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Morphine abuse

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902847/food-deprivation-facilitates-reinstatement-of-morphine-induced-conditioned-place-preference-role-of-intra-accumbal-dopamine-d2-like-receptors-in-associating-reinstatement-of-morphine-cpp-with-stress
#1
Fatemeh Sadeghzadeh, Vahab Babapour, Abbas Haghparast
The high rate of relapse to drug use is one of the main problems in the treatment of addiction. Stress plays the essential role in drug abuse and relapse; nevertheless, little is known about the mechanisms underlying stress and relapse. Accordingly, the effects of intra-accumbal administration of Sulpiride, as a dopamine D2-like receptor antagonist, on an ineffective morphine dose+food deprivation(FD)- and morphine priming-induced reinstatement of conditioned place preference (CPP). 104 adult male albino Wistar rats weighing 200-280g were bilaterally implanted by cannula into the nucleus accumbens (NAc)...
November 30, 2016: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895265/gut-homeostasis-microbial-dysbiosis-and-opioids
#2
Fuyuan Wang, Sabita Roy
Gut homeostasis plays an important role in maintaining animal and human health. The disruption of gut homeostasis has been shown to be associated with multiple diseases. The mutually beneficial relationship between the gut microbiota and the host has been demonstrated to maintain homeostasis of the mucosal immunity and preserve the integrity of the gut epithelial barrier. Currently, rapid progress in the understanding of the host-microbial interaction has redefined toxicological pathology of opioids and their pharmacokinetics...
November 28, 2016: Toxicologic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890603/a-novel-inhibitor-of-endocannabinoid-catabolic-enzymes-sheds-light-on-behind-the-scene-interplay-between-chronic-pain-analgesic-tolerance-and-heroin-dependence
#3
Josée Guindon
From the Aristotelian ancient Greece, pain has been associated with appetites or emotions and is opposite to pleasure. Reward and addiction is also linked to pleasure and compulsive drug seeking reinstates pleasure. Alleviation of chronic pain can induce a euphoric phase similar to what is found in addiction. Both chronic pain and addiction are recognized as a disease of the central nervous system. They share many characteristics and brain regions/mechanisms. Evidence points to the usefulness of cannabinoids as a new class of agents to add to the pharmaceutical toolbox in the management of chronic pain...
November 24, 2016: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890602/the-endocannabinoid-hydrolysis-inhibitor-sa-57-intrinsic-antinociceptive-effects-augmented-morphine-induced-antinociception-and-attenuated-heroin-seeking-behavior-in-mice
#4
Jenny L Wilkerson, Sudeshna Ghosh, Mohammed Mustafa, Rehab A Abdullah, Micah J Niphakis, Roberto Cabrera, Rafael L Maldonado, Benjamin F Cravatt, Aron H Lichtman
Although opioids are highly efficacious analgesics, their abuse potential and other untoward side effects diminish their therapeutic utility. The addition of non-opioid analgesics offers a promising strategy to reduce required antinociceptive opioid doses that concomitantly reduce opioid-related side effects. Inhibitors of the primary endocannabinoid catabolic enzymes fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) show opioid-sparing effects in preclinical models of pain. As simultaneous inhibition of these enzymes elicits enhanced antinociceptive effects compared with single enzyme inhibition, the present study tested whether the dual FAAH-MAGL inhibitor SA-57 [4-[2-(4-chlorophenyl)ethyl]-1-piperidinecarboxylic acid 2-(methylamino)-2-oxoethyl ester] produces morphine-sparing antinociceptive effects, without major side effects associated with either drug class...
November 24, 2016: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884570/a-gc-ms-method-for-the-detection-and-quantitation-of-ten-major-drugs-of-abuse-in-human-hair-samples
#5
A Orfanidis, O Mastrogianni, A Koukou, G Psarros, H Gika, G Theodoridis, N Raikos
A sensitive analytical method has been developed in order to identify and quantify major drugs of abuse (DOA), namely morphine, codeine, 6-monoacetylmorphine, cocaine, ecgonine methyl ester, benzoylecgonine, amphetamine, methamphetamine, methylenedioxymethamphetamine and methylenedioxyamphetamine in human hair. Samples of hair were extracted with methanol under ultrasonication at 50°C after a three step rinsing process to remove external contamination and dirt hair. Derivatization with BSTFA was selected in order to increase detection sensitivity of GC/MS analysis...
November 10, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882208/maternal-separation-and-the-risk-of-drug-abuse-in-later-life
#6
REVIEW
Fatemeh Delavari, Vahid Sheibani, Saeed Esmaeili-Mahani, Nouzar Nakhaee
Maternal separation (MS) is defined as the termination of the continuity of mother-child relationship after the relationship is established. Although MS and maternal deprivation are different in terms of their definitions, these two terms are usually used interchangeably. This review aims to investigate the effect of MS on drug intake in adulthood. It has been proved that animal models are helpful in evaluating the effects of MS on drug intake risk in adulthood. There are relatively acceptable studies in this field on some drugs such as morphine, ethanol, and cocaine...
