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Jing Ma, Xiaojuan Wang, Ting He, Minli Tan, Jun Zheng, Huiqiong Wu, Mengying Yuan, Rujuan Shen, Yi Zhang, Juan Xiang
The in situ hydrothermal mineralization for a mixture of graphene oxide (GO) and Co-responsive supramolecular hydrogels led to a hybrid graphene aerogel, doped with Co and N elements. The as-prepared aerogels exhibited a competitive half-wave potential (0.840 V, versus RHE) and peak current density (2.35 mA cm(-2)) to that of Pt/C (0.836 V, 2.23 mA cm(-2), respectively). Furthermore, they demonstrated a significantly perfect catalytic efficiency (nearly 100% of 4e(-) ORR) toward the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR)...
April 20, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Yunjung Oh, Wooseok Yang, Jimin Kim, Sunho Jeong, Jooho Moon
Efficient sunlight-driven water-splitting devices can be achieved by using an optically and energetically well-matched pair of photoelectrodes in a tandem configuration. The key for maximizing the photoelectrochemical efficiency is the use of a highly transparent front photoelectrode with a band gap below 2.0 eV. Herein, we propose two-dimensional (2D) photonic crystal (PC) structures consisting of a CuFeO2-decorated microsphere monolayer, which serve as self-light-harvesting architectures allowing for amplified light absorption and high transparency...
April 13, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Gurudayal Gurudayal, Rohit Abraham John, Pablo P Boix, Chenyi Yi, Chen Shi, Mary C Scott, Sjoerd A Veldhuis, Andrew M Minor, Shaik M Zakeer, Lydia Wong, Michael Graetzel, Nripan Mathews
Photoelectrochemical (PEC) cells are attractive for storing solar energy in chemical bonds through cleaving of water into oxygen and hydrogen. Although hematite (a-Fe2O3) is a promising photoanode material due to its chemical stability, suitable band gap, low cost and environmental friendliness, its performance is limited by short carrier lifetimes, poor conductivity and sluggish kinetics leading to low (solar-to-hydrogen) STH efficiency. Herein, we combine solution based hydrothermal growth and a post-growth surface exposure through atomic layer deposition (ALD) to show a dramatic enhancement of the efficiency for water photolysis...
April 2, 2017: ChemSusChem
Alireza Kargar, Supanee Sukrittanon, Chang Zhou, Yun Goo Ro, Xiaoqing Pan, Shadi A Dayeh, Charles W Tu, Sungho Jin
The growth and characterization of an n-GaP/i-GaNP/p(+) -GaP thin film heterojunction synthesized using a gas-source molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) method, and its application for efficient solar-driven water oxidation is reported. The TiO2 /Ni passivated n-GaP/i-GaNP/p(+) -GaP thin film heterojunction provides much higher photoanodic performance in 1 m KOH solution than the TiO2 /Ni-coated n-GaP substrate, leading to much lower onset potential and much higher photocurrent. There is a significant photoanodic potential shift of 764 mV at a photocurrent of 0...
March 31, 2017: Small
Wenjing Luo, Jun Hu, Hongling Diao, Benjamin Schwarz, Carsten Streb, Yu-Fei Song
The development of technologically viable electrodes for the electrochemical oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is a major bottleneck in chemical energy conversion. This article describes a facile one-step hydrothermal route to deposit microcrystals of a robust Dexter-Silverton polyoxometalate oxygen evolution catalyst, [Co6.8 Ni1.2 W12 O42 (OH)4 (H2 O)8 ], on a commercial nickel foam electrode. The electrode shows efficient and sustained electrochemical oxygen evolution at low overpotentials (360 mV at 10 mA cm(-2) against RHE, Tafel slope 126 mV dec(-1) , faradaic efficiency (96±5) %) in alkaline aqueous solution (pH 13)...
April 3, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
Shengjue Deng, Yu Zhong, Yinxiang Zeng, Yadong Wang, Zhujun Yao, Fan Yang, Shiwei Lin, Xiuli Wang, Xihong Lu, Xinhui Xia, Jiangping Tu
The low utilization of active sites and sluggish reaction kinetics of MoSe2 severely impede its commercial application as electrocatalyst for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). To address these two issues, the first example of introducing 1T MoSe2 and N dopant into vertical 2H MoSe2 /graphene shell/core nanoflake arrays that remarkably boost their HER activity is herein described. By means of the improved conductivity, rich catalytic active sites and highly accessible surface area as a result of the introduction of 1T MoSe2 and N doping as well as the unique structural features, the N-doped 1T-2H MoSe2 /graphene (N-MoSe2 /VG) shell/core nanoflake arrays show substantially enhanced HER activity...
