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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723387/sigma-1-receptor-activation-modifies-intracellular-calcium-exchange-in-the-g93a-hsod1-als-model
#1
Vedrana Tadić, Ayse Malci, Nadine Goldhammer, Beatrice Stubendorff, Saikata Sengupta, Tino Prell, Silke Keiner, Jingyu Liu, Madlen Guenther, Christiane Frahm, Otto W Witte, Julian Grosskreutz
Aberrations in intracellular calcium (Ca(2+)) have been well established within amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a severe motor neuron disease. Intracellular Ca(2+) concentration is controlled in part through the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) mitochondria Ca(2+) cycle (ERMCC). The ER supplies Ca(2+) to the mitochondria at close contacts between the two organelles, i.e. the mitochondria-associated ER membranes (MAMs). The Sigma 1 receptor (Sig1R) is enriched at MAMs, where it acts as an inter-organelle signalling modulator...
July 16, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722694/early-life-vincristine-exposure-evokes-mechanical-pain-hypersensitivity-in-the-developing-rat
#2
Katie A Schappacher, Lauren Styczynski, Mark L Baccei
Vincristine (VNC) is commonly used to treat pediatric cancers, including the most prevalent childhood malignancy, acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Although clinical evidence suggests that VNC causes peripheral neuropathy in children, the degree to which pediatric chemotherapeutic regimens influence pain sensitivity throughout life remains unclear, in part because of the lack of an established animal model of chemotherapy-induced neuropathic pain during early life. Therefore, this study investigated the effects of VNC exposure between postnatal days (P) 11 and 21 on mechanical and thermal pain sensitivity in the developing rat...
May 30, 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722685/neural-control-of-finger-movement-via-intracortical-brain-machine-interface
#3
Zachary T Irwin, Karen E Schroeder, Philip P Vu, Autumn J Bullard, Derek M Tat, Chrono S Nu, Alex Vaskov, Samuel R Nason, David E Thompson, Nicole Bentley, Parag G Patil, Cynthia A Chestek
OBJECTIVE: Intracortical brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) are a promising source of prosthesis control signals for individuals with severe motor disabilities. Previous BMI studies have primarily focused on predicting and controlling whole-arm movements; precise control of hand kinematics, however, has not been fully demonstrated. Here, we investigate the continuous decoding of precise finger movements in rhesus macaques. APPROACH: In order to elicit precise and repeatable finger movements, we have developed a novel behavioral task paradigm which requires the subject to acquire virtual fingertip position targets...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721669/mimicking-parkinson-s-disease-in-a-dish-merits-and-pitfalls-of-the-most-commonly-used-dopaminergic-in-vitro-models
#4
REVIEW
Fernanda Martins Lopes, Ivi Juliana Bristot, Leonardo Lisbôa da Motta, Richard B Parsons, Fabio Klamt
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder and has both unknown etiology and non-curative therapeutic options. Patients begin to present the classic motor symptoms of PD-tremor at rest, bradykinesia and rigidity-once 50-70% of the dopaminergic neurons of the nigrostriatal pathway have degenerated. As a consequence of this, it is difficult to investigate the early-stage events of disease pathogenesis. In vitro experimental models are used extensively in PD research because they present a controlled environment that enables the direct investigation of the early molecular mechanisms that are potentially involved with dopaminergic degeneration, as well as for the screening of potential therapeutic drugs...
July 18, 2017: Neuromolecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720525/motor-resonance-during-action-observation-is-gaze-contingent-a-tms-study
#5
Giorgia D'Innocenzo, Claudia C Gonzalez, Alexander V Nowicky, A Mark Williams, Daniel T Bishop
When we observe others performing an action, visual input to our mirror neuron system is reflected in the facilitation of primary motor cortex (M1), a phenomenon known as 'motor resonance'. However, it is unclear whether this motor resonance is contingent upon our point-of-gaze. In order to address this issue, we collected gaze data from participants as they viewed an intransitive action - thumb abduction/adduction - under four conditions: with natural gaze behaviour (free viewing) and with their gaze fixated on each of three predetermined loci at various distances from the prime mover...