April 2016: Addiction & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872689/role-of-nitric-oxide-on-dopamine-release-and-morphine-dependency
#7
REVIEW
Amir Arash Motahari, Hedayat Sahraei, Gholam Hossein Meftahi
The catastrophic effects of opioids use on public health and the economy are documented clearly in numerous studies. Repeated morphine administration can lead to either a decrease (tolerance) or an increase (sensitization) in its behavioral and rewarding effects. Morphine-induced sensitization is a major problem and plays an important role in abuse of the opioid drugs. Studies reported that morphine may exert its effects by the release of nitric oxide (NO). NO is a potent neuromodulator, which is produced by nitric oxide synthase (NOS)...
October 2016: Basic and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803502/effect-of-intravenous-acetaminophen-on-postoperative-opioid-consumption-in-adult-orthopedic-surgery-patients
#8
Nwamaka Nwagbologu, Preeyaporn Sarangarm, Richard D'Angio
Background: Postoperative pain is managed with opioids, which are associated with adverse effects. The efficacy of intravenous (IV) acetaminophen in reducing opioid consumption has been studied with inconsistent results. The primary outcome of this study was to assess the effect of IV acetaminophen on opioid consumption 24 hours postoperatively. Secondary outcomes included the opiate consumption at 48 hours after the operation, opioid-related side effects 72 hours after the operation, discharge disposition, and length of stay...
October 2016: Hospital Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748174/positive-neonatal-urine-comprehensive-drug-screen-low-birth-weight-and-withdrawal-symptoms-in-a-neonatal-unit-a-case-control-study
#9
Kam Lun Hon, Michael Ho Ming Chan, Ming Him James Ng, Chi Cheung Ho, Yin Ching Kathy Tsang, Wing Hung Tam, Chung Shun Ho
OBJECTIVE: Maternal drug abuse may influence neonatal outcomes. We compared neonatal outcomes of patients with urine screened positive for commonly abused drugs (CAD) versus those who were screened negative, and reviewed the pattern of drugs detected at a university teaching hospital. METHODS: Urine samples collected from babies with suspected illicit drug exposure who were admitted to the neonatal unit were sent for comprehensive drug screen (CDS) performed by liquid chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-TOF/MS)...
October 10, 2016: Current Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744401/prevalence-and-factors-associated-with-multiple-provider-episodes-in-texas-an-epidemiological-analysis-of-prescription-drug-monitoring-program-data
#10
Erin A Ferries, Aaron M Gilson, Rajendar R Aparasu, Hua Chen, Michael L Johnson, Marc L Fleming
OBJECTIVE:  Prescription drug abuse has reached epidemic levels, leading to overdose-related morbidity and mortality. Patient and regional-level factors are believed to contribute to higher rates of prescription drug abuse. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and factors associated with multiple provider episodes (MPEs) in Texas. METHODS:  This was a retrospective cohort analysis of data from the Texas Prescription Drug Monitoring Program (PDMP) database, linked with Texas county census data...
October 15, 2016: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729240/transgenerational-attenuation-of-opioid-self-administration-as-a-consequence-of-adolescent-morphine-exposure
#11
Fair M Vassoler, David J Oliver, Cristina Wyse, Ashley Blau, Michael Shtutman, Jill R Turner, Elizabeth M Byrnes
The United States is in the midst of an opiate epidemic, with abuse of prescription and illegal opioids increasing steadily over the past decade. While it is clear that there is a genetic component to opioid addiction, there is a significant portion of heritability that cannot be explained by genetics alone. The current study was designed to test the hypothesis that maternal exposure to opioids prior to pregnancy alters abuse liability in subsequent generations. Female adolescent Sprague Dawley rats were administered morphine at increasing doses (5-25 mg/kg, s...
October 8, 2016: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27713869/short-period-influence-of-chronic-morphine-exposure-on-serum-levels-of-sexual-hormones-and-spermatogenesis-in-rats
#12
Hasan Ahmadnia, Alireza Akhavan Rezayat, Mahmood Hoseyni, Nooriye Sharifi, Mohhamad Khajedalooee, Arash Akhavan Rezayat
BACKGROUND: Increased rates of addiction and its broad societal complications are well known. One of the most important systems that may malfunction in drug abusers is the reproductive system, and evaluating patients for this potential risk may lead to increased awareness. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty 60-day-old male rats were divided into control and target groups. The target group underwent 5 mg/kg intraperitoneal injections of morphine twice a day while the control group underwent normal saline injections (at the same dosage)...
