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Anti Th/To antibodies

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062921/targeted-deletion-of-traf2-allows-immunosuppression-free-islet-allograft-survival-in-mice
#1
Jeanette E Villanueva, Stacey N Walters, Mitsuru Saito, Elisabeth K Malle, Nathan W Zammit, Katherine A Watson, Robert Brink, Nicole L La Gruta, Stephen I Alexander, Shane T Grey
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Administration of anti-CD40 ligand (CD40L) antibodies has been reported to allow long-term islet allograft survival in non-human primates without the need for exogenous immunosuppression. However, the use of anti-CD40L antibodies was associated with thromboembolic complications. Targeting downstream intracellular components shared between CD40 and other TNF family co-stimulatory molecules could bypass these complications. TNF receptor associated factor 2 (TRAF2) integrates multiple TNF receptor family signalling pathways that are critical for T cell activation and may be a central node of alloimmune responses...
January 6, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045974/neonatal-immunization-with-a-single-il-4-antigen-dose-induces-increased-antibody-responses-after-challenge-infection-with-equine-herpesvirus-type-1-ehv-1-at-weanling-age
#2
Bettina Wagner, Gillian Perkins, Susanna Babasyan, Heather Freer, Alison Keggan, Laura B Goodman, Amy Glaser, Sigurbjorg Torsteinsdóttir, Vilhjálmur Svansson, Sigríður Björnsdóttir
Neonatal foals respond poorly to conventional vaccines. These vaccines typically target T-helper (Th) cell dependent B-cell activation. However, Th2-cell immunity is impaired in foals during the first three months of life. In contrast, neonatal basophils are potent interleukin-4 (IL-4) producers. The purpose of this study was to develop a novel vaccine triggering the natural capacity of neonatal basophils to secrete IL-4 and to evaluate if vaccination resulted in B-cell activation and antibody production against EHV-1 glycoprotein C (gC)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040536/th9-cells-and-il-9-in-autoimmune-disorders-pathogenesis-and-therapeutic-potentials
#3
REVIEW
Yaxiong Deng, Zijun Wang, Christopher Chang, Liwei Lu, Chak Sing Lau, Qianjin Lu
Naïve CD4(+) T cells are pleiotropically divided into various T helper (Th) cell subsets, according to their pivotal roles in the regulation of immune responses. The differentiation of Th9 cells, an interleukin (IL)-9 producing subset, can be impacted by specific environmental cues, co-stimulation with transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) and IL-4, and other regulatory factors. Although IL-9 has been recognized as a classical Th2-related cytokine, recent studies have indicated that IL-9-producing cells contribute to a group of autoimmune disorders including systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), multiple sclerosis (MS), inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and psoriasis...
December 28, 2016: Human Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035483/chlamydia-pneumoniae-induces-interleukin-12-responses-in-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells-in-asthma-and-the-role-of-toll-like-receptor-2-versus-4-a-pilot-study
#4
T A Smith-Norowitz, J Perlman, Y M Norowitz, R Joks, H G Durkin, M R Hammerschlag, S Kohlhoff
BACKGROUND: Chlamydia pneumoniae causes respiratory infection in adults and children, and has been associated with asthma exacerbations and induction of Immunoglobulin (Ig) E responses. We previously reported that C. pneumoniae enhances T helper (Th) 2 responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from asthmatic patients. It is likely that toll like receptor (TLR)-2 and TLR-4 mediate cytokine responses and host defense against C. pneumoniae. Thus, we sought to determine whether engagement of TLR-2 or TLR-4 may induce IL-12 production in our C...
December 29, 2016: Irish Journal of Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028748/mouse-immune-thrombocytopenia-is-associated-with-th1-bias-and-expression-of-activating-fc%C3%AE-receptors
#5
Tetsuya Nishimoto, Yuka Okazaki, Miku Numajiri, Masataka Kuwana
Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is an autoimmune disease mediated by anti-platelet autoantibodies. We recently established a mouse ITP model exhibiting regulatory T-cell (Treg) deficiency, although only one-third of the Treg-deficient mice developed ITP. To clarify mechanisms involved in the emergence of platelet-specific autoimmunity in this model, we examined the T helper (Th)-cell balance and macrophage Fcγ receptor (FcγR) expression profiles in Treg-deficient mice with and without ITP. Splenocytes from both populations of Treg-deficient mice and control BALB/c mice were subjected to flow cytometry-based analyses to evaluate Th cell subset proportions and the expression of activating and inhibitory FcγRs on macrophages...
