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Morphine abuse

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785554/interactions-between-kappa-and-mu-opioid-receptor-agonists-effects-of-the-ratio-of-drugs-in-mixtures
#1
Vanessa Minervini, Hannah Y Lu, Jahnavi Padarti, Daniela C Osteicoechea, Charles P France
RATIONALE: Pain is the leading reason for seeking health care, and mu opioid receptor agonists continue to be prescribed despite well-documented adverse effects. Kappa opioid receptor agonists have antinociceptive effects with little to no abuse liability and might be useful for treating pain in mixtures. Kappa:mu opioid mixtures might be useful if therapeutic effects of each drug can be selectively increased while reducing or avoiding the adverse effects that occur with larger doses of each drug alone...
May 22, 2018: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784383/sensitive-and-simple-determination-of-zwitterionic-morphine-in-human-urine-based-on-liquid-liquid-micro-extraction-coupled-with-surface-enhanced-raman-spectroscopy
#2
Borong Yu, Chentai Cao, Pan Li, Mei Mao, Qiwen Xie, Liangbao Yang
Morphine, a kind of illicit drugs, is also one of the main heroin metabolites. In consideration of a noninvasive way to monitor and identify drug abuse during forensic cases, the urine samples are usually detected. Here, colloidal gold nanorods (Au NRs) were introduced to act as active substrate, because of the strong optical extinction and spectral tunability of the longitudinal surface plasmon resonance (SPR). Thus, well surface-enhanced Raman spectra of morphine even at low concentrations could be obtained by portable Raman spectrometer...
August 15, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782941/dopamine-and-serotonin-metabolism-associated-with-morphine-reward-and-its-inhibition-with-buspirone-a-study-in-the-rat-striatum
#3
Darakhshan Jabeen Haleem, Shazia Nawaz, Tabinda Salman
Adaptations within the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and caudate nucleus (CN) dopamine neurotransmission are involved in behavioral sensitization and enhanced incentive motivation towards drug paired stimuli which lead to drug addiction. Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) can modulate dopamine neurotransmission to reduce rewarding effects of drugs of abuse. A recent study from our laboratory shows that rewarding effects of morphine are inhibited in rats co-treated with buspirone. To understand the neurochemical mechanism involved in morphine addiction and its inhibition with buspirone, present study determines the effects of buspirone, morphine and their co-administration on the metabolism of serotonin and dopamine in the NAc and CN...
May 18, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772497/the-role-of-the-vasopressin-system-and-dopamine-d1-receptors-in-the-effects-of-social-housing-condition-on-morphine-reward
#4
M L Shawn Bates, Rebeca S Hofford, Michael A Emery, Paul J Wellman, Shoshana Eitan
BACKGROUND: The association with opioid-abusing individuals or even the perception of opioid abuse by peers are risk factors for the initiation and escalation of abuse. Similarly, we demonstrated that morphine-treated animals housed with only morphine-treated animals (referred to as morphine only) acquire morphine conditioned place-preference (CPP) more readily than morphine-treated animals housed with drug-naïve animals (referred to as morphine cage-mates). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects are still elusive...
April 22, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757600/dark-classics-in-chemical-neuroscience-morphine
#5
Andrea L Devereaux, Susan L Mercer, Christopher W Cunningham
As the major psychoactive agent in opium and direct precursor for heroin, morphine is a historically critical molecule in chemical neuroscience. A structurally complex phenanthrene alkaloid produced by Papaver somniferum, morphine has fascinated chemists seeking to disentangle pharmacologically beneficial analgesic effects from addiction, tolerance, and dependence liabilities. In this review, we will detail the history of morphine, from the first extraction and isolation by Sertürner in 1804 to the illicit use of morphine and proliferation of opioid use and abuse disorders currently ravaging the United States...
May 14, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757475/rapid-analysis-of-fentanyls-and-other-novel-psychoactive-substances-nps-in-substance-use-disorder-patient-urine-using-paper-spray-mass-spectrometry
#6
Joseph H Kennedy, Jan Palaty, Chris G Gill, Justin M Wiseman
RATIONALE: Drug overdose deaths due to fentanyls and other novel psychoactive substances (NPS) are on the rise. The higher potencies of fentanyl analogs compared with morphine require new technologies to identify and quantitate NPS. METHODS: Paper spray tandem mass spectrometry and high-resolution mass spectrometry were used to identify and measure fentanyl analogs as well as common drugs of abuse in urine samples from substance use disorder clinics. Ten-microliter urine samples were deposited directly on paper spray cartridges previously loaded with internal standards, dried, and analyzed with no other sample treatment...