April 3, 2017: Advanced Materials
Jun Yang, Tsuyohiko Fujigaya, Naotoshi Nakashima
We present a new concept for homogeneous spinel nanocrystal-coating on high crystalline pristine-carbon nanotubes (CNTs) for efficient and durable oxygen evolution reaction (OER) and oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Oxidized CNTs have widely been used to functionalize with metal or metal oxides since the defect sites act as anchoring for metal oxide binding. However, such defects on the tubes cause the decrease in electrical conductivity and stability, leading to lower catalyst performance. In the present study, at first, pristine multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) were wrapped by pyridine-based polybenzimidazole (PyPBI) to which uniform NixCo3-xO4 nanocrystals were homogeneously deposited by the solvothermal method without damaging the MWNTs, in which PyPBI acted as efficient anchoring sites for the deposition of spinel oxide nanocrystals with ~5 nm size...
March 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
Tatsuya Shinagawa, Marcus Tze-Kiat Ng, Kazuhiro Takanabe
The development of cost-effective and active water-splitting electrocatalysts that work at mild pH is an essential step towards the realization of sustainable energy and material circulation in our society. Its success requires a drastic improvement in the kinetics of the anodic half-reaction of the oxygen evolution reaction (OER), which determines the overall system efficiency to a large extent. A simple electrochemical protocol has been developed to activate Ni electrodes, by which a stable NiOOH phase was formed, which could weakly bind to alkali-metal cations...
March 27, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
Tatiana do Nascimento Pedrosa, Carolina Motter Catarino, Paula Comune Pennacchi, Sílvia Romano de Assis, Fabrícia Gimenes, Márcia Edilaine Lopes Consolaro, Silvia Berlanga de Moraes Barros, Silvya Stuchi Maria-Engler
Different models of reconstructed human epidermis (RHE) are currently validated to assess skin irritation in vitro and ultimately to the animal replacement of the Draize test. The development of a new RHE model is a challenge for many laboratories, representing a potential gain of autonomy and improvement of technological knowledge. The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) encourages the development of new models and, for this purpose, offers a thorough guideline on quality control parameters (OECD TG 439 performance standards)...
March 23, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
Ya-Qian Lan, Xiao-Li Wang, Yu-Jia Tang, Wei Huang, Chun-Hui Liu, Long-Zhang Dong, Shun-Li Li
Efficient hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) from water through electrocatalysis using cost-effective materials is critical to realize the clean hydrogen production. Herein, with controlling the structure and composition of polyoxotungstate/conductive polypyrrole/graphene (PCG) precursor precisely and followed by the temperature-programmed reaction, we developed a highly active and stable catalyst WxC@C/NRGO. The composite presents splendid performance towards HER in acidic media, with a small onset overpotential of 24 mV vs...
March 23, 2017: ChemSusChem
Lisa Grohmann, Daniel Becker, Jörg Rademann, Nan Ma, Monika Schäfer-Korting, Günther Weindl
Reconstructed human epidermis (RHE) is used for risk assessment of chemicals and cosmetics and RHE as well as reconstructed human full-thickness skin (RHS) become important for e.g., the pre-clinical development of drugs. Yet, the knowledge regarding their biotransformation capacity is still limited, although the metabolic activity is highly relevant for skin sensitization, genotoxicity, and the efficacy of topical dermatics. The biotransformation of the aromatic amine 2,4-toluenediamine (2,4-TDA) has been compared in two commercially available RHS to normal human skin ex vivo, and in primary epidermal keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts as well as in vitro generated epidermal Langerhans cells and dermal dendritic cells...
March 23, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
Desmond E Schipper, Zhenhuan Zhao, Andrew P Leitner, Lixin Xie, Fan Qin, Md Kamrul Alam, Shuo Chen, Dezhi Wang, Zhifeng Ren, Zhiming Wang, Jiming Bao, Kenton H Whitmire
A variety of catalysts have recently been developed for electrocatalytic oxygen evolution, but very few of them can be readily integrated with semiconducting light absorbers for photoelectrochemical or photocatalytic water splitting. Here, we demonstrate an efficient core/shell photoanode with a highly active oxygen evolution electrocatalyst shell (FeMnP) and semiconductor core (rutile TiO2) for photoelectrochemical oxygen evolution reaction. Metal-organic chemical vapor deposition from a single-source precursor was used to ensure good contact between the FeMnP and the TiO2...
April 25, 2017: ACS Nano
Zheng Xi, Daniel P Erdosy, Adriana Mendoza-Garcia, Paul N Duchesne, Junrui Li, Michelle Muzzio, Qing Li, Peng Zhang, Shouheng Sun
We synthesize a new type of hybrid Pd/WO2.72 structure with 5 nm Pd nanoparticles (NPs) anchored on 50 × 5 nm WO2.72 nanorods. The strong Pd/WO2.72 coupling results in the lattice expansion of Pd from 0.23 to 0.27 nm and the decrease of Pd surface electron density. As a result, the Pd/WO2.72 shows much enhanced catalysis toward electrochemical oxidation of formic acid in 0.1 M HClO4; it has a mass activity of ∼1600 mA/mgPd in a broad potential range of 0.4-0.85 V (vs RHE) and shows no obvious activity loss after a 12 h chronoamperometry test at 0...