December 27, 2016: International Journal of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008331/a-meningococcal-outer-membrane-vesicle-vaccine-incorporating-genetically-attenuated-endotoxin-dissociates-inflammation-from-immunogenicity
#6
David J Dowling, Holly Sanders, Wing Ki Cheng, Sweta Joshi, Spencer Brightman, Ilana Bergelson, Carlo Pietrasanta, Simon D van Haren, Sandra van Amsterdam, Jeffrey Fernandez, Germie P J M van den Dobbelsteen, Ofer Levy
BACKGROUND: Group B Neisseria meningitidis, an endotoxin-producing Gram-negative bacterium, causes the highest incidence of group B meningococcus (MenB) disease in the first year of life. The Bexsero vaccine is indicated in Europe from 8 weeks of age. Endotoxin components of outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) or soluble lipopolysaccharide (LPS) represent a potential source of inflammation and residual reactogenicity. The purpose of this study was to compare novel candidate MenB vaccine formulations with licensed vaccines, including Bexsero, using age-specific human in vitro culture systems...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940596/predicting-cardiopulmonary-involvement-in-patients-with-systemic-sclerosis-complementary-value-of-nailfold-videocapillaroscopy-patterns-and-disease-specific-autoantibodies
#7
Iris M Markusse, Jessica Meijs, Berber de Boer, Jaap A Bakker, H Pascal C Schippers, Anne A Schouffoer, Nina Ajmone Marsan, Lucia J M Kroft, Maarten K Ninaber, Tom W J Huizinga, Jeska K de Vries-Bouwstra
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence of anti-extractable nuclear antigen (anti-ENA) antibodies in Dutch SSc patients and the predictive power of the combination of specific anti-ENA antibodies and nailfold videocapillaroscopy (NVC) patterns to improve identification of patients with high risk for cardiopulmonary involvement. METHODS: A total of 287 patients (79%) from the Leiden SSc-Cohort had data available on NVC-pattern (no SSc-specific, early, active, late) and anti-ENA antibodies...
December 10, 2016: Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867885/trimester-specific-reference-interval-for-thyroid-hormones-during-pregnancy-at-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-haryana-india
#8
Rajesh Rajput, Bhagat Singh, Vasudha Goel, Amit Verma, Shashi Seth, Smiti Nanda
BACKGROUND: Reference intervals for thyroid hormone during pregnancy need to be gestational age, method, and population specific and there is need to establish trimester-specific thyroid levels for the different population across the world. The aim of this study was to establish trimester-specific reference range for thyroid hormone during pregnancy in a tertiary care center in Haryana. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 1430 pregnant women were recruited for the study...
November 2016: Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836015/transplantation-of-gingiva-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-ameliorates-collagen-induced-arthritis
#9
Yongchun Gu, Songtao Shi
BACKGROUND: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic, progressive, and inflammatory autoimmune disease which primarily affects the small arthrodial joints. The aim of this study was to test whether transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells derived from gingival tissue (GMSCs) could ameliorate collagen-induced arthritis (CIA), and to explore the role of the FasL/Fas pathway in the underlying mechanism. METHODS: DBA/1 mice with collagen II-induced arthritis were treated with GMSCs from the C57BL/6 J mouse, the B6Smn...
November 11, 2016: Arthritis Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795534/immune-checkpoint-inhibitors-targeting-programmed-cell-death-1-pd-1-in-cancer-therapy
#10
Ryusuke Hatae, Kenji Chamoto
Immune checkpoint inhibitors, especially anti-programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) antibodies, have revolutionized cancer therapy. A PD-1 antibody, nivolumab, was the first of these agents to be approved by the Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency (PMDA) of Japan, as a new cancer drug for melanoma, in July 2014. While PD-1 mAb therapy has so far been approved only for untreated malignant melanomas and non-small cell lung cancer, many clinical studies on various types of cancer have been conducted worldwide...
