Read by QxMD icon Read

Weed use

Maxwel C Oliveira, Todd A Gaines, Franck E Dayan, Eric L Patterson, Amit J Jhala, Stevan Z Knezevic
A population of Amaranthus tuberculatus (var. rudis) was confirmed resistant to 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD)-inhibitor herbicides (mesotrione, tembotrione, and topramezone) in a seed corn/soybean rotation in Nebraska. Further investigation confirmed a non-target-site resistance mechanism in this population. The main objective of this study was to explore the role of cytochrome P450 inhibitors for restoring the efficacy of HPPD-inhibitor herbicides on the HPPD-inhibitor resistant A. tuberculatus population from Nebraska, USA (HPPD-R)...
August 11, 2017: Pest Management Science
Geoffrey A Mueller, Peter M Thompson, Eugene F DeRose, Thomas M O'Connell, Robert E London
BACKGROUND: Studies on ragweed and birch pollen extracts suggested that the adenosine content is an important factor in allergic sensitization. However, exposure levels from other pollens and considerations of geographic and seasonal factors have not been evaluated. OBJECTIVE: This study compared the metabolite profile of pollen species important for allergic disease, specifically measured the adenosine content, and evaluated exposure to pollen-derived adenosine...
December 2016: Metabolomics: Official Journal of the Metabolomic Society
M Alejandra Martínez-Ghersa, Analía I Menéndez, Pedro E Gundel, Ana M Folcia, Ana M Romero, Jennifer B Landesmann, Laura Ventura, Claudio M Ghersa
Information on whole community responses is needed to predict direction and magnitude of changes in plant and animal abundance under global changes. This study quantifies the effect of past ozone exposure on a weed community structure and arthropod colonization. We used the soil seed bank resulting from a long-term ozone exposure to reestablish the plant community under a new low-pollution environment. Two separate experiments using the same original soil seed bank were conducted. Plant and arthropod richness and species abundance was assessed during two years...
2017: PloS One
Kirsten A Pearsons, John F Tooker
The challenge of managing agroecosystems on a landscape scale and the novel structure of soil communities in agroecosystems both provide reason to focus on in-field management practices, including cover crop adoption, reduced tillage, and judicial pesticide use, to promote soil community diversity. Belowground and epigeal arthropods, especially exotic generalist predators, play a significant role in controlling insect pests, weeds, and pathogens in agroecosystems. However, the preventative pest management tactics that dominate field-crop production in the United States do not promote biological control...
August 5, 2017: Insects
V Mohan M Achary, Babu Ram, Mrinalini Manna, Dipanwita Datta, Arun Bhatt, Malireddy K Reddy, Pawan K Agrawal
The availability of orthophosphate (Pi) is a key determinant of crop productivity because its accessibility to plants is poor due to its conversion to unavailable forms. Weed's competition for this essential macronutrient further reduces its bio-availability. To compensate for the low Pi use efficiency and address the weed hazard, excess Pi fertilizers and herbicides are routinely applied, resulting in increased production costs, soil degradation and eutrophication. These outcomes necessitate the identification of a suitable alternate technology that can address the problems associated with the overuse of Pi-based fertilizers and herbicides in agriculture...
August 4, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
Haider Mahmood Jawad, Rosdiadee Nordin, Sadik Kamel Gharghan, Aqeel Mahmood Jawad, Mahamod Ismail
Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) can be used in agriculture to provide farmers with a large amount of information. Precision agriculture (PA) is a management strategy that employs information technology to improve quality and production. Utilizing wireless sensor technologies and management tools can lead to a highly effective, green agriculture. Based on PA management, the same routine to a crop regardless of site environments can be avoided. From several perspectives, field management can improve PA, including the provision of adequate nutrients for crops and the wastage of pesticides for the effective control of weeds, pests, and diseases...
August 3, 2017: Sensors
Ali Ahsan Bajwa, Muhammad Javaid Akhter, Nadeem Iqbal, Arslan Masood Peerzada, Zarka Hanif, Sudheesh Manalil, Saima Hashim, Hafiz Haider Ali, Lynda Kebaso, David Frimpong, Halima Namubiru, Bhagirath Singh Chauhan
Avena fatua and Avena ludoviciana are closely related grass weed species infesting a large number of crops around the world. These species are widely distributed in diverse agro-ecosystems from temperate to sub-tropical regions due to their unique seed traits, successful germination ecology, high competitive ability, and allelopathic potential. A. fatua is more widespread, adaptable, and problematic than A. ludoviciana. Both these species infest major winter and spring crops, including wheat, oat, barley, canola, maize, alfalfa, and sunflower, causing up to 70% yield losses depending on crop species and weed density...
