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Martin Davi, Markus Mann, Zili Ma, Felix Schrader, Andreas Drichel, Serhiy Budnyk, Anna Rokicinska, Piotr Kustrowski, Richard Dronskowski, Adam Slabon
CuWO4 is a photoanode candidate in neutral pH, and manganese-based oxygen evolution reaction electrocatalysts are of high interest due to their low price and low toxicity. Considering the unexplored chemistry of transition-metal carbodiimides/cyanamides for the PEC water oxidation, we investigated MnNCN as an electrocatalyst for CuWO4 under AM 1.5G illumination in potassium phosphate electrolyte (pH 7). Surface functionalization of CuWO4 photoanodes with MnNCN increased the photocurrent from 22 to 30 μA cm-2 at 1...
March 19, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Lv Lin, Dace Zha, Yunjun Ruan, Zhishan Li, Xiang Ao, Jie Zheng, Jianjun Jiang, Hao Ming Chen, Wei-Hung Chiang, Jun Chen, Chundong Wang
Oxygen is the most abundant element in the Earth's crust. The oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) is also the most important reaction in life processes and energy converting/storage systems. Developing techniques toward high-efficiency ORR remains highly desired and a challenge. Here, we report an N-doped carbon encapsulated CeO2/Co interfacial hollow structures (CeO2-Co-NC) via a generalized strategy for largely increased oxygen species adsorption and improved ORR activities. Firstly, the metallic Co nanoparticles not only provide high conductivity but also serve as electron donors to largely create oxygen vacancies in CeO2...
March 12, 2018: ACS Nano
Bert Marc Weckhuysen, Ronald Jong, Guido Mul, Jochem Wijten
Photocathodes for hydrogen evolution from water were made by electro-deposition of Ni-Mo layers on NiFe2O4 substrates, deposited by spin coating on F:SnO2-glass. SEM-EDX and XRD analysis confirmed the formation of two separate layers, without significant reduction of NiFe2O4. Bare NiFe2O4 was found unstable under alkaline conditions during (photo)-electrochemistry. To improve the stability significantly the deposition of a bifunctional Ni-Mo layer through a facile electrodeposition process was performed, and the composite electrodes show stable operation for at least 1 h...
March 12, 2018: ChemSusChem
Guangyuan Ren, Liangliang Gao, Chao Teng, Yunan Li, Hequn Yang, Jianglan Shui, Xianyong Lu, Ying Zhu, Liming Dai
The method of fabricating non-precious-metal electrocatalysts with high activity and durability through a facile and eco-friendly procedure is of great significance to the development of low cost fuel cells and metal-air batteries. Herein, we present that an ancient chemical reaction of "Pharaoh's snakes" can be a fast and convenient technique to prepare Fe/N-doped carbon nanosheets/nanotubes (Fe/N-C) electrocatalysts with sugar, soda, melamine and iron nitrate as precursors. The resultant Fe/N-C catalyst has a hierarchically porous structure, large surface area and uniformly distributed active sites...
March 9, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Valentina Galbiati, Sue Gibbs, Erwin Roggen, Emanuela Corsini
Recently, an in vitro procedure, which combines the epidermal equivalent potency assay with assessment of IL-18 to provide a single test for identification and classification of skin sensitizers, was developed and validated. This unit will describe a simple in vitro method for estimation of the expected sensitization induction level interpolating in vitro EC50 and IL-18 SI2 values to predict LLNA EC3 and/or human NOEL from standards curves generated using reference contact allergens, based on the use of Reconstituted human Epidermis (RhE)...
February 21, 2018: Current Protocols in Toxicology
Xiao-Fei Bai, Yong-Kai Gao
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to explore the efficacy and safety of recombinant human erythropoietin (RHE) for the treatment of severe traumatic brain injury (STBI). METHODS: One hundred and twenty eligible patients with STBI were randomly divided into an intervention group or a control group equally. Patients in the intervention group received RHE. The participants in the control group received 0.9% saline. The outcome measurements included the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) scores, mortality, and any adverse events...
January 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Aizhen Liao, Huichao He, Lanqin Tang, Yichang Li, Jiyuan Zhang, Jiani Chen, Lan Chen, Chunfeng Zhang, Yong Zhou, Zhigang Zou
A facile rapid dehydration strategy (RD) is explored for quasi-topotactic transformation of FeOOH nanorods to robust Fe2O3 porous nanopillars, avoiding collapse, shrink, and coalescence, compared with a conventional treatment route. Additionally, the so-called RD process is capable of generating beneficial porous structure for PEC water oxidation. The obtained RD-Fe2O3 photoanode exhibits a photocurrent density as high as 2.0 mA cm-2 at 1.23 V vs. RHE, and a saturated photocurrent density of 3.5 mA cm-2 at 1...
