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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346769/switching-on-depression-and-potentiation-in-the-cerebellum
#1
Andrew R Gallimore, Taegon Kim, Keiko Tanaka-Yamamoto, Erik De Schutter
Long-term depression (LTD) and long-term potentiation (LTP) in the cerebellum are important for motor learning. However, the signaling mechanisms controlling whether LTD or LTP is induced in response to synaptic stimulation remain obscure. Using a unified model of LTD and LTP at the cerebellar parallel fiber-Purkinje cell (PF-PC) synapse, we delineate the coordinated pre- and postsynaptic signaling that determines the direction of plasticity. We show that LTP is the default response to PF stimulation above a well-defined frequency threshold...
January 16, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346717/anterior-cruciate-ligament-tear-induces-a-sustained-loss-of-muscle-fiber-force-production
#2
Jonathan P Gumucio, Kristoffer B Sugg, Elizabeth R Sibilsky Enselman, Alexis C Konja, Logan R Eckhardt, Asheesh Bedi, Christopher L Mendias
INTRODUCTION: Patients with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears have persistent quadriceps strength deficits that are thought to be due to altered neurophysiological function. Our goal was to determine the changes in muscle fiber contractility independent of the ability of motor neurons to activate fibers. METHODS: We obtained quadriceps biopsies of patients undergoing ACL reconstruction, and additional biopsies one, two, and six months after surgery. Muscles fiber contractility was assessed in vitro, along with whole muscle strength testing...
January 18, 2018: Muscle & Nerve
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346569/controlled-antenatal-thyroid-screening-ii-effect-of-treating-maternal-sub-optimal-thyroid-function-on-child-cognition
#3
Charlotte Hales, Peter N Taylor, Sue Channon, Ruth Paradice, Kirsten McEwan, Lei Zhang, Michael Gyedu, Ameen Bakhsh, Onyebuchi Okosieme, Ilaria Muller, Mohd S Draman, John W Gregory, Colin Dayan, John H Lazarus, D Aled Rees, Marian Ludgate
Context & Objective: The Controlled Antenatal Thyroid Screening (CATS) study investigated treatment for suboptimal gestational thyroid function (SGTF) on childhood cognition and found no difference in IQ at 3 years between children of treated and untreated SGTF mothers. We have measured IQ in the same children at age 9.5-years and included children from normal-GTF mothers. Design, Setting & Participants: One examiner, blinded to participant group, assessed children's IQ (WISC-IV), long-term memory and motor function (NEPSY-II) from children of 119 treated and 98 untreated SGTF mothers plus children of 232 mothers with normal-GTF...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346370/structure-function-and-control-of-the-human-musculoskeletal-network
#4
Andrew C Murphy, Sarah F Muldoon, David Baker, Adam Lastowka, Brittany Bennett, Muzhi Yang, Danielle S Bassett
The human body is a complex organism, the gross mechanical properties of which are enabled by an interconnected musculoskeletal network controlled by the nervous system. The nature of musculoskeletal interconnection facilitates stability, voluntary movement, and robustness to injury. However, a fundamental understanding of this network and its control by neural systems has remained elusive. Here we address this gap in knowledge by utilizing medical databases and mathematical modeling to reveal the organizational structure, predicted function, and neural control of the musculoskeletal system...
January 2018: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346141/caffeine-controversies
#5
Samuel J Gentle, Colm P Travers, Waldemar A Carlo
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Caffeine use in preterm infants has endured several paradigms: from standard of care to possible neurotoxin to one of the few medications for which there is evidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) risk reduction. The purpose of the review is to analyze this dynamic trajectory and discuss controversies that still remain after decades of caffeine use. RECENT FINDINGS: Following concerns for caffeine safety in preterm infants, a large randomized controlled trial demonstrated a reduction in BPD and treatment for patent ductus arteriosus...
