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Anti Th/To antibodies

Vahid Davoudi, Kiandokht Keyhanian, Riley M Bove, Tanuja Chitnis
Anti-aquaporin-4 (AQP4) autoantibody plays a key role in the pathogenesis of neuromyelitis optica (NMO). Studies have shown increased relapse rates in patients with NMO during pregnancy and postpartum. High estrogen levels during pregnancy can increase activation-induced cytidine deaminase expression, which is responsible for immunoglobulin production. Additionally, sex hormones may influence antibody glycosylation, with effects on antibody function. Estrogen decreases apoptosis of self-reactive B cells, through upregulation of antiapoptotic molecules...
December 2016: Neurology® Neuroimmunology & Neuroinflammation
Arash Pourgholaminejad, Nasser Aghdami, Hossein Baharvand, Seyed Mohammad Moazzeni
T-Helper 17 (TH17) cells are a CD4(+) TH subset that plays a critical role in the pathophysiology of inflammatory disorders, especially chronic forms. It seems that the derivation of TH17 cells from their precursors take place in inflammatory microenvironment. The role of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β as an anti-inflammatory cytokine in TH17 cell differentiation is controversial. To address some of the discrepancies that exist among different studies, this study was undertaken to more clarify the TGFβ role in human TH17 cell differentiation...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Immunotoxicology
Maria C Lebre, Pedro L Vieira, Man Wai Tang, Saïda Aarrass, Boy Helder, Thomas Newsom-Davis, Paul P Tak, Gavin R Screaton
Bone and cartilage destruction is one of the key manifestations of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Although the role of T helper (Th)17 cells in these processes is clear, the role of IL-21-producing cells T cells has been neglected. We sought to investigate the role of IL-21 in RA by focusing on the functional characteristics of the main producers of this cytokine, synovial CD4(+)IL-21(+) T cells. We show that the frequency of both synovial fluid (SF) CD4(+)IL-21(+) or CD4(+)IL-21(+)TNF(+) T cells in patients with RA was significantly higher compared with patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA)...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
A M Menzies, D B Johnson, S Ramanujam, V G Atkinson, A N M Wong, J J Park, J L McQuade, A N Shoushtari, K K Tsai, Z Eroglu, O Klein, J C Hassel, J A Sosman, A Guminski, R J Sullivan, A Ribas, M S Carlino, M A Davies, S K Sandhu, G V Long
BACKGROUND: Anti-PD-1 antibodies (anti-PD-1) have clinical activity in a number of malignancies. All clinical trials have excluded patients with significant preexisting autoimmune disorders (ADs), and only one has included patients with immune-related adverse events (irAEs) with ipilimumab. We sought to explore the safety and efficacy of anti-PD-1 in such patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with advanced melanoma and preexisting ADs and/or major immune-related adverse events (irAEs) with ipilimumab (requiring systemic immunosuppression) that were treated with anti-PD-1 between 1(st) July 2012 and 30(th) September 2015 were retrospectively identified...
September 29, 2016: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
María Perera, Teresa Garrido
OBJECTIVES: Classically, immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) was thought to be caused by the destruction and insufficient production of platelets, as mediated by autoantibodies. More recently other immune mechanisms that contribute to the disease have been discovered. This review attempts to address the main unresolved questions in ITP. METHODS: We review the most current knowledge of the pathophysiology of ITP. Immunological effects of available therapies are also described...
September 27, 2016: Hematology (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
Marc H V Van Regenmortel
Two types of reverse vaccinology (RV) should be distinguished: genome-based RV for bacterial vaccines and structure-based RV for viral vaccines. Structure-based RV consists in trying to generate a vaccine by first determining the crystallographic structure of a complex between a viral epitope and a neutralizing monoclonal antibody (nMab) and then reconstructing the epitope by reverse molecular engineering outside the context of the native viral protein. It is based on the unwarranted assumption that the epitope designed to fit the nMab will have acquired the immunogenic capacity to elicit a polyclonal antibody response with the same protective capacity as the nMab...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Toshiko Kamata, Akane Suzuki, Naoko Mise, Fumie Ihara, Mariko Takami, Yuji Makita, Atsushi Horinaka, Kazuaki Harada, Naoki Kunii, Shigetoshi Yoshida, Ichiro Yoshino, Toshinori Nakayama, Shinichiro Motohashi
The role of invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells in antitumor immunity has been studied extensively, and clinical trials in patients with advanced cancer have revealed a prolonged survival in some cases. In recent years, humanized blocking antibodies against co-stimulatory molecules such as PD-1 have been developed. The enhancement of T cell function is reported to improve antitumor immunity, leading to positive clinical effects. However, there are limited data on the role of PD-1/programmed death ligand (PDL) molecules in human iNKT cells...
