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T-G Truong, C Mériadec, B Fabre, J-F Bergamini, O de Sagazan, S Ababou-Girard, G Loget
The immersion of oxide-free Si surfaces in MoS4(2-) aqueous solutions induces their spontaneous decoration with isolated MoOx nanoparticles (NPs). The process is versatile and was used on planar Si (100) as well as on antireflective Si (111) micro-pyramid (SimPy) arrays. The NP decoration does not affect the optical properties of the surface in the visible range and improves the performance of the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) under simulated sunlight. The simplicity and the scalability of the technique make it highly promising for the fabrication of catalytically active photoelectrodes...
January 18, 2017: Nanoscale
Wesley W Luc, Charles Collins, Siwen Wang, Hongliang Xin, Kai He, Yijin Kang, Feng Jiao
Converting greenhouse gas carbon dioxide (CO2) to value-added chemicals is an appealing approach to tackle CO2 emission challenges. The chemical transformation of CO2 requires suitable catalysts that can lower the activation energy barrier, thus minimizing the energy penalty associated with the CO2 reduction reaction. First-row transition metals are potential candidates as catalysts for electrochemical CO2 reduction; however, their high oxygen affinity makes them easy to be oxidized, which could, in turn, strongly affect the catalytic properties of metal-based catalysts...
January 17, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Yifan Li, Fan Cui, Michael B Ross, Dohyung Kim, Yuchun Sun, Peidong Yang
Copper is uniquely active for the electrocatalytic reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2) to products beyond carbon monoxide, such as methane (CH4) and ethylene (C2H4). Therefore, understanding selectivity trends for CO2 electrocatalysis on copper surfaces is critical for developing more efficient catalysts for CO2 conversion to higher order products. Herein, we investigate the electrocatalytic activity of ultrathin (diameter ~20 nm) five-fold twinned copper nanowires (Cu NWs) for CO2 reduction. These Cu NW catalysts were found to exhibit high CH4 selectivity over other carbon products, reaching 55% Faradaic efficiency (F...
January 17, 2017: Nano Letters
Wenxiu Yang, Lulu Chen, Xiangjian Liu, Jianbo Jia, Shaojun Guo
Herein, a novel material with an excellent electrocatalytic activity for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), composed of onion-like carbon@Co nanoparticles (NPs) incorporated on defect-rich N-doped graphene nanoribbons (C@Co-NGR), is prepared via a combination of nitric acid etching and subsequent high-temperature treatment of the as-synthesized C@Co-N doped carbon nanotubes. The as-prepared C@Co-NGR exhibits excellent electrocatalytic activity for the ORR in 0.10 M KOH with a half-wave potential of 0.830 V (vs...
January 16, 2017: Nanoscale
Youra Hwang, Hee-Seung Choi, Hyun-Min Cho, Hyung-Taeg Cho
ROOT HAIR SPECIFIC (RHS) genes, which contain the root hair-specific cis-element (RHE) in their regulatory regions, function in root hair morphogenesis. Here, we demostrate that an Arabidopsis thaliana basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, ROOT HAIR DEFECTVE SIX-LIKE 4 (RSL4), directly binds to the RHE in vitro and in vivo, up-regulates RHS genes, and stimulates root hair formation in Arabidopsis. Orthologs of RSL4 from a eudicot (poplar, Populus trichocarpa), a monocot (rice, Oryza sativa), and a lycophyte (Selaginella moellendorffii) each restored root hair growth in the Arabidopsis rsl4 mutant...
January 13, 2017: Plant Cell
Li Song, Tao Wang, Yilin Wang, Hairong Xue, Xiaoli Fan, Hu Guo, Wei Xia, Hao Gong, Jianping He
We synthesized a novel non-precious metal electrocatalyst by pyrolysis of a colloid mixture consisting of tungsten source and phenolic resin, with the simultaneous addition of ferric salt. The rationally designed electrocatalyst has a unique structure, with nano-sized WC and Fe3W3C uniformly dispersed in a three-dimensional porous carbon framework. WC, which was thought difficult to produce, is successfully prepared at a relatively low temperature of about 750 oC at inert atmosphere. XRD studies demonstrate the self-assisted effect of Fe, which accelerates the formation of WC, getting around the pathway of direct carbonaceous reduction of tungsten by carbon...
January 9, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Yuan Gao, Thomas W Hamann
The hole collection efficiency of water oxidation was evaluated for CuWO4 electrodes from comparisons of the photocurrent of H2O2 and Na2SO3 oxidation as well as intensity modulated photocurrent spectroscopy (IMPS) measurements. We found current multiplication using H2O2, however use of Na2SO3 and IMPS revealed quantitative water oxidation at 1.23 V vs. RHE.
