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imaging in clinical medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329105/medical-three-dimensional-printing-opens-up-new-opportunities-in-cardiology-and-cardiac-surgery
#1
Thomas Bartel, Andrew Rivard, Alejandro Jimenez, Carlos A Mestres, Silvana Müller
Advanced percutaneous and surgical procedures in structural and congenital heart disease require precise pre-procedural planning and continuous quality control. Although current imaging modalities and post-processing software assists with peri-procedural guidance, their capabilities for spatial conceptualization remain limited in two- and three-dimensional representations. In contrast, 3D printing offers not only improved visualization for procedural planning, but provides substantial information on the accuracy of surgical reconstruction and device implantations...
February 16, 2017: European Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324908/-magnetic-sentinel-lymph-node-detection-in-prostate-cancer-after-intraprostatic-injection-of-superparamagnetic-iron-oxide-nanoparticles
#2
Alexander Winter, Svenja Engels, Tobias Kowald, Tina Susanne Paulo, Holger Gerullis, Ajay Chavan, Friedhelm Wawroschek
In prostate cancer, reliable information about the lymph node status is of great importance for accurate staging and the optimal planning of treatment. Despite recent advances in imaging, the histological detection of metastases, or pelvic lymphadenectomy (PLND), continues to be the most reliable method for lymph node staging in clinically localised prostate cancer, especially as this procedure enables the detection of small or micrometastases. Radioisotope-guided sentinel PLND (sPLND) demonstrates high sensitivity in the detection of lymph node metastases as well as low morbidity in prostate cancer because of the targeted removal of a relatively small number of lymph nodes...
March 21, 2017: Aktuelle Urologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321908/reduced-field-of-view-single-shot-spiral-perfusion-imaging
#3
Yang Yang, Li Zhao, Xiao Chen, Peter W Shaw, Jorge A Gonzalez, Frederick H Epstein, Craig H Meyer, Christopher M Kramer, Michael Salerno
PURPOSE: To develop a single-shot spiral perfusion pulse sequence with outer-volume suppression (OVS) to achieve whole-heart coverage with a short temporal footprint of 10 ms per slice location. METHODS: A highly accelerated single-shot variable density spiral pulse sequence with an integrated OVS module for reduced field of view (rFOV) perfusion imaging with 2 mm spatial resolution was developed and evaluated in simulations, phantom experiments and in clinical patients with (n = 8) or without (n = 8) OVS...
March 20, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319221/fluorescent-chemical-probes-for-accurate-tumor-diagnosis-and-targeting-therapy
#4
REVIEW
Min Gao, Fabiao Yu, Changjun Lv, Jaebum Choo, Lingxin Chen
Surgical resection of solid tumors is currently the gold standard and preferred therapeutic strategy for cancer. Chemotherapy drugs also make a significant contribution by inhibiting the rapid growth of tumor cells and these two approaches are often combined to enhance treatment efficacy. However, surgery and chemotherapy inevitably lead to severe side effects and high systemic toxicity, which in turn results in poor prognosis. Precision medicine has promoted the development of treatment modalities that are developed to specifically target and kill tumor cells...
March 20, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318936/vector-model-supported-approach-in-prostate-plan-optimization
#5
Eva Sau Fan Liu, Vincent Wing Cheung Wu, Benjamin Harris, Margot Lehman, David Pryor, Lawrence Wing Chi Chan
Lengthy time consumed in traditional manual plan optimization can limit the use of step-and-shoot intensity-modulated radiotherapy/volumetric-modulated radiotherapy (S&S IMRT/VMAT). A vector model base, retrieving similar radiotherapy cases, was developed with respect to the structural and physiologic features extracted from the Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) files. Planning parameters were retrieved from the selected similar reference case and applied to the test case to bypass the gradual adjustment of planning parameters...
