethoxy-5-hydroxyflavone-5- O - α -d-arabinopyranosyl-(2'' → 1''')- O - α -d-arabinopyranoside ( 4 ), and 5,6-dihydroxy-7, 4'-dimethoxyflavone-5- O - α -d-glucopyranoside ( 5 ), together with two known compounds, were isolated from the methanol extract of Oryza sativa leaves and straw...
March 2018: Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal: SPJ: the Official Publication of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Society
J O Frimpong, E S K Ofori, S Yeboah, D Marri, B K Offei, F Apaatah, J O Sintim, E Ofori-Ayeh, M Osae
This study evaluated three herbicides active ingredients: Paraquat, Glyphosate and 2,4-D Amine in commercial formulations as Frankoquat, Roundup and Agriherb respectively under field conditions to determine their influence on soil dwelling macrobes and the physical state of soil. Herbicides were serially diluted to three treatment concentrations for each plus three controls. Herbicide concentrations were applied to the demarcated field on three consecutive occasions in splits. Macrobes extraction from soil was done under a stereo microscope at 20 × magnification...
March 15, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
David Thornby, Jeff Werth, James Hereward, Michelle Keenan, Bhagirath S Chauhan
BACKGROUND: Because herbicide resistance evolves in very large populations over periods of many years, modelling is an important tool for investigating the dynamics of the problem. The Diversity model tracks the simultaneous evolution of resistance to multiple herbicides, using multiple genetic pathways, in several weed species at once. Tracking multiple species and simultaneous resistances is an important development in resistance modelling. We used the Diversity model to test weed management strategies for new cropping cotton varieties with multiple herbicide tolerances ('triple-stacked' varieties), in an Australian context...
March 15, 2018: Pest Management Science
Dorota Woźniak, Sylwester Ślusarczyk, Krzysztof Domaradzki, Andrzej Dryś, Adam Matkowski
European Pharmacopoeia accepts two equivalent species Solidago canadensis L. and S. gigantea Ait. as Goldenrod (Solidaginis herba). We compared phytochemical profile of both species from invasive populations in Poland. Further, we compared in vitro antimutagenic and antioxidant activities of solvent extracts from aerial (AP) and underground parts (UP). In S. gigantea, flavonoid profile was dominated by quercetin glycosides, with quercitrin as the major compound. In S. canadensis, quercetin and kaempferol rutinosides were two major constituents...
March 14, 2018: Chemistry & Biodiversity
Thomas R Butts, Chase A Samples, Lucas X Franca, Darrin M Dodds, Daniel B Reynolds, Jason W Adams, Richard K Zollinger, Kirk A Howatt, Bradley K Fritz, W Clint Hoffmann, Greg R Kruger
BACKGROUND: Pesticide applications using a specific droplet size and carrier volume could maximize herbicide efficacy while mitigating particle drift in a precise and efficient manner. The objectives were to investigate the influence of spray droplet size and carrier volume on dicamba and glufosinate efficacy, and to determine the plausibility of droplet size based site-specific weed management strategies. RESULTS: Generally, across herbicides and carrier volumes, as droplet size increased, weed control decreased...
March 13, 2018: Pest Management Science
Colton O'Brien, Arathi H S
Intensive agricultural practices resulting in large scale habitat loss ranks as the top contributing factors in the global bee decline. Growing Genetically Modified Herbicide Tolerant (GMHT) crops as large monocultures has resulted extensive applications of herbicides leading to the degradation of natural habitats surrounding farmlands. Herbicide tolerance trait is beneficial for crops such as Canola (Brassica napus) that are extremely vulnerable to weed competition. While the trait in itself does not harm pollinators, growing genetically modified herbicide tolerant cultivars indirectly contributes towards pollinator declines through habitat loss...
March 12, 2018: GM Crops & Food
Zongjie Ren, Yuan Li, Wensheng Fang, Dongdong Yan, Bin Huang, Jiahong Zhu, Xiaoning Wang, Xianli Wang, Qiuxia Wang, Meixia Guo, Aocheng Cao
BACKGROUND: Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.), soil-borne diseases and weeds seriously reduce the commercial yield of tomatoes grown under protected cultivation in China. Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), a natural product obtained from damaged Brassica tissues, was evaluated as a potential replacement for the fumigant methyl bromide (MB) for use in the greenhouse production of tomatoes in China. RESULTS: The dose-response assay indicates that AITC has high biological activity against major bacterial and fungal pathogens (EC50 of 0...
