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Tristan Asset, Raphael Chattot, Jakub Drnec, Pierre Bordet, Nathalie Job, Frédéric Maillard, Laetitia Dubau
The oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity of Pt-alloy electrocatalysts depends on (i) strain/ligand effects induced by the non-noble metal (3d transition metal or a rare-Earth ele-ment) alloyed to Pt, (ii) the orientation of the catalytic surfaces and (iii) the density of struc-tural defects (ex. vacancies, voids, interconnections). These structural defects influence the 'generalized' coordination number of Pt atoms, the Pt-alloy lattice parameter and thus the adsorption strength of the ORR intermediates (O*, OH*, OOH*)...
June 26, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Rajith Illathvalappil, Vishal M Dhavale, Siddheshwar N Bhange, Sreekumar Kurungot
A highly active and durable CuPt alloy catalyst with trigonal bipyramidal and truncated cube-type mixed morphologies, anchored on the nitrogen-doped graphene (NGr) surface (CuPt-TBTC/NGr), was prepared by a simple and fast method. The obtained CuPt alloy showed improved oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity, with a 30 mV positive shift in the half-wave potential value, as compared to the state-of-the-art Pt/C catalyst in a 0.1 M KOH solution. The CuPt alloy with the trigonal bipyramidal morphology possesses porous type inter-connected sides, which help to achieve improved mass transport of oxygen during the ORR...
June 22, 2017: Nanoscale
Sujin Kim, Dawoon Jang, Joonwon Lim, Junghoon Oh, Sang Ouk Kim, Sungjin Park
Hybrid systems that molecule-based active species are combined with nanoscale materials may offer valuable routes to enhance the catalytic performances for electrocatalytic reactions. Development of rationally designed, cost-effective efficient catalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) is a crucial challenge for fuel cell and metal-air battery applications. In this work, we report a novel hybrid ORR catalyst material synthesized by a well-defined reaction pathway between Co-based organometallic molecules and N-doped multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) at room temperature...
June 18, 2017: ChemSusChem
Widya Ernayati Kosimaningrum, Thi-Xuan-Huong Le, Yaovi Holade, Mikhael Bechelany, Sophie Tingry, Buchari Buchari, Indra Noviandri, Christophe Innocent, Marc Cretin
The future of fuel cells that convert the chemical energy to electricity relies mostly on the efficiency of oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) due to its sluggish kinetics. By effectively bypassing the use of organic surfactants, post-synthesis steps for the immobilization onto electrodes, the catalytic inks preparation using binders, and the common problem of nanoparticles detachment from supports involved in traditional methodologies, we demonstrate a versatile electrodeposition method for growing anisotropic microstructures directly onto a three-dimensional (3D) carbon felt electrode, using platinum nanoparticles as elementary building blocks...
June 16, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Shoulin Gu, Xiaoxue Zhou, Fengang Zheng, Liang Fang, Wen Dong, Mingrong Shen
A porous carbon layer was inserted between a BiFeO3 film and a Pt catalyst for efficient solar water splitting. A photocathodic current density of -235.4 μA cm(-2) at 0 V versus RHE and an onset potential of 1.19 V versus RHE were obtained under 100 mW cm(-2) Xe-lamp illumination.
June 15, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Haili Tong, Yi Jiang, Qian Zhang, Jialing Li, Wenchao Jiang, Donghui Zhang, Na Li, Lixin Xia
The rational design of active photoanodes for photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting is crucial for future applications in sustainable energy conversion. A combination of catalysts with photoelectrodes is generally required to improve surface kinetics and suppress surface recombination. In this study, we present an iridium complex (Ir-PO3H2) modified WO3 photoanode (WO3+Ir-PO3H2) for PEC water oxidation. When the Ir-based molecular catalyst (Ir-PO3H2) is anchored to a WO3 electrode, the photoanode shows a significant improvement both in photocurrent and faradaic efficiency compared to bare WO3...
June 14, 2017: ChemSusChem
Paolo Ruscelli, Farncesco Buccoliero, Susanna Mazzocato, Giulio Belfiori, Claudio Rabuini, Pierluigi Sperti, Massimiliano Rimini
AIM: The aim of this retrospective study was to describe more than 10 years experience of a single Trauma Center about non operative management of abdominal organ injuries in hemodynamically stable patients MATERIAL OF STUDY: Between January 2001 and December 2014 ,732 consecutive patients were admitted with blunt abdominal trauma, involving liver and/or spleen and/or kidney, at the Bufalini Cesena Hospital .Management of patients included a specific institutional developed protocol :hemodynamic stability was evaluated in shock room according to the patients response to fluid challenge and the patients were classified into three categories A,B,and C...
