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Bruno Fabre, Gaozeng Li, Francis Gouttefangeas, Loic Joanny, Gabriel Loget
The electroless deposition of Pt nanoparticles (NPs) on hydrogen-terminated silicon (H-Si) surfaces is studied as a function of temperature and the immersion time. It is demonstrated that isolated Pt structures can be produced at all investigated temperatures (between 22 and 75°C) for short deposition times, typically within 1-10 min if the temperature was 45°C or less than 5 min at 75°C. For longer times, dendritic metal structures start to grow leading ultimately to highly rough interconnected Pt networks...
October 25, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Keumnam Cho, Sung-Hwan Han, Myunghyun Paik Suh
To apply electrically nonconductive metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) in an electrocatalytic oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), we have developed a new method for fabricating various amounts of CuS nanoparticles (nano-CuS) in/on a 3D Cu-MOF, [Cu3 (BTC)2 ⋅(H2 O)3 ] (BTC=1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylate). As the amount of nano-CuS increases in the composite, the electrical conductivity increases exponentially by up to circa 10(9) -fold, while porosity decreases, compared with that of the pristine Cu-MOF. The composites, nano-CuS(x wt %)@Cu-BTC, exhibit significantly higher electrocatalytic ORR activities than Cu-BTC or nano-CuS in an alkaline solution...
October 24, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
Fengjiao Chen, Qishan Zhu, Yeyun Wang, Wei Cui, Xiaodong Su, Yanguang Li
Increasing attention has now been focused on the photoelectrochemical (PEC) hydrogen evolution as a promising route to transform solar energy into chemical fuels. Silicon is one of the most studied PEC electrode materials, but its performance is still limited by its inherent PEC instability and electrochemical inertness toward water splitting. To achieve significant PEC activities, silicon-based photoelectrodes usually have to be coupled with proper cocatalysts, and thus formed semiconductor/cocatalyst interface represents a critical structural parameter in the rational design of efficient PEC devices...
October 21, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Yong Yang, Mei Wang, Peili Zhang, Weihan Wang, Hongxian Han, Licheng Sun
Modification of p-type Si surface by active and stable earth abundant electrocatalysts is an effective strategy to improve the sluggish kinetics for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) at p-Si/electrolyte interface and to develop highly efficient and low-cost photocathodes for hydrogen production from water. To this end, Si nanowire (Si-NW) array has been loaded with highly efficient electrocatalysts, M-B (M = Ni, Co), by facile and quick electroless plating to build M-B catalyst-modified Si nanowire-array-textured photocathodes for water reduction to H2...
October 20, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Émilie Faway, Ludivine Cambier, Bernard Mignon, Yves Poumay, Catherine Lambert de Rouvroit
Dermatophytosis is a superficial fungal infection of keratinized structures that exhibits an increasing prevalence in humans and is thus requesting novel prophylactic strategies and therapies. However, precise mechanisms used by dermatophytes to adhere at the surface of the human epidermis and invade its stratum corneum are still incompletely identified, as well as the responses provided by the underlying living keratinocytes during the infection. We hereby report development of an in vitro model of human dermatophytosis through infection of reconstructed human epidermis (RHE) by arthroconidia of the anthropophilic Trichophyton rubrum species or of the zoophilic Microsporum canis and Arthroderma benhamiae species...
October 19, 2016: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
Yang Yang, Di Xu, Qingyong Wu, Peng Diao
Solar powered hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) is one of the key reactions in solar-to-chemical energy conversion. It is desirable to develop photocathodic materials that exhibit high activity toward photoelectrochemical (PEC) HER at more positive potentials because a higher potential means a lower overpotential for HER. In this work, the Cu2O/CuO bilayered composites were prepared by a facile method that involved an electrodeposition and a subsequent thermal oxidation. The resulting Cu2O/CuO bilayered composites exhibited a surprisingly high activity and good stability toward PEC HER, expecially at high potentials in alkaline solution...
October 17, 2016: Scientific Reports
Li An, Zhonghong Xia, Peikai Chen, Dingguo Xia
Transition metal oxynitrides have now garnered growing interest in our quest for highly efficient alternatives to Pt in direct methanol alkaline fuel cells. Herein, carbon supported Co3Mo2OxN6-x was synthesized via a simple two-step approach wherein the reactants undergo refluxing and heat treatment in NH3. For the as-prepared Co3Mo2OxN6-x catalyst, uniformly dispersed on the XC-72, with the particles size averaged at 5 nm, the catalytic activities towards oxygen reduction reaction in alkaline media are related to the commercial Pt/C, such as the comparable onset potential (0...
