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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447111/-diagnostics-and-treatment-of-osteoid-osteoma
#1
REVIEW
P Orth, D Kohn
BACKGROUND: Osteoid osteoma is the third most common benign bone tumor and typically induces pain that is worse at night. OBJECTIVE: To identify the epidemiological, pathogenetic, histological and radiological characteristics of osteoid osteoma and to present the broad variety of treatment options. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This review article summarizes relevant clinical studies and meta-analyses on this topic. RESULTS: Osteoid osteoma is characterized by a central nidus smaller than 1...
April 26, 2017: Der Orthopäde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445126/clinical-features-and-surgical-treatment-of-sacral-schwannomas
#2
Weibo Pan, Zhan Wang, Nong Lin, Xin Huang, Meng Liu, Xiaobo Yan, Zhaoming Ye
BACKGROUND: Sacral schwannoma is relatively rare and both the early diagnosis and appropriate treatment of sacral schwannomas are equally very challenging. METHODS: 11 sacral schwannoma cases operated at the Second Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, from 2012 to 2016, were investigated retrospectively and 10 were followed up. All patients were assessed with X-ray, CT and MRI, and underwent an intralesional excision. RESULTS: One patient was male, nine were female and the average age was 48 (ranging between 31 and 63)...
April 8, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443689/recent-achievements-in-tc-99m-radiopharmaceutical-direct-production-by-medical-cyclotrons
#3
Alessandra Boschi, Petra Martini, Micol Pasquali, Licia Uccelli
(99m)Tc is the most commonly used radionuclide in the field of diagnostic imaging, a noninvasive method intended to diagnose a disease, assess the disease state and monitor the effects of treatments. Annually, the use of (99m)Tc, covers about 85% of nuclear medicine applications. This isotope releases gamma rays at about the same wavelength as conventional X-ray diagnostic equipment, and owing to its short half-life (t½ = 6 hours) is ideal for diagnostic nuclear imaging. A patient can be injected with a small amount of (99m)Tc and within 24 hours almost 94% of the injected radionuclide would have decayed and left the body, limiting the patient's radiation exposure...
April 26, 2017: Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443617/the-therapeutic-potential-of-psychedelic-drugs-past-present-and-future
#4
Robin L Carhart-Harris, Guy M Goodwin
Plant-based psychedelics such as psilocybin have an ancient history of medicinal use. After the first English-language report on LSD in 1950, psychedelics enjoyed a short-lived relationship with psychology and psychiatry. Used most notably as aides to psychotherapy for the treatment of mood disorders and alcohol dependence, drugs such as LSD showed initial therapeutic promise before prohibitive legislature in the mid-1960s effectively ended all major psychedelic research programmes. Since the early 1990s, there has been a steady revival of human psychedelic research: last year saw reports on the first modern brain imaging study with LSD and 3 separate clinical trials of psilocybin for depressive symptoms...
April 26, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441828/-clinical-analysis-of-seven-cases-of-pulmonary-malignant-tumors-in-children
#5
D Xu, Z M Chen, W Z Gu, Y S Wang, M X Huang, L F Tang, Y Y Zhang, Y Jiang
Objective: To understand the clinical manifestation, imaging characteristics and outcomes of pulmonary malignant tumors in children. Method: We retrospectively collected information about seven cases of pulmonary malignant tumors in children in our hospital from Jan 2010 to Dec 2016. The information included clinical manifestation, imaging characteristics, pathologic results, and treatment. Result: (1) All the seven patients firstly visited pediatric internal medicine departments. Symptoms included cough (n=6), dyspnea (n=4), fever (n=2), anorexia (n=2), chest tightness (n=1), chest pain (n=1), lameness (n=1), abdominal distension and constipation (n=1)...
April 2, 2017: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438193/pathos-a-decision-support-system-for-reporting-high-throughput-sequencing-of-cancers-in-clinical-diagnostic-laboratories
#6
Kenneth D Doig, Andrew Fellowes, Anthony H Bell, Andrei Seleznev, David Ma, Jason Ellul, Jason Li, Maria A Doyle, Ella R Thompson, Amit Kumar, Luis Lara, Ravikiran Vedururu, Gareth Reid, Thomas Conway, Anthony T Papenfuss, Stephen B Fox
BACKGROUND: The increasing affordability of DNA sequencing has allowed it to be widely deployed in pathology laboratories. However, this has exposed many issues with the analysis and reporting of variants for clinical diagnostic use. Implementing a high-throughput sequencing (NGS) clinical reporting system requires a diverse combination of capabilities, statistical methods to identify variants, global variant databases, a validated bioinformatics pipeline, an auditable laboratory workflow, reproducible clinical assays and quality control monitoring throughout...