January 17, 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343813/the-drosophila-gr28bd-product-is-a-non-specific-cation-channel-that-can-be-used-as-a-novel-thermogenetic-tool
#6
Aditi Mishra, Autoosa Salari, Benton R Berigan, Kayla C Miguel, Marzie Amirshenava, Abbey Robinson, Benjamin C Zars, Jenna L Lin, Lorin S Milescu, Mirela Milescu, Troy Zars
Extrinsic control of single neurons and neuronal populations is a powerful approach for understanding how neural circuits function. Adding new thermogenetic tools to existing optogenetic and other forms of intervention will increase the complexity of questions that can be addressed. A good candidate for developing new thermogenetic tools is the Drosophila gustatory receptor family, which has been implicated in high-temperature avoidance behavior. We examined the five members of the Gr28b gene cluster for temperature-dependent properties via three approaches: biophysical characterization in Xenopus oocytes, functional calcium imaging in Drosophila motor neurons, and behavioral assays in adult Drosophila...
January 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343751/altered-power-spectral-density-in-the-resting-state-sensorimotor-network-in-patients-with-myotonic-dystrophy-type-1
#7
Jin-Sung Park, Jeehye Seo, Hyunsil Cha, Hui-Jin Song, Sang-Hoon Lee, Kyung Eun Jang, Hui Joong Lee, Juyoung Park, Ho-Won Lee, Yongmin Chang
Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is a multisystemic disease that involves the brain with several neurological symptoms. Although there were few imaging studies on DM1, no studies have investigated functional alterations in the sensorimotor network at rest in patients with DM1. In the current study, a power spectral density (PSD) analysis of resting-state fMRI data was performed to assess possible alteration in spontaneous neural activity of the sensorimotor network in patients with DM1. Compared to healthy controls, patients with DM1 showed higher PSD responses in the orbitofrontal cortex, parahippocampus and basal ganglia (corrected P < 0...
January 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343638/commissural-neurons-transgress-the-cns-pns-boundary-in-absence-of-ventricular-zone-derived-netrin-1
#8
Juan Antonio Moreno-Bravo, Sergi Roig Puiggros, Heike Blockus, Chloé Dominici, Pavol Zelina, Patrick Mehlen, Alain Chédotal
During the development of the central nervous system (CNS), only motor axons project into peripheral nerves. Little is known about the cellular and molecular mechanisms that control the development of a boundary at the CNS surface and prevent CNS neuron emigration from the neural tube. It has previously been shown that a subset of spinal cord commissural axons abnormally invades sensory nerves in Ntn1 hypomorphic embryos and Dcc knockouts. However, whether netrin 1 also plays a similar role in the brain is unknown...
January 17, 2018: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343459/differing-structural-properties-of-foods-affect-the-development-of-mandibular-control-and-muscle-coordination-in-infants-and-young-children
#9
Meg Simione, Chrystel Loret, Benjamin Le Révérend, Brian Richburg, Mirna Del Valle, Marc Adler, Mireille Moser, Jordan R Green
The development of chewing is an essential motor skill that is continually refined throughout early childhood. From a motor control perspective, the advancement of textures is dependent upon the fit between a child's oral anatomic and motor system and food properties. The purpose of this exploratory study is to identify age-related changes in chewing motor coordination and control and to determine if these changes are associated with the differing structural properties of solid foods, as well as to explore the role of explanatory variables such as the emergence of teeth and bite force...
January 14, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343133/central-nervous-system-malformation-associated-with-methamphetamine-abuse-during-pregnancy
#10
Silvia Maya-Enero, Júlia Candel-Pau, Mónica Rebollo-Polo, Santiago Candela-Cantó, Rafael de la Torre, María Ángeles López-Vílchez
INTRODUCTION: Prenatal methamphetamine exposure is related to prematurity, fetal growth restriction, neurobehavioral effects and long-term motor and cognitive sequelae. PATIENT PRESENTATION: We report the case of a newborn from a Filipina with no prenatal care with a complex brain malformation. Methamphetamine was identified in maternal and neonatal urine and in maternal hair, raising our suspicion of methamphetamine as a cause of this malformation. DISCUSSION: Methamphetamine abuse is a growing problem worldwide...