March 2, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Peng Tian, Yanhao Yu, Xin Yin, Xudong Wang
A wafer-scale 1.4 nm ultrathin Ni(OH)2 nanosheet was synthesized by ionic layer epitaxy. This free-standing Ni(OH)2 nanosheet was directly used to catalyze the oxygen evolution reaction (OER). At a current density of 10 mA cm-2 , the overpotential reached 295 mV (vs. RHE) in Fe-rich 1 M NaOH. This 1.4 nm Ni(OH)2 nanosheet showed a very high turnover frequency of 5.47 s-1 and a mass activity of more than 2 × 104 A g-1 at an overpotential of 300 mV. Such a high electrocatalytic mass activity of the Ni(OH)2 nanosheet was more than 2 orders of magnitude higher than those of typical OER catalysts...
February 28, 2018: Nanoscale
Bandhana Devi, M Venkateswarulu, Himmat Kushwaha, Aditi Halder, Rik Koner
Low cost, non-noble metal catalyst with good oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity comparable to that of platinum and having good energy storage properties is highly desirable but challenging. Several challenges are associated with the development of such materials. Herein, we demonstrate a new polycarboxyl functionalized Fe (III) based gel material, synthesized following solvothermal method and the development of its composite (Fe3O4/Fe/C) by annealing at optimised temperature. The developed composite displayed excellent electrocatalytic activity for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) with onset potential of 0...
February 22, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Tian Chen, Songzhan Li, Pengbin Gui, Jian Wen, Xuemei Fu, Guojia Fang
Bifunctional bamboo-like CoSe2 arrays are synthesized by thermal annealing of Co(CO3)0.5OH grown on carbon cloth in Se atmosphere. The obtained CoSe2 arrays have excellent electrical conductivity, larger electrochemical active surface areas and can directly serve as a binder-free electrode for supercapacitor and oxygen evolution reaction (OER). When tested as an electrode for supercapacitor, the CoSe2 delivers a higher specific capacitance (544.6 F g-1 at current density of 1 mA cm-2) compared with CoO (308...
February 22, 2018: Nanotechnology
Frank A Alexander, Sebastian Eggert, Joachim Wiest
Skin is a critical organ that plays a crucial role in defending the internal organs of the body. For this reason, extensive work has gone into creating artificial models of the epidermis for in vitro skin toxicity tests. These tissue models, called reconstructed human epidermis (RhE), are used by researchers in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and environmental arenas to evaluate skin toxicity upon exposure to xenobiotics. Here, we present a label-free solution that leverages the use of the intelligent mobile lab for in vitro diagnostics (IMOLA-IVD), a noninvasive, sensor-based platform, to monitor the transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) of RhE models and adherent cells cultured on porous membrane inserts...
February 21, 2018: Genes
Helena Kandárová, Hana Bendova, Silvia Letasiova, Kelly P Coleman, Wim H De Jong, Dagmar Jírova
Several irritants were used in the in vitro irritation medical device round robin. The objective of this study was to verify their irritation potential using the human patch test (HPT), an in vitro assay, and in vivo data. The irritants were lactic acid (LA), heptanoic acid (HA), sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), Genapol® X-80 (GP), and Y-4 polymer. Dilute saline and sesame seed oil (SSO) solutions of each were evaluated using a 4 and 18 h HPT and the EpiDerm™ SIT-MD RhE assay; results were then compared to existing rabbit skin irritation test data...
February 17, 2018: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
Meng Wang, Rongji Liu, Shuangshuang Zhang, Bin Li, Ke Zhang, Guangjin Zhang
In this study, three different Ag micro/nano leaves were successfully synthesized through a galvanic displacement reaction by adjusting the concentration of Ag+. The catalytic activities of the prepared Ag micro/nano leaves toward ORR showed strong dependence on their morphology. An optimal concentration of Ag+ can result in a well-defined Ag micro/nano leaves with both crystallization and surface area, which showed the best activity towards ORR in alkaline media. In addition, the prepared Ag micro/nano leaves also showed high activity towards CO2 reduction, which required a potential of -0...
