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Metabolic stone disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016582/safety-and-efficacy-of-percutaneous-nephrolithotomy-in-children
#1
Udaya Man Singh Dongol, Yugal Limbu
BACKGROUND: Renal stone disease is a common problem in children in developing countries. Its prevalence in children varies from 5% to 15%. It is suggested that anatomic abnormalities, recurrent urinary tract infections, metabolic disturbances, dietary and environmental factors are the predisposing factors.The aim of this study is to evaluate the safety and efficacy of percutaneous nephrolithotomy in children. METHODS: Between May 2012 and Dec 2016, 25 children with renal stone diseases underwent percutaneous nephrolithotomy and were evaluated for stone free rate, complications, blood transfusion rate, sandwich therapy, etc...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Nepal Health Research Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981230/-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-nephrolithiasis-and-prevention-of-recurrences
#2
I Simon, F Legrand, J M Des Grottes, F Cotton, J Nortier, T Roumeguère
despite fluctuations, the prevalence of nephrolithiasis has significantly increased during the last decades in industrialized nations worldwide (1 to 15 %), which has a significant impact on the cost of healthcare. This increased prevalence is mainly explained by diet modifications. Environmental, metabolic and genetic factors may also influence the formation of kidney stones. As a consequence, the medical management of this disease is preferentially multidisciplinary and involves urologists, nephrologists, radiologists, biologists and dietitians...
2017: Revue Médicale de Bruxelles
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966756/preventive-kidney-stones-continue-medical-education
#3
REVIEW
Farahnak Assadi, Mastaneh Moghtaderi
Nephrolithiasis is a common health problem across the globe with a prevalence of 15%-20%. Idiopathic hypercalciuria is the most common cause of nephrolithiasis, and calcium oxalate stones are the most common type of stones in idiopathic hypercalciuric patients. Calcium phosphate stones are frequently associated with other diseases such as renal tubular acidosis type 1, urinary tract infections, and hyperparathyroidism. Compared with flat abdominal film and renal sonography, a noncontrast helical computed tomography scan of the abdomen is the diagnostic procedure of choice for detection of small and radiolucent kidney stones with sensitivity and specificity of nearly 100%...
2017: International Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930079/epicardial-adipose-tissue-volume-and-cardiovascular-risk-indices-among-asymptomatic-women-with-and-without-hiv
#4
Suman Srinivasa, Michael T Lu, Kathleen V Fitch, Travis R Hallett, Timothy K O'Malley, Lauren A Stone, Amanda Martin, Alexandra J Coromilas, Tricia H Burdo, Virginia A Triant, Janet Lo, Sara E Looby, Tomas G Neilan, Markella V Zanni
BACKGROUND: Mechanisms underlying the heightened myocardial infarction risk among HIV-infected women (versus non-HIV-infected women) remain unclear. Our objectives were to assess epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) volume and its associations among asymptomatic women with and without HIV. METHODS: Fifty-five HIV-infected and 27 non-HIV-infected women without known cardiovascular disease who underwent cardiac CT and metabolic/immune phenotyping were included. EAT volume derived from CT was compared among women with and without HIV, and within-group EAT associations were assessed...
September 20, 2017: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923463/hyperparathyroidism
#5
REVIEW
John P Bilezikian, Leonardo Bandeira, Aliya Khan, Natalie E Cusano
Primary hyperparathyroidism is a common endocrine disorder of calcium metabolism characterised by hypercalcaemia and elevated or inappropriately normal concentrations of parathyroid hormone. Almost always, primary hyperparathyroidism is due to a benign overgrowth of parathyroid tissue either as a single gland (80% of cases) or as a multiple gland disorder (15-20% of cases). Primary hyperparathyroidism is generally discovered when asymptomatic but the disease always has the potential to become symptomatic, resulting in bone loss and kidney stones...
September 15, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883679/the-relationship-between-nephrolithiasis-risk-with-body-fat-measured-by-body-composition-analyzer-in-obese-people
#6
Zohreh Bartani, Behzad Heydarpour, Ahmad Alijani, Masoud Sadeghi
BACKGROUND: Nephrolithiasis (kidney stones) continues to be a major cause of morbidity and healthcare spending that visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue may associate with kidney stone formation. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between nephrolithiasis with visceral fat scale in obese people in Western Iran for the first time. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 2017, 103 participants with BMI≥30 kg/m(2) were selected for the present study. The participants were divided into two groups, 52 as case group (having the kidney stone) and 58 as healthy control group (no kidney stone or history of the kidney stone or any other disease)...
