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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445782/the-immunohistochemical-distribution-of-the-gabaa-receptor-%C3%AE-1-%C3%AE-2-%C3%AE-3-%C3%AE-2-3-and-%C3%AE-2-subunits-in-the-human-thalamus
#1
H J Waldvogel, M Munkle, W van Roon-Mom, H Mohler, R L M Faull
The GABAA receptor is the most abundant inhibitory receptor in the human brain and is assembled from a variety of different subunit subtypes which determines their pharmacology and physiology. To determine which GABAA receptor subunit proteins are found in the human thalamus we investigated the distribution of five major GABAA receptor subunits α1, α2, α3, β2,3 and γ2 using immunohistochemical techniques. The α1-, β2,3- and γ2- subunits which combine to form a benzodiazepine sensitive GABAA receptor showed the most intense levels of staining and were the most common subunits found throughout the human thalamus especially in the ventral and posterior nuclear groups...
April 23, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445715/altered-somatosensory-cortex-neuronal-activity-in-a-rat-model-of-parkinson-s-disease-and-levodopa-induced-dyskinesias
#2
Mesbah Alam, Regina Rumpel, Xingxing Jin, Christof von Wrangel, Sarah Tschirner, Joachim K Krauss, Claudia Grothe, Andreas Ratzka, Kerstin Schwabe
Several findings support the concept that sensorimotor integration is disturbed in Parkinson's disease (PD) and in levodopa-induced dyskinesias. In this study, we explored the neuronal firing activity of excitatory pyramidal cells and inhibitory interneurons in the forelimb region of the primary somatosensory cortex (S1FL-Ctx), along with its interaction with oscillatory activity of the primary motor cortex (MCtx) in 6-hydroxydopamine lesioned hemiparkinsonian (HP) and levodopa-primed dyskinetic (HP-LID) rats as compared to controls under urethane (1...
April 23, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445613/neuronal-distribution-of-tyramine-and-the-tyramine-receptor-amtar1-in-the-honeybee-brain
#3
Markus Thamm, Christina Scholl, Tina Reim, Kornelia Grübel, Karin Möller, Wolfgang Rössler, Ricarda Scheiner
Tyramine is an important neurotransmitter, neuromodulator, and neurohormone in insects. In honeybees, it is assumed to have functions in modulating sensory responsiveness and controlling motor behavior. Tyramine can bind to two characterized receptors in honeybees, both of which are coupled to intracellular cAMP pathways. How tyramine acts on neuronal, cellular and circuit levels is unclear. We investigated the spatial brain expression of the tyramine receptor AmTAR1 using a specific antibody. This antibody detects a membrane protein of the expected molecular weight in Western blot analysis...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445595/ventricular-fibrillation-cardiac-arrest-produces-a-chronic-striatal-hyperdopaminergic-state-that-is-worsened-by-methylphenidate-treatment
#4
Gerald J Nora, Rashed Harun, David F Fine, Daniel Hutchison, Adam C Grobart, Jason P Stezoski, Miranda Munoz, Patrick M Kochanek, Rehana K Leak, Tomas Drabek, Amy K Wagner
Cardiac arrest survival rates have improved with modern resuscitation techniques, but many survivors experience impairments associated with hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. Currently, little is understood about chronic changes in striatal dopamine (DA) systems after hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. Given the common empiric clinical use of DA enhancing agents in neurorehabilitation, investigation evaluating dopaminergic alterations after cardiac arrest (CA) is necessary to optimize rehabilitation approaches. We hypothesized that striatal DA neurotransmission would be altered chronically after ventricular fibrillation cardiac arrest (VF-CA)...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444832/real-time-activation-of-central-cholinergic-circuits-during-recognition-memory
#5
Sonia Bonnì, Viviana Ponzo, Francesco Di Lorenzo, Carlo Caltagirone, Giacomo Koch
Short Latency Afferent Inhibition (SAI) is a paired-pulse Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) protocol that consists in the inhibition of the Motor Evoked Potentials (MEPs) by afferent sensory impulses. SAI is thought to be mediated by cholinergic projections over M1 and can be considered a putative marker of central cholinergic activity. It's known that memory processes are regulated by acetylcholine. Nonetheless the influence of memory tasks on SAI has not been investigated. Here we tested changes in SAI circuits in healthy subjects performing a computerized non-verbal recognition memory task (RMT) requiring to recognize previously encoded faces...
April 26, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444787/finger-pressure-adjustments-to-various-object-configurations-during-precision-grip-in-humans-and-monkeys
#6
Riccardo Viaro, Banty Tia, Gino Coudé, Rosario Canto, Andriy Oliynyk, Paola Salmas, Lorenzo Masia, Giulio Sandini, Luciano Fadiga
In this study we recorded the pressure exerted onto an object by the index finger and the thumb of the preferred hand of eighteen human subjects and either hand of two macaque monkeys during a precision grasping task. The to-be-grasped object was a custom-made device composed by two plates which could be variably oriented by a motorized system while keeping constant the size and thus grip dimension. The to-be-grasped plates were covered by an array of capacitive sensors to measure specific features of finger adaptation, namely pressure intensity and centroid location and displacement...