2016: [Rinshō Ketsueki] the Japanese Journal of Clinical Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780253/il-12-il-23p40-is-highly-expressed-in-secondary-lymphoid-organs-and-the-cns-during-all-stages-of-eae-but-its-deletion-does-not-affect-disease-perpetuation
#11
Petra D Cravens, Rehana Z Hussain, William A Miller-Little, Li-Hong Ben, Benjamin M Segal, Emily Herndon, Olaf Stüve
BACKGROUND: Interleukin (IL)-12 and IL-23 are heterodimers that share the p40 subunit, and both cytokines are critical in the differentiation of T helper (Th)1 and Th17 cells, respectively. Th1 and Th17 effector cells have been implicated in the pathogenesis of experimental autoimmune encephalitis (EAE), an animal model of the human central nervous system (CNS) autoimmune demyelinating disorder multiple sclerosis (MS). However, ustekinumab, a monoclonal antibody (mAb) against p40 failed to show efficacy over placebo in a phase II clinical trial in patients with MS...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777982/a-molecular-signature-of-preclinical-rheumatoid-arthritis-triggered-by-dysregulated-ptpn22
#12
Hui-Hsin Chang, Guang-Yaw Liu, Nishant Dwivedi, Bo Sun, Yuko Okamoto, Jennifer D Kinslow, Kevin D Deane, M Kristen Demoruelle, Jill M Norris, Paul R Thompson, Jeffrey A Sparks, Deepak A Rao, Elizabeth W Karlson, Hui-Chih Hung, V Michael Holers, I-Cheng Ho
A unique feature of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is the presence of anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPA). Several risk factors for RA are known to increase the expression or activity of peptidyl arginine deiminases (PADs), which catalyze citrullination and, when dysregulated, can result in hypercitrullination. However, the consequence of hypercitrullination is unknown and the function of each PAD has yet to be defined. Th cells of RA patients are hypoglycolytic and hyperproliferative due to impaired expression of PFKFB3 and ATM, respectively...
October 20, 2016: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761482/immunology-of-neuromyelitis-optica-during-pregnancy
#13
Vahid Davoudi, Kiandokht Keyhanian, Riley M Bove, Tanuja Chitnis
Anti-aquaporin-4 (AQP4) autoantibody plays a key role in the pathogenesis of neuromyelitis optica (NMO). Studies have shown increased relapse rates in patients with NMO during pregnancy and postpartum. High estrogen levels during pregnancy can increase activation-induced cytidine deaminase expression, which is responsible for immunoglobulin production. Additionally, sex hormones may influence antibody glycosylation, with effects on antibody function. Estrogen decreases apoptosis of self-reactive B cells, through upregulation of antiapoptotic molecules...
December 2016: Neurology® Neuroimmunology & Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754729/is-tgf%C3%AE-as-an-anti-inflammatory-cytokine-required-for-differentiation-of-inflammatory-th17-cells
#14
Arash Pourgholaminejad, Nasser Aghdami, Hossein Baharvand, Seyed Mohammad Moazzeni
T-Helper 17 (TH17) cells are a CD4(+) TH subset that plays a critical role in the pathophysiology of inflammatory disorders, especially chronic forms. It seems that the derivation of TH17 cells from their precursors take place in inflammatory microenvironment. The role of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β as an anti-inflammatory cytokine in TH17 cell differentiation is controversial. To address some of the discrepancies that exist among different studies, this study was undertaken to more clarify the TGFβ role in human TH17 cell differentiation...