March 17, 2017: Medical Dosimetry: Official Journal of the American Association of Medical Dosimetrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317152/-68-ga-psma-pet-for-radiation-treatment-planning-in-prostate-cancer-recurrences-after-surgery-individualized-medicine-or-new-standard-in-salvage-treatment
#6
Gregor Habl, Katharina Sauter, Kilian Schiller, Sabrina Dewes, Tobias Maurer, Matthias Eiber, Stephanie E Combs
BACKGROUND: (68) Ga-PSMA-PET imaging is a novel promising diagnostic tool to locate early biochemical failure after radical prostatectomy (RP) in prostate cancer (PC) patients. Exact knowledge of the relapse location may result in changes of the therapy concept aside from changes to the TNM stage. To gain data for this approach, we evaluated PC patients receiving (68) Ga-PSMA-PET imaging before salvage radiotherapy (RT). METHODS AND MATERIALS: In this study, 100 patients with biochemical failure after RP± prior RT who underwent (68) Ga-PSMA PET/CT or PET/MRI were evaluated undergoing salvage RT in our department...
March 20, 2017: Prostate
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316193/-clinical-study-on-the-corneal-epithelial-dysfunction-after-cataract-extraction
#7
J H Qu, Z Q Wang, Y Zhang, X G Sun
Objective: To study the clinical manifestations, diagnosis and treatment of corneal epithelial dysfunction after cataract extraction. Methods: Fifteen cases diagnosed as corneal epithelial dysfunction after cataract extraction between November 2014 and September 2016 were retrospectively analyzed, mainly including clinical manifestations, characteristics of morphological changes imaged by in vivo laser confocal microscopy, management and therapeutic effects. Results: There were 6 (40%) males and 9 (60%) females with an average age of 66±7 years (59 to 86 years)...
March 11, 2017: [Zhonghua Yan Ke za Zhi] Chinese Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314908/anatomy-and-aesthetics-of-the-labia-minora-the-ideal-vulva
#8
REVIEW
C Clerico, A Larry, A Mojallal, F Boucher
Female genital cosmetic surgery is becoming more and more widespread both in the field of plastic and gynaecological surgery. The increased demand for vulvar surgery is spurred by the belief that the vulva is abnormal in appearance. What is normal in terms of labial anatomy? Labia minora enlargement or hypertrophy remains a clinical diagnosis which is poorly defined as it could be considered a variation of the normal anatomy. Enlarged labia minora can cause functional, aesthetic and psychosocial problems. In reality, given the wide variety of vulvar morphology among people, it is a very subjective issue to define the "normal" vulva...
March 10, 2017: Aesthetic Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306666/new-biomarkers-and-imaging-approaches-for-the-diagnosis-of-deep-venous-thrombosis
#9
Jordan K Schaefer, Benjamin Jacobs, Thomas W Wakefield, Suman L Sood
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Symptoms suggestive of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) are extremely common in clinical practice, but unfortunately nonspecific. In both ambulatory and inpatient settings, clinicians are often tasked with evaluating these concerns. Here, we review the most recent advances in biomarkers and imaging to diagnose lower extremity DVT. RECENT FINDINGS: The modified Wells score remains the most supported clinical decision rule for risk stratifying patients...
March 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306496/use-of-magnetic-resonance-imaging-guided-biopsy-of-a-vertebral-body-mass-to-diagnose-osteosarcoma-in-a-rottweiler
#10
Rebecca A Krimins, Jan Fritz, Larry A Gainsburg, Patrick R Gavin, Elizabeth A Ihms, David L Huso, Dara L Kraitchman
CASE DESCRIPTION A 9-year-old spayed female Rottweiler with hind limb ataxia was examined because of anorexia and an acute onset of hind limb paresis. CLINICAL FINDINGS Neurologic evaluation revealed hind limb ataxia and symmetric paraparesis with bilaterally abnormal hind limb postural reactions including hopping, hemiwalking, hemistanding, and delayed proprioception, which were suggestive of a lesion somewhere in the T3-L3 segment of the spinal cord. Thoracolumbar radiography revealed an abnormal radiopacity suggestive of a mass at T11...
