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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594744/probability-of-opioid-prescription-refilling-after-surgery-does-initial-prescription-dose-matter
#1
Shaina Sekhri, Nonie S Arora, Hannah Cottrell, Timothy Baerg, Anthony Duncan, Hsou Mei Hu, Michael J Englesbe, Chad Brummett, Jennifer F Waljee
OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine the correlation between the probability of postoperative opioid prescription refills and the amount of opioid prescribed, hypothesizing that a greater initial prescription yields a lower probability of refill. BACKGROUND: Although current guidelines regarding opioid prescribing largely address chronic opioid use, little is known regarding best practices and postoperative care. METHODS: We analyzed Optum Insight claims data from 2013 to 2014 for opioid-naïve patients aged 18 to 64 years who underwent major or minor surgical procedures (N = 26,520)...
June 7, 2017: Annals of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583866/effects-of-chronic-cocaine-morphine-and-methamphetamine-on-the-mobility-immobility-and-stereotyped-behaviors-in-crayfish
#2
Adebobola Imeh-Nathaniel, Natalia Rincon, Vasiliki Bessie Orfanakos, Leanne Brechtel, Leah Wormack, Erika Richardson, Robert Huber, Thomas I Nathaniel
The worth of crayfish as a model system for studies of addiction was not previously recognized because a drug-reward phenomenon had not been documented in this model system. In our previous experiments, we demonstrate that the crayfish natural reward pathways are sensitive to human drugs of abuse. This finding supports crayfish as a suitable model to characterize specific behaviors that are relevant in drug addiction research, and the current study builds on our previous findings. The aim of the present study was to investigate unconditioned neurobehavioral effects of repeated treatment regimens using cocaine, morphine, and methamphetamine for three consecutive days...
June 3, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552056/the-orexinergic-hypocretin-system-and-nociception-an-update-to-supraspinal-mechanisms
#3
Ali Roohbakhsh, Mohaddeseh Sadat Alavi, Hassan Azhdari Zarmehri
Chronic pain is a multifaceted and complex condition that is divided into somatic, visceral, and neuropathic pain. Although opioids and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs cause analgesia and are effective in the treatment of chronic pain, their utility is hampered by side effects, abuse potential, and development of tolerance to their pain-relieving effects. So, finding alternative analgesics with good efficacy and low side effects is of great interest and the orexinergic system is a potential candidate. Orexin-A and -B are exclusively expressed in the lateral hypothalamus and are involved in the feeding, sleep/wake cycle, cardiovascular function, hormone secretion, seizure, and pain modulation...
May 28, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550642/post-heroin-dose-tissue-distribution-of-6-monoacetylmorphine-6-mam-with-maldi-imaging
#4
Belin G Teklezgi, Annapurna Pamreddy, Sooraj Baijnath, Nirmala D Gopal, Tricia Naicker, Hendrik G Kruger, Thavendran Govender
Heroin is an illicit opioid drug which is commonly abused and leads to dependence and addiction. Heroin is considered a pro-drug and is rapidly converted to its major active metabolite 6-monoacetylmorphine (6-MAM) which mediates euphoria and reward through the stimulation of opioid receptors in the brain. The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution and localization of 6-MAM in the healthy Sprague Dawley rat brain following intraperitoneal (i.p) administration of heroin (10 mg/kg), using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometric imaging (MALDI-MSI), in combination with quantification via liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Molecular Histology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543087/death-due-to-complications-of-bowel-obstruction-following-raw-poppy-seed-ingestion
#5
Leah M Schuppener, Robert F Corliss
Eating poppy seeds can cause a positive urine drug screen, but it is unknown whether ingesting large quantities can result in opiate intoxication or toxicity. A 54-year-old woman with intractable vomiting was found unresponsive at home and later pronounced dead. At autopsy, a cast-like large bowel obstruction composed of poppy seeds was identified. Postmortem blood morphine level was < 10 ng/mL. Cause of death was determined to be complications of a bowel obstruction secondary to poppy seed ingestion. Deaths related to eating poppy seeds have not been described in the literature...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529359/the-journey-of-opioid-substitution-therapy-in-india-achievements-and-challenges
#6
Ravindra Rao
Opioids are one of the most problematic illegal substances globally. Opioid abuse is associated with complications in various spheres of the user's life, his/her family, and the society. Injecting drug use (IDU) is also linked to public health problems such as HIV infection and viral hepatitis. Medications form an important cornerstone in the treatment of opioid dependence. Treatment strategies such as "detoxification" alone or long-term treatment with opioid antagonist have limited acceptability and retention rates...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28519244/neonatal-abstinence-syndrome-update-on-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-strategies
#7
Genny Raffaeli, Giacomo Cavallaro, K Karel Allegaert, Enno Diederik Wildschut, Monica Fumagalli, Massimo Agosti, Dick Tibboel, Fabio Mosca
Substance use among pregnant women is a major public health issue. Both prescription opioid use and illicit opioid abuse have increased dramatically in recent years. Prolonged in utero drug exposure may result in neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS), an acute multisystemic clinical entity that occurs in the first days of life. This syndrome is caused by abrupt discontinuation of fetal exposure to licit or illicit drugs chronically consumed by the mother during pregnancy and transmitted to the fetus through the placenta...