March 22, 2017: Nano Letters
María Isabel Díez-García, Roberto Gómez
The development of tandem devices for water photosplitting requires finding photocathodic materials based on earth-abundant elements and showing long-term stability in aqueous electrolytes. Ternary metal oxides seem to be a viable option, among which perovskites stand out. In this context, transparent and compact LaFeO3 thin film electrodes have been prepared by sol-gel, both undoped and doped with metals (M) such as magnesium or zinc. Pristine electrodes support the development of cathodic photocurrents in 0...
March 20, 2017: ChemSusChem
Qing Li, Jiaju Fu, Wenlei Zhu, Zhengzheng Chen, Bo Shen, Liheng Wu, Zheng Xi, Tanyuan Wang, Gang Lu, Jun-Jie Zhu, Shouheng Sun
Tin (Sn) is known to be a good catalyst for electrochemical reduction of CO2 to formate in 0.5 M KHCO3. But when a thin layer of SnO2 is coated over Cu nanoparticles, the reduction becomes Sn-thickness dependent: the thicker (1.8 nm) shell shows Sn-like activity to generate formate whereas the thinner (0.8 nm) shell is selective to the formation of CO with the conversion Faradaic efficiency (FE) reaching 93% at -0.7 V (vs reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE)). Theoretical calculations suggest that the 0.8 nm SnO2 shell likely alloys with trace of Cu, causing the SnO2 lattice to be uniaxially compressed and favors the production of CO over formate...
March 16, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Agnieszka Orzińska, Katarzyna Guz, Michał Mikula, Maria Kulecka, Anna Kluska, Aneta Balabas, Monika Pelc-Kłopotowska, Jerzy Ostrowski, Ewa Brojer
BACKGROUND: Matching the compatibility of donor blood with the recipient's antigens prevents alloimmunisation. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology is a promising method for extensive blood group and platelet antigen genotyping of blood donors. It circumvents the limitations of detecting known alleles based on predefined polymorphisms and enables targeted sequencing on a massive scale. The aim of this study was to evaluate the NGS AmpliSeq application on the Ion Torrent platform as a screening tool for genotyping blood donors' erythrocyte/platelet antigens...
March 10, 2017: Blood Transfusion, Trasfusione del Sangue
Hyung-Taeg Cho
The root hair development of vascular plants can be divided into 2 major processes, fate determination and hair morphogenesis, and the latter should be governed by the former so as to express the morphogenetic toolkits in a root hair-specific manner. Vascular plants, depending on taxa, show different fate-determining mechanisms for hair cell/non-hair cell fates, which leads to a question whether the downstream mophogenetic regulatory module is diverged accordingly to the upstream fate determiners or not. Our study demonstrates that the module of a transcription factor and a root hair-specific cis-element (RHE) for root hair-specific expression of morphogenetic toolkit genes is conserved in spite of different fate-determing mechanisms...
March 4, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Kezhu Jiang, Dandan Zhao, Shaojun Guo, Xu Zhang, Xing Zhu, Jun Guo, Gang Lu, Xiaoqing Huang
The common knowledge is that Pt and Pt alloy nanoparticles (NPs) less than 2 nm are not desirable for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). However, whether the same trend is expected in Pt-based nanowires (NWs) and nanoplates remains questionable because there is no scalable approach to make such Pt nanostructures. We report a general approach for preparing subnanometer Pt alloy NWs with a diameter of only 4 to 5 atomic layer thickness, ranging from monometallic Pt NWs to bimetallic PtNi and PtCo NWs and to trimetallic PtNiCo NWs...
February 2017: Science Advances
Frank A Alexander, Joachim Wiest
Understanding the effect of exogenous substances on human skin is critical for toxicology assessment. To address this, numerous artificial models of the topmost layer of human skin, so-called reconstructed human epidermis (RhE), have been created in an attempt to produce a clear analogue for testing. Unfortunately, current testing modalities still rely on endpoint assays and are not capable of monitoring time-resolved changes in barrier function without using numerous redundant samples. In this work, a novel, time-resolved approach is realized by monitoring the transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) of MatTek EpiDerm® reconstructed human epidermis model, utilizing an automated protocol with the Intelligent Mobile Lab for in vitro diagnostics (IMOLA-IVD)...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
R K Vishnu Prataap, S Mohan
Herein, we present the electrochemical fabrication of a hydroxide surface-covered nickel-cobalt alloy and its superior catalytic activity towards the electrochemical oxygen evolution reaction in alkaline media. Electrodes were fabricated via the galvanostatic and potentiostatic electrodeposition methods in various electrolytic compositions, in which a nanopyramid-like morphology was obtained under the galvanostatic conditions and a porous structure was obtained under the potentiostatic deposition conditions...
March 6, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
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