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Anti Th/To antibodies

Marta Consuegra-Fernández, Feng Lin, David A Fox, Francisco Lozano
CD6 is a cell surface glycoprotein expressed by most T cells and a subset of B cells that has incompletely-defined roles in regulation of lymphocyte development, selection, activation and differentiation. The two main known mammalian CD6 ligands, CD166/ALCAM and the very recently reported CD318, are widely expressed by both immune cells and a wide range of other cell types, including various epithelial and mesenchymal cell types, as well as many neoplasms. Moreover, CD6 is also a receptor for several pathogen- and damage-associated molecular patterns...
March 8, 2018: Autoimmunity Reviews
Chisa Nakashima, Atsushi Otsuka, Kenji Kabashima
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is characterized by chronic, eczematous, severe pruritic skin lesions caused by skin barrier dysfunction and T helper (Th)2 cell-mediated immunity. Interleukin (IL)-31 is a potent pruritogenic cytokine primarily produced by Th2 cells. Both IL-31 transgenic mice and wild-type mice treated with IL-31 exhibit AD-like skin lesions and scratching behaviour. IL-31 receptor α-chain (IL-31RA) are also expressed in peripheral nerves and epidermal keratinocytes, and the roles of IL-31 on pruritus and skin barrier have been investigated...
March 9, 2018: Experimental Dermatology
Brant M Wagener, Parker J Hu, Joo-Yeun Oh, Cilina A Evans, Jillian R Richter, Jaideep Honavar, Angela P Brandon, Judy Creighton, Shannon W Stephens, Charity Morgan, Randal O Dull, Marisa B Marques, Jeffrey D Kerby, Jean-Francois Pittet, Rakesh P Patel
BACKGROUND: Trauma is the leading cause of death and disability in patients aged 1-46 y. Severely injured patients experience considerable blood loss and hemorrhagic shock requiring treatment with massive transfusion of red blood cells (RBCs). Preclinical and retrospective human studies in trauma patients have suggested that poorer therapeutic efficacy, increased severity of organ injury, and increased bacterial infection are associated with transfusion of large volumes of stored RBCs, although the mechanisms are not fully understood...
March 2018: PLoS Medicine
Devon K Taylor, Nanette Mittereder, Ellen Kuta, Tracy Delaney, Timothy Burwell, Karma Dacosta, Weiguang Zhao, Lily I Cheng, Charles Brown, Anmarie Boutrin, Xiang Guo, Wendy I White, Jie Zhu, Huifang Dong, Michael A Bowen, Jia Lin, Changshou Gao, Li Yu, Madhu Ramaswamy, Marie-Claude Gaudreau, Rob Woods, Ronald Herbst, Gianluca Carlesso
Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a debilitating inflammatory and fibrotic disease that affects the skin and internal organs. Although the pathophysiology of SSc remains poorly characterized, mononuclear cells, mainly macrophages and T cells, have been implicated in inflammation and fibrosis. Inducible costimulator (ICOS), which is expressed on a subset of memory T helper (TH ) and T follicular helper (TFH ) cells, has been shown to be increased in SSc and associated with disease pathology. However, the identity of the relevant ICOS+ T cells and their contribution to inflammation and fibrosis in SSc are still unknown...
March 7, 2018: Science Translational Medicine
Gianfranco Caselli, Albino Bonazzi, Marco Lanza, Flora Ferrari, Daniele Maggioni, Cristian Ferioli, Roberto Giambelli, Eleonora Comi, Silvia Zerbi, Marco Perrella, Ornella Letari, Elena Di Luccio, Milena Colovic, Stefano Persiani, Tiziano Zanelli, Laura Mennuni, Tiziana Piepoli, Lucio Claudio Rovati
BACKGROUND: Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) acts via its EP4 receptor as a cytokine amplifier (e.g., interleukin [IL]-6) and induces the differentiation and expansion of inflammatory T-helper (Th) lymphocytes. These mechanisms play a key role in the onset and progression of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We present the pharmacological characterisation of CR6086, a novel EP4 receptor antagonist, and provide evidence for its potential as a disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drug (DMARD). METHODS: CR6086 affinity and pharmacodynamics were studied in EP4-expressing HEK293 cells by radioligand binding and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) production, respectively...
March 1, 2018: Arthritis Research & Therapy
Mohit Sharma, Smitha Sammith Shetty, Raghu Radhakrishnan
BACKGROUND: Oral submucous fibrosis is an oral potentially malignant disorder with high incidence of malignant transformation and rising global prevalence. However, the genesis of oral submucous fibrosis is still unclear despite superfluity of literature. In the background of ineffective treatment, it is necessary to decode its onset and progression before designing customized treatment regimens. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this article is to decipher the pathogenesis of oral submucous fibrosis in order to identify novel drug targets...
