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Shamsher Singh, Puneet Kumar
AIM AND OBJECTIVE: 6-hydroxy dopamine (6-OHDA) is a neurotoxin which on intranigral administration produces severe nigrostriatal damage with motor and cognitive deficit in animals. Curcumin (CMN) in combination with bioenhancer piperine (PP) in 6-hydroxydopamine-induced Parkinsonian rats was used to investigate the antioxidant, neuromodulatory and neuroprotective mechanisms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Hemi-Parkinson's rat model was developed with intranigral infusion of 6-OHDA (8 μg/2 μl, once, unilaterally), treatment with CMN (25 and 50 mg/kg) and combination of PP (2...
November 16, 2016: Inflammopharmacology
Takaya Kitano, Makoto Kinoshita, Kohki Shimazu, Hiroaki Fushimi, Kenichi Omori, Takanori Hazama
A 87-year-old female presented with subacute progression of cognitive decline. Fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images of brain MRI showed multifocal high-intensity lesions. Thoracic CT image revealed the presence of thymoma, and serum autoantibody screening showed positivity for anti-gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA)A receptor antibody. Histopathological analysis confirmed type B3 thymoma after thymectomy. The patient received both plasmapheresis and intravenous methylprednisolone therapy, and showed remarkable amelioration of clinical symptoms and MRI abnormal high intensity...
November 29, 2016: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
Seok Roh Yoon, Cho Ara, Zhou Zixiong, Jeong Hyuneui, Park Jeong-Eun, Cha Youn-Soo, Oh Suk-Heung, Lim Chae-Woong, Kim Bumseok
Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is one of the most common liver diseases and a major cause of liver fibrosis worldwide. G-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is one of the most abundant inhibitory neurotransmitters in the central nervous system. Recently, it has been reported that GABAergic signaling pathways are found in various non-neuronal tissues including the immune system and play a functional role. In the present study, we investigated whether administration of GABA has effects on NASH through its immunomodulatory effects...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Research
Baba Shankar Rao Garige, Srisailam Keshetti, Uma Maheshwara Rao Vattikuti
BACKGROUND: Galphimia glauca is an evergreen shrub found across peninsular India, belonging to family Malpighiaceae. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess the in vivo depressant effects and muscle coordination activity of G. glauca stem methanol extract (GGSME). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The stem methanol extract was administered in Swiss albino mice in 1 day to study the central nervous system (CNS) depressant and muscle coordination activity employing animal models such as sodium pentobarbital-induced sleep test, hole-board test, open field test, pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced convulsions, picrotoxin-induced convulsions, grip strengthening test in mice, and Rota-rod test...
October 2016: Pharmacognosy Research
Bon Sebastian, Anand Tippanna Talikoti, Kiran Nelamangala, Dinesh Krishnamurthy
INTRODUCTION: Conquering postoperative pain which has significant impact on the surgery outcome can be challenging for the clinicians. Pregabalin is a GABA analogue used for various neuropathic pain syndromes. Very few studies are there with the use of pregabalin as a preemptive analgesic for orthopedic surgeries. AIM: To compare pregabalin 150 mg with placebo for postoperative pain control in patients undergoing elective lower limb orthopedic surgeries under spinal anaesthesia and to assess any side effects...
July 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
K Pokusaeva, C Johnson, B Luk, G Uribe, Y Fu, N Oezguen, R K Matsunami, M Lugo, A Major, Y Mori-Akiyama, E B Hollister, S M Dann, X Z Shi, D A Engler, T Savidge, J Versalovic
BACKGROUND: Recurrent abdominal pain is a common and costly health-care problem attributed, in part, to visceral hypersensitivity. Increasing evidence suggests that gut bacteria contribute to abdominal pain perception by modulating the microbiome-gut-brain axis. However, specific microbial signals remain poorly defined. γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a principal inhibitory neurotransmitter and a key regulator of abdominal and central pain perception from peripheral afferent neurons. Although gut bacteria are reported to produce GABA, it is not known whether the microbial-derived neurotransmitter modulates abdominal pain...
July 25, 2016: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
Hong-Li Gao, Xiao-Jing Yu, Jie Qi, Qiu-Yue Yi, Wang-Hui Jing, Wen-Yan Sun, Wei Cui, Jian-Jun Mu, Zu-Yi Yuan, Xiu-Fang Zhao, Kai-Li Liu, Guo-Qing Zhu, Xiao-Lian Shi, Jin-Jun Liu, Yu-Ming Kang
High salt intake leads to an increase in some proinflammatory cytokines and neurotransmitters involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension. The purpose of this work was to know if oral administration of anti-oxidant and free-radical scavenger CoQ10 may attenuate high salt-induced hypertension via regulating neurotransmitters and cytokines in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN). Adult male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were fed with a normal salt diet (NS, 0.3% NaCl) or a high salt diet (HS, 8% NaCl) for 15 weeks to induce hypertension...