June 2017: Acta Informatica Medica: AIM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875258/molecular-analysis-of-oxalate-induced-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-mediated-apoptosis-in-the-pathogenesis-of-kidney-stone-disease
#7
Albert Abhishek, Shaly Benita, Monika Kumari, Divya Ganesan, Eldho Paul, Ponnusamy Sasikumar, Ayyavu Mahesh, Subramani Yuvaraj, Tharmarajan Ramprasath, Govindan Sadasivam Selvam
Oxalate, a non-essential end product of metabolism, causes hyperoxaluria and eventually calcium oxalate (CaOx) stone disease. Kidney cells exposed to oxalate stress results in generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and progression of stone formation. Perturbations in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) result in accumulation of misfolded proteins and Ca(2+) ions homeostasis imbalance and serve as a common pathway for various diseases, including kidney disorders. ER stress induces up-regulation of pro-survival protein glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) and pro-apoptotic signaling protein C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP)...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867052/supramalleolar-osteotomies
#8
REVIEW
Varun Chopra, Paul Stone, Alan Ng
Distal tibial malalignment can result from posttraumatic malunion, physeal disturbances, congenital or metabolic diseases, and degenerative arthritis. Malalignment leads to an altered load distribution across the joint leading to early ankle joint arthritis. If a substantial part of the joint is salvageable, ankle fusion or joint replacement is not always the best option. Realignment of the distal tibia with a joint-sparing supramalleolar osteotomy is a valuable procedure in correcting deformity at the distal tibia...
October 2017: Clinics in Podiatric Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830863/effectiveness-of-treatment-modalities-on-kidney-stone-recurrence
#9
Anna L Zisman
Nephrolithiasis is highly prevalent across all demographic groups in the Western world and beyond, and its incidence rates are rising. In addition to the morbidity of the acute event, stone disease often becomes a lifelong problem that requires preventative therapy to diminish ongoing morbidity. Across the majority of stone types, increased fluid intake and targeted dietary modifications are mainstays of therapy. Specific dietary interventions associated with reduced calcium stone risk include adequate dietary calcium intake and restriction of sodium, protein, and oxalate intake, among others...
October 6, 2017: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770533/hyperuricemia-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-and-hypertension-an-emerging-association
#10
REVIEW
Ibrahim Mortada
Uric acid is the final oxidation product of purine metabolism in circulation and has been associated with the occurrence of gout and kidney stones. Type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension are two important public health challenges, and both are linked to increased risk of cardiovascular events. Hyperuricemia has recently emerged as an independent risk factor in the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension through several proposed mechanisms. Few clinical trials investigated the use of uric acid lowering agents in the management of these two disease entities; however, their results provided encouraging evidence to a potential role for these agents in fighting disease burden...
September 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764885/plasma-oxalate-in-relation-to-egfr-in-patients-with-primary-hyperoxaluria-enteric-hyperoxaluria-and-urinary-stone-disease
#11
Majuran Perinpam, Felicity T Enders, Kristin C Mara, Lisa E Vaughan, Ramila A Mehta, Nickolay Voskoboev, Dawn S Milliner, John C Lieske
BACKGROUND: Since plasma oxalate (POx) concentrations increase at lower glomerular filtration rate (GFR) levels, even among those without enteric (EH) or primary hyperoxaluria (PH), the appropriate thresholds for considering a disorder of oxalate metabolism are poorly defined. The current study was completed to establish relationships between POx, GFR, and urine oxalate excretion (UOx) among patients with PH, EH, and routine urinary stone disease (USD). METHODS: The most recent POx measurement on all Mayo Clinic patients between 2005 and 2015 were electronically pulled from the Lab Information System together with the closest serum creatinine within 14days and 24h urine study within 60days...
July 29, 2017: Clinical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762682/-use-of-citrate-in-patients-with-nephrolithiasis
#12
REVIEW
Martino Marangella
Citrate is a tricarboxylic acid and an intermediate metabolite of Krebs cycle. It contributes to oxidative metabolism of both kidney and liver. Alkaline sodium or potassium salts have the potential to increase alkaline reserve. In the kidney citrate is completely filtered at the glomerulus, undergoing to 10-40% tubular resorption. Renal insufficiency, even early, metabolic acidosis, potassium depletion induce hypocitraturia. Its importance in nephrolithiasis stems from its ability to form soluble complexes with calcium and to interfere with crystal formation, thus exerting a dual inhibition, thermodynamic and kinetic...
August 1, 2017: Giornale Italiano di Nefrologia: Organo Ufficiale Della Società Italiana di Nefrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729176/infant-nephrolithiasis-and-nephrocalcinosis-natural-history-and-predictors-of-surgical-intervention
#13
Veridiana Andrioli, Kerri Highmore, Michael P Leonard, Luis A Guerra, Kenneth Tang, Jennifer Vethamuthu, Victoria Meyers, Katrina J Sullivan, Melise A Keays
INTRODUCTION: Renal stone disease diagnosed in the first year of life is relatively uncommon. While risk factors such as low birth weight, furosemide exposure, and metabolic disorders are well established, there exists little information regarding resolution rates and need for surgical intervention. Our study objective was to evaluate urolithiasis and renal calcification resolution rates, time to resolution, and need for surgical intervention in children diagnosed in their first year of life...