February 26, 2018: Recent Patents on Anti-cancer Drug Discovery
Sonja Krohn, Jasper F Nies, Sonja Kapffer, Tilman Schmidt, Jan-Hendrik Riedel, Anna Kaffke, Anett Peters, Alina Borchers, Oliver M Steinmetz, Christian F Krebs, Jan-Eric Turner, Silke R Brix, Hans-Joachim Paust, Rolf A K Stahl, Ulf Panzer
The IL-17 cytokine family and the cognate receptors thereof have a unique role in organ-specific autoimmunity. Most studies have focused on the founding member of the IL-17 family, IL-17A, as the central mediator of diseases. Indeed, although pathogenic functions have been ascribed to IL-17A and IL-17F in the context of immune-mediated glomerular diseases, the specific functions of the other IL-17 family members in immunity and inflammatory kidney diseases is largely unknown. Here, we report that compared with healthy controls, patients with acute Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmatic antibody (ANCA)-associated crescentic glomerulonephritis (GN) had significantly elevated serum levels of IL-17C (but not IL-17A, F, or E)...
February 26, 2018: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
Yang Liu, Hongyan Wen
OBJECTIVE: To determine if patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are at risk of vitamin D deficiency and whether the levels of vitamin D are correlated with clinical parameters in RA. METHODS: A total of 280 treatment-naïve RA patients, and 140 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers were enrolled. Serum levels of 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (1,25(OH)2 D3 ), the active form of vitamin D, were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Concentrations of 1,25(OH)2 D3 less than 25 ng/mL were defined as insufficient...
February 19, 2018: Zeitschrift Für Rheumatologie
Kari J Dugger, Taylor Chrisman, Sarah L Sayner, Parker Chastain, Kacie Watson, Robert Estes
BACKGROUND: The potency of T regulatory (TREG) cells to inhibit T helper (Th)-driven immune cell responses has been linked to increased intracellular cyclic-AMP (cAMP) levels of TREG cells. In an ovalbumin (OVA)-driven allergic asthma mouse model, moderate aerobic exercise increases TREG cell function in a contact-dependent manner that leads to a significant reduction in chronic inflammation and restoration of lung function. However, the mechanism, whereby exercise increases TREG function, remains unknown and was the focus of these investigations...
February 17, 2018: BMC Immunology
Yun Seon Kim, Mi Na Kim, Kyung Eun Lee, Jung Yeon Hong, Mi Seon Oh, Soo Yeon Kim, Kyung Won Kim, Myung Hyun Sohn
Food allergy is a major public health problem. Studies have shown that long-term interactions between activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM/CD166), on the surface of antigen presenting cells, and CD6, a co-stimulatory molecule, influence immune responses. However, there are currently no studies on the functions of ALCAM in food allergy. Therefore, we aimed to identify the functions of ALCAM in ovalbumin (OVA)-induced food allergy using ALCAM-deficient mice. Wild-type (WT) and ALCAM-deficient (ALCAM-/- ) mice were intraperitoneally sensitized with and orally fed OVA...
January 24, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
Tessa van der Geest, Debbie M Roeleveld, Birgitte Walgreen, Monique M Helsen, Tapan K Nayak, Christian Klein, Martin Hegen, Gert Storm, Josbert M Metselaar, Wim B van den Berg, Peter M van der Kraan, Peter Laverman, Otto C Boerman, Marije I Koenders
Objectives: RA is a chronic autoimmune disease leading to progressive destruction of cartilage and bone. RA patients show elevated IL-22 levels and the amount of IL-22-producing Th cells positively correlates with the extent of erosive disease, suggesting a role for this cytokine in RA pathogenesis. The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of SPECT/CT imaging with 111In-labelled anti-fibroblast activation protein antibody (28H1) to monitor the therapeutic effect of neutralizing IL-22 in experimental arthritis...
January 18, 2018: Rheumatology
Jillian Frieder, Dario Kivelevitch, Alan Menter
Psoriasis is a systemic inflammatory disease associated with numerous comorbidities and a profound impact on patients' quality of life. While its complex immune pathogenesis is still not fully delineated, current evidence supports a fundamental role of the T-helper-17 (TH-17) pathway and its related interleukin-17 (IL-17) cytokine. Thus, new antipsoriatic therapies have been developed to block this key cytokine and its downstream effects. Secukinumab is a fully humanized, monoclonal anti-IL-17A antibody, and the first in its class to be approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of moderate to severe plaque psoriasis...
January 2018: Therapeutic Advances in Chronic Disease
Yves Allenbach, Louiza Arouche-Delaperche, Corinna Preusse, Helena Radbruch, Gillian Butler-Browne, Nicolas Champtiaux, Kuberaka Mariampillai, Aude Rigolet, Peter Hufnagl, Norman Zerbe, Damien Amelin, Thierry Maisonobe, Sarah Louis-Leonard, Charles Duyckaerts, Bruno Eymard, Hans-Hilmar Goebel, Cecile Bergua, Laurent Drouot, Olivier Boyer, Olivier Benveniste, Werner Stenzel
OBJECTIVE: To characterize muscle fiber necrosis in immune-mediated necrotizing myopathies (IMNM) with anti-signal recognition particle (SRP) or anti-3-hydroxy-3-methylglutarylcoenzyme A reductase (HMGCR) antibodies and to explore its underlying molecular immune mechanisms. METHODS: Muscle biopsies from patients with IMNM were analyzed and compared to biopsies from control patients with myositis. In addition to immunostaining and reverse transcription PCR on muscle samples, in vitro immunostaining on primary muscle cells was performed...
