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Computational neuroscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437890/brain-transcriptome-databases-a-user-s-guide
#1
Jason M Keil, Adel Qalieh, Kenneth Y Kwan
Transcriptional programs instruct the generation and maintenance of diverse subtypes of neural cells, establishment of distinct brain regions, formation and function of neural circuits, and ultimately behavior. Spatiotemporal and cell type-specific analyses of the transcriptome, the sum total of all RNA transcripts in a cell or an organ, can provide insights into the role of genes in brain development and function, and their potential contribution to disorders of the brain. In the previous decade, advances in sequencing technology and funding from the National Institutes of Health and private foundations for large-scale genomics projects have led to a growing collection of brain transcriptome databases...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435093/a-roadmap-to-computational-social-neuroscience
#2
Emmanuelle Tognoli, Guillaume Dumas, J A Scott Kelso
To complement experimental efforts toward understanding human social interactions at both neural and behavioral levels, two computational approaches are presented: (1) a fully parameterizable mathematical model of a social partner, the Human Dynamic Clamp which, by virtue of experimentally controlled interactions between Virtual Partners and real people, allows for emergent behaviors to be studied; and (2) a multiscale neurocomputational model of social coordination that enables exploration of social self-organization at all levels-from neuronal patterns to people interacting with each other...
February 2018: Cognitive Neurodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429616/a-novel-form-of-stereo-vision-in-the-praying-mantis
#3
Vivek Nityananda, Ghaith Tarawneh, Sid Henriksen, Diana Umeton, Adam Simmons, Jenny C A Read
Stereopsis is the ability to estimate distance based on the different views seen in the two eyes [1-5]. It is an important model perceptual system in neuroscience and a major area of machine vision. Mammalian, avian, and almost all machine stereo algorithms look for similarities between the luminance-defined images in the two eyes, using a series of computations to produce a map showing how depth varies across the scene [3, 4, 6-14]. Stereopsis has also evolved in at least one invertebrate, the praying mantis [15-17]...
February 2, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421549/unique-electrophysiological-and-impedance-signatures-between-encapsulation-types-an-analysis-of-biological-utah-array-failure-and-benefit-of-a-biomimetic-coating-in-a-rat-model
#4
Patrick A Cody, James R Eles, Carl F Lagenaur, Takashi D Y Kozai, X Tracy Cui
Intracortical microelectrode arrays, especially the Utah array, remain the most common choice for obtaining high dimensional recordings of spiking neural activity for brain computer interface and basic neuroscience research. Despite the widespread use and established design, mechanical, material and biological challenges persist that contribute to a steady decline in recording performance (as evidenced by both diminished signal amplitude and recorded cell population over time) or outright array failure. Device implantation injury causes acute cell death and activation of inflammatory microglia and astrocytes that leads to a chronic neurodegeneration and inflammatory glial aggregation around the electrode shanks and often times fibrous tissue growth above the pia along the bed of the array within the meninges...
January 31, 2018: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410608/toward-a-neuroscience-of-adult-cognitive-developmental-theory
#5
Fady Girgis, Darrin J Lee, Amir Goodarzi, Jochen Ditterich
Piaget's genetic epistemology has provided the constructivist approach upon which child developmental theories were founded, in that infants are thought to progress through distinct cognitive stages until they reach maturity in their early 20's. However, it is now well established that cognition continues to develop after early adulthood, and several "neo-Piagetian" theories have emerged in an attempt to better characterize adult cognitive development. For example, Kegan's Constructive Developmental Theory (CDT) argues that the thought processes used by adults to construct their reality change over time, and reaching higher stages of cognitive development entails becoming objectively aware of emotions and beliefs that were previously in the realm of the subconscious...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29399710/kernel-reconstruction-for-delayed-neural-field-equations
#6
Jehan Alswaihli, Roland Potthast, Ingo Bojak, Douglas Saddy, Axel Hutt
Understanding the neural field activity for realistic living systems is a challenging task in contemporary neuroscience. Neural fields have been studied and developed theoretically and numerically with considerable success over the past four decades. However, to make effective use of such models, we need to identify their constituents in practical systems. This includes the determination of model parameters and in particular the reconstruction of the underlying effective connectivity in biological tissues.In this work, we provide an integral equation approach to the reconstruction of the neural connectivity in the case where the neural activity is governed by a delay neural field equation...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Mathematical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29398575/rigor-and-reproducibility-in-research-with-transcranial-electrical-stimulation-an-nimh-sponsored-workshop
#7
REVIEW
Marom Bikson, Andre R Brunoni, Leigh E Charvet, Vincent P Clark, Leonardo G Cohen, Zhi-De Deng, Jacek Dmochowski, Dylan J Edwards, Flavio Frohlich, Emily S Kappenman, Kelvin O Lim, Colleen Loo, Antonio Mantovani, David P McMullen, Lucas C Parra, Michele Pearson, Jessica D Richardson, Judith M Rumsey, Pejman Sehatpour, David Sommers, Gozde Unal, Eric M Wassermann, Adam J Woods, Sarah H Lisanby
BACKGROUND: Neuropsychiatric disorders are a leading source of disability and require novel treatments that target mechanisms of disease. As such disorders are thought to result from aberrant neuronal circuit activity, neuromodulation approaches are of increasing interest given their potential for manipulating circuits directly. Low intensity transcranial electrical stimulation (tES) with direct currents (transcranial direct current stimulation, tDCS) or alternating currents (transcranial alternating current stimulation, tACS) represent novel, safe, well-tolerated, and relatively inexpensive putative treatment modalities...
