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Morphine abuse

Eboni G Price-Haywood, Wanda Robinson, Jewel Harden-Barrios, Jeffrey Burton, Todd Burstain
Background: Opioid prescription drug abuse is a major public health concern. Healthcare provider prescribing patterns, especially among non-pain management specialists, are a major factor. Practice guidelines recommend what to do for safe opioid prescribing but do not provide guidance on how to implement best practices. Methods: We describe the implementation of electronic medical record clinical decision support (EMR CDS) for opioid management of chronic noncancer pain in an integrated delivery system...
2018: Ochsner Journal
Narges Pachenari, Hossein Azizi, Elmira Ghasemi, Maryam Azadi, Saeed Semnanian
During the past decades, the use/misuse of opioids has increased dramatically among adolescent population. It is now well acknowledged that various morphological and physiological changes occur in the brain during adolescence. During this critical period, brain development and maturation could be affected by several factors including stress, drug abuse, nutritional status, etc. Although studies on transgenerational effects of substances such as alcohol, nicotine, and cocaine have focused on both paternal and maternal drug exposure, most reports on transgenerational effects of morphine are restricted to maternal exposure...
April 2018: Behavioural Pharmacology
Michael D Raleigh, Megan Laudenbach, Federico Baruffaldi, Samantha J Peterson, Michaela J Roslawski, Angela K Birnbaum, Frank I Carroll, Scott P Runyon, Scott Winston, Paul R Pentel, Marco Pravetoni
Heroin and oxycodone abuse occurs over a wide range of drug doses and by various routes of administration characterized by differing rates of drug absorption. The current study addressed the efficacy of a heroin vaccine (M-KLH) or oxycodone vaccine (OXY-KLH) for reducing drug distribution to brain after i.v. heroin or oxycodone, or s.c. oxycodone. Rats immunized with M-KLH or KLH control received an i.v. bolus dose of 0.26 or 2.6 mg/kg heroin. Vaccination with M-KLH increased retention of heroin and its active metabolites 6-acetylmorphine (6-AM) and morphine in plasma compared to KLH controls, and reduced total opioid (heroin + 6-AM + morphine) distribution to brain but only at the lower heroin dose...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Samuel Obeng, Yunyun Yuan, Abdulmajeed Jali, Dana E Selley, Yan Zhang
Evidence has shown that downstream signaling by mu opioid receptor (MOR) agonists that recruit β-arrestin2 may lead to the development of tolerance. Also, it has been suggested that opioid receptor desensitization and cyclic AMP overshoot contributes to the development of tolerance and occurrence of withdrawal, respectively. Therefore, studies were conducted with 17-cyclopropylmethyl-3,14β-dihydroxy-4,5α-epoxy-6α-(isoquinoline-3-carboxamido)morphinan (NAQ), a MOR selective partial agonist discovered in our laboratory, to characterize its effect on β-arrestin2 recruitment and precipitation of a cyclic AMP overshoot...
March 9, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
Farhana Sakloth, S Stevens Negus
Pharmacotherapy to treat stimulant use disorders continues to be an unmet medical need. Some evidence supports both the role of opioids in mediating abuse-related amphetamine effects and the potential utility of opioid antagonists as therapeutic candidates for treating amphetamine abuse. This study used intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) to evaluate effects of exposure to and termination of naltrexone maintenance on rewarding amphetamine effects in an ICSS procedure in rats. Morphine and cocaine were included as positive and negative controls, respectively...
March 12, 2018: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
Enrique Gomez-Pomar, Loretta P Finnegan
Neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) refers to a constellation of signs that are present in some newborn infants resulting from the abrupt cessation of passive transfer of maternal opioids used during pregnancy. The classic NAS refers to infants born to mothers who used opioids during pregnancy, but the term has broadened to include infants whose mothers have used or abused other psychoactive substances during pregnancy that contribute to the expression of the syndrome. Pregnant women who use opioids do so illicitly, and/or as medically prescribed for pain relief, and/or as medication assisted treatment for opioid dependence...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Alyssa M Peckham, Kirk E Evoy, Jordan R Covvey, Leslie Ochs, Kathleen A Fairman, David A Sclar
OBJECTIVE: Research suggests medical consequences of gabapentin overuse depends on whether gabapentin is abused alone or with opioids to potentiate an opioid "high." The objective of this study was to assess predictors of gabapentin overuse with or without concomitant opioids. METHODS: Data were obtained from the Truven Health MarketScan® Commercial Claims and Encounters database for years 2013 to 2015. Eligibility criteria were gabapentin utilization, with or without opioids, for 120 days or longer throughout a 12-month observation period...