August 2, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Chen Jiang, Yi Chen Lu, Jiang Yan Xu, Yang Song, Yue Song, Shu Hao Zhang, Li Ya Ma, Feng Fan Lu, Ya Kun Wang, Hong Yang
Propazine is a s-triazine herbicide widely used for controlling weeds for crop production. Its persistence and contamination in environment nagatively affect crop growth and food safety. Elimination of propazine residues in the environment is critical for safe crop production. This study identified a microbial community able to degrade propazine in a farmland soil. About 94% of the applied propazine was degraded within 11 days of incubation when soil was treated with 10mgkg(-1) propazine as the initial concentration...
July 29, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Saranya Poapolathep, Phanwimol Tanhan, Onuma Piasai, Kanjana Imsilp, Jana Hajslova, Mario Giorgi, Susumu Kumagai, Amnart Poapolathep
The mycotoxin patulin (PAT) is well known as a natural contaminant of apple- and other fruit-based products. Pesticides are a group of chemicals abundantly used in agriculture to maximize productivity by protecting crops from pests and weeds. Because of their harmful health effects, PAT and pesticides are strictly monitored. The current study was undertaken to investigate the significance of PAT and pyrethroid insecticide contamination in a variety of fruit juices in Bangkok. To do this, a total of 200 fruit juice samples, consisting of 40 samples each of apple, apricot, peach, pineapple, and grape juice, were collected from supermarkets in Bangkok, Thailand...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
Bochui Zhao, Danni Fu, Yang Yu, Chengtian Huang, Kecheng Yan, Pingsheng Li, Jamil Shafi, He Zhu, Songhong Wei, Mingshan Ji
Sagittaria trifolia L. is one of the most competitive weeds in rice fields in northeastern China. The continuous use of acetolactate synthase (ALS)-inhibitors has led to the evolution of herbicide resistant S. trifolia. A subpopulation BC1, which was derived from the L1 population, was analyzed using DNA sequencing and ALS enzyme activity assays and levels of resistance to five ALS-inhibiting herbicides was determined. DNA sequencing and ALS enzyme assays revealed no amino acid substitutions and no significant differences in enzyme sensitivity between susceptible and resistant populations...
August 2017: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Erin E Burns, Barbara K Keith, Mohammed Y Refai, Brian Bothner, William E Dyer
Extensive herbicide usage has led to the evolution of resistant weed populations that cause substantial crop yield losses and increase production costs. The multiple herbicide resistant (MHR) Avena fatua L. populations utilized in this study are resistant to members of all selective herbicide families, across five modes of action, available for A. fatua control in U.S. small grain production, and thus pose significant agronomic and economic threats. Resistance to ALS and ACCase inhibitors is not conferred by target site mutations, indicating that non-target site resistance mechanisms are involved...
August 2017: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Bo Tao, Bai-Hui Shao, Yu-Xin Qiao, Xiao-Qin Wang, Shu-Jun Chang, Li-Juan Qiu
Glyphosate is a widely used broad spectrum herbicide; however, this limits its use once crops are planted. If glyphosate-resistant crops are grown, glyphosate can be used for weed control in crops. While several glyphosate resistance genes are used in commercial glyphosate tolerant crops, there is interest in identifying additional genes for glyphosate tolerance. This research constructed a high-quality cDNA library form the glyphosate-resistant fungus Aspergillus oryzae RIB40 to identify genes that may confer resistance to glyphosate...
August 2017: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Martin Laforest, Brahim Soufiane, Marie-Josée Simard, Kristen Obeid, Eric Page, Robert E Nurse
BACKGROUND: The occurrence of herbicide resistant weed biotypes is increasing and this report of an Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase (ACCase) inhibitor resistant Digitaria sanguinalis L. Scop. from Southwestern Ontario is another example. The identified weed escaped control in an onion and carrot rotation where graminicides where used for several consecutive years. Our goal was to characterise the level and mechanism of resistance of the biotype. RESULTS: The biotype was resistant to all five ACCase inhibitor herbicides tested...