October 12, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Minju Thomas, Rajith Illathvalappil, Sreekumar Kurungot, Balagopal N Nair, Abdul Azeez Peer Mohamed, Gopinathan M Anilkumar, Takeo Yamaguchi, U S Hareesh
Nitrogen containing mesoporous carbon obtained by the pyrolysis of graphene oxide (GO) wrapped ZIF-8 (Zeolitic Imidazolate Frameworks-8) micro crystals is demonstrated to be an efficient catalyst for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). ZIF-8 synthesis in the presence of GO sheets helped to realise layers of graphene oxide over ZIF-8 microcrystals and the sphere like structures thus obtained, on heat treatment, transformed to highly porous carbon with a nitrogen content of about 6.12 % and surface area of 502 m2/g...
October 12, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Marta Haro, Claudia Solis, Vicente M Blas-Ferrando, Olivier Margeat, Sadok Ben Dhkil, Christine Videlot-Ackermann, Jörg Ackermann, Fabio Di Fonzo, Antonio Guerrero, Sixto Gimenez
Here, we have developed an organic photocathode for water reduction to H2 , delivering more than 1 mA cm(-2) at 0 V versus RHE and above 3 mA cm(-2) at -0.5 V versus RHE with moderate stability under neutral pH conditions. The initial competitive reduction of water to H2 and ZnO to metallic Zn is responsible for the dynamic behaviour of both photocurrent and Faradaic efficiency of the device, which reaches 100 % Faradaic efficiency after 90 min operation. In any case, outstanding stable H2 flow of approximately 2 μmol h(-1) is measured over 1 h at 0 V versus RHE and at neutral pH, after equilibrium between the Zn(2+) /Zn(0) concentration in the AZO film is reached...
October 12, 2016: ChemSusChem
Xiaojun Liu, Shouzhong Zou, Shaowei Chen
Doping with foreign atoms is an effective approach to significantly enhance the catalytic performance of carbon materials for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). In this paper, a colloidal silica template method was employed to synthesize nitrogen and iron codoped ordered mesoporous carbon for ORR electrocatalysis. The carbon materials were thoroughly characterized by transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements. The porosity was quantified by nitrogen adsorption/desorption measurements that showed the formation of ordered mesoporous structures with a BET specific surface area up to 953...
October 11, 2016: Nanoscale
Mei Yang, Yijiang Liu, Hongbiao Chen, Duanguang Yang, Huaming Li
Metal-free N-doped carbon (NC) materials have been regarded as one of the most promising catalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in alkaline media because of their outstanding ORR catalytic activity, high stability, and good methanol tolerance. Up to now, only a small minority of such catalysts have been synthesized from triazine-based polymeric networks. Herein, we report the synthesis of such NC catalyst by directly pyrolyzing a nitrogen-rich, triazine-based polypyrrole network (TPN). The TPN is fabricated by oxidative polymerization of 2,4,6-tripyrrol-1,3,5-triazine monomer using TfOH as the protonating agent and benzoyl peroxide as the oxidizing agent...
October 7, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Jun Huang, Jianbo Zhang, Michael Eikerling
The emerging field of nanoprotonics is concerned with controlling proton distribution and transport in nanoporous media. These phenomena, dictated by the surface charging properties of the host medium, are of vital importance in porous electrodes for fuel cells, electrolysers, supercapacitors and nanofluidic devices. In this theoretical study, we explore the interplay of the metal charging relation with the proton density and oxygen reduction activity in a water-filled nanopore with walls made of platinum. We exploit a non-monotonic charging behavior derived from a refined structural model of the Pt-solution interface...
September 19, 2016: Faraday Discussions
He Feng, Lei Wang, Lu Zhao, Chungui Tian, Peng Yu, Honggang Fu
The exploration of low-cost and highly efficient non-platinum electrocatalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) is vital for renewable systems. Herein, we report a novel non-platinum electrocatalyst consisting of B and N separately co-doped graphitic carbon encapsulated Fe/Fe3C nanoparticles (BNGFe), which were synthesized from a facile method by adopting melamine, iron nitrate and boric acid as the precursors. In this synthesis, the N atoms in melamine first bond with the iron ions in iron nitrate, which could prevent the formation of BN covalent bonds during the subsequent pyrolysed process, resulting in the formation of effective B and N separately co-doped graphitic carbon encapsulated on the Fe/Fe3C nanoparticles...
