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Lynda Miloudi, Franck Bonnier, Ali Tfayli, Florent Yvergnaux, Hugh J Byrne, Igor Chourpa, Emilie Munnier
Topically applied Active Cosmetic Ingredients (ACI) or Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (API) efficacy is directly related to their efficiency of penetration in the skin. In vitro Reconstructed Human Epidermis (RHE) surrogate models offer in vivo like skin samples for transdermal studies. Using Delipidol®, an ACI currently used in the cosmetics industry, the capabilities to deliver accurate distribution maps and penetration profiles of this molecule by means of Confocal Raman spectroscopic Imaging have been demonstrated...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Biophotonics
Yunpeng Zuo, Dewei Rao, Shuo Li, Tingting Li, Guilin Zhu, Shuangming Chen, Li Song, Yang Chai, Heyou Han
Structure-engineered Pd-based catalysts at the atomic level can effectively improve the catalytic performance for oxygen or small organic molecules electrocatalysis, comparable to or even superior to that of commercial Pt/C. Here, PdCuCo anisotropic structure (AS) electrocatalysts are synthesized with abundant vacancy defects on the exterior surface, which is unambiguously verified by aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy. The PdCuCo-AS with vacancy (v-PdCuCo-AS) shows excellent electrochemical activity toward oxygen reduction (ORR) and oxidation of alcohols...
November 10, 2017: Advanced Materials
J Toupin, H Strub, S Kressmann, M Boudot, V Artero, Ch Laberty-Robert
The generation of hydrogen from water and sunlight offers a promising approach for producing scalable and sustainable carbon free fuels. One of the challenges of solar-to-fuel technology is the design of efficient, long-lasting and low-cost photocathodes, which are responsible for absorbing sunlight and driving catalytic hydrogen evolution. We report on the protection of a Cu/Cu2O/CuO photoelectrode against photocorrosion by a 200-300 nm-thick BaTiO3 perovskite layer, deposited using the sol-gel method. This photoelectrode mediates H2 production with a current density of ∼3...
November 9, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Xin Bo, Yibing Li, Rosalie K Hocking, Chuan Zhao
By introducing chromium into a nickel-iron layered double hydroxide (LDH), a nickel iron chromium hydroxide nanomesh catalyst has been achieved on nickel foam substrate via electrodeposition followed by partially etching of chromium. The electrodeposited chromium acts as sacrificial template to introduce holes in the LDH to increase the electrochemically active surface area and the remaining chromium synergistically modulates the electronic structure of the composite. The obtained electrode shows extraordinary performance for oxygen evolution reaction and excellent electrochemical stability...
November 7, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Yanwei Lum, Joel W Ager
Oxide-derived (OD) Cu catalysts have high selectivity towards the formation of multi-carbon products (C2/C3) for aqueous electrochemical CO2 reduction (CO2R). It has been proposed that a large fraction of the initial oxide can be surprisingly resistant to reduction and that these residual oxides play a crucial role in promoting the formation of C2/C3 products. We investigate the stability of residual oxides by synthesizing 18O enriched OD Cu catalysts and testing them for CO2R. These catalysts maintain a high selectivity towards C2/C3 products (~60%) for up to 5h in 0...
November 7, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
Charuni M Gunathunge, Vincent J Ovalle, Matthias M Waegele
The catalytic selectivity and reactivity of an electrocatalytic interface can profoundly depend on the identity of the supporting electrolyte's cation. In the case of CO2 reduction on copper electrodes, these cation effects have been utilized to suppress undesired hydrogen evolution and to promote the formation of C2 reduction products. However, to more effectively steer the catalytic selectivity of the electrolyte/copper interface by cations, it is crucial to reveal the various physical mechanisms by which cations impact the catalytic properties of this prototypical interface for CO2 reduction...
November 6, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Arianna Romani, Carlo Cervellati, Ximena M Muresan, Giuseppe Belmonte, Alessandra Pecorelli, Franco Cervellati, Mascia Benedusi, Pablo Evelson, Giuseppe Valacchi
Epidemiological evidences have correlated airbone particulate matter (PM) to adverse health effects, mainly linking to pulmonary and cardiovascular disease. Nevertheless, only recently, some studies reported detrimental effects of PM on other organs such as skin. In a recent work, we have reported increased oxidative and inflammatory responses in Reconstituted Human Epidermis (RHE) exposed to ambient particles (CAPs) and we also demonstrated the ability of CAPs to penetrate the skin tissue. The present study was aimed to better understand the cellular mechanisms beyond the oxidative changes induced by CAPs (5-10-25μg/mL) in human immortalized keratinocytes (HaCaT)...
