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Morphine abuse

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096495/memory-disrupting-effects-of-nonmuscle-myosin-ii-inhibition-depend-on-the-class-of-abused-drug-and-brain-region
#1
Sherri B Briggs, Ashley M Blouin, Erica J Young, Gavin Rumbaugh, Courtney A Miller
Depolymerizing actin in the amygdala through nonmuscle myosin II inhibition (NMIIi) produces a selective, lasting, and retrieval-independent disruption of the storage of methamphetamine-associated memories. Here we report a similar disruption of memories associated with amphetamine, but not cocaine or morphine, by NMIIi. Reconsolidation appeared to be disrupted with cocaine. Unlike in the amygdala, methamphetamine-associated memory storage was not disrupted by NMIIi in the hippocampus, nucleus accumbens, or orbitofrontal cortex...
February 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095031/the-role-of-drug-and-alcohol-use-and-the-risk-of-motor-vehicle-crashes-in-shiraz-iran-2014-a-case-crossover-study
#2
Narges Khanjani, Masoomeh Mousavi, Amirreza Dehghanian, Yunes Jahani, Hamid Souri
BACKGROUND: Traffic accidents and traffic-related injuries and mortality have become a major public health concern over the current years in Iran. This study aimed to examine the role of drug and alcohol use in motor vehicle accidents in Iran. METHODS: This case-crossover study was conducted on 441 drivers who survived from a road traffic crash and were taken to the emergency department of Shahid Rajaee trauma hospital in Shiraz, southern Iran. Data were collected using checklists which included demographic characteristics and drug and alcohol use prior to driving...
January 17, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092649/new-onset-depression-following-stable-slow-and-rapid-rate-of-prescription-opioid-dose-escalation
#3
Joanne Salas, Jeffrey F Scherrer, Frank David Schneider, Mark D Sullivan, Kathleen K Bucholz, Thomas Burroughs, Laurel A Copeland, Brian K Ahmedani, Patrick J Lustman
Recent studies suggest that longer durations of opioid use, independent of maximum morphine equivalent dose (MED) achieved, is associated with increased risk of new-onset depression (NOD). Conversely, other studies, not accounting for duration, found that higher MED increased probability of depressive symptoms. To determine whether rate of MED increase is associated with NOD, a retrospective cohort analysis of Veterans Health Administration data (2000-2012) was conducted. Eligible patients were new, chronic (>90 days) opioid users, aged 18 to 80, and without depression diagnoses for 2 years before start of follow-up (n = 7051)...
February 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081197/morphine-withdrawal-modifies-prion-protein-expression-in-rat-hippocampus
#4
Vincenzo Mattei, Stefano Martellucci, Francesca Santilli, Valeria Manganelli, Tina Garofalo, Niccolò Candelise, Alessandra Caruso, Maurizio Sorice, Sergio Scaccianoce, Roberta Misasi
The hippocampus is a vulnerable brain structure susceptible to damage during aging and chronic stress. Repeated exposure to opioids may alter the brain so that it functions normally when the drugs are present, thus, a prolonged withdrawal might lead to homeostatic changes headed for the restoration of the physiological state. Abuse of morphine may lead to Reacting Oxygen Species-induced neurodegeneration and apoptosis. It has been proposed that during morphine withdrawal, stress responses might be responsible, at least in part, for long-term changes of hippocampal plasticity...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072812/is-kratom-the-new-legal-high-on-the-block-the-case-of-an-emerging-opioid-receptor-agonist-with-substance-abuse-potential
#5
George C Chang-Chien, Charles A Odonkor, Prin Amorapanth
Kratom is an unscheduled opioid receptor agonist that comes in the form of dietary supplements currently being abused by chronic pain patients on prescription opioids. Active alkaloids isolated from kratom such as mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine are thought to act on mu- and delta-opioid receptors as well as alpha-2 adrenergic and 5-HT2A receptors. Animal studies suggest that kratom may be more potent than morphine. Consequently, kratom consumption produces analgesic and euphoric feelings among users. In particular, some chronic pain patients on opioids take kratom to counteract the effects of opioid withdrawal...
