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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820934/supramolecular-sensors-for-opiates-and-their-metabolites
#1
Elena G Shcherbakova, Ben Zhang, Samer Gozem, Tsuyoshi Minami, Peter Y Zavalij, Mariia Pushina, Lyle Isaacs, Pavel Anzenbacher
The present work develops a sensing approach for opiates using acyclic cucurbituril (aCBs) sensors comprising four glycouril units terminated on both ends with naphthalene fluorophore walls. The connectivity between the glycourils and the naphthalene rings largely defines the opening size of the cucurbituril cavity and its diameter. The large hydrophobic binding cavity is flexible and is able to adapt to guests of various size and topology. The recognition event between the aCBs and guests results in modification of the fluorescence of the terminal walls, a fluorescence response that can be used to sense the drugs of abuse morphine, heroin and oxycodone as well as their metabolites...
August 18, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807162/chinese-herbal-medicine-for-the-treatment-of-drug-addiction
#2
Weili Zhu, Yinan Zhang, Yingjie Huang, Lin Lu
This chapter summarizes recent developments in preclinical and clinical research on Chinese herbal medicines and their neurochemical mechanism of action for the treatment of drug addiction. We searched Chinese and English scientific literature and selected several kinds of Chinese herbal medicines that have beneficial effects on drug addiction. Ginseng (Renshen) may be clinically useful for the prevention of opioid abuse and dependence. Rhizoma Corydalis (Yanhusuo) may be used to prevent relapse to chronic drug dependence...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791598/opioid-medications-in-the-management-of-chronic-abdominal-pain
#3
REVIEW
Dajie Wang
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Chronic abdominal pain is a complex medical condition. The causes of chronic abdominal pain are extremely diverse ranging from chronic pancreatitis, Crohn's disease, to chronic pain with no clear etiology. Treatment of chronic abdominal pain remains a challenge in our clinical practice. While current interventions with celiac plexus blocks and pain medications provide some relief for these patients, but these treatments are typically less efficacious and limited by various adverse effects...
August 8, 2017: Current Pain and Headache Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782589/the-role-of-thioredoxin-1-in-resisting-methamphetamine-induced-rewarding-effect
#4
Mengbing Huang, Lingpin Kong, Lihua Yang, Xiang Li, Xiaoshuang Zhou, Ye Li, Jie Bai
Methamphetamine (METH) is a highly addictive drug of abuse which induces behavioral sensitization and rewarding effects. Thioredoxin-1 (Trx-1) is a redox protein and plays role in regulating activity of transcription factor, such as cAMP responsive element-binding protein (CREB), AP-1, p53, is emerging as an important modulator of neuronal function. It has been reported that Trx-1 is involved in morphine dependence. In this study, we examined the rewarding effect after METH administration by conditioned place preference (CPP) of mice, and detected the levels of dopamine and the activity of cAMP responsive element-binding protein (CREB), the expressions of ΔFosB and cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and nucleus accumbens (NAc) in mice...
August 4, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781894/validation-of-a-straightforward-high-performance-liquid-chromatographic-method-for-morphine-quantitation
#5
Kar-Weng Chan
BACKGROUND: Morphine is illegal to use unless it is prescribed by a medical doctor. This compound is commonly abused in the form of illicit heroin. METHODS: An easy-to-use method for determining morphine in illicit heroin using high performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detector (HPLC-PDA) was developed. With the aid of 50:50 acetonitrile:ammonium formate, this target compound traveling in a pentafluorophenyl (PFP) column was successfully separated from other compounds frequently present in the heroin matrix...
2017: Egyptian journal of forensic sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776309/morphine-withdrawal-increases-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-precursor
#6
Alessia Bachis, Lee A Campbell, Kierra Jenkins, Erin Wenzel, Italo Mocchetti
Morphine has been shown to increase the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the brain. However, little is known about the effect of morphine withdrawal on BDNF and its precursor protein, or proBDNF, which induces neuronal apoptosis. In this work, we examined whether BDNF and proBDNF levels change in rats chronically injected with escalating doses of morphine and those who undergo spontaneous withdrawal for 60 h. We observed, in the frontal cortex and striatum, that the ratio of BDNF to proBDNF changed depending upon the experimental paradigm...