November 2016: Journal of Immunotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733582/synovial-il-21-tnf-producing-cd4-t-cells-induce-joint-destruction-in-rheumatoid-arthritis-by-inducing-matrix-metalloproteinase-production-by-fibroblast-like-synoviocytes
#15
Maria C Lebre, Pedro L Vieira, Man Wai Tang, Saïda Aarrass, Boy Helder, Thomas Newsom-Davis, Paul P Tak, Gavin R Screaton
Bone and cartilage destruction is one of the key manifestations of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Although the role of T helper (Th)17 cells in these processes is clear, the role of IL-21-producing cells T cells has been neglected. We sought to investigate the role of IL-21 in RA by focusing on the functional characteristics of the main producers of this cytokine, synovial CD4(+)IL-21(+) T cells. We show that the frequency of both synovial fluid (SF) CD4(+)IL-21(+) or CD4(+)IL-21(+)TNF(+) T cells in patients with RA was significantly higher compared with patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA)...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27687304/anti-pd-1-therapy-in-patients-with-advanced-melanoma-and-preexisting-autoimmune-disorders-or-major-toxicity-with-ipilimumab
#16
A M Menzies, D B Johnson, S Ramanujam, V G Atkinson, A N M Wong, J J Park, J L McQuade, A N Shoushtari, K K Tsai, Z Eroglu, O Klein, J C Hassel, J A Sosman, A Guminski, R J Sullivan, A Ribas, M S Carlino, M A Davies, S K Sandhu, G V Long
BACKGROUND: Anti-PD-1 antibodies (anti-PD-1) have clinical activity in a number of malignancies. All clinical trials have excluded patients with significant preexisting autoimmune disorders (ADs) and only one has included patients with immune-related adverse events (irAEs) with ipilimumab. We sought to explore the safety and efficacy of anti-PD-1 in such patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with advanced melanoma and preexisting ADs and/or major immune-related adverse events (irAEs) with ipilimumab (requiring systemic immunosuppression) that were treated with anti-PD-1 between 1 July 2012 and 30 September 2015 were retrospectively identified...
September 29, 2016: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27670221/advances-in-the-pathophysiology-of-primary-immune-thrombocytopenia
#17
María Perera, Teresa Garrido
OBJECTIVES: Classically, immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) was thought to be caused by the destruction and insufficient production of platelets, as mediated by autoantibodies. More recently other immune mechanisms that contribute to the disease have been discovered. This review attempts to address the main unresolved questions in ITP. METHODS: We review the most current knowledge of the pathophysiology of ITP. Immunological effects of available therapies are also described...
January 2017: Hematology (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27657055/structure-based-reverse-vaccinology-failed-in-the-case-of-hiv-because-it-disregarded-accepted-immunological-theory
#18
Marc H V Van Regenmortel
Two types of reverse vaccinology (RV) should be distinguished: genome-based RV for bacterial vaccines and structure-based RV for viral vaccines. Structure-based RV consists in trying to generate a vaccine by first determining the crystallographic structure of a complex between a viral epitope and a neutralizing monoclonal antibody (nMab) and then reconstructing the epitope by reverse molecular engineering outside the context of the native viral protein. It is based on the unwarranted assumption that the epitope designed to fit the nMab will have acquired the immunogenic capacity to elicit a polyclonal antibody response with the same protective capacity as the nMab...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27631416/blockade-of-programmed-death-1-programmed-death-ligand-pathway-enhances-the-antitumor-immunity-of-human-invariant-natural-killer-t-cells
#19
Toshiko Kamata, Akane Suzuki, Naoko Mise, Fumie Ihara, Mariko Takami, Yuji Makita, Atsushi Horinaka, Kazuaki Harada, Naoki Kunii, Shigetoshi Yoshida, Ichiro Yoshino, Toshinori Nakayama, Shinichiro Motohashi
The role of invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells in antitumor immunity has been studied extensively, and clinical trials in patients with advanced cancer have revealed a prolonged survival in some cases. In recent years, humanized blocking antibodies against co-stimulatory molecules such as PD-1 have been developed. The enhancement of T cell function is reported to improve antitumor immunity, leading to positive clinical effects. However, there are limited data on the role of PD-1/programmed death ligand (PDL) molecules in human iNKT cells...
December 2016: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27619675/does-native-trypanosoma-cruzi-calreticulin-mediate-growth-inhibition-of-a-mammary-tumor-during-infection
#20
Paula Abello-Cáceres, Javier Pizarro-Bauerle, Carlos Rosas, Ismael Maldonado, Lorena Aguilar-Guzmán, Carlos González, Galia Ramírez, Jorge Ferreira, Arturo Ferreira
BACKGROUND: For several decades now an antagonism between Trypanosoma cruzi infection and tumor development has been detected. The molecular basis of this phenomenon remained basically unknown until our proposal that T. cruzi Calreticulin (TcCRT), an endoplasmic reticulum-resident chaperone, translocated-externalized by the parasite, may mediate at least an important part of this effect. Thus, recombinant TcCRT (rTcCRT) has important in vivo antiangiogenic and antitumor activities. However, the relevant question whether the in vivo antitumor effect of T...
2016: BMC Cancer
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