March 12, 2018: Pest Management Science
Jatinder Singh, Yogalakshmi Kadapakkam Nandabalan
Butachlor is a chloroacetamide herbicide used worldwide for controlling weeds in plants of rice, corn, soybean and other crops. In this study, indigenous bacterial species Ammoniphilus sp. JF was isolated from the agricultural fields of Punjab and identified using 16S ribosomal RNA analysis. The bacteria utilized butachlor as the sole carbon source and showed complete degradation (100 mg/L) within 24 h of incubation. Two intermediate products, namely 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, bis(2-methylpropyl) ester and 2,4-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl)-phenol were observed at the end of butachlor degradation...
March 2018: 3 Biotech
J P T Lambert, H L Hicks, D Z Childs, R P Freckleton
Mapping weed densities within crops has conventionally been achieved either by detailed ecological monitoring or by field walking, both of which are time-consuming and expensive. Recent advances have resulted in increased interest in using Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) to map fields, aiming to reduce labour costs and increase the spatial extent of coverage. However, adoption of this technology ideally requires that mapping can be undertaken automatically and without the need for extensive ground-truthing. This approach has not been validated at large scale using UAS-derived imagery in combination with extensive ground-truth data...
February 2018: Weed Research
Nathalie Amacker, Edward A D Mitchell, Benoît J D Ferrari, Nathalie Chèvre
An ever-increasing diversity of potentially toxic chemical compounds are being developed and released into the environment as a result of human activities (e.g. agriculture, drugs, and cosmetics). Among these, pesticides have been shown to affect non-targeted wildlife since the 1960s. A range of ecotoxicological tests are used to assess the toxicity of pesticides on various model organisms. However most model organisms are metazoans, while the majority of Eukaryotes are unicellular microorganisms known as protists...
March 1, 2018: Chemosphere
Cyril Hamiaux, Revel S M Drummond, Zhiwei Luo, Hui Wen Lee, Prachi Sharma, Bart J Janssen, Nigel B Perry, William A Denny, Kimberley C Snowden
The strigolactone (SL) family of plant hormones regulates a broad range of physiological processes affecting plant growth and development and also plays essential roles in controlling interactions with parasitic weeds and symbiotic fungi. Recent progress elucidating details of SL biosynthesis, signalling, and transport offer many opportunities for discovering new plant growth regulators via chemical interference. Here, using high throughput screening and downstream biochemical assays, we identified N -phenylanthranilic acid derivatives as potent inhibitors of the SL receptors from petunia (DAD2), rice (OsD14) and Arabidopsis (AtD14)...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Barney P Caton, Anthony L Koop, Larry Fowler, Leslie Newton, Lisa Kohl
Weed risk assessments (WRA) are used to identify plant invaders before introduction. Unfortunately, very few incorporate uncertainty ratings or evaluate the effects of uncertainty, a fundamental risk component. We developed a probabilistic model to quantitatively evaluate the effects of uncertainty on the outcomes of a question-based WRA tool for the United States. In our tool, the uncertainty of each response is rated as Negligible, Low, Moderate, or High. We developed the model by specifying the likelihood of a response changing for each uncertainty rating...
March 6, 2018: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
Min Jiang, Tao Liu, Niansheng Huang, Xinping Shen, Mingxing Shen, Qigen Dai
Effects of fertilisation and other management techniques on a weed community were evaluated during wheat growth in a rice-wheat cropping system. Fertiliser treatments were C0 (C means chemical, C0 means zero chemical fertiliser.), CN (N fertiliser), CNK (N plus K fertiliser), CNPK (N plus P and K fertiliser), CNP (N plus P fertiliser), and CPK (P plus K fertiliser). Weed density, biomass, and bio-diversity were determined. Redundancy analysis (RDA) was used to investigate the relationship between fertiliser management, weed species, and weed density...