May 14, 2018: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746919/opioid-medication-use-in-the-surgical-patient-an-assessment-of-prescribing-patterns-and-utilization
#7
Wen Hui Tan, Jennifer Yu, Sara Feaman, Jared M McAllister, Lindsey G Kahan, Mary A Quasebarth, Jeffrey A Blatnik, J Christopher Eagon, Michael M Awad, L Michael Brunt
BACKGROUND: With the epidemic of prescription opioid abuse in the United States, rates of opioid-related unintentional deaths have risen dramatically. However, little data exists comparing postoperative opioid prescriptions with patient use. We sought to better elucidate this relationship in surgical patients. STUDY DESIGN: A prospective cohort study was conducted of narcotic-naïve patients undergoing open and laparoscopic abdominal procedures on a minimally invasive surgery service...
May 7, 2018: Journal of the American College of Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733100/does-nalbuphine-have-a-niche-in-managing-pain
#8
Mellar P Davis, Carlos Fernandez, Sally Regel, Mary Lynn McPherson
Nalbuphine has been commercially available for 40 years for the treatment of acute pain; few studies have centered on management of chronic pain. Nalbuphine unique pharmacology is an advantage in pain management. It is µ antagonist, partial κ agonist for G-proteins and beta-arrestin-2. Benefits are related to G-protein interactions resulting in less nausea, pruritus, and respiratory depression than morphine. At low doses, nalbuphine reduces side effects particularly respiratory depression without loss of analgesia when combined with potent opioids...
March 2018: Journal of Opioid Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728647/opiate-associated-contextual-memory-formation-and-retrieval-are-differentially-modulated-by-dopamine-d1-and-d2-signaling-in-hippocampal-prefrontal-connectivity
#9
Yunpeng Wang, Hongying Zhang, Jingjing Cui, Jing Zhang, Fangyuan Yin, Hao Guo, Jianghua Lai, Bo Xing
Contextual memory driven by abused drugs such as opiates has a central role in maintenance and relapse of drug-taking behaviors. Although dopamine (DA) signaling favors memory storage and retrieval via regulation of hippocampal-prefrontal connectivity, its role in modulating opiate-associated contextual memory is largely unknown. Here, we report roles of DA signaling within the hippocampal-prefrontal circuit for opiate-related memories. Combining-conditioned place preference (CPP) with molecular analyses, we investigated the DA D1 receptor (D1R) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB) signaling, as well as DA D2 receptor (D2R) and protein kinase B (PKB or Akt)/glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) signaling in the ventral hippocampus (vHip) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) during the formation of opiate-related associative memories...
April 17, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705679/preoperative-smoking-and-narcotic-benzodiazepine-and-tramadol-use-are-risk-factors-for-narcotic-use-after-hip-and-knee-arthroplasty
#10
Kipp A Cryar, Timothy Hereford, Paul K Edwards, Eric Siegel, C Lowry Barnes, Simon C Mears
BACKGROUND: The use of narcotics has been found to be a modifiable risk factor for success of arthroplasty. We sought to determine the risk factors leading to increased narcotic use after total hip arthroplasty and total knee arthroplasty. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was performed on new patients presenting to an orthopedic reconstructive-service clinic. New patients aged 18 years or older with osteoarthritis of the hip or knee who presented over a 1-year period and underwent total knee arthroplasty or total hip arthroplasty were included...
April 9, 2018: Journal of Arthroplasty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705547/nociceptin-orphanin-fq-receptors-modulate-the-discriminative-stimulus-effects-of-oxycodone-in-c57bl-6-mice
#11
D Matthew Walentiny, Jason M Wiebelhaus, Patrick M Beardsley
BACKGROUND: Nociceptin/orphanin FQ (NOP) receptor ligands have shown efficacy as putative analgesics and can modulate the abuse-related effects of opioids, suggesting therapeutic applications. The discriminative stimulus effects of a drug are related to their subjective effects, a predictor of abuse potential. To determine whether activation of NOP receptors could alter the subjective effects of an abused opioid analgesic, a novel oxycodone discrimination was established in mice, characterized with positive and negative controls, and its expression evaluated with a NOP receptor agonist...