April 26, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444710/can-we-define-and-characterize-the-aging-lower-urinary-tract-ici-rs-2015
#7
REVIEW
Bahareh Vahabi, Adrian S Wagg, Peter F W M Rosier, Kevin L J Rademakers, Marie-Astrid Denys, Michel Pontari, Thelma Lovick, Francoise A Valentini, Pierre P Nelson, Karl-Erik Andersson, Christopher H Fry
The prevalence of lower urinary tract (LUT) symptoms increases with age but the etiology is unknown. This article aims to identify research directions that clarify the basis of this association. The initial question is whether biological age is the variable of interest or a time-dependent accumulation of factors that impact on LUT function at rates that differ between individuals. In particular, the accumulation of conditions or agents due to inflammatory states or tissue ischemia is important. Much of the above has been concerned with changes to bladder function and morphology...
April 2017: Neurourology and Urodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444617/computational-theory-underlying-acute-vestibulo-ocular-reflex-motor-learning-with-cerebellar-long-term-depression-and-long-term-potentiation
#8
Keiichiro Inagaki, Yutaka Hirata
The vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) can be viewed as an adaptive control system that maintains compensatory eye movements during head motion. As the cerebellar flocculus is intimately involved in this adaptive motor control of the VOR, the VOR has been a popular model system for investigating cerebellar motor learning. Long-term depression (LTD) and long-term potentiation (LTP) at the parallel fiber-Purkinje cell synapses are considered to play major roles in cerebellar motor learning. A recent study using mutant mice demonstrated cerebellar motor learning with hampered LTD; the study concluded that the parallel fiber-Purkinje cell LTD is not essential...
April 25, 2017: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444457/social-cognition-and-idiopathic-isolated-cervical-dystonia
#9
Kristína Czekóová, Petra Zemánková, Daniel J Shaw, Martin Bareš
For a long time, cervical dystonia (CD) has been characterised only by disturbances in motor functioning. Despite accumulating evidence for symptomatology in various non-motor domains, to date no study has investigated social cognition in CD. The aim of this study was to compare performance of CD patients and healthy controls in neurocognitive and socio-cognitive domain. Twenty-five non-depressed patients with CD and 26 healthy controls underwent neuropsychological testing. This involved assessment of cognitive status (general intellect, verbal memory, and executive function), and socio-cognitive functions using a Theory of mind task and self-report on empathy and emotion regulation...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444426/investigation-of-altered-microstructure-in-patients-with-drug-refractory-epilepsy-using-diffusion-tensor-imaging
#10
Yuwei Jiang, Lingyan Mao, Xu Yan, Mingxia Fan, Xin Wang, Jing Ding, Dongrong Xu
PURPOSE: The risk of refractory epilepsy can be more dangerous than the adverse effect caused by medical treatment. In this study, we employed voxel-wise analysis (VWA) and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) methods to measure microstructural changes using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in patients of drug refractory epilepsy (DRE) who had been epileptic for more than 10 years. METHODS: To examine the specific microstructural abnormalities in DRE patients and its difference from medically controlled epilepsy (MCE), we acquired DTI data of 7 DRE patients, 37 MCE patients, and 31 healthy controls (HCs) using a 3 T MRI scanner...
April 25, 2017: Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444320/complex-skill-training-transfers-to-improved-performance-and-control-of-simpler-tasks-after-stroke
#11
Shailesh S Kantak, Nazaneen Zahedi, Robert McGrath
Background: Given limited therapy time, it is important to practice tasks that optimize transfer to other tasks that cannot be practiced during therapy. However, little is known about how tasks can be selected for practice to optimize generalization. Objective: One dimension of task selection is the complexity of the task. The purpose of the current study was to test if learning of a complex motor skill with the paretic arm would transfer to simpler unpracticed goal-directed reaching task...
April 21, 2017: Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444104/psychomotor-ability-and-short-term-memory-and-reading-and-mathematics-achievement-in-children
#12
Cherée Murrihy, Maria Bailey, John Roodenburg
Objective: The aim of our study was to examine whether the findings from previous research, indicating the role of short-term memory as a mediator of the relationship between motor coordination and academic achievement in adolescents, is also evident in a younger child population. Method: The study utilized a quantative cross-sectional design involving 133 children aged 8-12. The McCarron Assessment of Neuromuscular Development (MAND) provided four indicators of psychomotor ability (Finger Nose, Walking, Balancing, and Jumping)...
April 24, 2017: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444083/interictal-abnormal-fmri-activation-of-visual-areas-during-a-motor-task-cued-by-visual-stimuli-in-migraine
#13
Adriana Bastos Conforto, Khallil Taverna Chaim, Mario Fernando Prieto Peres, André Leite Gonçalves, Inara Laurindo Siqueira, Maria Angela Maramaldo Barreiros, Edson Amaro
Objective: To assess changes in blood-oxygen-level-dependent activity after light deprivation compared to regular light exposure in subjects with migraine in the interictal state and in controls. Methods: Ten subjects with migraine and ten controls participated in two sessions of functional magnetic resonance imaging. In each session, they performed a finger-tapping task with the right hand, cued by visual stimuli. They were scanned before and after 30 minutes of light deprivation or light exposure...