March 5, 2018: Scientific Reports
Stacy Keough, Jonathan Danielson, Jordan M Marshall, Doris Lagos-Kutz, David J Voegtlin, Rajagopalbabu Srinivasan, Punya Nachappa
Thrips-infesting soybeans were considered of minor economic importance, but recent evidence of their ability to transmit a newly identified soybean virus, Soybean vein necrosis virus (SVNV), has raised their profile as pests. Season-long surveys were conducted using suction traps to determine the effects of temperature and precipitation on the spatiotemporal patterns of three vector species of SVNV, Neohydatothrips variabilis (Beach) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) (soybean thrips), Frankliniella tritici (Fitch) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) (eastern flower thrips), and Frankliniella fusca (Hinds) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) (tobacco thrips) in soybean fields in Indiana in 2013 and 2014...
March 1, 2018: Environmental Entomology
M Castro Berman, D J G Marino, María Victoria Quiroga, Horacio Zagarese
Glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine) is a broad-spectrum systemic herbicide used to kill weeds that compete with commercial crops. In Argentina, the use of glyphosate-based herbicides increased dramatically (up to ∼200,000 tons on 2012) since the introduction of glyphosate-resistant crops, such as transgenic soy and resistant corn, and the adoption of non-till practices in the 1990's. Sallow lakes within the Pampa region may be potentially impacted by continuous herbicide usage. We surveyed 52 shallow lakes from the Pampa region (Buenos Aires Province, Argentina) to assess the occurrence and concentrations of glyphosate and its main degradation product (AMPA)...
February 20, 2018: Chemosphere
Songkui Cui, Syogo Wada, Yuki Tobimatsu, Yuri Takeda, Simon B Saucet, Toshiyuki Takano, Toshiaki Umezawa, Ken Shirasu, Satoko Yoshida
Parasitic plants in the family Orobanchaceae are destructive weeds of agriculture worldwide. The haustorium, an essential parasitic organ used by these plants to penetrate host tissues, is induced by host-derived phenolic compounds called haustorium-inducing factors (HIFs). The origin of HIFs remains unknown, although the structures of lignin monomers resemble that of HIFs. Lignin is a natural phenylpropanoid polymer, commonly found in secondary cell walls of vascular plants. We therefore investigated the possibility that HIFs are derived from host lignin...
March 2, 2018: New Phytologist
Muhammad Irfan, Tae-Hyung Kwon, Bong-Sik Yun, Nyun-Ho Park, Man Hee Rhee
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Sea weeds have been used since ancient times in Asian countries, especially in Korea, Japan, and China, as both edible sea vegetables and traditional medicinal tonics due to their health benefits. Eisenia bicyclis has been studied for anti-allergic and anti-cancer effects; however, its effects on the cardiovascular system, especially on platelet function, are yet to be explored. Therefore, we examined the effect of E. bicyclis on platelet function. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: E...
February 1, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Dhirendra Fartyal, Aakrati Agarwal, Donald James, Bhabesh Borphukan, Babu Ram, Vijay Sheri, Renu Yadav, Mrinalini Manna, Panditi Varakumar, V Mohan M Achary, Malireddy K Reddy
Weeds and their devastating effects have been a great threat since the start of agriculture. They compete with crop plants in the field and negatively influence the crop yield quality and quantity along with survival of the plants. Glyphosate is an important broad-spectrum systemic herbicide which has been widely used to combat various weed problems since last two decades. It is very effective even at low concentrations, and possesses low environmental toxicity and soil residual activity. However, the residual concentration of glyphosate inside the plant has been of major concern as it severely affects the important metabolic pathways, and results in poor plant growth and grain yield...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Jian Wang, Xuemei Zhong, Fenghai Li, Zhensheng Shi
Nicosulfuron is a postemergence herbicide used for weed control in maize fields (Zea mays L.). We used the pair of nearly isogenic inbred lines, SN509-R (nicosulfuron resistant) and SN509-S (nicosulfuron sensitive), to study the effect of nicosulfuron on growth, oxidative stress, and the ascorbate-glutathione (AA-GSH) cycle in waxy maize seedlings. Nicosulfuron treatment was applied when the fourth leaves were fully developed and the obtained effects were compared to water treatment as control. After nicosulfuron treatment, compared to SN509-R, the death of SN509-S might be associated with increased oxidative stress, since higher O2 - and H2 O2 accumulations were observed in SN509-S...
February 2018: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
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