May 18, 2017: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510996/tramadol-with-or-without-paracetamol-acetaminophen-for-cancer-pain
#8
REVIEW
Philip J Wiffen, Sheena Derry, R Andrew Moore
BACKGROUND: Tramadol is an opioid analgesic licensed for use in moderate to severe pain. It is considered as a low risk for abuse, so control regulations are not as stringent as for 'strong' opioids such as morphine. It has a potential role as a step 2 option of the World Health Organization (WHO) analgesic ladder. OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits and adverse effects of tramadol with or without paracetamol (acetaminophen) for cancer-related pain. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the following databases using a wide range of search terms: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, Embase, and LILACS...
May 16, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500651/predictors-of-response-in-emergency-department-patients-receiving-intravenous-opioids-for-severe-pain
#9
Jacob A Radcliff, Rachel M Rafeq, Jane F Bowen, Laura Pontiggia, Sanchita Sen
OBJECTIVE: The primary objective of this study was to identify significant environmental and patient characteristics of emergency department (ED) patients who responded to intravenous (IV) hydromorphone and IV morphine for severe pain. Secondary objectives were to 1) investigate the individual effect of the significant environmental and patient characteristics of responders and 2) assess the nature and strength of the correlation of initial dose and change in pain score from arrival to pre-administration...
May 13, 2017: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498498/impact-of-prescription-drug-monitoring-programs-pdmps-on-opioid-utilization-among-medicare-beneficiaries-in-10-u-s-states
#10
Patience Moyo, Linda Simoni-Wastila, Beth Ann Griffin, Eberechukwu Onukwugha, Donna Harrington, G Caleb Alexander, Francis Palumbo
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Prescription Drug Monitoring Programs (PDMPs) are a principal strategy used in the USA to address prescription drug abuse. We (1) compared opioid use pre- and post-PDMP implementation and (2) estimated differences of PDMP impact by reason for Medicare eligibility and plan type. DESIGN: Analysis of opioid prescription claims in US states that implemented PDMPs relative to non-PDMP states during 2007-2012. SETTING: Florida, Louisiana, Nebraska, New Jersey, Vermont, Georgia, Wisconsin, Maryland, New Hampshire, and Arkansas, USA...
May 12, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485408/genetic-and-pharmacological-antagonism-of-nk1-receptor-prevents-opiate-abuse-potential
#11
A J Sandweiss, M I McIntosh, A Moutal, R Davidson-Knapp, J Hu, A K Giri, T Yamamoto, V J Hruby, R Khanna, T M Largent-Milnes, T W Vanderah
Development of an efficacious, non-addicting analgesic has been challenging. Discovery of novel mechanisms underlying addiction may present a solution. Here we target the neurokinin system, which is involved in both pain and addiction. Morphine exerts its rewarding actions, at least in part, by inhibiting GABAergic input onto substance P (SP) neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), subsequently increasing SP release onto dopaminergic neurons. Genome editing of the neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1R) in the VTA renders morphine non-rewarding...
May 9, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476279/medical-cannabis-use-among-patients-with-chronic-pain-in-an-interdisciplinary-pain-rehabilitation-program-characterization-and-treatment-outcomes
#12
Arya Shah, Julia Craner, Julie L Cunningham
INTRODUCTION: Cannabis is increasingly being used in the treatment of chronic pain. However, there is a lack of available research in the population of patients with chronic pain who are using cannabis. The current study examines clinical and treatment characteristics for patients who are admitted to a 3-week outpatient interdisciplinary chronic pain rehabilitation program. METHOD: Participants (N=48) included patients with a positive urine drug screen for 9-carboxy-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC(+); n=24) and a matched comparison sample of patients with a negative screen (THC(-); n=24)...
June 2017: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472697/occurrence-and-fate-of-illicit-drugs-and-pharmaceuticals-in-wastewater-from-two-wastewater-treatment-plants-in-costa-rica
#13
Ana Causanilles, Clemens Ruepert, María Ibáñez, Erik Emke, Félix Hernández, Pim de Voogt
Chemical analysis of raw wastewater in order to assess the presence of biological markers entering a wastewater treatment plant can provide objective information about the health and lifestyle of the population connected to the sewer system. This work was performed in a tropical country of Central America, Costa Rica, with the aim of extending this knowledge to new world regions. This work is the first to report wastewater-based epidemiological data on the use of illicit drugs in this region of the world. Composite wastewater samples from the influents of two different wastewater treatment facilities and surface water samples from surrounding areas were collected applying the best practice protocol and analysed to investigate the occurrence and fate of selected illicit drugs of abuse and pharmaceuticals...
December 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468518/buprenorphine-for-the-treatment-of-the-neonatal-abstinence-syndrome
#14
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Walter K Kraft, Susan C Adeniyi-Jones, Inna Chervoneva, Jay S Greenspan, Diane Abatemarco, Karol Kaltenbach, Michelle E Ehrlich
BACKGROUND: Current pharmacologic treatment of the neonatal abstinence syndrome with morphine is associated with a lengthy duration of therapy and hospitalization. Buprenorphine may be more effective than morphine for this indication. METHODS: In this single-site, double-blind, double-dummy clinical trial, we randomly assigned 63 term infants (≥37 weeks of gestation) who had been exposed to opioids in utero and who had signs of the neonatal abstinence syndrome to receive either sublingual buprenorphine or oral morphine...