September 29, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Dong-Dong Qin, Yang Li, Xing-Ming Ning, Qiu-Hong Wang, Cai-Hua He, Jing-Jing Quan, Jing Chen, Ying-Tao Li, Xiao-Quan Lu, Chun-Lan Tao
To overcome tough conditions currently used for the preparation of nanostructured hematite films on a conducting substrate, a rational and easy method of chemical etching involving Fe(3+) release and material growth in the presence of OH(-) has been developed. By carefully tuning the parameters influencing the morphologies of hematite, including the synthetic procedure, the concentration of etching solution, temperature, etching time and the morphology controlling surfactant, hematite films grown on iron foil with various morphologies (e...
October 18, 2016: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Bhalchandra A Kakade, Indrajit M Patil, Moorthi Loganathan, Balakrishnan Ganesan, Anita Swami
It is an immense challenge to develop bifunctional electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) in low temperature fuel cells and rechargeable metal-air batteries. Herein, a simple and cost-effective approach is developed to prepare novel material based on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) nanocomposite (CNT/BN) through one step hydrothermal method. The structural analysis and morphology study confirms the formation of a homogeneous composite and merging of few exfoliated graphene layers of CNTs on the graphitic planes of h-BN, respectively...
October 6, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
Xu-Dong Wang, Yang-Fan Xu, Bai-Xue Chen, Ning Zhou, Hong-Yan Chen, Dai-Bin Kuang, Cheng-Yong Su
Cupric oxide (CuO), a narrow-bandgap semiconductor, has a band alignment that makes it an ideal photocathode for the renewable production of solar fuels. However, the photoelectrochemical performance of CuO is limited by its poor conductivity and short electron diffusion lengths. Herein, a three-dimensional (3D) architecture consisting of CuO nanosheets supported onto transparent conducting macroporous antimony-doped tin oxide (mpATO@CuONSs) is designed as an excellent photocathode for promoting the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER)...
October 5, 2016: ChemSusChem
Mrinmoyee Basu, Roshan Nazir, Pragati Fageria, Surojit Pande
An efficient Hydrogen evolution catalyst has been developed by decorating Au nanoparticle on the surface of CuS nanostructure following a green and environmental friendly approach. CuS nanostructure is synthesized through a simple wet-chemical route. CuS being a visible light photocatalyst is introduced to function as an efficient reducing agent. Photogenerated electron is used to reduce Au(III) on the surface of CuS to prepare CuS/Au heterostructure. The as-obtained heterostructure shows excellent performance in electrochemical H2 evolution reaction with promising durability in acidic condition, which could work as an efficient alternative for novel metals...
October 5, 2016: Scientific Reports
R H Emerson, O Alnachoukati, J Barrington, K Ennin
AIMS: Approved by the Food and Drug Administration in 2004, the Phase III Oxford Medial Partial Knee is used to treat anteromedial osteoarthritis (AMOA) in patients with an intact anterior cruciate ligament. This unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) is relatively new in the United States, and therefore long-term American results are lacking. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This is a single surgeon, retrospective study based on prospectively collected data, analysing a consecutive series of primary UKAs using the Phase III mobile-bearing Oxford Knee and Phase III instrumentation...
October 2016: Bone & Joint Journal
Mariia V Pavliuk, Edgar Mijangos, Valeriya G Makhankova, Vladimir N Kokozay, Sonja Pullen, Jia Liu, Jiefang Zhu, Stenbjörn Styring, Anders Thapper
The heterometallic complexes (NH4 )2 [Co(H2 O)6 ]2 [V10 O28 ]⋅4 H2 O (1) and (NH4 )2 [Co(H2 O)5 (β-HAla)]2 [V10 O28 ]⋅4 H2 O (2) have been synthesized and used for the preparation of mixed oxides as catalysts for water oxidation. Thermal decomposition of 1 and 2 at relatively low temperatures (<500 °C) leads to the formation of the solid mixed oxides CoV2 O6 /V2 O5 (3) and Co2 V2 O7 /V2 O5 (4). The complexes (1, 2) and heterogeneous materials (3, 4) act as catalysts for photoinduced water oxidation...
September 30, 2016: ChemSusChem
Chunhui Xiao, Xu Chen, Zhaoyang Fan, Jin Liang, Bo Zhang, Shujiang Ding
Exploring efficient metal-free electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reactions (ORR) will have a great impact on the field of fuel cells and metal-air batteries. In this paper, we report a simple and efficient routine to coat ordered mesoporous carbon (CMK-3) with nitrogen-doped carbon via pyrolysis of the surface-self-polymerized polydopamine. The optimized CMK-3 catalyst with a coating of nitrogen-doped carbon demonstrates excellent electrocatalytic activity towards ORR in alkaline media. The coating procedure under optimized conditions lowers the ORR half-wave-potential by 80 mV, giving a genuine metal-free catalyst with an onset ORR potential of 0...
November 4, 2016: Nanotechnology
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