April 15, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683809/role-of-d1-like-and-d2-like-dopamine-receptors-within-the-ventral-tegmental-area-in-stress-induced-and-drug-priming-induced-reinstatement-of-morphine-seeking-in-rats
#12
Sharareh Farahimanesh, Marzieh Moradi, Farzaneh Nazari-Serenjeh, Shahram Zarrabian, Abbas Haghparast
The ventral tegmental area (VTA) as a major source of dopamine neurons projecting to cortical and limbic regions has a crucial role in reward as well as stress processes. Dopamine is a predominant neurotransmitter in the reward system, which plays an important role in both drug priming-induced and cue-induced reinstatement of cocaine and heroin seeking. It has been shown that this neurotransmitter has a role in stress-induced relapse to drug seeking. Therefore, the present study aims to evaluate the effects of intra-VTA administration of SCH-23390, as a dopamine D1-like receptor antagonist, and sulpiride, as a dopamine D2-like receptor antagonist, on drug priming-induced and food deprivation (FD)-induced reinstatement...
April 20, 2018: Behavioural Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678774/glial-cells-modulate-hippocampal-synaptic-plasticity-in-morphine-dependent-rats
#13
Azadeh Elahi-Mahani, Soomaayeh Heysieattalab, Narges Hosseinmardi, Mahyar Janahmadi, Fatemehsadat Seyedaghamiri, Habibeh Khoshbouei
Drugs of abuse mediate adaptive mechanisms leading to alterations in the synaptic plasticity that has been shown to underlie addictive behaviors. Glial cells play a critical role in modulation of synaptic strength and are potentially involved in drug addiction. Chronic administration of morphine has been shown to increase glial cell activation; therefore, it is possible that altered neuroplasticity induced by drugs of abuse is in part mediated by the activity of glial cells. We investigated the effect of hippocampal glial inhibition on synaptic plasticity in morphine treated rats...
April 17, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675707/a-rapid-solution-based-method-for-determining-the-affinity-of-heroin-hapten-induced-antibodies-to-heroin-its-metabolites-and-other-opioids
#14
Oscar B Torres, Alexander J Duval, Agnieszka Sulima, Joshua F G Antoline, Arthur E Jacobson, Kenner C Rice, Carl R Alving, Gary R Matyas
We describe for the first time a method that utilizes microscale thermophoresis (MST) technology to determine polyclonal antibody affinities to small molecules. Using a novel type of heterologous MST, we have accurately measured a solution-based binding affinity of serum antibodies to heroin which was previously impossible with other currently available methods. Moreover, this mismatch approach (i.e., using a cross-reactive hapten tracer) has never been reported in the literature. When compared with equilibrium dialysis combined with ultra-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (ED-UPLC/MS/MS), this novel MST method yields similar binding affinity values for polyclonal antibodies to the major heroin metabolites 6-AM and morphine...
April 19, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667437/transdermal-buprenorphine-for-moderate-chronic-noncancer-pain-syndromes
#15
Joseph V Pergolizzi, Flaminia Coluzzi, Robert Taylor
Chronic noncancer pain has remained a challenging clinical problem. Opioid analgesics are effective, but they are known to be associated with opioid use disorder and potentially treatment-limiting side effects. Buprenorphine is a Schedule III synthetic opioid in the USA with a chemical structure similar to that of morphine but with a longer duration of action, greater potency, and other unique pharmacological attributes. Its role in treatment of chronic noncancer pain may be broader than currently thought. Areas covered: The pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, clinical efficacy, and safety profile of transdermal buprenorphine in moderate chronic noncancer pain syndromes patients will be discussed...