April 24, 2017: Genome Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435454/dual-somatostatin-receptor-fdg-pet-ct-imaging-in-metastatic-neuroendocrine-tumours-proposal-for-a-novel-grading-scheme-with-prognostic-significance
#7
David Lh Chan, Nick Pavlakis, Geoffrey P Schembri, Elizabeth J Bernard, Edward Hsiao, Aimee Hayes, Tristan Barnes, Connie Diakos, Mustafa Khasraw, Jaswinder Samra, Enid Eslick, Paul J Roach, Alexander Engel, Stephen J Clarke, Dale L Bailey
Background: PET scans using FDG and somatostatin receptor imaging agents have both been used to study neuroendocrine tumours. Most reports have documented the sensitivity and specificity of each radiopharmaceutical independently, and even suggested the superiority of one over the other for different grades of disease. Aim: The aim of this work was to develop a grading scheme that describes the joint results of both the FDG and somatostatin receptor imaging PET scans in staging subjects with neuroendocrine tumours in a single combined parameter...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434848/evaluating-the-effect-of-unstructured-clinical-information-on-clinical-decision-support-appropriateness-ratings
#8
Andrew K Moriarity, Aaron Green, Chad Klochko, Matthew O'Brien, Safwan Halabi
OBJECTIVE: To determine the appropriateness rating (AR) of advanced inpatient imaging requests that were not rated by prospective, point-of-care clinical decision support (CDS) using computerized provider order entry. MATERIALS AND METHODS: During 30-day baseline and intervention periods, CDS generated an AR for advanced inpatient imaging requests (nuclear medicine, CT, and MRI) using provider-selected structured indications from pull-down menus in the computerized provider order entry portal...
April 20, 2017: Journal of the American College of Radiology: JACR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434458/relationship-between-state-malpractice-environment-and-quality-of-health-care-in-the-united-states
#9
Karl Y Bilimoria, Jeanette W Chung, Christina A Minami, Min-Woong Sohn, Emily S Pavey, Jane L Holl, Michelle M Mello
BACKGROUND: One major intent of the medical malpractice system in the United States is to deter negligent care and to create incentives for delivering high-quality health care. A study was conducted to assess whether state-level measures of malpractice risk were associated with hospital quality and patient safety. METHODS: In an observational study of short-term, acute-care general hospitals in the United States that publicly reported in the Centers for Medicaid & Medicare Services Hospital Compare in 2011, hierarchical regression models were used to estimate associations between state-specific malpractice environment measures (rates of paid claims, average Medicare Malpractice Geographic Practice Cost Index [MGPCI], absence of tort reform laws, and a composite measure) and measures of hospital quality (processes of care, imaging utilization, 30-day mortality and readmission, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Patient Safety Indicators, and patient experience from the Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems [HCAHPS])...
May 2017: Joint Commission Journal on Quality and Patient Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433871/automatic-cumulative-sums-contour-detection-of-fbp-reconstructed-multi-object-nuclear-medicine-images
#10
Nicholas E Protonotarios, George M Spyrou, George A Kastis
The problem of determining the contours of objects in nuclear medicine images has been studied extensively in the past, however most of the analysis has focused on a single object as opposed to multiple objects. The aim of this work is to develop an automated method for determining the contour of multiple objects in positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) filtered backprojection (FBP) reconstructed images. These contours can be used for computing body edges for attenuation correction in PET and SPECT, as well as for eliminating streak artifacts outside the objects, which could be useful in compressive sensing reconstruction...
April 14, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431784/technical-and-instrumentational-foundations-of-pet-mri
#11
Ivo Rausch, Harald H Quick, Jacobo Cal-Gonzalez, Bernhard Sattler, Ronald Boellaard, Thomas Beyer
This paper highlights the origins of combined positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) whole-body systems that were first introduced for applications in humans in 2010. This text first covers basic aspects of each imaging modality before describing the technical and methodological challenges of combining PET and MRI within a single system. After several years of development, combined and even fully-integrated PET/MRI systems have become available and made their way into the clinic...
