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Ellen Benn, Bernard Gaskey, Jonah D Erlebacher
Electroreduction of small molecules in aqueous solution often competes with the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER), especially if the reaction is driven even moderately hard using a large overpotential. Here, the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) was studied under proton diffusion-limited conditions in slightly acidic electrolytes - a model system to study the relative transport kinetics of protons and reactants to an electrocatalyst and the relationship between transport and catalytic performance. Using dealloyed nanoporous nickel-platinum (np-NiPt) electrodes, we find the hydrogen evolution reaction can be completely suppressed even at high overpotentials (-400 mV vs...
February 17, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Jin Jia, Weijia Zhou, Guixiang Li, Linjing Yang, Zhaoqian Wei, Lindie Cao, Yisheng Wu, Kai Zhou, Shaowei Chen
Electrochemical H2 generation from H2O has been focused on the exploration for non-noble-metal as well as earth-rich based catalysts. In our practical work, we put forward a simple cost-efficient fabrication process to prepare massively Mo sheets via the controlled equilibrium between sublimation of MoO3 and reduction of H2. The obtained Mo sheets as Mo source and template synthesize porous MoP sheets, which exhibit notable activity to the hydrogen evolution reaction with a low onset potential of -88 mV vs...
February 16, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Marine Bernard, Cédric Carrasco, Léo Laoubi, Béatrice Guiraud, Aurore Rozières, Catherine Goujon, Hélène Duplan, Sandrine Bessou-Touya, Jean-François Nicolas, Marc Vocanson, Marie-Florence Galliano
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common skin inflammatory disease characterized by the production of thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) and a marked TH 2 polarization. Recent studies suggest that IL-1β contributes to the development of AD skin inflammation. Here, we have investigated the impact of IL-1β signalling on the epidermal homeostasis of both healthy subjects and AD patient [with functional filaggrin (FLG) alleles] with particular attention to TSLP production and keratinocyte differentiation. In healthy reconstructed human epidermis (RHE), IL-1β promoted: (i) a robust secretion of TSLP in an NFkB-dependant manner and (ii) a significant decrease in the expression of filaggrin and other proteins of the epidermal differentiation complex...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Pathology
Purushothaman Varadhan, Hui-Chun Fu, Davide Priante, Jose Ramon Duran Retamal, Chao Zhao, Mohamed Ebaid, Tien Khee Ng, Idris A Ajia, Somak Mitra, Iman S Roqan, Boon S Ooi, Jr-Hau He
Hydrogen production via photoelectrochemical water-splitting is a key source of clean and sustainable energy. The use of one-dimensional nanostructures as photoelectrodes is desirable for photoelectrochemical water-splitting applications due to the ultra-large surface areas, lateral carrier extraction schemes, and superior light-harvesting capabilities. However, the unavoidable surface states of nanostructured materials create additional charge carrier trapping centers and energy barriers at the semiconductor-electrolyte interface, which severely reduce the solar-to-hydrogen conversion efficiency...
February 8, 2017: Nano Letters
Ramireddy Boppella, Saji Thomas Kochuveedu, Heejun Kim, Myung Jin Jeong, Filipe Marques Mota, Jong Hyeok Park, Dong Ha Kim
In this contribution we have developed TiO2 inverse opal based photoelectrodes for photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting devices, in which Au nanoparticles (NPs) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) have been strategically incorporated (TiO2@rGO@Au). The periodic hybrid nanostructure showed a photocurrent density of 1.29 mA cm(-2) at 1.23 V vs RHE, uncovering a 2-fold enhancement compared to a pristine TiO2 reference. The Au NPs were confirmed to extensively broaden the absorption spectrum of TiO2 into the visible range and to reduce the onset potential of these photoelectrodes...
February 15, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Tao Cheng, Hai Xiao, William A Goddard
A critical step toward the rational design of new catalysts that achieve selective and efficient reduction of CO2 to specific hydrocarbons and oxygenates is to determine the detailed reaction mechanism including kinetics and product selectivity as a function of pH and applied potential for known systems. To accomplish this, we apply ab initio molecular metadynamics simulations (AIMμD) for the water/Cu(100) system with five layers of the explicit solvent under a potential of -0.59 V [reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE)] at pH 7 and compare with experiment...
February 6, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Biao Lu, Yong Miao, Pascale Vigneron, Vincent Chagnault, Eric Grand, Anne Wadouachi, Denis Postel, Isabelle Pezron, Christophe Egles, Muriel Vayssade
Sugar-based surfactants present surface-active properties and relatively low cytotoxicity. They are often considered as safe alternatives to currently used surfactants in cosmetic industries. In this study, four sugar-based surfactants, each with an eight carbon alkyl chain bound to a glucose or a maltose headgroup through an amide linkage, were synthesized and compared to two standard surfactants. The cytotoxic and irritant effects of surfactants were evaluated using two biologically relevant models: 3D dermal model (mouse fibroblasts embedded in collagen gel) and reconstituted human epidermis (RHE, multi-layered human keratinocytes)...
