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imaging in clinical medicine

Bradley A Perkins, C Thomas Caskey, Pamila Brar, Eric Dec, David S Karow, Andrew M Kahn, Ying-Chen Claire Hou, Naisha Shah, Debbie Boeldt, Erin Coughlin, Gabby Hands, Victor Lavrenko, James Yu, Andrea Procko, Julia Appis, Anders M Dale, Lining Guo, Thomas J Jönsson, Bryan M Wittmann, Istvan Bartha, Smriti Ramakrishnan, Axel Bernal, James B Brewer, Suzanne Brewerton, William H Biggs, Yaron Turpaz, J Craig Venter
Reducing premature mortality associated with age-related chronic diseases, such as cancer and cardiovascular disease, is an urgent priority. We report early results using genomics in combination with advanced imaging and other clinical testing to proactively screen for age-related chronic disease risk among adults. We enrolled active, symptom-free adults in a study of screening for age-related chronic diseases associated with premature mortality. In addition to personal and family medical history and other clinical testing, we obtained whole-genome sequencing (WGS), noncontrast whole-body MRI, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), global metabolomics, a new blood test for prediabetes (Quantose IR), echocardiography (ECHO), ECG, and cardiac rhythm monitoring to identify age-related chronic disease risks...
March 19, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Ramin Mandegaran, Kanhaiyalal Agrawal, Sanjay Vijayanathan, Gopinath Gnanasegaran
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess the incremental value of technetium-99m-methyl diphosphonate (Tc-MDP) single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) over Tc-MDP two-phase bone scan (TPBS) in the assessment of the patients with pain following knee arthroplasty. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Tc-MDP TPBS and Tc-MDP SPECT/CT were performed in 49 patients with knee pain after knee arthroplasty. The scans were reviewed by two readers (nuclear medicine physician and musculoskeletal radiologist)...
March 16, 2018: Nuclear Medicine Communications
Samaresh Sau, Katyayani Tatiparti, Hashem O Alsaab, Sushil K Kashaw, Arun K Iyer
Nanomedicines can be multifunctional drug delivery agents for cancer therapies. However, they have faced several challenges in clinical trials owing to poor targeting ability, insufficient tumor penetration, difficulty in synthesis and scale up, and limited understanding of interactions between a tumor and nanoparticles. In this regard, tumor muticomponent targeting drug delivery systems are a rational approach for developing tumor-site-specific therapeutics. One of the goals is to arrive at a ready-to-configure, combinatorial, reagent-free click-chemistry-based tumor multicomponent targeting nanoparticle library...
March 15, 2018: Drug Discovery Today
C M Chingkoe, A Brook, A J Moser, K J Mortele
PURPOSE: At our tertiary medical center, multidisciplinary subspecialists meet twice a week during a CME-accredited conference to discuss oncologic and non-oncologic patients with pancreatic diseases at which time a subspecialized abdominal staff radiologist reinterprets the patient's relevant imaging studies. This study assesses the changes in patient management due to imaging reinterpretation during multidisciplinary pancreas conference (MPC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this retrospective, IRB-approved, HIPAA-compliant study, imaging studies of all patients discussed at MPC between July 1 and December 31, 2015 were assessed for technical adequacy, and original reports analyzed for congruency with reinterpretation...
March 17, 2018: Abdominal Radiology
Jonathan P Cranford, Thomas J O'Hara, Christopher T Villongco, Omar M Hafez, Robert C Blake, Joseph Loscalzo, Jean-Luc Fattebert, David F Richards, Xiaohua Zhang, James N Glosli, Andrew D McCulloch, David E Krummen, Felice C Lightstone, Sergio E Wong
Patient-specific models of the ventricular myocardium, combined with the computational power to run rapid simulations, are approaching the level where they could be used for personalized cardiovascular medicine. A major remaining challenge is determining model parameters from available patient data, especially for models of the Purkinje-myocardial junctions (PMJs): the sites of initial ventricular electrical activation. There are no non-invasive methods for localizing PMJs in patients, and the relationship between the standard clinical ECG and PMJ model parameters is underexplored...
March 16, 2018: Cardiovascular Engineering and Technology
Christopher G Roth, Dina Halegoua-De Marzio, Flavius F Guglielmo
MRI has transformed from the theoretical, investigative realm to mainstream clinical medicine over the past four decades and has become a core component of the diagnostic toolbox in the practice of gastroenterology (GI). Its success is attributable to exquisite contrast and the ability to isolate specific proton species through the use of different pulse sequences (i.e., T1-weighted, T2-weighted, diffusion-weighted) and exploiting extracellular and hepatobiliary contrast agents. Consequently, MRI has gained preeminence in various GI clinical applications: liver and pancreatic lesion evaluation and detection, liver transplantation evaluation, pancreatitis evaluation, Crohn's disease evaluation (using MR enterography) rectal cancer staging and perianal fistula evaluation...