August 2017: Journal of Pediatric Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720369/metabolic-work-up-of-patients-with-urolithiasis-indications-and-diagnostic-algorithm
#14
REVIEW
Hans-Göran Tiselius, Michel Daudon, Kay Thomas, Christian Seitz
CONTEXT: The incidence of urinary tract stone disease is increasing and the risk of recurrent stone formation is high. Appropriate therapeutic procedures with the aim of counteracting the progress of stone formation are highly desirable. Metabolic work-up is considered essential as a base for optimal design and follow-up of effective recurrence prevention. OBJECTIVE: To scrutinize the current literature with regard to principles of metabolic work-up for this heterogeneous group of patients...
February 2017: European Urology Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689648/clinical-and-genetic-characterization-of-chinese-pediatric-cystine-stone-patients
#15
Luming Shen, Xiaoming Cong, Xin Zhang, Ninghong Wang, Ping Zhou, Yan Xu, Qingyi Zhu, Xiaojian Gu
INTRODUCTION: Cystine stone is the only clinical manifestation in patients with cystinuria, which is an autosomal recessive inheritable disease. However, clinical and genetic data vary among patients in different countries. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the characteristics of Chinese pediatric cystine stone patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Thirteen pediatric patients with cystine stones were evaluated in our clinic between 2012 and 2015. Gene mutations in SLC3A1 and SLC7A9 were investigated...
June 24, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681512/combined-liver-kidney-transplantation-for-primary-hyperoxaluria-type-2-a-case-report
#16
T Dhondup, E C Lorenz, D S Milliner, J C Lieske
Combined liver/kidney transplant is the preferred transplant option for most patients with primary hyperoxaluria type 1 (PH1) since orthotopic liver transplantation replaces the deficient liver-specific AGT enzyme, thus restoring normal metabolic oxalate production. However, primary hyperoxaluria type 2 (PH2) is caused by deficient glyoxylate reductase/hydroxypyruvate reductase (GRHPR), and this enzyme is widely distributed throughout the body. Though the relative abundance and activity of GRHPR in various tissues is not clear, some evidence suggests that the majority of enzyme activity may indeed reside within the liver...
July 6, 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662013/-the-long-term-results-of-the-treatment-of-renal-hypercalciuria-a-report-of-two-cases
#17
Anna Sawicka-Kamińska, Hanna Szymanik-Grzelak, Małgorzata Szymanik-Grzelak
In recent years there can be observed a growing number of cases of urolithialis, both in children and in adults. Many pathogenic mechanisms of forming stones have been recognized and there is possible profounder diagnostics. Facing increasing problem of urolithialis in children, it is necessary to seek all possible causes of the disease to prevent forming stones, relapses and its further consequences. In most cases it is possible to diagnose metabolic abnormalities, of which the most frequent is hypercalciuria (excessive excretion of calcium in urine)...
June 23, 2017: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650866/obesity-and-metabolic-stone-disease
#18
Daniel A Wollin, Andreas Skolarikos, Glenn M Preminger
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this article, we aim to review the data regarding associations between obesity and nephrolithiasis to assist with workup and treatment of these intersecting disorders. As obesity has a multifactorial influence on the risk for urinary stone disease, the complicated mechanisms will be discussed to improve diagnosis and management. RECENT FINDINGS: Obesity and metabolic syndrome interact with nephrolithiasis risk factors to produce a myriad of bodily responses that induce stone formation...
September 2017: Current Opinion in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587067/diet-induced-low-grade-metabolic-acidosis-and-clinical-outcomes-a-review
#19
Renata Alves Carnauba, Ana Beatriz Baptistella, Valéria Paschoal, Gilberti Helena Hübscher
Low-grade metabolic acidosis is a condition characterized by a slight decrease in blood pH, within the range considered normal, and feeding is one of the main factors that may influence the occurrence of such a condition. The excessive consumption of acid precursor foods (sources of phosphorus and proteins), to the detriment of those precursors of bases (sources of potassium, calcium, and magnesium), leads to acid-base balance volubility. If this condition occurs in a prolonged, chronic way, low-grade metabolic acidosis can become significant and predispose to metabolic imbalances such as kidney stone formation, increased bone resorption, reduced bone mineral density, and the loss of muscle mass, as well as the increased risk of chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and non-alcoholic hepatic steatosis...
May 25, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575878/kidney-calculi-pathophysiology-and-as-a-systemic-disorder
#20
Arash Shadman, Bahar Bastani
The pathophysiology of urinary stone formation is complex, involving a combination of metabolic, genetic, and environmental factors. Over the past decades, remarkable advances have been emerged in the understanding of the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of calcium kidney calculi. For this review, both original and review articles were found via PubMed search on pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management of urinary calculi. These resources were integrated with the authors' knowledge of the field. Nephrolithiasis is suggested to be associated with systemic disorders, including chronic kidney insufficiency, hematologic malignancies, endocrine disorders, autoimmune diseases, inflammatory bowel diseases, bone loss and fractures, hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, and vascular diseases like coronary heart diseases and most recently ischemic strokes...
May 2017: Iranian Journal of Kidney Diseases
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