January 2017: Pain Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069072/pansaid-paracetamol-and-nsaid-in-combination-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-trial
#6
Kasper Højgaard Thybo, Daniel Hägi-Pedersen, Jørn Wetterslev, Jørgen Berg Dahl, Henrik Morville Schrøder, Hans Henrik Bülow, Jan Gottfrid Bjørck, Ole Mathiesen
BACKGROUND: Effective postoperative pain management is essential for the rehabilitation of the surgical patient. No 'gold standard' exists after total hip arthroplasty (THA) and combinations of different nonopioid medications are used with virtually no evidence for additional analgesic efficacy compared to monotherapy. The objective of this trial is to investigate the analgesic effects and safety of paracetamol and ibuprofen alone and in combination in different dosages after THA. METHODS: PANSAID is a placebo-controlled, parallel four-group, multicentre trial with centralised computer-generated allocation sequence and allocation concealment and with varying block size and stratification by site...
January 10, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059434/assessment-of-abuse-liability-of-tramadol-among-experienced-drug-users-double-blind-crossover-randomized-controlled-trial
#7
Mrinmay Das, Raka Jain, Anju Dhawan, Amandeep Kaur
BACKGROUND: Tramadol is a widely used opioid analgesic. Different preclinical, clinical, and postmarketing surveillance studies show conflicting results regarding abuse potential of this drug. METHODS: A randomized double-blind complete crossover study was conducted at National Drug Dependence Treatment Centre, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi. Total subjects were 10, comprising total 120 observations (each subject assessed at baseline, 5, 45, and 240 minutes)...
November 2016: Journal of Opioid Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013351/differential-effects-of-aprepitant-a-clinically-used-neurokinin-1-receptor-antagonist-on-the-expression-of-conditioned-psychostimulant-versus-opioid-reward
#8
Padmanabhan Mannangatti, Santhanalakshmi Sundaramurthy, Sammanda Ramamoorthy, Lankupalle D Jayanthi
RATIONALE: Neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1R) signaling modulates behaviors associated with psychostimulants and opioids. Psychostimulants, such as amphetamine (AMPH) and cocaine, bind to monoamine transporters and alter their functions. Both dopamine and norepinephrine transporters are regulated by NK1R activation suggesting a role for NK1R mediated catecholamine transporter regulation in psychostimulant-mediated behaviors. OBJECTIVES: The effect of in vivo administration of aprepitant (10 mg/kg) on the expression of AMPH (0...
December 24, 2016: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012090/a-decade-of-orexin-hypocretin-and-addiction-where-are-we-now
#9
Morgan H James, Stephen V Mahler, David E Moorman, Gary Aston-Jones
One decade ago, our laboratory provided the first direct evidence linking orexin/hypocretin signaling with drug seeking by showing that activation of these neurons promotes conditioned morphine-seeking behavior. In the years since, contributions from many investigators have revealed roles for orexins in addiction for all drugs of abuse tested, but only under select circumstances. We recently proposed that orexins play a fundamentally unified role in coordinating "motivational activation" under numerous behavioral conditions, and here we unpack this hypothesis as it applies to drug addiction...
December 24, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28010888/dose-dependent-effects-of-morphine-on-lipopolysaccharide-lps-induced-inflammation-and-involvement-of-multixenobiotic-resistance-mxr-transporters-in-lps-efflux-in-teleost-fish
#10
Hélène Mottaz, Rene Schönenberger, Stephan Fischer, Rik I L Eggen, Kristin Schirmer, Ksenia J Groh
Opioid drugs, such as morphine (MO), detected in aquatic environments worldwide, may harm fish due to their semi-persistence and ability to potently interact with molecular targets conserved across vertebrates. Here, we established a waterborne bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge assay with zebrafish embryos as a model to investigate chemically-induced disruption of the innate immune system, and used it to study the effects of MO exposure. Exposure to 1 mg/L MO resulted in pronounced immunosuppression, reflected in downregulation of several inflammation-related genes, including myd88, trif, traf6, p38, nfκb2, il-1β, il-8 and ccl34a...