September 15, 2016: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
Paula Abello-Cáceres, Javier Pizarro-Bauerle, Carlos Rosas, Ismael Maldonado, Lorena Aguilar-Guzmán, Carlos González, Galia Ramírez, Jorge Ferreira, Arturo Ferreira
BACKGROUND: For several decades now an antagonism between Trypanosoma cruzi infection and tumor development has been detected. The molecular basis of this phenomenon remained basically unknown until our proposal that T. cruzi Calreticulin (TcCRT), an endoplasmic reticulum-resident chaperone, translocated-externalized by the parasite, may mediate at least an important part of this effect. Thus, recombinant TcCRT (rTcCRT) has important in vivo antiangiogenic and antitumor activities. However, the relevant question whether the in vivo antitumor effect of T...
2016: BMC Cancer
Jenny Calow, Anna-Janina Behrens, Sonja Mader, Ulrike Bockau, Weston B Struwe, David J Harvey, Kai U Cormann, Marc M Nowaczyk, Karin Loser, Daniel Schinor, Marcus W W Hartmann, Max Crispin
Antibody glycosylation is a key parameter in the optimization of antibody therapeutics. Here, we describe the production of the anti-cancer monoclonal antibody rituximab in the unicellular ciliate, Tetrahymena thermophila. The resulting antibody demonstrated enhanced antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity, which we attribute to unusual N-linked glycosylation. Detailed chromatographic and mass spectrometric analysis revealed afucosylated, oligomannose-type glycans, which, as a whole, displayed isomeric structures that deviate from the typical human counterparts, but whose branches were equivalent to fragments of metabolic intermediates observed in human glycoproteins...
September 3, 2016: MAbs
Zhifu Shan, Takeshi Yamasaki, Akio Suzuki, Rie Hasebe, Motohiro Horiuchi
Prion-infected cells have been used for analyzing the effect of compounds on the formation of abnormal isoform of prion protein (PrP(Sc)). PrP(Sc) is usually detected using anti-prion protein (PrP) antibodies after the removal of the cellular isoform of prion protein (PrP(C)) by proteinase K (PK) treatment. However, it is expected that the PK-sensitive PrP(Sc) (PrP(Sc)-sen), which possesses higher infectivity and conversion activity than the PK-resistant PrP(Sc) (PrP(Sc)-res), is also digested through PK treatment...
July 3, 2016: Prion
Havva Keskin, Y Kaya, K Cadirci, C Kucur, E Ziypak, E Simsek, H Gozcu, S Arikan, A Carlioglu
OBJECTIVE: The neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), determined from peripheral blood, is accepted as an available and practical indicator of the systemic inflammation. In this study, we aimed to determine whether the NLR was higher in euthyroid chronic autoimmune thyreotidis (CAT) patients compared to a healthy control group. METHODS: A total of 112 patients were enrolled in this study, including 59 patients with euthyroid CAT on any form of therapy and 53 healthy controls...
July 2016: Endocrine Regulations
Marwa M Shakweer, Maha Behairy, Nadia G Elhefnawy, Tamer W Elsaid
BACKGROUND: Forkhead box P3 (Foxp3) functions as a master regulator in the development and function of T-regulatory (Treg) cells. Recent studies have shown that autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are associated with an imbalance with the Treg cells and T helper (Th) subtypes. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate immunohistochemical expression of Foxp3 positive Treg cells in lupus nephritis (LN) and analyze its association with clinicopathologic parameters...
July 2016: Journal of Nephropathology
Blanca Huertas, Daniel Prieto, Aida Pitarch, Concha Gil, Jesus Pla, Rosalia Diez-Orejas
Candida albicans is a commensal microorganism in the oral cavity, gastrointestinal and urogenital tracts of most individuals that acts like as an opportunistic pathogen when the host immune responses is reduced. Here, we settled down different immunocompetent murine models, to analyze the antibody responses to the C. albicans proteome during commensalism, commensalism followed by infection, and infection (C, C+I and I models, respectively). Serum anti-C. albicans IgG antibody levels were higher in colonized mice than in infected mice...
August 18, 2016: Journal of Proteome Research
H K Sharma, S K Kotwal, D K Singh, M A Malik, Arvind Kumar, Rajagunalan, M Singh
AIM: Brucellosis is a disease of zoonotic importance as it affects both human as well as animal's health, and therefore, directly affects animal productivity and human efficiency. Therefore, a study was conducted to estimate the seroprevalence of brucellosis in humans in Jammu and surrounding areas. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 121 sera samples from humans occupied with professional related to animals were collected and tested for anti-Brucella antibodies by Rose Bengal plate test (RBPT), modified RBPT (mRBPT), standard tube agglutination test (STAT), and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (I-ELISA)...