July 15, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720523/sensory-attenuation-of-self-initiated-sounds-maps-onto-habitual-associations-between-motor-action-and-sound
#6
Nathan G Mifsud, Thomas J Whitford
Sensory attenuation refers to reduced brain responses to self-initiated sensations relative to those produced by the external world, a distinction that is vital for dynamic motor control and our sense of agency. Typically, willed vocalizations elicit larger N1 reduction of the auditory evoked potential compared to indirectly evoked sounds, such as tones generated by button-presses, which is attributed to the prediction and cancellation of incoming signals enabled by speech motor commands. However, physical confounds exist, including different stimuli and the increased motor artefact associated with mouth vs...
July 15, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720233/the-effect-of-reflexology-upon-spasticity-and-function-among-children-with-cerebral-palsy-who-received-physiotherapy-three-group-randomised-trial
#7
Filiz Özkan, Handan Zincir
PURPOSE: To assess the effectiveness of reflexology method upon spasticity and function among children with cerebral palsy who received physiotherapy. METHODS: A three group, randomised trial with blinded evaluator. Randomization was made sealed and opaque envelopes. 45 children with cerebral palsy who were trained at a Special Education and Rehabilitation Centre. In the reflexology and placebo group; a 20min reflexology was performed twice a week in a total 24 sessions...
August 2017: Applied Nursing Research: ANR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720016/first-grade-cognitive-predictors-of-writing-disabilities-in-grades-2-through-4-elementary-school-students
#8
Lara-Jeane Costa, Melissa Green, John Sideris, Stephen R Hooper
The primary aim of this study was determining Grade 1 cognitive predictors of students at risk for writing disabilities in Grades 2 through 4. Applying cognitive measures selected to align with theoretical and empirical models of writing, tasks were administered to Grade 1 students assessing fine-motor, linguistic, and executive functions: 84 at risk (bottom quartile for age-base expectations) and 54 typically developing. A model with individual predictors was compared to a previously developed latent trait model to determine the relative predictive worth of each approach...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Learning Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719733/characterizing-a-mouse-model-for-evaluation-of-countermeasures-against-hydrogen-sulfide-induced-neurotoxicity-and-neurological-sequelae
#9
Poojya Anantharam, Elizabeth M Whitley, Belinda Mahama, Dong-Suk Kim, Paula M Imerman, Dahai Shao, Monica R Langley, Arthi Kanthasamy, Wilson K Rumbeiha
Hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) is a highly neurotoxic gas. It is the second most common cause of gas-induced deaths. Beyond mortality, surviving victims of acute exposure may suffer long-term neurological sequelae. There is a need to develop countermeasures against H2 S poisoning. However, no translational animal model of H2 S-induced neurological sequelae exists. Here, we describe a novel mouse model of H2 S-induced neurotoxicity for translational research. In paradigm I, C57/BL6 mice were exposed to 765 ppm H2 S for 40 min on day 1, followed by 15-min daily exposures for periods ranging from 1 to 6 days...