January 9, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Shaofang Fu, Chengzhou Zhu, Junhua Song, Peina Zhang, Mark H Engelhard, Haibing Xia, Dan Du, Yuehe Lin
Dendritic nanostructures are capturing increasing attention in electrocatalysis owing to their unique structural features and low density. Herein, we report for the first time, bromide ion mediated synthesis of low Pt-content PdCuPt ternary nanodendrites via galvanic replacement reaction between a Pt precursor and a PdCu template in aqueous solution. The experimental results show that the ternary PdCuPt nanodendrites present enhanced electrocatalytic performance for oxygen reduction reaction in acid solution compared with commercial Pt/C as well as some state-of-the-art catalysts...
January 5, 2017: Nanoscale
Minki Baek, Donghyung Kim, Kijung Yong
This study presents an effective and the simplest method to substantially improve the photoelectrochemical water-splitting ability of hydrothermally grown ZnO nanorod arrays (NRAs). In the hydrothermal growth of ZnO NRAs, unwanted Zn(OH)2 species are formed, which act as trapping sites of photoexcited charges. We found that those inherent charge-trapping sites could be annihilated by the desorption of the hydroxyl groups upon vacuum annealing above 200 °C, which resulted in an enhancement of the charge-separation efficiency and photocurrent density...
January 12, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Xiaoyan Wang, Weiyong Yuan, Yanan Yu, Chang Ming Li
A highly active, durable, and low-cost hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) catalyst is desirable for energy storage via water splitting but its fabrication presents great challenges. Herein, mediated by dynamically self-assembled graphene quantum dots (GQDs), ultra-small, uniform, high-density, and well-dispersed CoP nanoparticles (NPs) were in-situ grown on truly pristine graphene for the first time. This hybrid nanostructure was then employed as a HER electrocatalyst, showing an onset potential of 7 mV, an overpotential of 91...
January 2, 2017: ChemSusChem
Lilian Julia Löwenau, Christian Zoschke, Robert Brodwolf, Pierre Volz, Christian Hausmann, Suvara Wattanapitayakul, Alexander Boreham, Ulrike Alexiev, Monika Schäfer-Korting
Extrinsic (photo) aging accelerates chronologically aging in the skin due to cumulative UV irradiation. Despite recent insights into the molecular mechanisms of fibroblast aging, age-related changes of the skin barrier function have been understudied. In contrast, the constantly increasing subpopulation of aged patients causes a clinical need for effective and safe (dermatological) treatment. Herein, we reconstructed human epidermis from UVB-irradiated keratinocytes (UVB-RHE). UVB-irradiated keratinocytes show higher activity of senescence associated β-galactosidase, less cell proliferation, and reduced viability...
December 27, 2016: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
Jingyuan Liu, Takashi Hisatomi, Dharmapura H K Murthy, Miao Zhong, Mamiko Nakabayashi, Tomohiro Higashi, Yohichi Suzuki, Hiroyuki Matsuzaki, Kazuhiko Seki, Akihiro Furube, Naoya Shibata, Masao Katayama, Tsutomu Minegishi, Kazunari Domen
Particulate La5Ti2CuS5O7 (LTC) photocathodes prepared by particle transfer show a positive onset potential of 0.9 V vs. RHE for the photocathodic current in photoelectrochemical (PEC) H2 evolution. However, the low photocathodic current imposes a ceiling on the solar-to-hydrogen energy conversion efficiency of PEC cells based on LTC photocathodes. To improve the photocurrent, in this work, the surface of Mg-doped LTC photocathodes was modified with TiO2, Nb2O5, and Ta2O5 by radio-frequency reactive magnetron sputtering...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Haihong Zhong, Yun Luo, Shi He, Pinggui Tang, Dianqing Li, Nicolas Alonso-Vante, Yongjun Feng
A metal organic framework (MOF), synthesized from cobalt salt, melamine (mela) and 1,4-dicarboxybezene (BDC), was used as precursor to prepare Co/CoNx/N-CNT/C electrocatalyst via heat-treatment (HT) at different temperature (700 - 900 °C) under nitrogen atmosphere. Crystallites size and micro-strain in the 800°C heat-treated sample (MOFs-800) were the lowest, whereas the stacking fault value was the highest, among the rest of the home-made samples, as attested by the Williamson-Hall analysis, hence assessing that the structural or/and surface modification of Co nanoparticles (NPs), found in MOFs-800, was different from other samples...
