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Prabhakarn Arunachalam, Maged N Shaddad, Mohamed A Ghanem, Abdullah M Al-Mayouf, Mark T Weller
Photoanodes fabricated by the electrophoretic deposition of a thermally prepared zinc tantalum oxynitride (ZnTaO₂N) catalyst onto indium tin oxide (ITO) substrates show photoactivation for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) in alkaline solutions. The photoactivity of the OER is further boosted by the photodeposition of cobalt phosphate (CoPi) layers onto the surface of the ZnTaO₂N photoanodes. Structural, morphological, and photoelectrochemical (PEC) properties of the modified ZnTaO₂N photoanodes are studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), ultraviolet visible (UV-Vis) diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, and electrochemical techniques...
January 18, 2018: Nanomaterials
Kim Degn Jensen, Jakub Tymoczko, Jan Rossmeisl, Aliaksandr Bandarenka, Ib Chorkendorff, Maria Escudero-Escribano, Ifan Erfyl Lester Stephens
Herein we experimentally explore the relationship between the binding of the reaction intermediates and oxygen reduction activity in alkaline media. By introducing Cu into the 2nd surface layer of a Pt(111) single crystal, we tune the surface reactivity. We demonstrate that in both NaOH and KOH, the optimal catalyst should exhibit OH binding ~0.1 eV weaker than Pt(111), via a Sabatier volcano; this observation suggests that the reaction is mediated via the same surface bound intermediates as in acid, in contrast to previous reports...
January 18, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Christian Pellevoisin, Christelle Videau, Damien Briotet, Corinne Grégoire, Carine Tornier, Alain Alonso, Anne Sophie Rigaudeau, Charbel Bouez, Nathalie Seyler
According to ISO 10993 standards for biocompatibility of medical devices, skin irritation is one of the three toxicological endpoints to be always addressed in a biological risk assessment. This work presents a new protocol to assess this endpoint in vitro rather than in vivo. The protocol was adapted to medical devices extracts from the OECD TG 439 with the SkinEthic™ RHE model as test system. It was challenged with irritant chemicals, Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate, Lactic Acid and Heptanoic Acid spiked in polar solvents, sodium chloride solution or phosphate buffer saline and non-polar solvent, Sesame Oil...
January 12, 2018: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
Salen Kuresepi, Bertrand Vileno, Philippe Turek, Jean-Pierre Lepoittevin, Elena Giménez-Arnau
The first step in the development of skin sensitisation to a chemical, and in the elicitation of further allergic contact dermatitis (ACD), is the binding of the allergen to skin proteins after penetrating into the epidermis. The so-formed antigenic adduct is then recognised by the immune system as foreign to the body. Sensitising organic hydroperoxides derived from autoxidation of natural terpenes are believed to form antigens through radical-mediated mechanisms, although this has not yet been established...
January 15, 2018: Free Radical Research
Yingpu Bi, Beibei Zhang, Lei Wang, Yajun Zhang, Yong Ding
Photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting is a promising method for storing solar energy in the form of hydrogen fuel, but greatly hindered by the sluggish kinetics of the oxygen evolution reaction (OER). Herein, a facile solution impregnation method is developed for growing highly crystalline β-FeOOH nanolayers with ultrathin thickness (2 nm) and abundant oxygen vacancies on BiVO4 photoanodes, which exhibited a remarkable photocurrent density of 4.3 mA cm-2 at 1.23 V (vs. reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE), AM 1...
January 14, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Ariel Jackson, Alaina Strickler, Drew Higgins, Thomas Francisco Jaramillo
Improving the performance of oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) electrocatalysts is essential for the commercial efficacy of many renewable energy technologies, including low temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs). Herein, we report highly active and stable carbon-supported Ru@Pt core-shell nanoparticles (Ru@Pt/C) prepared by a wet chemical synthesis technique. Through rotating disc electrode testing, the Ru@Pt/C achieves an ORR Pt mass-based activity of 0.50 A mgPt-1 at 0.9 V versus the reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE), which exceeds the activity of the state-of-the-art commercial Pt/C catalyst as well as the Department of Energy 2020 PEFC electrocatalyst activity targets for transportation applications...
January 12, 2018: Nanomaterials
Wim H De Jong, Sebastian Hoffmann, Michelle Lee, Helena Kandárová, Christian Pellevoisin, Yuji Haishima, Beau Rollins, Austin Zdawzcyk, Jamin Willoughby, Michael Bachelor, Timothy Schatz, Shelby Skoog, Sherry Parker, Anita Sawyer, Paolo Pescio, Kristina Fant, Kwang-Mahn Kim, Jae Sung Kwon, Helge Gehrke, Hana Hofman-Hüther, Marisa Meloni, Conrad Julius, Damien Briotet, Sylvia Letasiova, Reiko Kato, Atsuko Miyajima, Liset De La Fonteyne, Christelle Videau, Carine Tornier, Audrey Turley, Nicholas Christiano, Thor Rollins, Kelly P Coleman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 8, 2018: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
Panpan Su, Wenbin Xu, Yanling Qiu, Taotao Zhang, Xianfeng Li, Huamin Zhang
Electrochemical reducing CO2 to value-added products is an important and challenging reaction for sustainable energy study. In this study, bismuth nanosheets with thickness of ~10 nm were successfully prepared via electrochemical reduction of Bi3+. Ultrathin Bi nanosheets with numerous low-coordination sites can efficiently reduce CO2 to formate in aqueous solution. During the potential range of - 0.9 V to - 1.2 V vs RHE, the faradaic efficiency of formate is over 90%, which is one of the best reported Bi catalysts...