February 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000295/drug-availability-adjustments-in-population-based-studies-of-prescription-opioid-abuse
#11
Alex Secora, James Phillip Trinidad, Rongmei Zhang, Rajdeep Gill, Gerald Dal Pan
PURPOSE: Population-based prescription opioid abuse studies in which one drug is compared to another, or drugs are compared across time, often account for the availability of those drugs in the community. The objective of this investigation is to assess consistency in the relative abuse ratios (RARs) across different approaches for adjusting for drug availability. METHODS: For the years 2004 through 2010, RARs for each of four prescription opioids (hydrocodone, oxycodone, hydromorphone, and morphine) were calculated using negative binomial regression...
December 21, 2016: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997713/effects-of-unilatral-and-bi-lateral-inhibition-of-rostral-ventral-tegmental-area-and-central-nucleus-of-amygdala-on-morphine-induced-place-conditioning-in-male-wistar-rat
#12
Zahra Mohammadian, Hedayat Sahraei, Gholam Hossein Meftahi, Hengameh Ali-Beik
The rostral ventral tegmental area (VTAR) and central nucleus of amygdala (CeA) are considered the main regions for induction of psychological dependence on abused drugs, such as morphine. The main aim of this study was to investigate the transient inhibition of each right and left side as well as both sides of the VTAR and the CeA by lidocaine (2%) on morphine reward properties using the conditioned place preference (CPP) method. Male Wistar rats (250±20 g) seven days after recovery from surgery and cannulation were conditioned to morphine (7...
December 20, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989573/prenatal-morphine-exposure-during-late-embryonic-stage-enhances-the-rewarding-effects-of-morphine-and-induces-the-loss-of-membrane-bound-protein-kinase-c-%C3%AE-in-intermediate-medial-mesopallium-in-the-chick
#13
Ying Wang, Yang Yao, Yuan Li, Han Nie, Xingu He
The susceptibility to drug abuse may be associated with the structural and/or functional changes in the reward-related brain regions induced by drug exposure during sensitive periods of embryonic development. Previously, we have found that prenatal morphine exposure during embryonic days 17-20 may be crucial for developing the susceptibility to morphine reward after hatching. However, the underlying structure and cellular mechanisms need further investigation. In the present study, the chicks of a few days old, which were prenatally exposed to morphine during E17-20, obviously showed higher preference for the morphine-paired chamber and hyperactivity during the expression of morphine conditioned place preference (CPP), and the reduction in membrane-bound of PKCα of the bilateral intermediate medial mesopallium (IMM) assayed immunologically...
December 15, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979929/comparative-evaluation-of-drug-deposition-in-hair-samples-collected-from-different-anatomical-body-sites
#14
Manolis N Tzatzarakis, Athanasios K Alegakis, Matthaios P Kavvalakis, Elena Vakonaki, Polychronis D Stivaktakis, Katerina Kanaki, Alexander I Vardavas, Emmanouil G Barbounis, Aristidis M Tsatsakis
In this study, we focused on the validation of a method for the simultaneous detection and quantification of cannabinoids, cocaine and opiates in hair as well as on the distribution of the drugs deposition in hair collected from different anatomical body sites. The proposed analytical procedure was validated for various parameters such as selectivity, linearity, limit of quantification, precision, accuracy, matrix effect and recovery. Four hundred and eighty-one samples were collected during 2010-2015 from 231 drug abusers...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974903/morphine-antidependence-of-erythroxylum-cuneatum-miq-kurz-in-neurotransmission-processes-in-vitro
#15
Noor Azuin Suliman, Mohamad Aris Mohd Moklas, Che Norma Mat Taib, Mohd Ilham Adenan, Mohamad Taufik Hidayat Baharuldin, Rusliza Basir, Zulkhairi Amom
Opiate abuse has been studied to cause adaptive changes observed in the presynaptic release and the mediated-synaptic plasticity proteins. The involvement of neuronal SNARE proteins reveals the role of the neurotransmitter release in expressing the opioid actions. The present study was designed to determine the effect of the alkaloid extract of Erythroxylum cuneatum (E. cuneatum) against chronic morphine and the influences of E. cuneatum on neurotransmission processes observed in vitro. The human neuroblastoma cell line, SK-N-SH, was treated with the morphine, methadone, or E...