June 15, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461881/impact-of-tramadol-and-morphine-abuse-on-the-activities-of-acetylcholine-esterase-na-k-atpase-and-related-parameters-in-cerebral-cortices-of-male-adult-rats
#15
Abd El-Hamid Mohamed Elwy, Ghada Tabl
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of the most commonly abused drugs (tramadol and morphine), on acetylcholine esterase (AChE), Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activities and related parameters, Na(+) and K(+) as biomarkers of neurotoxicity. METHODS: Tramadol - as a weak μ opioid receptor agonist- and morphine - as opiate analgesic drugs, were chosen for the present study. Four series of experimental animals were conducted for either tramadol or morphine: control series; repeated single equal doses (therapeutic dose) series; cumulative increasing doses series and delay (withdrawal) series (96 hours withdrawal period after last administration), at time period intervals 7, 14 and 21 days...
March 2017: Electronic Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460169/bioorthogonal-reaction-mediated-elisa-using-peroxide-test-strip-as-signal-readout-for-point-of-care-testing
#16
Bei Ran, Yunlei Xianyu, Mingling Dong, Yiping Chen, Zhiyong Qian, Xingyu Jiang
This work demonstrates a highly sensitive peroxide test strip (PTS)-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for both qualitative and quantitative detection of drugs of abuse (morphine) and disease biomarkers (interleukin-6 and HIV-1 capsid antigen p24). This color-based PTS is a commercially available product with advantages of low cost, easy operation, and portability, and it is an ideal signal readout strategy in ELISA to simplify the immunoassay procedures and enable point-of-care testing (POCT)...
June 6, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451875/prevalence-of-gabapentin-abuse-comparison-with-agents-with-known-abuse-potential-in-a-commercially-insured-us-population
#17
Alyssa M Peckham, Kathleen A Fairman, David A Sclar
BACKGROUND: Despite international calls to make gabapentin a controlled substance, studies of gabapentin use/abuse patterns are limited to small/high-risk samples and adverse event reports. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic assessment of the abuse potential/prevalence of gabapentin in a large sample. DATA SOURCE: Truven Health MarketScan(®) Commercial Claims and Encounters database, years 2013-2015. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Patients with two or more claims for one or more abusable drugs and ≥12 months' continuous enrollment were sampled for Lorenz curve analysis...
April 27, 2017: Clinical Drug Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448223/the-alerrt-%C3%A2-instrument-a-quantitative-measure-of-the-effort-required-to-compromise-prescription-opioid-abuse-deterrent-tablets
#18
Edward J Cone, August R Buchhalter, Karsten Lindhardt, Torben Elhauge, Jeffrey M Dayno
BACKGROUND: US FDA guidance recommends measuring the degree of effort needed to manipulate abuse-deterrent (AD) opioids. The ALERRT(®) instrument (PinneyAssociates; Bethesda, MD) uses visual analog scales to assess the labor, effort, and resources necessary to physically compromise AD product candidates in standardized settings. OBJECTIVE: Use the ALERRT(®) instrument for testing morphine abuse-deterrent, extended-release, injection-molded tablets (ADER-IMT) 60 and 100 mg and the comparators immediate-release (IR) morphine sulfate 30 mg and extended-release (ER) morphine sulfate 60 mg...
May 2017: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446883/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-profile-of-ppl-101-and-ppl-103-mixed-opioid-partial-agonist-analgesics-with-low-abuse-potential
#19
Taline V Khroyan, Andrea Cippitelli, Nicholas Toll, John A Lawson, William Crossman, Willma E Polgar, Lawrence Toll
Opiates are still the most effective and widely used treatments for acute and chronic pain. However, the problems associated with morphine and other standard opioid analgesics severely limit their effectiveness in the clinic. PPL-101 and PPL-103 derived from morphine and morphinan ring systems contain a chiral N-substituent, which confers it with a unique combination of high-binding affinities and partial agonist activities at mu, delta, and kappa opioid receptors, leading to unique in vivo pharmacology compared to other conventional opioids...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436446/opioid-self-administration-is-attenuated-by-early-life-experience-and-gene-therapy-for-anti-inflammatory-il-10-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-of-male-rats
#20
Michael J Lacagnina, Ashley M Kopec, Stewart S Cox, Richa Hanamsagar, Corinne Wells, Susan Slade, Peter M Grace, Linda R Watkins, Edward D Levin, Staci D Bilbo
Early-life conditions can contribute to the propensity for developing neuropsychiatric disease, including substance abuse disorders. However, the long-lasting mechanisms that shape risk or resilience for drug addiction remain unclear. Previous work has shown that a neonatal handling procedure in rats (which promotes enriched maternal care) attenuates morphine conditioning, reduces morphine-induced glial activation, and increases microglial expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10)...
April 24, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
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