July 2016: Nephro-urology Monthly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27712113/palonosetron-and-hydroxyzine-pre-treatment-reduces-the-objective-signs-of-experimentally-induced-acute-opioid-withdrawal-in-humans-a-double-blinded-randomized-placebo-controlled-crossover-study
#13
Matthew J Erlendson, Nicole D'Arcy, Ellen M Encisco, Jeffrey J Yu, Lorena Rincon-Cruz, Gary Peltz, J David Clark, Larry F Chu
BACKGROUND: Treatments for reducing opioid withdrawal are limited and prone to problematic side effects. Laboratory studies, clinical observations, and limited human trial data suggest 5-HT3-receptor antagonists and antihistamines may be effective. OBJECTIVES: This double-blind, crossover, placebo-controlled study employing an acute physical dependence model evaluated whether (i) treatment with a 5-HT3-receptor antagonist (palonosetron) would reduce opioid withdrawal symptoms, and (ii) co-administration of an antihistamine (hydroxyzine) would enhance any treatment effect...
August 11, 2016: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27707973/t394a-mutation-at-the-%C3%AE-opioid-receptor-blocks-opioid-tolerance-and-increases-vulnerability-to-heroin-self-administration-in-mice
#14
Xiao-Fei Wang, Elisabeth Barbier, Yi-Ting Chiu, Yi He, Jia Zhan, Guo-Hua Bi, Hai-Ying Zhang, Bo Feng, Lee-Yuan Liu-Chen, Jia Bei Wang, Zheng-Xiong Xi
: The etiology and pathophysiology underlying opioid tolerance and dependence are still unknown. Because mu opioid receptor (MOR) plays an essential role in opioid action, many vulnerability-related studies have focused on single nucleotide polymorphisms of MOR, particularly on A118G. In this study, we found that a single-point mutation at the MOR T394 phosphorylation site could be another important susceptive factor in the development of opioid tolerance and dependence in mice. T394A mutation, in which a threonine at 394 was replaced by an alanine, did not alter agonist binding to MOR and opioid analgesia, but resulted in loss of etorphine-induced MOR internalization in spinal dorsal horn neurons and opioid analgesic tolerance induced by either morphine or etorphine...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27702938/illicit-fentanyl-related-fatalities-in-florida-toxicological-findings
#15
Dayong Lee, Chris W Chronister, Wilson A Broussard, Suzanne R Utley-Bobak, Daniel L Schultz, Russell S Vega, Bruce A Goldberger
Fentanyl induces pharmacological effects and abuse liability comparable to other prescription opioids and heroin. A surge in fentanyl-related fatalities has been periodically reported throughout the USA. The University of Florida Forensic Toxicology Laboratory observed a significant increase in fentanyl-related deaths starting in mid-2014. The present report evaluated toxicological findings, demographics of the decedents and circumstances of death in the postmortem cases that were submitted to the laboratory for toxicological analysis from July 2014 to January 2015 and that were tested for fentanyl in biological specimens...
October 2016: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27692801/risk-of-prolonged-opioid-use-among-opioid-na%C3%A3-ve-patients-following-common-hand-surgery-procedures
#16
Shepard P Johnson, Kevin C Chung, Lin Zhong, Melissa J Shauver, Michael J Engelsbe, Chad Brummett, Jennifer F Waljee
PURPOSE: To evaluate prolonged opioid use in opioid-naïve patients after common hand surgery procedures in the United States. METHODS: We studied insurance claims from the Truven MarketScan databases to identify opioid-naïve adult patients (no opioid exposure 11 months before the perioperative period) who underwent an elective (carpal tunnel release, carpometacarpal arthroplasty/arthrodesis, cubital tunnel release, or trigger finger release) or trauma-related (closed distal radius fracture fixation, flexor tendon repair, metacarpal fracture fixation, or phalangeal fracture fixation) hand surgery procedure between 2010 and 2012 (N = 77,573 patients)...
September 7, 2016: Journal of Hand Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27673203/poster-457-bioequivalence-and-food-effect-of-a-novel-abuse-deterrent-ad-extended-release-er-morphine-product-candidate-compared-with-a-currently-available-non-ad-er-morphine-product
#17
Jeffrey M Dayno, John Lawler, Gwendolyn Niebler, Karsten Lindhardt
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27673177/poster-427-pharmacodynamic-effects-from-a-category-3-intranasal-human-abuse-potential-study-of-an-abuse-deterrent-extended-release-morphine-product-candidate-in-nondependent-recreational-opioid-users
#18
Lynn R Webster, Michael D Smith, John Lawler, Karsten Lindhardt, Jeffrey M Dayno
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27673172/poster-420-pharmacodynamic-effects-from-a-category-3-oral-human-abuse-potential-study-of-an-abuse-deterrent-extended-release-morphine-product-candidate-in-nondependent-recreational-opioid-users
#19
Michael D Smith, Lynn R Webster, John Lawler, Karsten Lindhardt, Jeffrey M Dayno
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27673168/poster-416-dissolution-studies-in-the-presence-of-alcohol-with-an-abuse-deterrent-extended-release-morphine-product-candidate
#20
Torben Elhauge, Lene Kristensen, Jeffrey M Dayno, Karsten Lindhardt
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
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