February 3, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
Chunjie Liang, Jiang Zhu, Rui Hu, Theresa A Ramelot, Michael A Kennedy, Maili Liu, Yunhuang Yang
We report the solution NMR structure of RHE_CH02687 from Rhizobium etli. Its structure consists of two β-sheets that together with two short and one long α-helix form a hydrophobic cavity. This protein shows a high structural similarity to the prokaryotic protein YndB from Bacillus subtilis, and the eukaryotic protein Aha1. NMR titration experiments confirmed that RHE_CH02687, like its homolog YndB, interacted with flavonoids, giving support for a biological function as a flavonoid sensor in the symbiotic interaction between R...
February 3, 2017: Proteins
Paola Torricelli, Milena Fini, Pier Alessandro Fanti, Emi Dika, Massimo Milani
Polypodium leucotomos (PL) exerts potent antioxidant, photo-protective and immune-modulatory activities. A reconstructed human epidermis (RHE) (Episkin) is a suitable model for the evaluation of acute UV-induced cell damage. No data regarding the photo-protective action of PL in this model are available. We evaluated the effects of PL on the prevention of UVB-induced cell damage assessing sunburn cells, CPD formation, p53, Ki-67, p21 expression, and Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) production. RHE was incubated in standard conditions...
January 31, 2017: Photodermatology, Photoimmunology & Photomedicine
Fengling Zhou, Haitao Li, Maxime Fournier, Douglas Macfarlane
Palladium (Pd) nanoparticles have been proven to effectively catalytic CO2 reduction. However CO, one of the most important products in the CO2 reduction sequence, has strong affinity for the Pd surface and rapidly poisons the catalytic site. In this research, an electrodeposited Pd film is shown to exhibit high activity for CO2 reduction to formate with suppression of CO formation at low overpotentials. The substrates, electrodeposition process and the post treatment of the Pd films significantly affect the CO2 reduction pathway...
January 29, 2017: ChemSusChem
Ronglei Fan, Jie Mao, Zhihao Yin, Jiansheng Jie, Wen Dong, Liang Fang, Fengang Zheng, Mingrong Shen
Water splitting in a photoelectrochemical cell, which converts sunlight into hydrogen energy, has recently received intense research. Silicon is suitable as a viable light-harvesting material for constructing such cell; however, there is a need to improve its stability and explore a cheap and efficient cocatalyst. Here we fabricate highly efficient and stable photocathodes by integrating crystalline MoS2 catalyst with ∼2 nm Al2O3 protected n(+)p-Si. Al2O3 acts as a protective and passivative layer of the Si surface, while the sputtering method using a MoS2 target along with a postannealing leads to a vertically standing, conformal, and crystalline nano-MoS2 layer on Al2O3/n(+)p-Si photocathode...
February 9, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Cai-He Wang, Dong-Dong Qin, Duo-Liang Shan, Jing Gu, Yong Yan, Jing Chen, Qiu-Hong Wang, Cai-Hua He, Yang Li, Jing-Jing Quan, Xiao-Quan Lu
Graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) has been widely studied as a metal-free photocatalyst, leading to some excellent results; however, the rapid recombination of photogenerated charge carriers substantially limits its performance. Here, we establish two types of g-C3N4-based heterojunction (type II and nonmediator assisted Z-scheme) photoanodes on a transparent conducting substrate via coupling with rod-like and nanoparticulate WO3, respectively. In these composites, g-C3N4 film grown by electrophoretic deposition of exfoliated g-C3N4 serves as the host or guest material...
January 25, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Kun Zhao, Yanming Liu, Xie Quan, Shuo Chen, Hongtao Yu
Electrochemical reduction of CO2 to chemical feedstocks is an attractive solution that prevents CO2 accumulation in the atmosphere, but it remains a great challenge to develop the cost-effective catalysts. Herein, we synthesized oxide-derived Cu/carbon (OD Cu/C) catalysts by a facile carbonization of Cu-based MOF (HKUST-1). The resulting materials exhibited highly selective CO2 reduction to alcohol compounds with total faradic efficiencies of 45.2-71.2% at -0.1 to -0.7 V versus reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE)...