November 8, 2017: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
Jamie A Trindell, Jan Clausmeyer, Richard M Crooks
In this paper, we show that Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) stabilized with either citrate or by low-generation dendrimers rapidly grow during electrocatalytic reduction of CO2. For example, citrate-stabilized AuNPs and AuNPs encapsulated within sixth-generation, hydroxyl-terminated, poly(amidoamine) dendrimers (G6-OH DENs) having diameters of ∼2 nm grow substantially in size (to 6-7 nm) and polydispersity during just 15 min of electrolysis at -0.80 V (vs RHE). This degree of instability makes it impossible to correlate the structure of AuNPs determined prior to electrocatalysis to their catalytic function...
November 15, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Pengjie Liu, Maojun Zheng, Qiang Li, Liguo Ma, Faze Wang, Dongkai Jiang, Jingnan Song, Yuxiu You, Li Ma, Wenzhong Shen
Gallium phosphide nanopore arrays with unique three-dimensional interior architectures (3D GaP NPs) are fabricated by electrochemical etching in a neutral solution. As the photoanodes for photoelectrochemical (PEC) hydrogen production, the 3D GaP NPs exhibited a larger photocurrent density (5.65 mA cm(-2) at 0 V vs. RHE, which is 58.3 and 2.3 times as large as that of the planar wafer and the NPs reported by our group in our previous work respectively) and a lower onset potential (-0.58 V vs. RHE, shifting negatively nearly 300 mV compared with its counterparts in the previous work)...
November 3, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Lili Yao, Wenxiu Yang, Huiling Liu, Jianbo Jia, Guohua Wu, Dan Liu, Ting Liu, Taixing Tan, Cheng Wang
The design of efficient mixed Mn-Co oxides as oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) electrocatalysts in alkaline media has been boosted nowadays. Recently, multivariant MOFs have been demonstrated as versatile precursors to construct these mixed metal oxides. Herein, we synthesized four mixed Mn-Co oxide samples via simply annealing their MIL-53 precursors with different Co/Mn molar ratios. These four samples were dominated by three kinds of Mn-Co spinel phases. The mixed Mn-Co oxides showed enhanced ORR performances compared with the single metal counterparts in alkaline media...
November 14, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Antonia De Socio, Fabio Massimo Perrotta, Guido Maria Grasso, Ennio Lubrano
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the CAMPO-RHE study was to determine the incidence of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), psoriatic arthritis (PsA) and polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) in patients attending a rheumatologic outpatient's clinic of a new institution in Campobasso, Italy. METHODS: Campobasso is a small town of approximately 50,000 inhabitants located in the inland territory of central Italy (Molise), and Public Health is managed from a single health authority. In Italy, all citizens are registered with a National Health System of General Practitioner (GP) Physicians...
November 3, 2017: Postgraduate Medicine
Susan Gibbs, Ilona Kosten, Rosalien Veldhuizen, Sander Spiekstra, Emanuela Corsini, Erwin Roggen, Thomas Rustemeyer, Albert J Feilzer, Cees J Kleverlaan
According to the new EU Medical Devices (MDR) legislation coming into effect in 2017, manufactures will have to comply with higher standards of quality and safety for medical devices in order to meet common safety concerns regarding such products. Metal alloys are extensively used in dentistry and medicine (e.g. orthopedic surgery and cardiology) even though clinical experience suggests that many metals are sensitizers. The aim of this study was to further test the applicability domain of the in vitro reconstructed human epidermis (RhE) IL-18 assay developed to identify contact allergens and in doing so: i) determine whether different metal salts, representing leachables from metal alloys used in medical devices, could be correctly labelled and classified; and ii) assess the ability of different salts for the same metal to penetrate the skin stratum corneum...
October 25, 2017: Toxicology
Guoqing Li, Du Zhang, Yifei Yu, Shengyang Huang, Weitao Yang, Linyou Cao
MoS2 presents a promising catalyst for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) in water splitting, but its worse catalytic performance in neutral and alkaline media than in acidic environment may be problematic for practical application. This is because the other half reaction of water splitting, i.e., oxygen evolution reaction, often needs to be implemented in alkaline environment. Here we demonstrate a universal strategy that may be used to significantly improve the HER catalysis of MoS2 in all kinds of environments from acidic to alkaline, proton intercalation...