April 1, 2017: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303472/chronic-exertional-compartment-syndrome-in-the-forearm-of-a-collegiate-softball-pitcher
#11
REVIEW
Austin Cole, John L Hiatt, Christopher Arnold, Terry Sites, Ramon Ylanon
BACKGROUND: Chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) is a recognized condition in the lower limb, with many reports in the literature. However, very few instances include CECS of the upper limb. This article presents the case of a collegiate softball pitcher presenting with CECS in her right forearm. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of a softball player with CECS, with only one similar incident in a major league baseball player. PURPOSE: The rarity of this condition normally places it low on the differential diagnosis...
December 2017: Sports Medicine—Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302035/translational-multimodality-neuroimaging
#12
Sushil K Sharma
Recently high-resolution, noninvasive, multimodality in-vivo molecular imaging with PET, SPECT, CT and MRI, employing fusion algorithms has revolutionized personalized medicine. However, specific radiopharmaceuticals (RPs) for the accurate diagnosis and effective treatment of progressive neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, drug addiction, and other cognitive impairments still remain in developmental phase. Currently, multimodality fusion neuroimaging is utilized for the determination of: pharmacokinetics and pre-clinical development of radiopharmaceuticals (RPs); in-vivo monitoring of stem cell transplantation therapy; nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) investigations; and regional cerebral blood flow and glucose metabolism in cognitively-impaired subjects employing noninvasive microPET and nano-SPECT imaging...
March 15, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301892/evaluating-the-performance-of-ultrasound-screening-for-congenital-heart-disease-a-descriptive-cohort-study
#13
Rosemary J Froehlich, Lindsay Maggio, Phinnara Has, Erika F Werner, Dwight J Rouse
Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate the rate of abnormal fetal echocardiogram after normal detailed anatomy ultrasound when both are performed by maternal-fetal medicine specialists. Study Design Retrospective review of women who underwent detailed anatomy ultrasound and fetal echocardiography between 16 and 26 weeks' gestation at a single center. Women included had at least one indication for fetal echocardiography as recommended by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine and normal cardiac anatomy on initial detailed anatomy ultrasound...
March 16, 2017: American Journal of Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298516/precision-medicine-in-breast-cancer
#14
Teresa G Odle
Breast cancer care has improved markedly in recent decades, but new advancements in diagnosis and treatment depend on translating genomics and precision medicine into clinical care. This article discusses the basics of genomics, breast cancer biomarkers and subtypes, and the effects of genomic advancements on future breast cancer diagnosis, treatment, and survival. The article also presents challenges related to introducing precision medicine into cancer care and the role of imaging in breast cancer diagnosis and treatment in precision medicine...
March 2017: Radiologic Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297573/magnetic-resonance-imaging-guided-delivery-of-neural-stem-cells-into-the-basal-ganglia-of-nonhuman-primates-reveals-a-pulsatile-mode-of-cell-dispersion
#15
Kristen E Malloy, Jinqi Li, Gourav R Choudhury, April Torres, Shruti Gupta, Chris Kantorak, Tim Goble, Peter T Fox, Geoffrey D Clarke, Marcel M Daadi
Optimal stem cell delivery procedures are critical to the success of the cell therapy approach. Variables such as flow rate, suspension solution, needle diameter, cell density, and tissue mechanics affect tissue penetration, backflow along the needle, and the dispersion and survival of injected cells during delivery. Most cell transplantation centers engaged in human clinical trials use custom-designed cannula needles, syringes, or catheters, sometimes precluding the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided delivery to target tissue...