July 29, 2017: Pest Management Science
Edward A Lock
The discovery that a natural product leptospermone had herbicidal activity formed the starting point for chemical synthesis to find more activity and selectivity. A series of molecules called triketones were found to possess good activity and 2-(2-nitro-4-trifluoromethylbenzoyl)-cyclohexane-1,3-dione (NTBC) was selected for toxicology testing. NTBC fed at low doses to rats and dogs caused keratopathy, which on cessation of the diet recovered. Mice, rabbits and monkeys fed NTBC did not show this response. Research discovered that NTBC caused tyrosinaemia which was due to inhibition of the enzyme 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase in both mammals and plants thereby finding a novel target for killing plants...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Javid Gherekhloo, Pablo T Fernández-Moreno, Ricardo Alcántara-de la Cruz, Eduardo Sánchez-González, Hugo E Cruz-Hipolito, José A Domínguez-Valenzuela, Rafael De Prado
Glyphosate has been used for more than 15 years for weed management in citrus groves in the Gulf of Mexico, at up to 3-4 applications per year. Goosegrass (Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn.) control has sometimes failed. In this research, the mechanisms governing three goosegrass biotypes (Ein-Or from an orange grove, and Ein-Pl1 and Ein-Pl2 from Persian lime groves) with suspected resistance to glyphosate were characterized and compared to a susceptible biotype (Ein-S). Dose-response and shikimate accumulation assays confirmed resistance of the resistant (R) biotypes...
July 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
Blanka Tariba Lovaković, Alica Pizent, Vilena Kašuba, Nevenka Kopjar, Vedran Micek, Gordana Mendaš, Marija Dvoršćak, Anja Mikolić, Mirta Milić, Suzana Žunec, Ana Lucić Vrdoljak, Davor Želježić
Terbuthylazine is a selective pre- and post-emergency chloro-triazine herbicide used for a broad spectrum of weed control. We evaluated the potential of low doses of terbuthylazine to induce oxidative stress and cytogenetic damage in peripheral blood samples of adult male Wistar rats. Following 28-day repeated oral exposure at 0.004 mg/kg b.w./day, 0.4 mg/kg b.w./day and 2.29 mg/kg b.w./day, parameters of lipid peroxidation, total antioxidant capacity, and activities of antioxidant enzymes were measured in blood samples...
July 24, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Antonio Cala, José M G Molinillo, Mónica Fernández-Aparicio, Jesús Ayuso, José A Álvarez, Diego Rubiales, Francisco A Macías
Allelochemicals are safer, more selective and more active alternatives than synthetic agrochemicals for weed control. However, the low solubility of these compounds in aqueous media limits their use as agrochemicals. Herein, we propose the application of α-, β- and γ-cyclodextrins to improve the physicochemical properties and biological activities of three sesquiterpene lactones: dehydrocostuslactone, costunolide and (-)-α-santonin. Complexation was achieved by kneading and coprecipitation methods. Aqueous solubility was increased in the range 100-4600% and the solubility-phase diagrams suggested that complex formation had been successful...
August 9, 2017: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
Gunjune Kim, Christopher R Clarke, Hailey Larose, Hong T Tran, David C Haak, Liqing Zhang, Shawn Askew, Jacob Barney, James H Westwood
The emergence of herbicide-resistant weeds is a major threat facing modern agriculture. Over 470 weedy-plant populations have developed resistance to herbicides. Traditional evolutionary mechanisms are not always sufficient to explain the rapidity with which certain weed populations adapt in response to herbicide exposure. Stress-induced epigenetic changes, such as alterations in DNA methylation, are potential additional adaptive mechanisms for herbicide resistance. We performed methylC sequencing of Arabidopsis thaliana leaves that developed after either mock treatment or two different sub-lethal doses of the herbicide glyphosate, the most-used herbicide in the history of agriculture...
2017: PeerJ
Ye Zhang, Jason G Weed, Rong Ren, Xiangdong Tang, Wei Zhang
OBJECTIVE: Although some authors have recently investigated the co-occurrence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), the topic remains insufficiently studied. The aim of this meta-analysis was to detect the pooled prevalence of OSA in PTSD and its impact on adherence to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy. METHODS: We conducted a search for articles published until August 20, 2016, in PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, and PsycINFO...
August 2017: Sleep Medicine
Vipan Kumar, Prashant Jha
BACKGROUND: Bromus tectorum L. is one of the most troublesome grass weed species in cropland and non-cropland areas of the northwestern United States. In summer 2016, a B. tectroum accession (R) that survived imazamox at the field-use rate (44 g ha(-1) ) in an imidazolinone-tolerant (IMI-tolerant or Clearfield(™) ) winter wheat field was collected near Hammond, Carter County, MT, USA. The aim of this study was to determine the resistance profile of the B. tectroum R accession to imazamox and other ALS inhibitors, and investigate the mechanism of resistance to imazamox...
July 22, 2017: Pest Management Science
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"