March 16, 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
P D Tar, N A Thacker, M Babur, Y Watson, S Cheung, R A Little, R G Gieling, K J Williams, J P B O'Connor
Motivation: Imaging demonstrates that preclinical and human tumors are heterogeneous, i.e. a single tumor can exhibit multiple regions that behave differently during both normal development and also in response to treatment. The large variations observed in control group tumors can obscure detection of significant therapeutic effects due to the ambiguity in attributing causes of change. This can hinder development of effective therapies due to limitations in experimental design, rather than due to therapeutic failure...
March 14, 2018: Bioinformatics
Grace Frances Mary McKay, Asoka Weerasinghe
BACKGROUND: Ultrasonography is recognised as an invaluable imaging modality for assessing critically unwell patients and obtaining vascular access. Senior emergency medicine and anaesthetic clinicians will regularly use ultrasound-guided imaging to establish vascular access for unwell patients; however, junior doctors, who are routinely the first clinicians to review deteriorating patients, are not encouraged or required to develop basic ultrasound interventional skills and are therefore ill equipped to use ultrasonography...
March 15, 2018: Postgraduate Medical Journal
Kenneth A Miles, Stefan A Voo, Ashley M Groves
Initial clinical research comparing the diagnostic performance of Positron Emission Tomography (PET)/ Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and PET/ Computed Tomography (PET/CT) has largely shown equivalent diagnostic capabilities for these modalities in oncology. These uncertainties about the magnitude of diagnostic benefit are compounded by the considerable health economic challenges associated with clinical implementation. Therefore, there is a need to identify ways to extend the use of this technology beyond simple diagnosis so that PET/MRI can add sufficient clinical value beyond PET/CT or MRI alone, and become a cost-effective imaging modality in clinical practice...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
Marina V Mavromatis, Mauricio Solano, Michael Y Thelen
There are clear differences in the normal radiographic appearance of the abdominal organs between a left lateral vs. a right lateral view. While a few veterinary academic institutions have transitioned to a three-view abdominal radiographic study protocol, obtaining only two views of the canine abdomen remains the current standard in veterinary medicine. In this combined retrospective and prospective, case-controlled study, 48 canine patients presenting with signs of acute abdomen were recruited. Four board-certified veterinary radiologists and four general practice veterinarians with greater than 3 years of experience in small animal practice were asked to determine if 10 predetermined findings were present within the set of images and if surgery was recommended based on those findings...
March 15, 2018: Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound
Bingbo Zhang, Wei Yan, Yanjing Zhu, Weitao Yang, Wenjun Le, Bingdi Chen, Rongrong Zhu, Liming Cheng
Patients are increasingly being diagnosed with neuropathic diseases, but are rarely cured because of the loss of neurons in damaged tissues. This situation creates an urgent clinical need to develop alternative treatment strategies for effective repair and regeneration of injured or diseased tissues. Neural stem cells (NSCs), highly pluripotent cells with the ability of self-renewal and potential for multidirectional differentiation, provide a promising solution to meet this demand. However, some serious challenges remaining to be addressed are the regulation of implanted NSCs, tracking their fate, monitoring their interaction with and responsiveness to the tissue environment, and evaluating their treatment efficacy...
March 15, 2018: Advanced Materials
Bibb Allen, Mythreyi Chatfield, Judy Burleson, William T Thorwarth
In September of 2014, the American College of Radiology joined a number of other organizations in sponsoring the 2015 National Academy of Medicine report, Improving Diagnosis In Health Care. Our presentation to the Academy emphasized that although diagnostic errors in imaging are commonly considered to result only from failures in disease detection or misinterpretation of a perceived abnormality, most errors in diagnosis result from failures in information gathering, aggregation, dissemination and ultimately integration of that information into our patients' clinical problems...
September 26, 2017: Diagnosis
Marion Semmler, Michael Döllinger, Rita R Patel, Anke Ziethe, Anne Schützenberger
OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: Laser-based three-dimensional (3D) imaging allows realistic visualization and absolute measurement of the vocal folds for comprehensive characterization of the oscillation pattern. STUDY DESIGN: Exploratory study with descriptive data analysis in healthy cohort. METHODS: The custom-developed miniaturized measuring device is an endoscopic camera-laser setup for stereo triangulation and suitable for in vivo application...