2016: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922764/comparison-of-abuse-suspected-suicidal-intent-and-fatalities-related-to-the-7-day-buprenorphine-transdermal-patch-versus-other-opioid-analgesics-in-the-national-poison-data-system
#16
Paul M Coplan, Nelson E Sessler, Venkatesh Harikrishnan, Richa Singh, Charles Perkel
OBJECTIVE: Prescription opioid related abuse, suicide and death are significant public health problems. This study compares rates of poison center calls categorized as intentional abuse, suspected suicidal intent or fatality for the 7-day buprenorphine transdermal system/patch (BTDS) with other extended-release and long-acting (ER/LA) opioids indicated for chronic pain. METHODS: Retrospective 24-month cohort study using National Poison Data System data from July 2012 through June 2014...
December 21, 2016: Postgraduate Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902847/food-deprivation-facilitates-reinstatement-of-morphine-induced-conditioned-place-preference-role-of-intra-accumbal-dopamine-d2-like-receptors-in-associating-reinstatement-of-morphine-cpp-with-stress
#17
Fatemeh Sadeghzadeh, Vahab Babapour, Abbas Haghparast
The high rate of relapse to drug use is one of the main problems in the treatment of addiction. Stress plays the essential role in drug abuse and relapse; nevertheless, little is known about the mechanisms underlying stress and relapse. Accordingly, the effects of intra-accumbal administration of Sulpiride, as a dopamine D2-like receptor antagonist, on an ineffective morphine dose+food deprivation(FD)- and morphine priming-induced reinstatement of conditioned place preference (CPP). 104 adult male albino Wistar rats weighing 200-280g were bilaterally implanted by cannula into the nucleus accumbens (NAc)...
November 30, 2016: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895265/gut-homeostasis-microbial-dysbiosis-and-opioids
#18
Fuyuan Wang, Sabita Roy
Gut homeostasis plays an important role in maintaining animal and human health. The disruption of gut homeostasis has been shown to be associated with multiple diseases. The mutually beneficial relationship between the gut microbiota and the host has been demonstrated to maintain homeostasis of the mucosal immunity and preserve the integrity of the gut epithelial barrier. Currently, rapid progress in the understanding of the host-microbial interaction has redefined toxicological pathology of opioids and their pharmacokinetics...
November 28, 2016: Toxicologic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890603/a-novel-inhibitor-of-endocannabinoid-catabolic-enzymes-sheds-light-on-behind-the-scene-interplay-between-chronic-pain-analgesic-tolerance-and-heroin-dependence
#19
Josée Guindon
From the Aristotelian ancient Greece, pain has been associated with appetites or emotions and is opposite to pleasure. Reward and addiction is also linked to pleasure and compulsive drug seeking reinstates pleasure. Alleviation of chronic pain can induce a euphoric phase similar to what is found in addiction. Both chronic pain and addiction are recognized as a disease of the central nervous system. They share many characteristics and brain regions/mechanisms. Evidence points to the usefulness of cannabinoids as a new class of agents to add to the pharmaceutical toolbox in the management of chronic pain...
March 1, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890602/the-endocannabinoid-hydrolysis-inhibitor-sa-57-intrinsic-antinociceptive-effects-augmented-morphine-induced-antinociception-and-attenuated-heroin-seeking-behavior-in-mice
#20
Jenny L Wilkerson, Sudeshna Ghosh, Mohammed Mustafa, Rehab A Abdullah, Micah J Niphakis, Roberto Cabrera, Rafael L Maldonado, Benjamin F Cravatt, Aron H Lichtman
Although opioids are highly efficacious analgesics, their abuse potential and other untoward side effects diminish their therapeutic utility. The addition of non-opioid analgesics offers a promising strategy to reduce required antinociceptive opioid doses that concomitantly reduce opioid-related side effects. Inhibitors of the primary endocannabinoid catabolic enzymes fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) show opioid-sparing effects in preclinical models of pain. As simultaneous inhibition of these enzymes elicits enhanced antinociceptive effects compared with single enzyme inhibition, the present study tested whether the dual FAAH-MAGL inhibitor SA-57 [4-[2-(4-chlorophenyl)ethyl]-1-piperidinecarboxylic acid 2-(methylamino)-2-oxoethyl ester] produces morphine-sparing antinociceptive effects, without major side effects associated with either drug class...
March 1, 2017: Neuropharmacology
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