January 11, 2018: ChemSusChem
Chunjie Liang, Ting He, Tao Li, Yunhuang Yang, Jiang Zhu, Maili Liu
AHSA1 protein family is one of the four largest families in the Bet v1-like protein superfamily. The functions and structures of proteins in AHSA1 family are still largely unknown. CHU_1110 with 167 amino acids and a molecular weight of 19.2 kDa is a member of the AHSA1 family from Cytophaga hutchinsonii, a soil bacterium known for its ability to digest crystalline cellulose. Here we report the complete 1H, 13C and 15N chemical shift assignments of CHU_1110. The secondary structural elements of CGL2373 are consistent with the canonical AHSA1 structure...
January 9, 2018: Biomolecular NMR Assignments
Carolina Motter Catarino, Tatiana do Nascimento Pedrosa, Paula Comune Pennacchi, Silvia Romano de Assis, Fabrícia Gimenes, Márcia Edilaine Lopes Consolaro, Silvia Berlanga de Moraes Barros, Silvya Stuchi Maria-Enlger
Currently, there is a strong global trend towards the development of in vitro models to replace the use of animals in safety evaluation tests. Reconstructed Human Epidermis (RHE) models have been employed as an alternative method to animal testing of skin corrosion and irritation potential of chemical compounds. However, the consequences of an absence of the dermal compartment in these models should be considered since the cross-talk between fibroblasts and keratinocytes is fundamental for promoting proper epidermal stratification, homeostasis, inflammatory response and wound healing...
January 6, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
Na-Na Han, Xia Li, Ling Tao, Qi Zhou
Tumor targeting delivery system has been suggested as an attractive strategy against tumor progression. Combination chemotherapy is essential and effective in preventing ovarian cancer. Rhein (4, 5-dihydroxyanthraquinone-2-carboxylic acid) is a lipophilic anthraquinone. Emerging evidence indicates that rhein has many pharmacological effects, such as nephroprotective, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anticancer activities. In our study, doxorubicin (DOX) and rhein (RHE) co-loaded polymeric micelle (nano-DOX/RHE) were prepared to attenuate drug resistance in ovarian cancer cells while promoting the therapeutic efficiency of DOX...
January 6, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Rong He, An Zhang, Yilun Ding, Taoyi Kong, Qing Xiao, Hongliang Li, Yan Liu, Jie Zeng
Electroreduction of CO2 is a sustainable approach to produce syngas with controllable ratios, which are required as specific reactants for the optimization of different industrial processes. However, it is challenging to achieve tunable syngas production with a wide ratio of CO/H2 , while maintaining a high current density. Herein, cadmium sulfoselenide (CdSx Se1-x ) alloyed nanorods are developed, which enable the widest range of syngas proportions ever reported at the current density above 10 mA cm-2 in CO2 electroreduction...
January 8, 2018: Advanced Materials
Jih-Sheng Yang, Jih-Jen Wu
The TiO2-based heterojunction nanodendrite (ND) array composed of anatase NPs (ANP) on the surface of rutile ND (RND) array is selected as the model photoanode to demonstrate the strategies towards eco-friendly and efficient solar water splitting using neutral electrolyte and seawater. Compared to the performances in alkaline electrolyte, non-negligible potential drop across the electrolyte as well as impeded charge injection and charge separation are monitored in the ANP/RND array photoanode with neutral electrolyte, which are respectively ascribed to the series resistance of neutral electrolyte, the fundamentally pH-dependent water oxidation mechanism on TiO2 surface, as well as the less band bending at the interface of TiO2 and neutral electrolyte...
January 4, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Ying Wang, Degao Wang, Christopher J Dares, Seth L Marquard, Matthew V Sheridan, Thomas J Meyer
Monodispersed mixtures of 6-nm Cu and Ag nanoparticles were prepared by electrochemical reduction on electrochemically polymerized poly-Fe(vbpy)3(PF6)2 film electrodes on glassy carbon. Conversion of the complex to poly-Fe(vbpy)2(CN)2 followed by surface binding of salts of the cations and electrochemical reduction gave a mixture of chemically distinct clusters on the surface, (Cu) m ,(Ag) n |polymer|glassy carbon electrode (GCE), as shown by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements. A (Cu)2,(Ag)3|(80-monolayer-poly-Fe(vbpy)32+|GCE electrode at -1...