November 15, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Yidan Wang, Wei Tian, Liang Chen, Fengren Cao, Jun Guo, Liang Li
The rational design of semiconductor photoanodes with sufficient light absorption, efficient photogenerated carrier separation, and fast charge transport is crucial for photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting. Incorporating a small-band-gap semiconductor to a large-band-gap material with matched energy band position is a promising route to improve the light harvesting and charge transport. Herein, we report the fabrication of a three-dimensional heterojunction with uniform Bi2S3 nanorods on WO3 nanoplates by hydrothermal process and chemical bath deposition...
November 7, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Elena Pérez-Gallent, Giulia Marcandalli, Marta Costa Figueiredo, Federico Calle-Vallejo, Marc T M Koper
The complexity of the electrocatalytic reduction of CO to CH4 and C2H4 on copper electrodes prevents a straightforward elucidation of the reaction mechanism and the design of new and better catalysts. Although structural and electrolyte effects have been separately studied, there are no reports on structure-sensitive cation effects on the catalyst's selectivity over a wide potential range. Therefore, we investigated CO reduction on Cu(100), Cu(111), and Cu(polycrystalline) electrodes in 0.1 M alkaline hydroxide electrolytes (LiOH, NaOH, KOH, RbOH, CsOH) between 0 and -1...
November 15, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Manman Qian, Shengsheng Cui, Daochuan Jiang, Lei Zhang, Pingwu Du
The development of efficient water-oxidation electrocatalysts based on inexpensive and earth-abundant materials is significant to enable water splitting as a future renewable energy source. Herein, the synthesis of novel FeNiP solid-solution nanoplate (FeNiP-NP) arrays and their use as an active catalyst for high-performance water-oxidation catalysis are reported. The as-prepared FeNiP-NP catalyst on a 3D nickel foam substrate exhibits excellent electrochemical performance with a very low overpotential of only 180 mV to reach a current density of 10 mA cm(-2) and an onset overpotential of 120 mV in 1...
October 23, 2017: Advanced Materials
Ke Dang, Xiaoxia Chang, Tuo Wang, Jinlong Gong
This paper describes an amorphous nickel boride (NiB) electrocatalyst loaded on porous bismuth vanadate (BiVO4) with high activity for oxygen evolution in photoelectrochemical water oxidation. The NiB-decorated BiVO4 photoanode exhibits an onset potential of 0.25 V versus the reversible hydrogen electrode (vs. RHE) and a photocurrent of 3.47 mA cm(-2) at 1.23 V vs. RHE under simulated 100 mW cm(-2) irradiation.
November 2, 2017: Nanoscale
Jingjing Xu, Shiyao Lu, Xu Chen, Jianan Wang, Bo Zhang, Xinyu Zhang, Chunhui Xiao, Shujiang Ding
Investigating low-cost and highly active electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reactions (ORR) is of crucial importance for energy conversion and storage devices. Herein, we design and prepare mesoporous carbon supported nitrogen-doped carbon by pyrolysis of polyaniline coated on CMK-3. This non-precious metal electrocatalyst exhibits excellent performance towards oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in alkaline media. The optimized nitrogen-doped mesoporous electrocatalyst show an onset potential (Eonset) of 0...
October 17, 2017: Nanotechnology
Yue Zhang, Hui Kong, Xiaoman Liu, Jinjun Cheng, Meiling Zhang, Yongzhi Wang, Fang Lu, Huihua Qu, Yan Zhao
The lateral-flow immunoassays based on novel fluorescent labels have been receiving increasing attention. Here, we developed a rapid, quantitative, lateral-flow immunoassay for rapid and accurate detection of rhein (RHE). The competitive immunoassay used anti-RHE IgY (immunoglobulin of yolk) probe conjugated with QDs as reporter. Our results showed that the immunochromatographic strip can be applied for qualitative and quantitative analysis of RHE in samples. For quantitative analysis, the strips were scanned by a membrane-strip reader, and a detection curve (y = -0...
October 16, 2017: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
Yi Shi, Yue Zhou, Dong-Rui Yang, Wei-Xuan Xu, Chen Wang, Feng-Bin Wang, Jing-Juan Xu, Xing-Hua Xia, Hong-Yuan Chen
Water-splitting devices for hydrogen generation through electrolysis (hydrogen evolution reaction, HER) hold great promise for clean energy. However, their practical application relies on the development of inexpensive and efficient catalysts to replace precious platinum catalysts. We previously reported that HER can be largely enhanced through finely tuning the energy level of molybdenum sulfide (MoS2) by hot electron injection from plasmonic gold nanoparticles. Under this inspiration, herein, we propose a strategy to improve the HER performance of MoS2 by engineering its energy level via direct transition-metal doping...
October 19, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
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