August 3, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771942/patterns-of-abuse-and-routes-of-administration-for-immediate-release-hydrocodone-combination-products
#7
Theresa A Cassidy, Natasha Oyedele, Travis C Mickle, Sven Guenther, Simon H Budman
PURPOSE: Prescriptions for hydrocodone immediate-release (IR) combination products have recently decreased, yet they represent the majority of opioid prescriptions dispensed and are commonly abused analgesics among both adults and adolescents. Little data exist to understand the contribution of IR products to the problem of prescription opioid abuse. This study aimed to better understand abuse patterns for hydrocodone IR combination products among adult and adolescent substance abusers...
August 3, 2017: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741741/addiction-related-interactions-of-pregabalin-with-morphine-in-mice-and-humans-reinforcing-and-inhibiting-effects
#8
Elena Vashchinkina, Ossi Piippo, Olga Vekovischeva, Evgeny Krupitsky, Ruslan Ilyuk, Nikholay Neznanov, Kirill Kazankov, Igor Zaplatkin, Esa R Korpi
The gabapentinoid pregabalin is a rapid-acting anxiolytic and analgesic, possibly suitable in supervised opioid detoxification. However, clinicians have been cautious in using it because of its unknown addictive risk and rising number of mortalities after pregabalin self-medication in opioid abusers. Here, we studied interactions of pregabalin and morphine on reward functions of the dopamine system in mice and the efficacy of pregabalin on withdrawal in opioid addicts. After the treatment of mice with pregabalin and morphine, we used electrophysiology to study neuroplasticity in midbrain slices, self-administration and conditioned place preference tests to investigate the rewarding potential of pregabalin and naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal to evaluate opioid withdrawal symptoms...
July 25, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737989/incremental-effect-of-the-addition-of-prescriber-restrictions-on-a-state-medicaid-s-pharmacy-only-patient-review-and-restriction-program
#9
Shellie L Keast, Timothy Pham, Ashley Teel, Nancy J Nesser
BACKGROUND: Patient review and restriction programs (PRRPs), used by state Medicaid programs to limit potential abuse and misuse of opioids and related controlled medications, often restrict members to a single pharmacy for controlled medications. While most states use a restricted pharmacy access model, not all states include restricted prescriber access. Oklahoma Medicaid (MOK) added a restricted prescriber access feature to its PRRP in July 2014. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the incremental effect that the addition of a prescriber restriction to MOK's pharmacy-only PRRP had on the pharmacy and resource utilization of the enrolled members...
August 2017: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729075/effects-of-environmental-enrichment-during-abstinence-in-morphine-dependent-parents-on-anxiety-depressive-like-behaviors-and-voluntary-morphine-consumption-in-rat-offspring
#10
Alireza Pooriamehr, Parviz Sabahi, Hossein Miladi-Gorji
Chronic morphine exposure during puberty increased morphine-induced rewarding effects and sensitization in the next generation. Given the well-known beneficial effects of environmental enrichment on the severity of physical and psychological dependence on morphine, we examined effects of enriched environment during morphine abstinence in morphine dependent parental rats before mating on the anxiety and depressive-like behaviors, and voluntary morphine consumption in their offspring. Paternal and/or maternal rats were injected with bi-daily doses (10mg/kg, 12h intervals) of morphine for 14days followed by rearing in a standard environment (SE) or enriched environment (EE) during 30days of morphine abstinence before mating...