January 17, 2018: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342275/hot-spot-kif5a-mutations-cause-familial-als
#11
David Brenner, Rüstem Yilmaz, Kathrin Müller, Torsten Grehl, Susanne Petri, Thomas Meyer, Julian Grosskreutz, Patrick Weydt, Wolfgang Ruf, Christoph Neuwirth, Markus Weber, Susana Pinto, Kristl G Claeys, Berthold Schrank, Berit Jordan, Antje Knehr, Kornelia Günther, Annemarie Hübers, Daniel Zeller, Christian Kubisch, Sibylle Jablonka, Michael Sendtner, Thomas Klopstock, Mamede de Carvalho, Anne Sperfeld, Guntram Borck, Alexander E Volk, Johannes Dorst, Joachim Weis, Markus Otto, Joachim Schuster, Kelly Del Tredici, Heiko Braak, Karin M Danzer, Axel Freischmidt, Thomas Meitinger, Tim M Strom, Albert C Ludolph, Peter M Andersen, Jochen H Weishaupt
Heterozygous missense mutations in the N-terminal motor or coiled-coil domains of the kinesin family member 5A (KIF5A) gene cause monogenic spastic paraplegia (HSP10) and Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2 (CMT2). Moreover, heterozygous de novo frame-shift mutations in the C-terminal domain of KIF5A are associated with neonatal intractable myoclonus, a neurodevelopmental syndrome. These findings, together with the observation that many of the disease genes associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis disrupt cytoskeletal function and intracellular transport, led us to hypothesize that mutations in KIF5A are also a cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis...
January 12, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342146/a-theory-of-how-active-behavior-stabilises-neural-activity-neural-gain-modulation-by-closed-loop-environmental-feedback
#12
Christopher L Buckley, Taro Toyoizumi
During active behaviours like running, swimming, whisking or sniffing, motor actions shape sensory input and sensory percepts guide future motor commands. Ongoing cycles of sensory and motor processing constitute a closed-loop feedback system which is central to motor control and, it has been argued, for perceptual processes. This closed-loop feedback is mediated by brainwide neural circuits but how the presence of feedback signals impacts on the dynamics and function of neurons is not well understood. Here we present a simple theory suggesting that closed-loop feedback between the brain/body/environment can modulate neural gain and, consequently, change endogenous neural fluctuations and responses to sensory input...
January 17, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342142/midbrain-circuits-that-set-locomotor-speed-and-gait-selection
#13
V Caggiano, R Leiras, H Goñi-Erro, D Masini, C Bellardita, J Bouvier, V Caldeira, G Fisone, O Kiehn
Locomotion is a fundamental motor function common to the animal kingdom. It is implemented episodically and adapted to behavioural needs, including exploration, which requires slow locomotion, and escape behaviour, which necessitates faster speeds. The control of these functions originates in brainstem structures, although the neuronal substrate(s) that support them have not yet been elucidated. Here we show in mice that speed and gait selection are controlled by glutamatergic excitatory neurons (GlutNs) segregated in two distinct midbrain nuclei: the cuneiform nucleus (CnF) and the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN)...
January 17, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340899/assessing-sensorimotor-excitability-after-spinal-cord-injury-a-reflex-testing-method-based-on-cycling-with-afferent-stimulation
#14
Stefano Piazza, Diego Torricelli, Julio Gómez-Soriano, Diego Serrano-Muñoz, Gerardo Ávila-Martín, Iriana Galán-Arriero, José Luis Pons, Julian Taylor
Several studies have examined spinal reflex modulation during leg cycling in healthy and spinal cord injury (SCI) subjects. However, the effect of cutaneous plantar afferent input on spinal excitability during leg cycling after SCI has not been characterised. The aim of the study was to test the feasibility of using controlled leg cycling in combination with plantar cutaneous electrical stimulation (ES) cycling to assess lower limb spinal sensorimotor excitability in subjects with motor complete or incomplete SCI...
January 17, 2018: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340757/comparing-brain-activity-patterns-during-spontaneous-exploratory-and-cue-instructed-learning-using-single-photon-emission-computed-tomography-spect-imaging-of-regional-cerebral-blood-flow-in-freely-behaving-rats
#15
A Mannewitz, J Bock, S Kreitz, A Hess, J Goldschmidt, H Scheich, Katharina Braun
Learning can be categorized into cue-instructed and spontaneous learning types; however, so far, there is no detailed comparative analysis of specific brain pathways involved in these learning types. The aim of this study was to compare brain activity patterns during these learning tasks using the in vivo imaging technique of single photon-emission computed tomography (SPECT) of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF). During spontaneous exploratory learning, higher levels of rCBF compared to cue-instructed learning were observed in motor control regions, including specific subregions of the motor cortex and the striatum, as well as in regions of sensory pathways including olfactory, somatosensory, and visual modalities...