April 23, 2018: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649695/doctor-shopping-of-opioid-analgesics-relative-to-benzodiazepines-a-pharmacoepidemiological-study-among-11-7-million-inhabitants-in-the-french-countries
#16
Camille Ponté, Marion Lepelley, Quentin Boucherie, Michel Mallaret, Maryse Lapeyre Mestre, Vincent Pradel, Joëlle Micallef
BACKGROUND: The abuse of prescription opioids and its subsequent consequences is an important public concern particularly in the USA. The literature on opioid analgesic abuse is scarce. OBJECTIVE: We assess the extent and risk of opioid analgesics abuse relative to benzodiazepines (BZD) using the doctor shopping method, taken into account the pharmacological characteristics (dosage, route of administration, extended or immediate release). METHODS: We used SNIIRAM database covering 11...
April 4, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644109/morphine-alcohol-treatment-impairs-cognitive-functions-and-increases-neuro-inflammatory-responses-in-the-medial-prefrontal-cortex-of-juvenile-male-rats
#17
Adekomi Damilare Adedayo, Adegoke Adebiyi Aderinola, Tijani Ahmad Adekilekun, Olaniyan Olayinka Olaolu, Alabi Mutiyat Olanike, Ijomone Kafilat Olayemi
In the developed and developing world, opioid consumption in combination with alcohol has become one of the substances abused. In this experiment, we examined the effects of alcohol, morphine, and morphine+alcohol combination on cognitive functions and neuroinflammatory responses in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of juvenile male rats. Alcohol (1.0 ml of 15% v/v ethanol twice daily, subcutaneously, 7 hours apart), morphine (0.5 ml/kg of 0.4 mg/kg morphine chlorate twice daily, subcutaneously, 7 hours apart), morphine+alcohol co-treatment (0...
March 2018: Anatomy & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626506/hippocampal-glial-cells-modulate-morphine-induced-behavioral-responses
#18
Fatemehsadat Seyedaghamiri, Soomaayeh Heysieattalab, Narges Hosseinmardi, Mahyar Janahmadi, Azadeh Elahi-Mahani, Farhad Salari, Mehdi Golpayegani, Habibeh Khoshbouei
Drugs of abuse cause persistent alterations in synaptic plasticity that is thought to underlie addictive-like behaviors. Although, the perisynaptic glial cells are implicated in metabolic maintenance and support of the nervous systems, accumulating evidence suggests that glial cells exert a modulatory action on synaptic functions and participate in synaptic plasticity. However, it is well-documented that glial cells are associated with the acquisition of rewarding effects of abused drugs. The role of hippocampal glial cells in addictive-like behaviors remains poorly understood...
April 4, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626143/opioid-analgesia-on-the-battlefield-a-retrospective-review-of-data-from-operation-herrick
#19
Pip Lewis, C Wright, C Hooper
BACKGROUND: Acute pain secondary to trauma is commonly encountered on the battlefield. The use of morphine to manage pain during combat has been well established since the 19th century. Despite this, there is relatively little research on analgesia use in this environment. This study aims to review the use and complications of morphine and other opioids during Operation HERRICK. METHODS: A database search of the Joint Theatre Trauma Registry was completed looking for all incidences of morphine, fentanyl or naloxone use from February 2007 to September 2014...
April 6, 2018: Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29582394/comparative-rates-of-mortality-and-serious-adverse-effects-among-commonly-prescribed-opioid-analgesics
#20
David L Murphy, Jacob A Lebin, Stevan G Severtson, Heather A Olsen, Nabarun Dasgupta, Richard C Dart
INTRODUCTION: The epidemic of prescription opioid overdose and mortality parallels the dispensing rates of prescription opioids, and the availability of increasingly potent opioid analgesics. OBJECTIVE: The common assumption that more potent opioid analgesics are associated with higher rates of adverse outcomes has not been adequately substantiated. We compared the rate of serious adverse events among commonly prescribed opioid analgesics of varying potency. METHODS: Serious adverse events (SAEs; defined as death, major medical effect, or hospitalization) resulting from exposure to tablets containing seven opioid analgesics (oxycodone, hydrocodone, morphine, hydromorphone, oxymorphone, tapentadol, and tramadol) captured by the Researched Abuse, Diversion and Addiction-Related Surveillance (RADARS® ) System Poison Center Program were evaluated from 2010 through 2016...
March 26, 2018: Drug Safety: An International Journal of Medical Toxicology and Drug Experience
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