February 2, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Motiar Rahaman, Abhijit Dutta, Peter Broekmann
We report a remarkable size-dependent activity of palladium nanoparticles towards formate production at very low overpotentials (-0.1 V to -0.5 V vs RHE). Size-selective Pd-NPs have been chemically synthesized in the range from 3.8nm to 10.7nm. Electrochemical CO₂ reduction reaction was carried out in aqueous 0.5M NaHCO₃ solution. The Faradaic efficiency of formate production (FE/formate) exceeds more than 86% at E = -0.1 V vs RHE on 3.8nm Pd-NPs whereas on 6.5 nm Pd-NPs an even higher FEformate of 98% is observed...
January 19, 2017: ChemSusChem
Rodrigo Balbino Chaves Amorim, Ana Beatriz Vargas-Santos, Leticia Rocha Pereira, Evandro Silva Freire Coutinho, Geraldo da Rocha Castelar-Pinheiro
To assess the current practices in gout management among Brazilian rheumatology residents. We performed a cross-sectional online survey among all the rheumatology residents and those rheumatologists who had just completed their training (post-residency (PR)) regarding their approach to gout management. Results were compared with the 2012 American College of Rheumatology (ACR) gout guidelines and with the responses of a previous survey with a representative sample of practicing Brazilian rheumatologists (RHE)...
January 19, 2017: Clinical Rheumatology
T-G Truong, C Mériadec, B Fabre, J-F Bergamini, O de Sagazan, S Ababou-Girard, G Loget
The immersion of oxide-free Si surfaces in MoS4(2-) aqueous solutions induces their spontaneous decoration with isolated MoOx nanoparticles (NPs). The process is versatile and was used on planar Si (100) as well as on antireflective Si (111) micro-pyramid (SimPy) arrays. The NP decoration does not affect the optical properties of the surface in the visible range and improves the performance of the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) under simulated sunlight. The simplicity and the scalability of the technique make it highly promising for the fabrication of catalytically active photoelectrodes...
January 18, 2017: Nanoscale
Wesley Luc, Charles Collins, Siwen Wang, Hongliang Xin, Kai He, Yijin Kang, Feng Jiao
Converting greenhouse gas carbon dioxide (CO2) to value-added chemicals is an appealing approach to tackle CO2 emission challenges. The chemical transformation of CO2 requires suitable catalysts that can lower the activation energy barrier, thus minimizing the energy penalty associated with the CO2 reduction reaction. First-row transition metals are potential candidates as catalysts for electrochemical CO2 reduction; however, their high oxygen affinity makes them easy to be oxidized, which could, in turn, strongly affect the catalytic properties of metal-based catalysts...
January 26, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Yifan Li, Fan Cui, Michael B Ross, Dohyung Kim, Yuchun Sun, Peidong Yang
Copper is uniquely active for the electrocatalytic reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2) to products beyond carbon monoxide, such as methane (CH4) and ethylene (C2H4). Therefore, understanding selectivity trends for CO2 electrocatalysis on copper surfaces is critical for developing more efficient catalysts for CO2 conversion to higher order products. Herein, we investigate the electrocatalytic activity of ultrathin (diameter ∼20 nm) 5-fold twinned copper nanowires (Cu NWs) for CO2 reduction. These Cu NW catalysts were found to exhibit high CH4 selectivity over other carbon products, reaching 55% Faradaic efficiency (FE) at -1...
January 24, 2017: Nano Letters
Wenxiu Yang, Lulu Chen, Xiangjian Liu, Jianbo Jia, Shaojun Guo
Herein, a novel material with an excellent electrocatalytic activity for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), composed of onion-like carbon@Co nanoparticles (NPs) incorporated on defect-rich N-doped graphene nanoribbons (C@Co-NGR), is prepared via a combination of nitric acid etching and subsequent high-temperature treatment of the as-synthesized C@Co-N doped carbon nanotubes. The as-prepared C@Co-NGR exhibits excellent electrocatalytic activity for the ORR in 0.10 M KOH with a half-wave potential of 0.830 V (vs...
January 16, 2017: Nanoscale
Youra Hwang, Hee-Seung Choi, Hyun-Min Cho, Hyung-Taeg Cho
ROOT HAIR SPECIFIC (RHS) genes, which contain the root hair-specific cis-element (RHE) in their regulatory regions, function in root hair morphogenesis. Here, we demostrate that an Arabidopsis thaliana basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, ROOT HAIR DEFECTVE SIX-LIKE 4 (RSL4), directly binds to the RHE in vitro and in vivo, up-regulates RHS genes, and stimulates root hair formation in Arabidopsis. Orthologs of RSL4 from a eudicot (poplar, Populus trichocarpa), a monocot (rice, Oryza sativa), and a lycophyte (Selaginella moellendorffii) each restored root hair growth in the Arabidopsis rsl4 mutant...
January 13, 2017: Plant Cell
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