December 29, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Martin Pumera
Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) is on forefront of materials research. It shows great promises for electrochemical applications, especially for hydrogen evolution reaction catalysis. There is a significant discrepancy in the literature on the reported catalytic effects for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) catalysis on MoS2. Here we test the electrochemical performance of MoS2 obtained from seven sources and we show that these sources provide MoS2 of various phase purity (2H and 3R, respectively their mixtures) and composition, which is responsible for their different electrochemical properties...
December 22, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
Naveen Chandrasekaran, Saravanakumar Muthusamy
We report the synthesis of lightweight, free-standing Ni-Fe@rGO porous interconnects by carbothermal reduction of Ni-FeOx using graphene oxide (GO) as the reducing agent. Here, we take advantage of the oxygen functionalities present in GO to aid in anchoring the metal ions followed by epoxide-assisted Ni-FeOx@GO network formation. When pyrolyzed under inert conditions, Ni-FeOx@GO networks were converted to Ni-Fe@rGO by simple carbothermal metal reduction at 800 °C. The Ni-Fe@rGO monoliths were found to be macroporous, electrically conducting, and electrocatalytic toward oxygen evolution reaction (OER)...
December 22, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Ji Hyun Baek, Byeong Jo Kim, Gill Sang Han, Sung Won Hwang, Dong Rip Kim, In Sun Cho, Hyun Suk Jung
Coupling dissimilar oxides in heterostructures allows the engineering of interfacial, optical, charge separation/transport and transfer properties of photoanodes for photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting. Here, we demonstrate a double-heterojunction concept based on a BiVO4/WO3/SnO2 triple-layer planar heterojunction (TPH) photoanode, which shows simultaneous improvements in the charge transport (∼93% at 1.23 V vs RHE) and transmittance at longer wavelengths (>500 nm). The TPH photoanode was prepared by a facile solution method: a porous SnO2 film was first deposited on a fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO)/glass substrate followed by WO3 deposition, leading to the formation of a double layer of dense WO3 and a WO3/SnO2 mixture at the bottom...
January 18, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Qiangmin Yu, Jiaoxing Xu, Chuxin Wu, Jianshuo Zhang, Lunhui Guan
Platinum is commonly chosen as an electrocatalyst used for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). In this study, we report an active catalyst composed of MnO2 nanofilms grown directly on nitrogen-doped hollow graphene spheres, which exhibits high activity toward ORR with positive onset potential (0.94 V vs RHE), large current density (5.2 mA cm(-2)), and perfect stability. Significantly, when it was used as catalyst for air electrode, a zinc-air battery exhibited a high power density (82 mW cm(-2)) and specific capacities (744 mA h g(-1)) comparable to that with Pt/C (20 wt %) as air cathode...
December 28, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Rujing Zhang, Xiao Li, Li Zhang, Shuyuan Lin, Hongwei Zhu
It is of great significance to design a platform with large surface area and high electrical conductivity for poorly conductive catalyst for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER), such as molybdenum sulfide (MoS x ), a promising and cost-effective nonprecious material. Here, the design and preparation of a free-standing and tunable graphene mesoporous structure/single-walled carbon nanotube (GMS/SWCNT) hybrid membrane is reported. Amorphous MoS x is electrodeposited on this platform through a wet chemical process under mild temperature...
November 2016: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
Lingzheng Bu, Nan Zhang, Shaojun Guo, Xu Zhang, Jing Li, Jianlin Yao, Tao Wu, Gang Lu, Jing-Yuan Ma, Dong Su, Xiaoqing Huang
Compressive surface strains have been necessary to boost oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity in core/shell M/platinum (Pt) catalysts (where M can be nickel, cobalt, or iron). We report on a class of platinum-lead/platinum (PtPb/Pt) core/shell nanoplate catalysts that exhibit large biaxial strains. The stable Pt (110) facets of the nanoplates have high ORR specific and mass activities that reach 7.8 milliampere (mA) per centimeter squared and 4.3 ampere per milligram of platinum at 0.9 volts versus the reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE), respectively...
December 16, 2016: Science
Haitao Wang, Wei Wang, Mengxi Gui, Muhammad Asif, Zhengyun Wang, Yang Yu, Junwu Xiao, Hongfang Liu
Developing a facile strategy to synthesize an efficient and inexpensive catalyst for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) is critical to the commercialization of many sustainable energy storage and conversion techniques. Herein, a novel and convenient strategy was presented to prepare Fe3O4 embedded into nitrogen-doped mesoporous carbon spheres (Fe3O4/N-MCS) by the polycondensation between methylolmelamines and ammonium ferric citrate (AFC) and subsequent pyrolysis process. In particular, the polycondensation reaction was completely finished within a very short time (6...
December 23, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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