July 18, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719661/minimizing-endpoint-variability-through-reinforcement-learning-during-reaching-movements-involving-shoulder-elbow-and-wrist
#10
David Marc Anton Mehler, Alexandra Reichenbach, Julius Klein, Jörn Diedrichsen
Reaching movements are comprised of the coordinated action across multiple joints. The human skeleton is redundant for this task because different joint configurations can lead to the same endpoint in space. How do people learn to use combinations of joints that maximize success in goal-directed motor tasks? To answer this question, we used a 3-degree-of-freedom manipulandum to measure shoulder, elbow and wrist joint movements during reaching in a plane. We tested whether a shift in the relative contribution of the wrist and elbow joints to a reaching movement could be learned by an implicit reinforcement regime...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719548/forearm-pronation-osteotomy-for-supination-contracture-secondary-to-obstetrical-brachial-plexus-palsy-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#11
Aharon Z Gladstein, Brant Sachleben, Emily S Ho, Alison Anthony, Howard M Clarke, Sevan Hopyan
BACKGROUND: Obstetrical brachial plexus palsy can lead to fixed forearm supination contracture. Fixed supination may lead to functional deficits as the affected hand cannot be positioned optimally for activities on a desk such as writing and typing, or for using tools including utensils, which require a neutral or pronated forearm. Forearm pronation osteotomy has been used to address this problem, although the functional benefit over nonoperative management has not been clearly defined...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719508/is-the-organisation-of-the-primary-motor-cortex-in-low-back-pain-related-to-pain-movement-and-or-sensation
#12
Edith Elgueta-Cancino, Siobhan Schabrun, Paul Hodges
Primary motor cortex (M1) organisation differs between individuals with and without chronic low back pain (CLBP), in parallel with motor and sensory impairments. This study investigated whether movement behaviour and tactile/pain sensation are related to M1 organisation in CLBP. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was used to map the M1 representation of the erector spinae and multifidus muscles in 20 participants with and without CLBP. Cortical organisation was quantified by: map volume; center of gravity (CoG); number of peaks; and primary and secondary peak location...
July 17, 2017: Clinical Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719298/cognitive-outcomes-and-psychiatric-symptoms-of-retinopathy-positive-cerebral-malaria-cohort-description-and-baseline-results
#13
Rachel Brim, Sebastian Mboma, Margaret Semrud-Clikeman, Sam Kampondeni, Jed Magen, Terrie Taylor, John Langfitt
Cerebral malaria (CM) is a common cause of death and disability among children in sub-Saharan Africa. Many prior studies of neuropsychiatric morbidity have been limited by a cross-sectional design or a short duration of follow-up. Most have included subjects who may have presented with coma due to a disease process other than CM. No studies have assessed the relationship between magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings and long-term outcomes. The Cognitive Outcomes and Psychiatric symptoms of retinopathy-positive CM (COPS) cohort is the first large (N = 221) prospectively recruited cohort of stringently defined cases of CM and hospital-based, age-matched, non-CM controls in whom cognitive and psychiatric outcomes are assessed with standardized measures semi-annually for up to 5 years...
July 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719020/fibrin-ogen-and-neurodegeneration-in-the-progressive-multiple-sclerosis-cortex
#14
Richard L Yates, Margaret M Esiri, Jacqueline Palace, Benjamin Jacobs, Rafael Perera, Gabriele C DeLuca
OBJECTIVE: Neuronal loss, a key substrate of irreversible disability in multiple sclerosis (MS), is a recognised feature of MS cortical pathology of which the cause remains unknown. Fibrin(ogen) deposition is neurotoxic in animal models of MS, but has not been evaluated in human progressive MS cortex. The aim of this study was to investigate the extent and distribution of fibrin(ogen) in progressive MS cortex and elucidate its relationship with neurodegeneration. METHODS: A post-mortem cohort of pathologically confirmed MS (n=47) and control (n=10) cases was used...
July 18, 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718516/control-of-the-fluid-viscosity-in-a-mock-circulation
#15
Stefan Boës, Gregor Ochsner, Raffael Amacher, Anastasios Petrou, Mirko Meboldt, Marianne Schmid Daners
A mock circulation allows the in vitro investigation, development, and testing of ventricular assist devices. An aqueous-glycerol solution is commonly used to mimic the viscosity of blood. Due to evaporation and temperature changes, the viscosity of the solution drifts from its initial value and therefore, deviates substantially from the targeted viscosity of blood. Additionally, the solution needs to be exchanged to account for changing viscosities when mimicking different hematocrits. This article presents a method to control the viscosity in a mock circulation...