March 14, 2018: Laryngoscope
Pawel J Winklewski, Agnieszka Sabisz, Patrycja Naumczyk, Krzysztof Jodzio, Edyta Szurowska, Arkadiusz Szarmach
The use of the diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is rapidly growing in the neuroimaging field. Nevertheless, rigorously performed quantitative validation of DTI pathologic metrics remains very limited owing to the difficulty in co-registering quantitative histology findings with magnetic resonance imaging. The aim of this review is to summarize the existing state-of-the-art knowledge with respect to axial (λ║ ) and radial (λ┴ ) diffusivity as DTI markers of axonal and myelin damage, respectively. First, we provide technical background for DTI and briefly discuss the specific organization of white matter in bundles of axonal fibers running in parallel; this is the natural target for imaging based on diffusion anisotropy...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Dragana Milutinović, Robert Lovrić, Dragana Simin
BACKGROUND: There is an implicit expectation for medical sciences students to work together effectively as members of health-care team, and interprofessional education is therefore widely accepted. Students' attitudes, which are affected by various factors, have been recognized as the most important predictors of successful implementation of interprofessional education with the aim of developing collaborative practice. The Readiness for Interprofessional Learning Scale has often been used in studies to measure these perspectives...
March 8, 2018: Nurse Education Today
Alexandra Yannoutsos, Julie Malloizel-Delaunay, Emilie Tournier, Abdelaziz Abid, Alessandra Bura-Rivière
In this observation, we report an unusual presentation of a pilomatricoma in an 8-year-old girl who was initially referred to the department of vascular medicine for diagnosis and care of a suspected mixed lymphatic venous malformation. The lesion on her left shoulder presented as a giant bluish-purple red solitary mass, painful and rapidly growing, measuring 7 cm in anteroposterior diameter. This mass did not present the typical characteristics of a lymphatic venous malformation but exhibited warning signs of malignancy on clinical examination and imaging...
February 27, 2018: American Journal of Dermatopathology
Irina Velikyan, Örjan Lindhe
Monitoring general disease marker such as angiogenesis may contribute to the development of personalized medicine and improve therapy outcome. Readily availability of positron emitter based imaging agents providing quantification would expand clinical positron emission tomography (PET) applications. Generator produced68 Ga provides PET images of high resolution and the half-life time frame is compatible with the pharmacokinetics of small peptides comprising arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) sequence specific to αv β3 integrin receptors...
2018: American Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Angelo Castello, Laura Olivari, Egesta Lopci
Surgery, radiation therapy and chemotherapy are the oldest modalities for cancer treatment. However, as part of a continuous research in medicine, in order to improve therapeutic precision and biological effectiveness, there is an increasing interest into the use of heavy particle (e.g. protons or heavy ions) in the treatment of solid tumors. However, the restricted availability of the technology has concentrated the expertise in highly specialized centers that take care and treat extreme cases and rare pathologies...
2018: American Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Pooya Mobadersany, Safoora Yousefi, Mohamed Amgad, David A Gutman, Jill S Barnholtz-Sloan, José E Velázquez Vega, Daniel J Brat, Lee A D Cooper
Cancer histology reflects underlying molecular processes and disease progression and contains rich phenotypic information that is predictive of patient outcomes. In this study, we show a computational approach for learning patient outcomes from digital pathology images using deep learning to combine the power of adaptive machine learning algorithms with traditional survival models. We illustrate how these survival convolutional neural networks (SCNNs) can integrate information from both histology images and genomic biomarkers into a single unified framework to predict time-to-event outcomes and show prediction accuracy that surpasses the current clinical paradigm for predicting the overall survival of patients diagnosed with glioma...
March 12, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Francesco Macrì, Simona Di Pietro, Cyndi Mangano, Michela Pugliese, Giuseppe Mazzullo, Nicola M Iannelli, Vito Angileri, Simona Morabito, Massimo De Majo
BACKGROUND: In veterinary medicine, contrast-enhanced ultrasonography allowed the accurate quantification of liver, splenic and kidney vascularization in healthy dogs and the differentiation between malignant and benign hepatic, renal, and splenic nodules in dogs and cats based on perfusion patterns. The utility of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography in other applications is still under study. The aim of this study was to develop diagnostic criteria by contrast-enhanced ultrasonography in 8 client-owned adult dogs affected by urinary bladder transitional cell carcinoma with definitive diagnosis made by cytopathologic evaluation after suction biopsy...
March 12, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
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