January 12, 2018: Neurology
K Moubri, J Kleuskens, J Van de Crommert, N Scholtes, T Van Kasteren, S Delbecq, B Carcy, E Précigout, A Gorenflot, Th Schetters
Soluble parasite antigens (SPA) in supernatants of in vitro cultures of Babesia canis can be used to vaccinate dogs against virulent B. canis infection. The moment that immunity becomes apparent coincides with the appearance of antibodies against SPA in the serum of the vaccinated animals. This so-called vaccination-challenge serum (VC-serum) was used to precipitate antigens from B. canis culture supernatants in agarose gels. This antigen preparation was then used to analyse the reactivity of sera from vaccinated dogs on western blots...
January 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Flavia Castellano, Valérie Molinier-Frenkel
l-amino acid oxidases are flavin adenine dinucleotide-dependent enzymes present in all major kingdom of life, from bacteria to mammals. They participate in defense mechanisms by limiting the growth of most bacteria and parasites. A few mammalian LAAOs have been described, of which the enzyme "interleukin-4 induced gene 1" (IL4I1) is the best characterized. IL4I1 mainly oxidizes l-phenylalanine. It is a secreted enzyme physiologically produced by antigen presenting cells of the myeloid and B cell lineages and T helper type (Th) 17 cells...
December 5, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Rudolf Bichele, Jaanika Kärner, Kai Truusalu, Imbi Smidt, Reet Mändar, Heather R Conti, Sarah L Gaffen, Pärt Peterson, Martti Laan, Kai Kisand
Protection against mucocutaneous candidiasis depends on the T helper (Th)17 pathway, as gene defects affecting its integrity result in inability to clear Candida albicans infection on body surfaces. Moreover, autoantibodies neutralizing Th17 cytokines have been related to chronic candidiasis in a rare inherited disorder called autoimmune polyendocriopathy candidiasis ectodermal dystrophy (APECED) caused by mutations in autoimmune regulator (AIRE) gene. However, the direct pathogenicity of these autoantibodies has not yet been addressed...
March 2018: European Journal of Immunology
Do Hyun Kim, Si Won Kim, Soo Whan Kim, Jun-Myung Kang
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of interleukin-37 (IL-37) on a Dermatophagoides farinae (Der f)-induced murine model of allergic rhinitis (AR). BALB/c mice, except the control groups, were sensitized intraperitoneally and challenged intranasally with Der f (Der f group). The IL-37 and IL-37+anti-CD25 groups were administered IL-37 intranasally. The IL-37+anti-CD25 groups were administered anti-CD25 monoclonal antibody intraperitoneally before challenge. Allergic symptoms and the average eosinophil number were counted...
October 2017: Iranian Journal of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology
Kausar Jilani, Bushra Zulfiqar, Qadir Bux Memon, Muhammad Faisal Fahim
Objective: To determine the frequency and the risk factors of hepatitis C virus in pregnant women at Al-Tibri Medical College & Hospital in Gadap Town Karachi. Methods: This was a descriptive cross sectional study conducted at Obstetrics & Gynecology OPD of Al-Tibri Medical College & Hospital, Isra University Karachi Campus from 10(th) June to 10(th) September 2016. A total of 400 pregnant women of 16-45 years of age, who came in outpatient department for antenatal checkup were selected for the study...
September 2017: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
Arim Lee, Hui Xuan Lim, Myun Soo Kim, Daeho Cho, Kyung Ku Jang, Sang Ho Choi, Tae Sung Kim
Vibrio vulnificus (V. vulnificus) is a gram-negative bacterium, which causes life-threatening septicemia and gastroenteritis through the consumption of contaminated seafood or wound infection. In addition, V. vulnificus infection is known to stimulate the production of several pro-inflammatory cytokines, which are associated with inflammatory responses mediated predominantly by dendritic cells (DCs), functioning as antigen-presenting cells. The present study aimed to investigate whether V. vulnificus infection induced the maturation and activation of murine DCs, which have the ability to polarize T helper (Th) cells into Th17 cells...
November 1, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Qiangde Duan, Jiachen Huang, Nan Xiao, Hyesuk Seo, Weiping Zhang
Heat-stable toxin (STa)-producing enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains are a top cause of moderate-to-severe diarrhea in children from developing countries and a common cause of travelers' diarrhea. Recent progress in using STa toxoids and toxoid fusions to induce neutralizing anti-STa antibodies accelerates ETEC vaccine development. However, concern remains whether the derived anti-STa antibodies cross-react with STa-like guanylin and uroguanylin, two GC-C ligands regulating the fluid and electrolyte transportation in human intestinal and renal epithelial cells...
October 27, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
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