2017: Annali Italiani di Chirurgia
Daniel Bacqueville, Carine Jacques, Laure Duprat, Emilien L Jamin, Beatrice Guiraud, Elisabeth Perdu, Sandrine Bessou-Touya, Daniel Zalko, Hélène Duplan
In this study, a comprehensive characterization of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes (XMEs) based on gene expression and enzyme functionality was made in a reconstructed skin epidermal model derived from the outer root sheath (ORS) of hair follicles (ORS-RHE). The ORS-RHE model XME gene profile was consistent with native human skin. Cytochromes P450 (CYPs) consistently reported to be detected in native human skin were also present at the gene level in the ORS-RHE model. The highest Phase I XME gene expression levels were observed for alcohol/aldehyde dehydrogenases and (carboxyl) esterases...
June 7, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
M Nur Hossain, Jiali Wen, Aicheng Chen
The electrochemical reduction of CO2 to useful chemicals and fuels has garnered a keen and broad interest. Herein, we report a unique nanocomposite consisting of Cu nanoparticles (NPs) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) supported on a Cu substrate with a high catalytic activity for CO2 reduction. The nanocomposite was optimized in terms of the composition of Cu NPs and rGO as well as the overall amount. A gas chromatograph was employed to analyze the gaseous products, whereas a chemical oxygen demand (COD) method was proposed and utilized to quantify the overall liquid products...
June 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
Ayon Karmakar, Suneel Kumar Srivastava
The present work is focused on protective agent free synthesis of interconnected copper cobaltite (Cu0.3Co2.7O4) nanochains by temperature controlled solvothermal method followed by post thermal treatment of the precursors. Further, Cu0.3Co2.7O4 interconnected nanochains are employed as electrocatalyst for water oxidation in alkaline medium for the first time. Extensive studies of physio-chemical properties showed the formation of interconnected 1D nanochains of Cu0.3Co2.7O4 exhibiting larger specific surface area (139...
June 9, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Daniel W Redman, Michael J Rose, Keith J Stevenson
This work reports on the general electrodeposition mechanism of tetrachalcogenmetallates from 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide. Both tetrathio- and tetraselenomolybdate underwent anodic electrodeposition and cathodic corrosion reactions as determined by UV-vis spectroelectrochemistry. Electrodeposition was carried out by cycling the potential between the anodic and cathodic regimes. This resulted in a film of densely packed nanoparticles of amorphous MoSx or MoSex as determined by SEM, Raman, and XPS...
June 15, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Kevin E Fritz, Peter A Beaucage, Fumiaki Matsuoka, Ulrich Wiesner, Jin Suntivich
The stability of carbon-based catalyst supports represents one of the biggest challenges for the commercialisation of proton-exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). Metal nitrides are an attractive alternative to carbon-based supports, owing to their high bulk conductivity and acid stability. We report the electrochemical stability evaluation of high-surface-area metal nitrides in acidic electrolytes. Three-dimensional mesoporous titanium (TiN) and niobium nitride (NbN) thin films were prepared using block copolymer self-assembly and were evaluated without using any conductive carbon additives or a carbon-based substrate...
June 2, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Zheng Xi, Haifeng Lv, Daniel P Erdosy, Dong Su, Qing Li, Chao Yu, Junrui Li, Shouheng Sun
We report an electrochemical method to deposit atomic scale Pt on a 5 nm Au nanoparticle (NP) surface in N2-saturated 0.5 M H2SO4. Pt is provided by the Pt wire counter electrode via one-step Pt wire oxidation, dissolution, and deposition realized by controlled electrochemical scanning. Scanning from 0.6-1.0 V (vs. RHE) for 10 000 cycles gives Au98.2Pt1.8, which serves as an excellent catalyst for the formic acid oxidation reaction, showing 41 times higher specific activity (20.19 mA cm(-2)) and 25 times higher mass activity (10...
June 2, 2017: Nanoscale
Dong-Dong Qin, Cai-Hua He, Yang Li, Antonio C Trammel, Jing Gu, Jing Chen, Yong Yan, Duo-Liang Shan, Qiu-Hong Wang, Jing-Jing Quan, Chun-Lan Tao, Xiao-Quan Lu
Zinc oxide is regarded as a promising candidate for application in photoelectrochemical water oxidation due to its higher electron mobility. However, its instability under alkaline conditions limits its application in a practical setting. Herein, we demonstrate an easily achieved wet-chemical route to chemically stabilize ZnO nanowires (NWs) by protecting them with a thin layer Fe2 O3 shell. This shell, in which the thickness can be tuned by varying reaction times, forms an intact interface with ZnO NWs, thus protecting ZnO from corrosion in a basic solution...