March 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297568/safety-studies-for-use-of-adipose-tissue-derived-mesenchymal-stromal-stem-cells-in-a-rabbit-model-for-osteoarthritis-to-support-a-phase-i-clinical-trial
#16
Scott M Riester, Janet M Denbeigh, Yang Lin, Dakota L Jones, Tristan de Mooij, Eric A Lewallen, Hai Nie, Christopher R Paradise, Darcie J Radel, Amel Dudakovic, Emily T Camilleri, Dirk R Larson, Wenchun Qu, Aaron J Krych, Matthew A Frick, Hee-Jeong Im, Allan B Dietz, Jay Smith, Andre J van Wijnen
Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AMSCs) offer potential as a therapeutic option for clinical applications in musculoskeletal regenerative medicine because of their immunomodulatory functions and capacity for trilineage differentiation. In preparation for a phase I clinical trial using AMSCs to treat patients with osteoarthritis, we carried out preclinical studies to assess the safety of human AMSCs within the intra-articular joint space. Culture-expanded human AMSCs grown in human platelet-lysate were delivered via intra-articular injections into normal healthy rabbit knees and knees at risk for the development of osteoarthritis after bilateral medial anterior hemimeniscectomy...
March 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297281/a-survey-on-table-tolerances-and-couch-overrides-in-radiotherapy
#17
Bonnie Chinsky, Rakesh Patel, Joshua Panfil, Murat Surucu, John C Roeske
The purpose of this study was to survey current departmental policies on treatment couch overrides and the values of table tolerances used clinically. A 25-question electronic survey on couch overrides and tolerances was sent to full members of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM). The first part of the survey asked participants if table overrides were allowed at their institution, who was allowed to perform these overrides, and if imaging was required with overrides. The second part of the survey asked individuals to provide table tolerance data for the following treatment sites: brain/head and neck (H&N), lung, breast, abdomen/pelvis and prostate...
November 2016: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296301/imaging-acquisition-display-performance-an-evaluation-and-discussion-of-performance-metrics-and-procedures
#18
Michael S Silosky, Rebecca M Marsh, Ann L Scherzinger
When The Joint Commission updated its Requirements for Diagnostic Imaging Services for hospitals and ambulatory care facilities on July 1, 2015, among the new requirements was an annual performance evaluation for acquisition workstation displays. The purpose of this work was to evaluate a large cohort of acquisition displays used in a clinical environment and compare the results with existing performance standards provided by the American College of Radiology (ACR) and the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM)...
July 2016: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289845/what-s-new-in-neuromyelitis-optica-a-short-review-for-the-clinical-neurologist
#19
Daniel Whittam, Martin Wilson, Shahd Hamid, Geoff Keir, Maneesh Bhojak, Anu Jacob
The evolution of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) from a rare, incurable and misunderstood disease with almost universally poor outcomes to its present state in just over a decade is unprecedented in neurology and possibly in medicine. Our knowledge of NMOSD biology has led to the recognition of wider phenotypes, new disease mechanisms, and thus clinical trials of new and effective treatments. This article aims to update readers on the recent developments in NMOSD with particular emphasis on clinical advances, the 2015 diagnostic criteria, biomarkers, imaging, and therapeutic interventions...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280722/tissue-engineered-solutions-in-plastic-and-reconstructive-surgery-principles-and-practice
#20
REVIEW
Sarah Al-Himdani, Zita M Jessop, Ayesha Al-Sabah, Emman Combellack, Amel Ibrahim, Shareen H Doak, Andrew M Hart, Charles W Archer, Catherine A Thornton, Iain S Whitaker
Recent advances in microsurgery, imaging, and transplantation have led to significant refinements in autologous reconstructive options; however, the morbidity of donor sites remains. This would be eliminated by successful clinical translation of tissue-engineered solutions into surgical practice. Plastic surgeons are uniquely placed to be intrinsically involved in the research and development of laboratory engineered tissues and their subsequent use. In this article, we present an overview of the field of tissue engineering, with the practicing plastic surgeon in mind...
2017: Frontiers in Surgery
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