December 29, 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29381446/estimating-a-separably-markov-random-field-from-binary-observations
#8
Yingzhuo Zhang, Noa Malem-Shinitski, Stephen A Allsop, Kay Tye, Demba Ba
A fundamental problem in neuroscience is to characterize the dynamics of spiking from the neurons in a circuit that is involved in learning about a stimulus or a contingency. A key limitation of current methods to analyze neural spiking data is the need to collapse neural activity over time or trials, which may cause the loss of information pertinent to understanding the function of a neuron or circuit. We introduce a new method that can determine not only the trial-to-trial dynamics that accompany the learning of a contingency by a neuron, but also the latency of this learning with respect to the onset of a conditioned stimulus...
January 30, 2018: Neural Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29373590/risk-preferences-impose-a-hidden-distortion-on-measures-of-choice-impulsivity
#9
Silvia Lopez-Guzman, Anna B Konova, Kenway Louie, Paul W Glimcher
Measuring temporal discounting through the use of intertemporal choice tasks is now the gold standard method for quantifying human choice impulsivity (impatience) in neuroscience, psychology, behavioral economics, public health and computational psychiatry. A recent area of growing interest is individual differences in discounting levels, as these may predispose to (or protect from) mental health disorders, addictive behaviors, and other diseases. At the same time, more and more studies have been dedicated to the quantification of individual attitudes towards risk, which have been measured in many clinical and non-clinical populations using closely related techniques...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29371263/tulsa-1000-a-naturalistic-study-protocol-for-multilevel-assessment-and-outcome-prediction-in-a-large-psychiatric-sample
#10
Teresa A Victor, Sahib S Khalsa, W Kyle Simmons, Justin S Feinstein, Jonathan Savitz, Robin L Aupperle, Hung-Wen Yeh, Jerzy Bodurka, Martin P Paulus
INTRODUCTION: Although neuroscience has made tremendous progress towards understanding the basic neural circuitry underlying important processes such as attention, memory and emotion, little progress has been made in applying these insights to psychiatric populations to make clinically meaningful treatment predictions. The overall aim of the Tulsa 1000 (T-1000) study is to use the NIMH Research Domain Criteria framework in order to establish a robust and reliable dimensional set of variables that quantifies the positive and negative valence, cognition and arousal domains, including interoception, to generate clinically useful treatment predictions...
January 24, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29369526/generative-models-for-clinical-applications-in-computational-psychiatry
#11
REVIEW
Stefan Frässle, Yu Yao, Dario Schöbi, Eduardo A Aponte, Jakob Heinzle, Klaas E Stephan
Despite the success of modern neuroimaging techniques in furthering our understanding of cognitive and pathophysiological processes, translation of these advances into clinically relevant tools has been virtually absent until now. Neuromodeling represents a powerful framework for overcoming this translational deadlock, and the development of computational models to solve clinical problems has become a major scientific goal over the last decade, as reflected by the emergence of clinically oriented neuromodeling fields like Computational Psychiatry, Computational Neurology, and Computational Psychosomatics...
January 25, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29364988/socio-affective-touch-expression-database
#12
Haemy Lee Masson, Hans Op de Beeck
Socio-affective touch communication conveys a vast amount of information about emotions and intentions in social contexts. In spite of the complexity of the socio-affective touch expressions we use daily, previous studies addressed only a few aspects of social touch mainly focusing on hedonics, such as stroking, leaving a wide range of social touch behaviour unexplored. To overcome this limit, we present the Socio-Affective Touch Expression Database (SATED), which includes a large range of dynamic interpersonal socio-affective touch events varying in valence and arousal...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29357468/real-time-particle-filtering-and-smoothing-algorithms-for-detecting-abrupt-changes-in-neural-ensemble-spike-activity
#13
Sile Hu, Qiaosheng Zhang, Jing Wang, Zhe Chen
Sequential change-point detection from time series data is a common problem in many neuroscience applications, such as seizure detection, anomaly detection, and pain detection. In our previous work (Chen et al., 2017, J. Neural Eng.), we have developed a latent state space model, known as Poisson linear dynamical system (PLDS), for detecting abrupt changes in neuronal ensemble spike activity. In online brain-machine interface (BMI) applications, a recursive filtering algorithm is used to track the changes in the latent variable...