July 17, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728424/annals-express-false-negative-results-in-the-immunoassay-analysis-of-drugs-of-abuse-can-adulterants-be-detected-by-sample-check-test
#11
Barbara Matriciani, Bernd Huppertz, Ruprecht Keller, Ralf Weiskirchen
BACKGROUND: The dilution or adulteration of urine is a serious problem in drugs of abuse (DOA) testing. Tests to identify adulteration are currently available. This study investigated the ability of the CEDIA® sample check to detect adulteration. METHODS: Eight different DOAs were added to a urine sample obtained from a healthy, drug free subject: 2-ethylidene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine, 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine, benzoylecgonine, D-amphetaminesulfate, ethyl-D-glucuronide, morphine sulfate, oxazepam, (-)-11-nor-9-carboxy-∆(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol...
January 1, 2017: Annals of Clinical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720521/increased-entrances-to-side-compartments-indicate-incubation-of-craving-in-morphine-induced-rat-and-tree-shrew-cpp-models
#12
Yongmei Sun, Zijiao Pan, Yuanye Ma
In humans, cues associated with the rewarding effect of drugs of abuse induce drug craving and activate drug-associated memories after prolonged abstinence. In animal studies with the self-administration (SA) paradigm, responses to drug-associated cues increase within time after extinction, a phenomenon described as incubation of craving. Conditioned place preference (CPP) is widely used to measure the rewarding effect of drugs and the reward memory thereof. However, little is known whether responses to drug associated cues progressively increase after abstinence from the drugs in the CPP paradigm...
July 15, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711636/factors-influencing-long-term-opioid-use-among-opioid-na%C3%A3-ve-patients-an-examination-of-initial-prescription-characteristics-and-pain-etiologies
#13
Anuj Shah, Corey J Hayes, Bradley C Martin
The relationships of characteristics of the initial opioid prescription and pain etiology with the probability of opioid discontinuation were explored in this retrospective cohort study using health insurance claims data from a nationally representative database of commercially insured patients in the U.S. We identified 1,353,902 persons aged ≥14 with no history of cancer or substance abuse, with new opioid use episodes and categorized them into 11 mutually exclusive pain etiologies. Cox Proportional Hazards models were estimated to identify factors associated with time to opioid discontinuation...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705485/trainees-as-agents-of-change-in-the-opioid-epidemic-optimizing-the-opioid-prescription-practices-of-surgical-residents
#14
Alexander S Chiu, James M Healy, Michael P DeWane, Walter E Longo, Peter S Yoo
OBJECTIVE: Opioid abuse has become an epidemic in the United States, causing nearly 50,000 deaths a year. Postoperative pain is an unavoidable consequence of most surgery, and surgeons must balance the need for sufficient analgesia with the risks of overprescribing. Prescribing narcotics is often the responsibility of surgical residents, yet little is known about their opioid-prescribing habits, influences, and training experience. DESIGN: Anonymous online survey that assessed the amounts of postoperative opioid prescribed by residents, including type of analgesia, dosage, and number of pills, for a series of common general surgery procedures...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Surgical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700791/efficacy-of-tramadol-extended-release-for-opioid-withdrawal-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#15
Kelly E Dunn, D Andrew Tompkins, George E Bigelow, Eric C Strain
Importance: Opioid use disorder (OUD) is a significant public health problem. Supervised withdrawal (ie, detoxification) from opioids using clonidine or buprenorphine hydrochloride is a widely used treatment. Objective: To evaluate whether tramadol hydrochloride extended-release (ER), an approved analgesic with opioid and nonopioid mechanisms of action and low abuse potential, is effective for use in supervised withdrawal settings. Design, Setting, and Participants: A randomized clinical trial was conducted in a residential research setting with 103 participants with OUD...
July 12, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699480/adulteration-practices-of-psychoactive-illicit-drugs-an-updated-review
#16
Renata Solimini, Maria Concetta Rotolo, Manuela Pellegrini, Adele Minutillo, Roberta Pacifici, Francesco Paolo Busardò, Simona Zaami
BACKGROUND: It is well known that powdery drugs such as cocaine and heroin are frequently adulterated or diluted predominantly to obtain more doses and to increase the drug dealer's profits, but also to enhance, to modify or to oppose drug effects. METHODS: The aim of this report is to provide an overview of the recent scientific literature on medicines as well as on new psychoactive substances, used as cutting agents (i.e. pharmacologically active adulterants) and on the related adverse health effects on consumers, possibly due to the synergistic effect of the adulterants laced with substances of abuse, which represent a matter of great concern because of the frequent fatalities...