January 16, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340646/visual-fixation-instability-in-multiple-sclerosis-measured-using-slo-oct
#16
Robert M Mallery, Pieter Poolman, Matthew J Thurtell, Jan M Full, Johannes Ledolter, Dorlan Kimbrough, Elliot M Frohman, Teresa C Frohman, Randy H Kardon
Purpose: Precise measurements of visual fixation and its instability were recorded during optical coherence tomography (OCT) as a marker of neural network dysfunction in multiple sclerosis (MS), which could be used to monitor disease progression or response to treatment. Methods: A total of 16 MS patients and 26 normal subjects underwent 30 seconds of scanning laser ophthalmoscope (SLO)-based eye tracking during OCT scanning of retinal layer thickness. Study groups consisted of normal eyes, MS eyes without prior optic neuritis (MS wo ON), and MS eyes with prior optic neuritis (MS + ON)...
January 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339776/the-experience-of-spasticity-after-spinal-cord-injury-perceived-characteristics-and-impact-on-daily-life
#17
William Barry McKay, William Mark Sweatman, Edelle C Field-Fote
STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. OBJECTIVES: Determine the impact of motor control characteristics attributed to spasticity, such as spasms, stiffness, and clonus on the daily life of people with spinal cord injury (SCI). SETTING: Nationwide, United States. METHODS: Internet-administered questionnaire, the Patient Reported Impact of Spasticity Measure (PRISM) and items describing characteristics of spasticity including stiffness, spasms, clonus, and pain...
January 16, 2018: Spinal Cord
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339773/postural-adaptations-to-unilateral-knee-joint-hypomobility-induced-by-orthosis-wear-during-gait-initiation
#18
A Delafontaine, P Fourcade, J L Honeine, S Ditcharles, E Yiou
Balance control and whole-body progression during gait initiation (GI) involve knee-joint mobility. Single knee-joint hypomobility often occurs with aging, orthopedics or neurological conditions. The goal of the present study was to investigate the capacity of the CNS to adapt GI organization to single knee-joint hypomobility induced by the wear of an orthosis. Twenty-seven healthy adults performed a GI series on a force-plate in the following conditions: without orthosis ("control"), with knee orthosis over the swing leg ("orth-swing") and with the orthosis over the contralateral stance leg ("orth-stance")...
January 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339630/comparison-of-the-efficacy-of-different-drugs-on-non-motor-symptoms-of-parkinson-s-disease-a-network-meta-analysis
#19
Bao-Dong Li, Jing-Jun Cui, Jia Song, Ce Qi, Pei-Feng Ma, Ya-Rong Wang, Jing Bai
BACKGROUND/AIMS: A network meta-analysis is used to compare the efficacy of ropinirole, rasagiline, rotigotine, entacapone, apomorphine, pramipexole, sumanirole, bromocriptine, piribedil and levodopa, with placebo as a control, for non-motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD). METHODS: PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane Library were searched from their establishment dates up to January 2017 for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) investigating the efficacy of the above ten drugs on the non-motor symptoms of PD...
January 15, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339326/surround-inhibition-in-the-primary-motor-cortex-is-task-specifically-modulated-in-non-professional-musicians-but-not-in-healthy-controls-during-real-piano-playing
#20
Gonzalo Márquez, Martin Keller, Jesper Lundbye-Jensen, Wolfgang Taube
Research has indicated that at the onset of a finger movement, unwanted contractions of adjacent muscles are prevented by inhibiting the cortical areas representing these muscles. This so-called surround inhibition (SI) seems relevant for the performance of selective finger movements but may not be necessary for tasks involving functional coupling between different finger muscles. Therefore, the present study compared SI between isolated finger movement and complex selective finger movements while playing a three-finger sequence on the piano in 9 non-professional musicians and 10 untrained control participants...
January 12, 2018: Neuroscience
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