January 2017: Einstein
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443787/ultrasound-based-motor-control-training-for-the-pelvic-floor-pre-and-post-prostatectomy-scoring-reliability-and-skill-acquisition
#14
Stuart Doorbar-Baptist, Roger Adams, Trudy Rebbeck
AIM: This study documents a protocol designed to evaluate pelvic floor motor control in men with prostate cancer. It also aims to evaluate the reliability of therapists in rating motor control of pelvic floor muscles (PFMs) using real time ultrasound imaging (RUSI) video clips. We further determine predictors of acquiring motor control. METHODS: Ninety-one men diagnosed with prostate cancer attending a physiotherapy clinic for pelvic floor exercises were taught detailed pelvic floor motor control exercises by a physiotherapist using trans-abdominal RUSI for biofeedback...
April 2017: Physiotherapy Theory and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443338/child-passenger-safety-technician-consultation-in-the-pediatric-primary-care-setting
#15
Dina Burstein, Mark R Zonfrillo, Janette Baird, Michael J Mello
Correct use of a child safety seat (CSS) can reduce the risk of fatal motor vehicle crash-related injury by up to 71%; however, misuse rates for CSS are as high as 70%. We recruited 189 caregivers at 2 large suburban pediatric office practices; 94 in the intervention group and 95 in the control group. All participants completed a baseline survey and received a CSS safety brochure. Intervention participants had their CSS installation checked at enrollment by a certified child passenger safety (CPS) technician...
April 1, 2017: Clinical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443047/synchrony-in-joint-action-is-directed-by-each-participant-s-motor-control-system
#16
Lior Noy, Netta Weiser, Jason Friedman
In this work, we ask how the probability of achieving synchrony in joint action is affected by the choice of motion parameters of each individual. We use the mirror game paradigm to study how changes in leader's motion parameters, specifically frequency and peak velocity, affect the probability of entering the state of co-confidence (CC) motion: a dyadic state of synchronized, smooth and co-predictive motions. In order to systematically study this question, we used a one-person version of the mirror game, where the participant mirrored piece-wise rhythmic movements produced by a computer on a graphics tablet...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443012/the-posterior-parietal-cortex-subserves-precise-motor-timing-in-professional-drummers
#17
Bettina Pollok, Katharina Stephan, Ariane Keitel, Vanessa Krause, Nora K Schaal
The synchronization task is a well-established paradigm for the investigation of motor timing with respect to an external pacing signal. It requires subjects to synchronize their finger taps in synchrony with a regular metronome. A specific significance of the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) for superior synchronization in professional drummers has been suggested. In non-musicians, modulation of the excitability of the left PPC by means of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) modulates synchronization performance of the right hand...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443006/cognitive-resources-necessary-for-motor-control-in-older-adults-are-reduced-by-walking-and-coordination-training
#18
Ben Godde, Claudia Voelcker-Rehage
We examined if physical exercise interventions were effective to reduce cognitive brain resources recruited while performing motor control tasks in older adults. Forty-three older adults (63-79 years of age) participated in either a walking (n = 17) or a motor coordination (n = 15) intervention (1 year, 3 times per week) or were assigned to a control group (n = 11) doing relaxation and stretching exercises. Pre and post the intervention period, we applied functional MRI to assess brain activation during imagery of forward and backward walking and during counting backwards from 100 as control task...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443004/assessing-somatosensory-utilization-during-unipedal-postural-control
#19
Rahul Goel, Yiri E De Dios, Nichole E Gadd, Erin E Caldwell, Brian T Peters, Millard F Reschke, Jacob J Bloomberg, Lars I E Oddsson, Ajitkumar P Mulavara
Multisensory-visual, vestibular and somatosensory information is integrated for appropriate postural control. The primary goal of this study was to assess somatosensory utilization during a functional motor task of unipedal postural control, in normal healthy adults. Assessing individual bias in the utilization of individual sensory contributions during postural control may help customization of rehabilitation protocols. In this study, a test paradigm of unipedal stance control in supine orientation with and without vision was assessed...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442999/roles-of-multiple-globus-pallidus-territories-of-monkeys-and-humans-in-motivation-cognition-and-action-an-anatomical-physiological-and-pathophysiological-review
#20
REVIEW
Yosuke Saga, Eiji Hoshi, Léon Tremblay
The globus pallidus (GP) communicates with widespread cortical areas that support various functions, including motivation, cognition and action. Anatomical tract-tracing studies revealed that the anteroventral GP communicates with the medial prefrontal and orbitofrontal cortices, which are involved in motivational control; the anterodorsal GP communicates with the lateral prefrontal cortex, which is involved in cognitive control; and the posterior GP communicates with the frontal motor cortex, which is involved in action control...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
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