July 10, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697991/carbamazepine-effects-on-pain-management-and-serum-il-6-il-10-evaluation-in-addicted-patients-undergoing-surgery
#17
Alireza Salimi, Masoumeh Sabetkasaei, Hanna Raisi, Farzaneh Labibi, Haleh Ameli, Yalda Khazaei-Poul, Kamran Mottaghi, Farhad Safari, Ali Nazem-Bokaei, Seyed-Amir Mohajerani, Malek Zarei, Taraneh Moini-Zanjani
Postoperative pain control remains an important issue in the field of surgery. Assessing and managing patients with acute pain who are addicted to opioids are often challenging. It has been shown that, addicted patients are less tolerant to pain. There is limited evidence to guide the management of acute pain in these patients. Here we studied the effect of preemptive use of carbamazepine on pain behavior and serum IL-6, IL-10 levels in the addicted patients. 90 male patients (25-45 years, BMI 20-27), were divided into 3 group of 30 patients: 1- control, 2- addicted, 3- addicted patients receiving carbamazepine 400mg before surgery...
July 8, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688296/effects-of-ibudilast-on-oxycodone-induced-analgesia-and-subjective-effects-in-opioid-dependent-volunteers
#18
Z D Cooper, K W Johnson, S K Vosburg, M A Sullivan, J Manubay, D Martinez, J D Jones, P A Saccone, S D Comer
Opioid-induced glial activation is hypothesized to contribute to the development of tolerance to opioid-induced analgesia. This inpatient, double-blind, placebo-controlled, within-subject and between-groups pilot study investigated the dose-dependent effects of ibudilast, a glial cell modulator, on oxycodone-induced analgesia. Opioid-dependent volunteers were maintained on morphine (30mg, PO, QID) for two weeks and received placebo ibudilast (0mg, PO, BID) during the 1st week (days 1-7). On day 8, participants (N=10/group) were randomized to receive ibudilast (20 or 40mg, PO, BID) or placebo for the remainder of the study...
June 17, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681463/confirmation-of-recent-heroin-abuse-accepting-the-challenge
#19
REVIEW
Alexandra Maas, Burkhard Madea, Cornelius Hess
Confirmation or exclusion of recent heroin consumption is still one of the major challenges for forensic and clinical toxicologists. A great variety of biomarkers is available for heroin abuse confirmation, including various opium alkaloids (e.g. morphine, codeine), street heroin impurities (e.g. 6-acetylcodeine (6-AC), noscapine, papaverine) as well as associated metabolites (e.g. 6-monoacetylmorphine (6-MAM), morphine glucuronides). Though, the presence of most of these biomarkers cannot solely be attributed to a previous heroin administration but can, among other things, also be due to consumption of poppy seed products ('poppy seed defense'), opium preparations or specific medications, respectively...
July 6, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670869/heroin-in-malaysia-and-singapore
#20
Maimonah Sulaiman, Vanitha Kunalan, Angeline Yap Tiong Whei, Wendy Lim Jong Lee, Joey Ng Joo Yee, Samuel Loh Wei Xiong, Chan Kee Bian
Heroin clandestine laboratories have been a feature of the Malaysian illicit drug scene soon after the abuse of heroin emerged in 1972. The first few heroin clandestine laboratories which synthesised heroin via the acetylation of imported morphine were uncovered in 1973 and 1977. By the mid 1980s this type of laboratories was replaced by heroin cutting laboratories whereby imported high grade heroin was cut to street heroin. This was to meet the rising demand for the drug owing to the rapid escalation of the number of drug users...
July 2, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
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