February 27, 2018: Pharmacotherapy
Shasha Xu, Shaoang Tu, Jinlong Gao, Jia Liu, Zhirui Guo, Jinming Zhang, Xingdang Liu, Jianhui Liang, Yiyun Huang, Mei Han
BACKGROUND: Methamphetamine (METH) is a psychostimulant with high abuse liability that affects the monoamine neurotransmitter systems, particularly the dopamine system. Currently there are no effective medications for the treatment of METH abuse to restore METH-induced dopaminergic dysfunction. The Jitai tablet (JTT), a commercial traditional Chinese medicinal preparation, has been shown to modulate the dopaminergic function both in heroin addicts and in morphine-dependent rats. The purpose of this study was to investigate, in a rodent model, whether JTT can protect against METH-induced neurotoxicity, and/or restore METH-damaged dopaminergic function...
February 23, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Keiya Takahashi, Hyun Yi, Ching-Hang Liu, Shue Liu, Yuta Kashiwagi, Dennis J Patin, Shuanglin Hao
The symptoms of HIV-sensory neuropathy are dominated by neuropathic pain. Recent data show that repeated use of opiates enhances the chronic pain states in HIV patients. Limited attention has so far been devoted to exploring the exact pathogenesis of HIV painful disorder and opiate abuse in vivo, for which there is no effective treatment. Bromodomain-containing protein 4 (Brd4) is a member of the bromodomain and extraterminal domain protein (BET) family and functions as a chromatin 'reader' that binds acetylated lysines in histones in brain neurons to mediate the transcriptional regulation underlying learning and memory...
February 20, 2018: Neuroreport
Anna de Cordé, Paweł Krząścik, Renata Wolińska, Patrycja Kleczkowska, Małgorzata Filip, Magdalena Bujalska-Zadrożny
Taking opioids is often accompanied by the development of dependence. Unfortunately, treatment of opioid dependence is difficult, particularly because of codependence - for example, on alcohol or other drugs of abuse. In the presented study, we analyzed the potential influence of disulfiram, a drug used to aid the management of alcoholism, on opioid abstinence syndrome, which occurs as a result of opioid withdrawal. Opioid dependence in mice was induced by subcutaneous administration of either morphine or methadone at a dose of 48 mg/kg for 10 consecutive days...
February 16, 2018: Behavioural Pharmacology
Emilie Jouanjus, Grégory Guernec, Maryse Lapeyre-Mestre
Diversion of prescription drugs is difficult to assess in quality and quantity. This study aimed to characterize diversion of prescription drugs in France through a comparative analysis of falsified prescriptions collected during three periods from 2001 to 2012. The data recorded in a national program which records all falsified prescriptions presented to community pharmacies were studied. Included data regarded: subjects, prescription forms and drugs. Description of the dataset in 3 periods (2001-2004, 2005-2008, and 2009-2012) was completed with clustering analyses to characterize profiles of prescriptions and subjects associated with the most reported drugs...
February 13, 2018: Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology
Michał Danek, Janusz Danek, Aleksander Araszkiewicz
Many animal models in different species have been developed for mental and behavioral disorders. This review presents large animals (dog, ovine, swine, horse) as potential models of this disorders. The article was based on the researches that were published in the peer-reviewed journals. Aliterature research was carried out using the PubMed database. The above issues were discussed in the several problem groups in accordance with the WHO International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10thRevision (ICD-10), in particular regarding: organic, including symptomatic, disorders; mental disorders (Alzheimer's disease and Huntington's disease, pernicious anemia and hepatic encephalopathy, epilepsy, Parkinson's disease, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease); behavioral disorders due to psychoactive substance use (alcoholic intoxication, abuse of morphine); schizophrenia and other schizotypal disorders (puerperal psychosis); mood (affective) disorders (depressive episode); neurotic, stress-related and somatoform disorders (posttraumatic stress disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder); behavioral syndromes associated with physiological disturbances and physical factors (anxiety disorders, anorexia nervosa, narcolepsy); mental retardation (Cohen syndrome, Down syndrome, Hunter syndrome); behavioral and emotional disorders (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder)...
December 30, 2017: Psychiatria Polska
Yayi Swain, Peter Muelken, Mark G LeSage, Jonathan C Gewirtz, Andrew C Harris
Understanding factors contributing to individual differences in opioid addiction vulnerability is essential for developing more effective preventions and treatments. Sensation seeking has been implicated in addiction to several drugs of abuse, yet its relationship with individual differences in opioid addiction vulnerability has not been well established. The primary goal of this study was to evaluate the relationship between locomotor activity in a novel environment, a preclinical model of sensation-seeking, and individual differences in acquisition of i...