July 2016: Veterinary World
Agung Dewanto, Jozsef Dudas, Rudolf Glueckert, Sylvia Mechsner, Anneliese Schrott-Fischer, Ludwig Wildt, Beata Seeber
BACKGROUND: The roles of the neurotrophins NGF (Neurotrophic growth factor) and BDNF (brain-derived neurotrophic factor) in neuronal growth and development are already known. Meanwhile, the neurotrophin receptors TrkA (tropomyosin related kinase A), TrkB, and p75 are important for determining the fate of cells. In endometriosis, this complex system has not been fully elucidated yet. The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression and location of these neurotrophins and their receptors in peritoneal (PE) and deep infiltrating endometriotic (DIE) tissues and to measure and compare the density of nerve fibers in the disease subtypes...
2016: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
Y X Pang, X H Wu, J P Chen, H Y Qiu, Q Niu, Q L Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impairment in primary cultured rat choroid plexus epithelial cells (CPECs)induced by aluminum. METHODS: The choroid plexus isolated from Sprague-Dawley rats 14 days old was cut into pieces and digested by trypsin in the sterile area. The obtained single cells were cultured in DMEM with 1% epidermal growth factor and 20% fetal calf serum. Five days later, immunohistochemistry with anti-transthyretin antibody was used to identify the purity of cultured cells...
April 20, 2016: Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases
Anna Maria Frustaci, Alessandra Tedeschi, Paola Picardi, Maddalena Mazzucchelli, Roberto Cairoli, Marco Montillo
The management of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) has radically improved over the last few years with the addition of anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) to chemotherapy. Chlorambucil has been considered for decades as a suitable therapeutic option for frail patients. Taking into account the advantage offered by the addition of MoAbs to chemotherapy, different studies up to now have explored the feasibility of chlorambucil-based chemoimmunotherapies in treatment-naïve CLL. COMPLEMENT1 is a prospective, randomized, open-label trial evaluating the efficacy and safety of ofatumumab added to chlorambucil, compared with chlorambucil in monotherapy, in the setting of untreated patients with CLL considered unsuitable for a fludarabine-based approach...
August 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Hematology
Sarada L Nandiwada, Lisa K Peterson, Maureen D Mayes, Troy D Jaskowski, Elisabeth Malmberg, Shervin Assassi, Minoru Satoh, Anne E Tebo
OBJECTIVE: To determine the autoantibody repertoire and clinical associations in a multiethnic cohort of American patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). METHODS: There were 1000 patients with SSc (196 Hispanic, 228 African American, 555 white, and 21 other) who were screened for antinuclear antibodies (ANA), including anticentromere antibodies (ACA) by indirect immunofluorescence assay, antitopoisomerase-1 (topo-1/Scl-70) by immunodiffusion, and anti-RNA polymerase III (RNAP III) by ELISA...
October 2016: Journal of Rheumatology
A D Crockard, H D Alexander, C F Stephenson, P McCrea, Z R Desai, T C Morris, T A McNeill
The distribution of circulating CD4 lymphocyte subpopulations determined by reactivity with monoclonal antibodies anti-2H4 (CD45RA), anti-UCHL1 (CD45RO), anti-4B4 (CD29) and anti-Leu8, and analysed by dual colour immunofluorescence flow cytometry is described in a series of patients with B-CLL and in age-matched control subjects. The percentages and absolute numbers of CD4 cells reactive with anti-CD45RA, anti-CD45RO and anti-CD29 reagents were similar in the patient and control groups. In contrast, CD4+ Leu8+ cells (percentages and absolute numbers) were significantly reduced in B-CLL patients resulting in an inversion of the normal CD4+ Leu8+ :CD4+Leu8- ratio...
1990: Leukemia & Lymphoma
Mehmet Engin Tezcan, Emine Belgin Kocer, Seminur Haznedaroglu, Cemile Sonmez, Ridvan Mercan, Aysegul Atak Yucel, Ceyla Irkec, Berivan Bitik, Berna Goker
AIM: Cognitive dysfunction is a neurologic manifestation in primary Sjögren syndrome (PSS). On the other hand, several antibodies are related to cognitive dysfunction. The aim of this study is to assess the cognitive dysfunction of PSS patients via detailed neurologic tests. Moreover, its associations with antibodies were also evaluated. METHOD: Twenty-eight female patients with PSS and 17 healthy controls comprised the study groups. Short-term memory, long-term memory, verbal learning, visual memory, visual spatial perception, attention, verbal frequency function, executive functions and information processing speed were evaluated with neurologic tests in both of the study groups...
July 25, 2016: International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases
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