April 8, 2017: European Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430547/enhancing-insights-into-pulmonary-vascular-disease-pvd-through-a-precision-medicine-approach-a-joint-nhlbi-cmref-workshop-report
#12
John H Newman, Stuart Rich, Steven H Abman, John H Alexander, John Barnard, Gerald J Beck, Raymond L Benza, Todd M Bull, Stephen Y Chan, Hyung J Chun, Declan Doogan, Jocelyn Dupuis, Serpil C Erzurum, Robert P Frantz, Mark Geraci, Hunter Gillies, Mark Gladwin, Michael P Gray, Anna R Hemnes, Roy S Herbst, Adrian F Hernandez, Nicholas S Hill, Evelyn M Horn, Kendall Hunter, Zhi-Cheng Jing, Roger Johns, Sanjay Kaul, Steven M Kawut, Tim Lahm, Jane A Leopold, Greg D Lewis, Stephen C Mathai, Vallerie V McLaughlin, Evangelos D Michelakis, Steven D Nathan, William Nichols, Grier Page, Marlene Rabinovitch, Jonathan Rich, Franz Rischard, Sharon Rounds, Sanjiv J Shah, Victor F Tapson, Naomi Lowy, Norman Stockbridge, Gail Weinmann, Lei Xiao
The Division of Lung Diseases of the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, (NHLBI) and the Cardiovascular Medical Education and Research Fund (CMREF), held a workshop to discuss to leverage of the anticipated scientific output from the recently launched "Redefining Pulmonary Hypertension (PH) through Pulmonary Vascular Disease Phenomics" (PVDOMICS) program. PVDOMICS is a protocol driven network to analyze PH patient populations to define novel pulmonary vascular disease (PVD) phenotypes. Basic, translational and clinical investigators, patient advocacy organizations, regulatory agencies, and pharmaceutical industry experts discussed the application of precision medicine to PVD clinical trials...
April 21, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426908/clinically-useful-brain-imaging-for-neuropsychiatry-how-can-we-get-there
#13
REVIEW
Michael P Milham, R Cameron Craddock, Arno Klein
Despite decades of research, visions of transforming neuropsychiatry through the development of brain imaging-based "growth charts" or "lab tests" have remained out of reach. In recent years, there is renewed enthusiasm about the prospect of achieving clinically useful tools capable of aiding the diagnosis and management of neuropsychiatric disorders. The present work explores the basis for this enthusiasm. We assert that there is no single advance that currently has the potential to drive the field of clinical brain imaging forward...
April 20, 2017: Depression and Anxiety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426843/understanding-the-risks-and-harms-of-management-of-incidental-thyroid-nodules-a-review
#14
Jenny K Hoang, Xuan V Nguyen
Importance: Incidental thyroid nodules are defined as nodules originally detected in a patient with no thyroid-related clinical symptoms, examination findings, or suspected thyroid disease. Medical imaging for diseases in the neck, chest, and spine is a common source of incidental thyroid nodules. They are easily detected but poorly characterized. The next step is to decide whether the incidental thyroid nodule should be further evaluated with ultrasonography. Observations: Indiscriminate workup of incidental thyroid nodules with ultrasonography is not cost-effective and is potentially harmful...
April 20, 2017: JAMA Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426279/combination-of-gemcitabine-and-docetaxel-regress-both-gastric-leiomyosarcoma-proliferation-and-invasion-in-an-imageable-patient-derived-orthotopic-xenograft-ipdox-model
#15
Kei Kawaguchi, Kentaro Igarashi, Takashi Murakami, Tasuku Kiyuna, Scott D Nelson, Sarah M Dry, Yunfeng Li, Tara A Russell, Arun S Singh, Bartosz Chmielowski, Michiaki Unno, Fritz C Eilber, Robert M Hoffman
Gastric leiomyosarcoma is a recalcitrant cancer and chemotherapy strategy is controversial. The present study used a patient-derived orthotopic xenograft (PDOX) nude mouse model of gastric leiomyosarcoma to identify an effective therapeutic regimen in order to develop individualized precision medicine for this disease. A gastric leiomyosarcoma obtained from a patient was first grown in transgenic nude mice ubiquitously expressing red fluorescent protein (RFP) in order to stably label the tumor stroma. The RFP-expressing tumor was then passaged orthotopically in the gastric wall of non-transgenic nude mice to establish an imageable PDOX (iPDOX) model...