February 2, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
E Valero, I Gómez-Milanés, P Almela, B Ribeiro Do Couto, M L Laorden, M V Milanés, C Núñez
Drug withdrawal-associated aversive memories trigger relapse to drug-seeking behavior. Corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) is an important mediator of the reinforcing properties of drugs of abuse. However, the involvement of CRF1 receptor (CRF1R) in aversive memory induced by opiate withdrawal has yet to be elucidated. We used the conditioned-place aversion (CPA) paradigm to evaluate the role of CRF1R on opiate withdrawal memory acquisition, along with plasticity-related processes that occur after CPA within the basolateral amygdala (BLA) and dentate gyrus (DG)...
January 30, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Winfried Häuser, Stephan Schug, Andrea D Furlan
Introduction: A marked rise in opioid prescriptions for patients with chronic noncancer pain (CNCP) with a parallel increase in opioid abuse/misuse, and resulting deaths was noted in the Unites states in the past decade (opioid epidemic). In response, the US Center of Diseases Control (CDC) developed a guideline for prescribing of opioids for patients with CNCP. Objectives: To assess (1) if there is an opioid epidemic in Australia, Canada, and Germany (2) to compare Australian, Canadian, German, and Center of Diseases Control guidelines recommendations for long-term opioid therapy for CNCP...
May 2017: Pain Reports (Baltimore, Md.)
Tomohisa Mori, Toshiko Sawaguchi
Relatively high doses of psychostimulants induce neurotoxicity on the dopaminergic system and self-injurious behavior (SIB) in rodents. However the underlying neuronal mechanisms of SIB remains unclear. Dopamine receptor antagonists, N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor antagonists, Nitric Oxide Synthase (NOS) inhibitors and free radical scavengers significantly attenuate methamphetamine-induced SIB. These findings indicate that activation of dopamine as well as NMDA receptors followed by radical formation and oxidative stress, especially when mediated by NOS activation, is associated with methamphetamine-induced SIB...
2018: Nihon Eiseigaku Zasshi. Japanese Journal of Hygiene
Christian Bonansco, Jonathan Martínez-Pinto, Roxana A Silva, Victoria B Velásquez, Andrés Martorell, Mónica V Selva, Pedro Espinosa, Pablo R Moya, Gonzalo Cruz, María Estela Andrés, Ramón Sotomayor-Zárate
Steroid sex hormones produce physiological effects in reproductive tissues and also in non-reproductive tissues such as the brain, particularly in cortical, limbic and midbrain areas. Dopamine (DA) neurons involved in processes such as prolactin secretion (tuberoinfundibular system), motor circuit regulation (nigrostriatal system) and driving of motivated behavior (mesocorticolimbic system), are specially regulated by sex hormones. Indeed, sex hormones promote neurochemical and behavioral effects induced by drugs of abuse by tuning midbrain DA neurons in adult animals...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
Andrew Quanbeck, Randall T Brown, Aleksandra E Zgierska, Nora Jacobson, James M Robinson, Roberta A Johnson, Brienna M Deyo, Lynn Madden, Wen-Jan Tuan, Esra Alagoz
BACKGROUND: This paper reports on the feasibility, acceptability, and effectiveness of an innovative implementation strategy named "systems consultation" aimed at improving adherence to clinical guidelines for opioid prescribing in primary care. While clinical guidelines for opioid prescribing have been developed, they have not been widely implemented, even as opioid abuse reaches epidemic levels. METHODS: We tested a blended implementation strategy consisting of several discrete implementation strategies, including audit and feedback, academic detailing, and external facilitation...
January 25, 2018: Implementation Science: IS
Kirsten Wiese Simonsen, Kristian Linnet, Brian Schou Rasmussen
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to examine the frequency of psychoactive drugs and alcohol in drivers under suspicion of driving under the influence of drugs and alcohol in 2015 and 2016 in the eastern part of Denmark. The trends in the number of traffic cases sent for drug analysis since 2000 and alcohol analysis since 2011 are also discussed. METHODS: Blood samples from drivers suspected of being under the influence of alcohol and/or medication and/or illicit drugs in 2015 and 2016 were investigated as requested by the police...
January 25, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
Lynn R Webster, Eugene R Viscusi, Colville Brown, Jeffrey M Dayno
BACKGROUND: The development and use of abuse-deterrent (AD) opioids is part of a multifaceted strategy to reduce misuse, abuse, and diversion, while maintaining access for patients with severe pain who may benefit from their analgesic efficacy. Morphine AD, extended-release (ER), injection-molded tablets (morphine-ADER-IMT; ARYMO® ER; Egalet US Inc, Wayne, PA) is approved by the FDA as an AD opioid. As part of the characterization of AD opioids, assessments of their human abuse potential (HAP) are required...
January 25, 2018: Current Medical Research and Opinion
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