June 1, 2017: ChemSusChem
Yue Yu, Li Gao, Xianchun Liu, Yuanhong Wang, Shuangxi Xing
CeO2 nanoparticles were incorporated into the cavity of zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 (ZIF-8) materials followed by high temperature pyrolysis to generate CeO2@N doped carbon materials. The introduction of the CeO2 nanoparticles greatly enhanced the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) catalytic activity of the ZIF-8 derived carbon materials owing to existence of amounts of Ce3+ in CeO2 and oxygen vacancies with high chemisorbed oxygen content and the well-maintained skeleton of the original ZIF-8 with uniform mesoporous structure...
May 29, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
Anuradha Verma, Anupam Srivastav, Saif A Khan, Vibha Rani Satsangi, Rohit Shrivastav, Devesh Kumar Avasthi, Sahab Dass
The effect of embedding Au nanoparticles (NPs) in a BiVO4/Fe2O3 heterojunction for photoelectrochemical water splitting is studied here for the first time. The present nanostructured heterojunction offers three major advantages over pristine BiVO4 and Fe2O3: (i) the formation of a heterojunction between BiVO4 and Fe2O3 enhances the charge carrier separation and transfer, (ii) the layer of Fe2O3 provides protection to BiVO4 from photocorrosion and, (iii) the Au NPs possessing surface plasmon resonance (SPR) enhance the photoelectrochemical response by transferring energy to metal oxides by hot electron transfer (HET) and plasmon resonant energy transfer (PRET)...
June 14, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Xue Lu, Zhifeng Liu
In this paper, Co3O4 nanostructures with different morphologies (nanoparticles (NPs), nanosheets (NSs) and nanocubes (NCs)) are directly grown on an ITO substrate using a hydrothermal method. Sb2S3 is loaded onto Co3O4 to construct a Co3O4/Sb2S3 heterojunction, which is used as an all p-type photocathode for photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting for the first time. The specific morphologies of Co3O4 have been discussed in detail. The improved PEC properties of the Co3O4/Sb2S3 heterojunction are characterized...
June 6, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Dengfeng Wu, Wei Zhang, Daojian Cheng
The design and development of low-cost Pt-free, high-active, and durable noble-metal-free electrocatalysts for methanol electrooxidation is highly desirable but remains a challenge. Herein, unique Cu/NiCu nanowires (NWs) integrating alloy, core-shell, and one-dimensional structures are prepared by a facile one-pot strategy. It is found that the Ni-Cu surface alloying structure can effectively change the charge distribution of the atomic configuration, the core-shell structure can be optimized with the usage of Ni and Cu, and the one-dimensional structure can effectively enhance the charge transfer between the electrode surface and the active sites, making the prepared NWs promising electrocatalysts...
June 5, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Zhen Chen, Minghui Ning, Ge Ma, Qingguo Meng, Yongguang Zhang, Jinwei Gao, Mingliang Jin, Zhihong Chen, Mingzhe Yuan, Xin Wang, Jun-Ming Liu, Guofu Zhou
We report the first demonstration of a high-efficiency photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting reaction using a novel Si NWs/WO3 core/shell photoanode prepared by a mild and inexpensive metal-catalyzed electroless etching process followed by dip-coating, airing and annealing methods. The dense and vertically aligned Si NWs/WO3 core/shell nanostructure were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction. In comparison to planar n-Si, Si NWs and planar Si/WO3, the Si NWs/WO3 samples showed significantly enhanced photocurrent over the entire potential sweep range...
July 7, 2017: Nanotechnology
Qiuguo Li, Xinzhou Ma, Huiqiang Liu, Zuxin Chen, Hao Chen, Sheng Chu
Epitaxial two-dimensional GaTe nanosheets on ZnO nanowires were routinely prepared via a two-step chemical vapor deposition procedure. The epitaxial relationship and growth mechanism of the GaTe/ZnO core/shell structures were explored and attributed to a layer-overlayer model. The hybrid structures increased the surface area and the favorable p-n heterojunction enhanced the charge separation for photoelectrochemical performance in water splitting. The above synergistic effects boosted the photocurrent density from -0...
June 7, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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