August 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Sung-Fu Hung, Zhi-Zhong Chen, Chun-Chih Chang, Chia-Shuo Hsu, Ming-Kang Tsai, Chia-Cheng Kang, Hao Ming Chen
II-VI semiconductors exhibit unique behaviors that can generate dual-holes ("heavy and light"), but the application in photocatalysis is still missing. Herein, an empirical utilization of light/heavy holes in a hybrid metal cluster-2D semiconductor nanoplatelets is reported. This hybrid material can boost the hole-transfer at the surface and suppress the recombination. Different roles are enacted by light-holes and heavy-holes, in which the light-holes with higher energy and mobility can facilitate the slow kinetics of water oxidation and further reduce the onset voltage, while the massive heavy-holes can increase the resulting photocurrent by about five times, achieving a photocurrent of 2 mA cm-2 at 1...
February 19, 2018: Small
Yongjin Ma, Yi Liu, Yuan Bian, Anquan Zhu, Yang Yang, Jun Pan
Photocorrosion and low solar conversion efficiency hindered widely applications of CdS in photocatalytic (PC) H 2 evolution and photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting. Hence, this work reports the shape anisotropy of hexagonal CdS possesses highly stable and efficient PC H 2 evolution and PEC water splitting by simply mixed diethylenetriamine (DETA) and deionized water (DIW) solvothermal. Here we demonstrate that the shape of hexagonal CdS plays an important role in their PC activity. The CdS-Nanorod yields optimal 5...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Kaushik Natarajan, Parth Bhatt, Pankaj Yadav, Kavita Pandey, Brijesh Tripathi, Manoj Kumar
Hematite (α-Fe2O3) nanostructures have been extensively studied as photo-anodes for the conversion of sunlight into chemical fuels by water splitting. A number of factors limit the photo-activity of pristine hematite nanostructures, including poor electrical conductivity and long penetration depth of light. Previous studies have shown that use of tin (Sn) as an n-type dopant can substantially enhance the photoactivity of hematite photoanodes by modifying their morphological, optical and electrical properties...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Helena Kandarova, Jamin A Willoughby, Wim H De Jong, Silvia Letasiova, Tatiana Milasova, Michael A Bachelor, Bridget Breyfogle, Yuki Handa, Liset De la Fonteyne, Kelly P Coleman
Assessment of dermal irritation is an essential component of the safety evaluation of medical devices. Reconstructed human epidermis (RhE) models have replaced rabbit skin irritation testing for neat chemicals and their mixtures (OECD Test Guideline 439). However, this guideline cannot be directly applied to the area of medical devices (MD) since their non-toxicity assessment is largely based on the testing of MD extracts that may have very low irritation potential. Therefore, the RhE-methods previously validated with neat chemicals needed to be modified to reflect the needs for detection of low levels of potential irritants...
February 10, 2018: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
Yi Cheng, Shiyong Zhao, Bernt Johannessen, Jean-Pierre Veder, Martin Saunders, Matthew R Rowles, Min Cheng, Chang Liu, Matthew F Chisholm, Roland De Marco, Hui-Ming Cheng, Shi-Ze Yang, San Ping Jiang
Single-atom catalysts (SACs) are the smallest entities for catalytic reactions with projected high atomic efficiency, superior activity, and selectivity; however, practical applications of SACs suffer from a very low metal loading of 1-2 wt%. Here, a class of SACs based on atomically dispersed transition metals on nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes (MSA-N-CNTs, where M = Ni, Co, NiCo, CoFe, and NiPt) is synthesized with an extraordinarily high metal loading, e.g., 20 wt% in the case of NiSA-N-CNTs, using a new multistep pyrolysis process...
February 9, 2018: Advanced Materials
Ying Zhang, Xiaolong Zhang, Alan M Bond, Jie Zhang
In this study, a selective Sn based catalytic system that electrochemically reduces CO2 to formate has been developed based on a new substrate effect. Dendritic Sn catalysts were synthesised by hydrogen gas bubble assisted electrodeposition on Pt, Cu, Sn or In substrates and applied to electrocatalytic reduction of CO2. The four substrates exhibit a hydrogen evolution activity that follows the order Pt > Cu > Sn > In. However, the Cu supported dendritic Sn catalyst provides the best selectivity towards formate formation (67...
February 9, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Jingjie Ge, Pei Wei, Geng Wu, Yudan Liu, Tongwei Yuan, Zhijun Li, Yunteng Qu, Yuen Wu, Hai Li, Zhongbin Zhuang, Xun Hong, Yadong Li
An ordered mesh of palladium with a thickness of about 3 nm was synthesized by a solution-based oxidative etching. The ultrathin palladium nanomeshes have an interconnected two-dimensional network of densely arrayed, ultrathin quasi-nanoribbons that form ordered open holes. The unique mesoporous structure and high specific surface area make these ultrathin Pd nanomeshes display superior catalytic performance for ethanol electrooxidation (mass activity of 5.40 A mg-1 and specific activity of 7.09 mA cm-2 at 0...
February 7, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
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