July 17, 2017: Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718273/3d-quantitative-evaluation-of-spine-proprioceptive-perception-motor-control-through-instinctive-self-correction-manoeuvre-in-healthy-young-subjects-posture-an-observational-study
#16
Moreno D'Amico, Edyta Kinel, Piero Roncoletta
BACKGROUND: Conservative treatment in spine deformities and spine related disorders is mainly based on proper individual proprioceptive and motor control training. For these reasons, conservative treatment involves the stimulation of individual capability of perceiving/reducing deformities, blocks and/or improper spine posture by voluntary control. The literature describes that habitually adopted relaxed postures often exacerbate low back pain. Typically, youths can be referred to therapeutic programs aimed at improving the quality of body posture along with fostering the awareness of the importance of correct posture...
July 18, 2017: European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717819/atrophic-degeneration-of-cerebellum-impairs-both-the-reactive-and-the-proactive-control-of-movement-in-the-stop-signal-paradigm
#17
Giusy Olivito, Emiliano Brunamonti, Silvia Clausi, Pierpaolo Pani, Francesca R Chiricozzi, Margherita Giamundo, Marco Molinari, Maria Leggio, Stefano Ferraina
The cognitive control of movement suppression, including performance monitoring, is one of the core properties of the executive system. A complex cortical and subcortical network involving cerebral cortex, thalamus, subthalamus, and basal ganglia has been regarded as the neural substrate of inhibition of programmed movements. Using the countermanding task, a suitable tool to explore behavioral components of movement suppression, the contribution of the cerebellum in the proactive control and monitoring of voluntary action has been recently described in patients affected by focal lesions involving in particular the cerebellar dentate nucleus...
July 17, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717545/low-dose-lignocaine-butorphanol-vs-low-dose-bupivacaine-for-spinal-anaesthesia-in-day-care-urological-surgeries-a-prospective-randomized-control-trial
#18
Shahil Rameshbhai Khant, Rajeev Chaudhari, Rishikesh Arun Kore, Shirish Bhagwat, Ranjan Purushottam Jakhalekar
OBJECTIVE: A local anaesthetic with fast onset, short and reliable duration of anaesthesia may be preferable for day care urological surgeries. Low dose lignocaine is believed to act faster and to have a shorter duration of action than low dose bupivacaine. Use of lignocaine for spinal anesthesia is discouraged now a days because of rare reports of transient neurological symptoms. The purpose of this study was to compare effectiveness and safety of low dose of lignocaine + butorphanol against low dose of bupivacaine for day care urological surgeries...
June 2017: Turkish Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717406/neurogenic-bowel-dysfunction-in-patients-with-neurogenic-bladder
#19
Laura Martinez, Leila Neshatian, Rose Khavari
Patients with primary neurologic conditions often experience urinary and bowel dysfunction due to loss of sensory and/or motor control. Neurogenic bowel dysfunction is frequently characterized by both constipation and fecal incontinence. In general, the management of neurogenic bowel dysfunction has been less well studied than bladder dysfunction despite their close association.. It is widely accepted that establishment of a multifaceted bowel regimen is the cornerstone of conservative management. Continuing assessment is necessary to determine need for more invasive interventions...
December 2016: Current Bladder Dysfunction Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717347/effect-of-eicosapentaenoic-acids-rich-fish-oil-supplementation-on-motor-nerve-function-after-eccentric-contractions
#20
Eisuke Ochi, Yosuke Tsuchiya, Kenichi Yanagimoto
BACKGROUND: This study investigated the effect of supplementation with fish oil rich in eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on the M-wave latency of biceps brachii and muscle damage after a single session of maximal elbow flexor eccentric contractions (ECC). METHODS: Twenty-one men were completed the randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, and parallel-design study. The subjects were randomly assigned to the fish oil group (n = 10) or control group (n = 11)...
2017: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
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