December 20, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355733/a-new-approach-to-detect-the-coding-rule-of-the-cortical-spiking-model-in-the-information-transmission
#14
Soheila Nazari, Karim Faez, Mahyar Janahmadi
Investigation of the role of the local field potential (LFP) fluctuations in encoding the received sensory information by the nervous system remains largely unknown. On the other hand, transmission of these translation rules in information transmission between the structure of sensory stimuli and the cortical oscillations to the bio-inspired artificial neural networks operating at the efficiency of the nervous system is still a vague puzzle. In order to move towards this important goal, computational neuroscience tools can be useful so, we simulated a large-scale network of excitatory and inhibitory spiking neurons with synaptic connections consisting of AMPA and GABA currents as a model of cortical populations...
January 3, 2018: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353340/deep-learning-and-computational-neuroscience
#15
EDITORIAL
Erik De Schutter
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 20, 2018: Neuroinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352030/the-daunting-polygenicity-of-mental-illness-making-a-new-map
#16
REVIEW
Steven E Hyman
An epochal opportunity to elucidate the pathogenic mechanisms of psychiatric disorders has emerged from advances in genomic technology, new computational tools and the growth of international consortia committed to data sharing. The resulting large-scale, unbiased genetic studies have begun to yield new biological insights and with them the hope that a half century of stasis in psychiatric therapeutics will come to an end. Yet a sobering picture is coming into view; it reveals daunting genetic and phenotypic complexity portending enormous challenges for neurobiology...
March 19, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347566/macroscopic-phase-resetting-curves-for-spiking-neural-networks
#17
Grégory Dumont, G Bard Ermentrout, Boris Gutkin
The study of brain rhythms is an open-ended, and challenging, subject of interest in neuroscience. One of the best tools for the understanding of oscillations at the single neuron level is the phase-resetting curve (PRC). Synchronization in networks of neurons, effects of noise on the rhythms, effects of transient stimuli on the ongoing rhythmic activity, and many other features can be understood by the PRC. However, most macroscopic brain rhythms are generated by large populations of neurons, and so far it has been unclear how the PRC formulation can be extended to these more common rhythms...
October 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342394/identification-of-linear-and-nonlinear-sensory-processing-circuits-from-spiking-neuron-data
#18
Dorian Florescu, Daniel Coca
Inferring mathematical models of sensory processing systems directly from input-output observations, while making the fewest assumptions about the model equations and the types of measurements available, is still a major issue in computational neuroscience. This letter introduces two new approaches for identifying sensory circuit models consisting of linear and nonlinear filters in series with spiking neuron models, based only on the sampled analog input to the filter and the recorded spike train output of the spiking neuron...
January 17, 2018: Neural Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340300/shared-mechanisms-in-the-estimation-of-self-generated-actions-and-the-prediction-of-other-s-actions-by-humans
#19
Tsuyoshi Ikegami, Gowrishankar Ganesh
The question of how humans predict outcomes of observed motor actions by others is a fundamental problem in cognitive and social neuroscience. Previous theoretical studies have suggested that the brain uses parts of the forward model (used to estimate sensory outcomes of self-generated actions) to predict outcomes of observed actions. However, this hypothesis has remained controversial due to the lack of direct experimental evidence. To address this issue, we analyzed the behavior of darts experts in an understanding learning paradigm and utilized computational modeling to examine how outcome prediction of observed actions affected the participants' ability to estimate their own actions...
November 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332074/diffusion-tensor-imaging-of-the-basal-ganglia-for-functional-neurosurgery-applications
#20
Francesco Sammartino, Mojgan Hodaie
Since its introduction, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has become an important tool in neuroscience given its unprecedented ability to image brain white matter in vivo. The interest in understanding the mechanisms of action of Deep Brain Stimulation in different targets and indications, together with the constant drive towards the improvement in long-term clinical outcomes, has found a logical complement in the application of tractography in this field. Diffusion tensor imaging has been traditionally associated with an increased susceptibility to MRI artifacts, and expensive computational resources...
2018: Progress in Neurological Surgery
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