December 26, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Jung Kyu Kim, Yoonjun Cho, Myung Jin Jeong, Ben Levy-Wendt, Dongguen Shin, Yeonjin Yi, Dong Hwan Wang, Xiaolin Zheng, Jong Hyeok Park
Surface disordered layer is plausible approach to improve the photoelectrochemical performance of TiO2. However, the formation of a crystal disordered layer in BiVO4 and its effectiveness towards photoelectrochemical water splitting has remained a big challenge. Here, we report a rapid solution process (within 5 seconds) that is capable of forming a few nanometre-thick disordered layer on the surface of BiVO4 nanoparticles using a specific solution with controllable reducing power. The disordered layer on BiVO4 alleviates charge recombination at the electrode/electrolyte interface and greatly reduces the on-set potential, which in turn results in a photocurrent density of around 2...
December 23, 2017: ChemSusChem
Thalita Boldrin Zanoni, Tatiana Nascimento Pedrosa, Carolina Motter Catarino, Sander W Spiekstra, Danielle Palma de Oliveira, Gertjan Den Hartog, Aalt Bast, Geja Hagemann, Susan Gibbs, Silvia Berlanga de Moraes Barros, Silvya Stuchi Maria-Engler
Allergic and irritant skin reactions caused by topical exposure to permanent hair dyes are a common problem. For regulatory and ethnical purposes, it is required to perform chemical safety assessment following the replacement, reduction, and refinement of animal testing (3Rs). Permanent hair dyes are formed by a mixture of ingredients that vary from low to extreme skin sensitizing potency and that inter-react to form unknown by-products. Because of the complex reaction, this cytotoxic mechanism has not yet been elucidated and is the subject of this study...
December 19, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Saied Goodarzi, Mehdi Nateghpour, Parina Asgharian, Abbas Hadjiakhoondi, Narguess Yassa, Saeed Tavakoli, Jalal Mirzaei, Leila Farivar, Afsaneh Motevalli Haghi, Zahra Tofighi
Objectives: Astrodaucus persicus (Apiaceae) is one of the two species of this genus which grows in different parts of Iran. Roots of this plant were rich in benzodioxoles and used as food additive or salad in Iran and near countries. The aim of present study was evaluation of antimalarial and cytotoxic effects of different fractions of A. persicus fruits and roots extracts. Materials and Methods: Ripe fruits and roots of A. persicus were extracted and fractionated by hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol, separately...
December 2017: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
Yusuke Nomura, Michelle Lee, Chie Fukui, Kayo Watanabe, Daniel Olsen, Audrey Turley, Yuki Morishita, Tsuyoshi Kawakami, Toshiyasu Yuba, Hideo Fujimaki, Kaoru Inoue, Midori Yoshida, Kumiko Ogawa, Yuji Haishima
In vivo and in vitro irritation testing is important for evaluating the biological safety of medical devices. Here, the performance of positive reference materials for skin irritation testing was evaluated. Four reference standards, referred to as Y-series materials, were analyzed: a polyvinyl chloride (PVC) sheet spiked with 0 (Y-1), 1.0 (Y-2), 1.5 (Y-3), or 10 (Y-4) parts of Genapol X-080 per 100 parts of PVC by weight. Y-1, Y-2, and Y-3 did not induce skin irritation responses in an in vitro reconstructed human epidermis (RhE) tissue model, as measured by tissue viability or interleukin-1α release, or in an in vivo intracutaneous response test using rabbits...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
Jin Jia, Tanli Xiong, Lili Zhao, Fulei Wang, Hong Liu, Renzong Hu, Jian Zhou, Weijia Zhou, Shaowei Chen
Probing competent electrocatalysts for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) of water splitting is one of the most hopeful approach to front the energy and environmental crisis. Herein, we highlight ultrathin N-doped Mo2C nanosheets (N-Mo2C NSs) in the role of greatly efficient platinum-free-based electrocatalysts for the HER. The transformation of crystal phase and structure between MoO2 nanosheets with thickness of ~1.1 nm and N-Mo2C NSs with thickness of ~1.0 nm is detailed studied. Structural analyses make clear that the surfaces of the N-Mo2C NSs are absolutely encompassed of apical Mo atoms, hence affording an ideal catalyst prototype to expose the role of Mo atoms for the duration of HER catalysis...
December 8, 2017: ACS Nano
Kewei Liu, Changlin Zhang, Yuandong Sun, Guanghui Zhang, Xiaochen Shen, Feng Zou, Haichang Zhang, Zhenwei Wu, Evan C Wegener, Clinton J Taubert, Jeffrey T Miller, Zhenmeng Peng, Yu Zhu
Oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is a pivotal process in many energy conversion and storage techniques, such as water splitting, regenerative fuel cells, and rechargeable metal-air batteries. The synthesis of stable, efficient, non-noble metal-based electrocatalysts for OER has been a long-standing challenge. In this work, a facile and scalable method to synthesize hollow and conductive iron-cobalt phosphide (Fe-Co-P) alloy nanostructures using a Fe-Co metal organic complex as a precursor is described. The Fe-Co-P alloy exhibits excellent OER activity with a specific current density of 10 mA/cm2 being achieved at an overpotential as low as 252 mV...
December 6, 2017: ACS Nano
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