April 20, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424823/-coma-in-the-emergency-room
#16
M Braun, C J Ploner, T Lindner, M Möckel, W U Schmidt
Coma of unknown origin (CUO) is a frequent unspecific emergency symptom associated with a high mortality. A fast diagnostic work-up is essential given the wide spectrum of underlying diagnoses that are made up of approximately 50% primary central nervous system (CNS) pathologies and approximately 50% extracerebral, almost exclusively internal medical causes. Despite the high mortality associated with this symptom, there are currently no generally accepted management guidelines for adult patients presenting with CUO...
April 19, 2017: Der Nervenarzt
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424084/durable-complete-remission-with-aromatase-inhibitor-therapy-in-a-patient-with-metastatic-uterine-carcinosarcoma-with-poor-performance-status-and-coagulation-disorders-a-case-report
#17
P Martin-Romano, M Jurado, M A Idoate, L Arbea, J L Hernandez-Lizoain, D Cano, J A Paramo, S Martin-Algarra
BACKGROUND: Chemotherapy is considered the most appropriate treatment for metastatic uterine sarcoma, despite its limited efficacy. No other treatment has been conclusively proved to be a real alternative, but some reports suggest that anti-hormonal therapy could be active in a small subset of patients. We report the case of a patient with metastatic uterine carcinosarcoma with positive hormonal receptors and a complete pathological response. CASE PRESENTATION: A 54-year-old white woman presented to our emergency room with hypovolemic shock and serious vaginal bleeding...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423406/the-rise-of-radiomics-and-implications-for-oncologic-management
#18
Vivek Verma, Charles B Simone, Sunil Krishnan, Steven H Lin, Jinzhong Yang, Stephen M Hahn
Clinical medicine, particularly oncology, is progressing toward personalized care. Whereas the terms genomics, proteomics, transcriptomics, and metabolomics have dominated personalized medicine for the past couple decades, the concept of radiomics was first described in 2012. This nascent concept has major implications for personalized cancer care and involves extracting hundreds of standardized and quantifiable imaging characteristics from diagnostic computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging images. The central hypothesis of radiomics is that these libraries of quantitative individual voxel-based variables are more sensitively associated with various clinical endpoints compared with the more qualitative radiologic, histopathologic, and clinical data more commonly utilized today...
July 1, 2017: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417857/nuclear-medicine-imaging-in-pediatric-infection-or-chronic-inflammatory-diseases
#19
REVIEW
Alberto Signore, Andor W J M Glaudemans, Olivier Gheysens, Chiara Lauri, Onofrio A Catalano
In this review article, we focus on the most recent applications of nuclear medicine techniques (mainly (99m)Tc/(111)In white blood cells (WBC) scan, [(18)F]-FDG-PET/CT, [(18)F]-FDG-PET/MRI, and (99m)Tc-IL-2 scintigraphy) in the study of children affected by peripheral bone osteomyelitis, fungal infections, inflammatory bowel diseases, and type 1 diabetes, owing to recent important published evidences of their role in the management of these diseases. For osteomyelitis in children, both bone scintigraphy and [(18)F]-FDG-PET have a major advantage of assessing the whole body in one imaging session to confirm or exclude multifocal involvement, whereas WBC scan has a limited role...
May 2017: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417852/nuclear-medicine-in-pediatric-nephro-urology-an-overview
#20
REVIEW
Iosif Mendichovszky, Bernardita Troncoso Solar, Naima Smeulders, Marina Easty, Lorenzo Biassoni
In the context of ante-natally diagnosed hydronephrosis, the vast majority of children with a dilated renal pelvis do not need any surgical treatment, as the dilatation resolves spontaneously with time. Slow drainage demonstrated at Tc-99m-mercaptoacetyltriglycine (MAG3) renography does not necessarily mean obstruction. Obstruction is defined as resistance to urinary outflow with urinary stasis at the level of the pelvic-ureteric junction (PUJ) which, if left untreated, will damage the kidney. Unfortunately this definition is retrospective and not clinically helpful...
May 2017: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine
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