2016: Scientific Reports
Maya Sakashita, Utano Nakamura, Isafumi Maru, Seiyu Harada, Jeong Won Kim, Noriko Horie, Mujo Kim, Yasuhiro Yokoyama, Satoshi Fujita
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Hideki Katow, Tomoko Katow, Hiromi Yoshida, Masato Kiyomoto, Isao Uemura
BACKGROUND: The swimming activity of sea urchin larvae is dependent on the ciliary band (CB) on the larval surface and is regulated by several neurotransmitters, including serotonin (5HT), dopamine, and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). However, the CB signal transmission mechanism remains unknown. The present study investigated the structural relationship between the CB and external signal receptors by immunohistochemical and transmission electron microscopic analyses of sea urchin, Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus, larvae...
2016: Frontiers in Zoology
Ana Flávia Seraine Custódio Viana, Francilene Vieira da Silva, Hélio de Barros Fernandes, Irisdalva Sousa Oliveira, Milena Aguiar Braga, Paulo Iury Gomes Nunes, Daniel de Araújo Viana, Damião Pergentino de Sousa, Vietla Satyanarayana Rao, Rita de Cássia Meneses Oliveira, Flávia Almeida Santos
OBJECTIVES: (-)-Myrtenol is a natural fragrance monoterpenoid structurally related to α-pinene found in diverse plant essential oils. This study was aimed to assess the anti-ulcerogenic potential of (-)-myrtenol against ethanol-induced gastric lesions and to elucidate the underlying mechanism(s). METHODS: Gastroprotective activity of (-)-myrtenol was evaluated using the mouse model of ethanol-induced gastric damage. To elucidate the gastroprotective mechanism(s), the roles of GABA, prostaglandins, nitric oxide and KATP channels were assessed...
August 2016: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
Hans C Lou, Astrid Rosenstand, David J Brooks, Dirk Bender, Steen Jakobsen, Jakob U Blicher, Kim V Hansen, Arne Møller
BACKGROUND: While it has recently been shown that dopamine release stimulates conscious self-monitoring through the generation of gamma oscillations in medial prefrontal/anterior cingulate cortex, and that the GABAergic system is effective in producing such oscillations, interaction of the two transmitter systems has not been demonstrated in humans. We here hypothesize that dopamine challenge stimulates the GABA system directly in the medial prefrontal/anterior cingulate region in the human brain...
July 2016: Brain and Behavior
Jing Ma, Yan Zhang, Jun Wang, Tianyu Zhao, Ping Ji, Jinlin Song, Hongmei Zhang, Wenping Luo
Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the adult mammalian central nervous system, has been reported to play an important physiological role in peripheral non-neuronal tissues, such as tumors. However, whether deregulated GABA is associated with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is currently unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of GABA on the proliferation of the OSCC cell line, Tca8113. Immunohistochemical analyses were performed to examine the expression of GABA A type receptor pi subunit (GABRP) in human OSCC tissues, and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, immunofluorescence staining and western blot analysis were performed to examine the expression of GABRP in Tca8113 cells...
July 2016: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Laura Blancquaert, Shahid P Baba, Sebastian Kwiatkowski, Jan Stautemas, Sanne Stegen, Silvia Barbaresi, Weiliang Chung, Adjoa A Boakye, J David Hoetker, Aruni Bhatnagar, Joris Delanghe, Bert Vanheel, Maria Veiga-da-Cunha, Wim Derave, Inge Everaert
KEY POINTS: Using recombinant DNA technology, the present study provides the first strong and direct evidence indicating that β-alanine is an efficient substrate for the mammalian transaminating enzymes 4-aminobutyrate-2-oxoglutarate transaminase and alanine-glyoxylate transaminase. The concentration of carnosine and anserine in murine skeletal and heart muscle depends on circulating availability of β-alanine, which is in turn controlled by degradation of β-alanine in liver and kidney...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Physiology
Kumiko Nakamura, Kohei Murao, Michiyo Kimoto-Shirakawa, Kazuyo Takahira, Farah Toorabally, Koh Shingu
The stiff-person syndrome (SPS) is a rare autoimmune neurologic disorder that affects the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) mediated inhibitory network in the central nervous system with anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) antibodies. SPS is characterized by muscle rigidity and painful episodic spasms in axial and lower limb muscles. This case report describes successful peri-operative management of a 61-year-old female (height, 158 cm; weight, 60 kg, ASA-PS 2) with her right upper arm fracture who was scheduled for open reduction and internal fixation...
February 2016: Masui. the Japanese Journal of Anesthesiology
Jambur Ananth, Kamala Aduri, Sharath Parameswaran, Sarath Gunatilake
Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) is associated with the administration of antipsychotic agents and other drugs such as l-dopa, antidepressants, and antihistaminic agents. Unexpected changes in mental status, new-onset catatonia, episodic tachycardia, tachypnea, hypertension, dysarthria, dysphagia, diaphoresis, sialorrhea, incontinence, low-grade temperature elevations, and rigidity should arouse suspicion. Several lines of evidence provide support for the involvement of dopamine. Most of the drugs implicated in NMS are D2 dopamine receptor antagonists...
August 2004: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
Tom L McTier, Nathan Chubb, Michael P Curtis, Laura Hedges, Gregory A Inskeep, Christopher S Knauer, Sanjay Menon, Brian Mills, Aleah Pullins, Erich Zinser, Debra J Woods, Patrick Meeus
The novel isoxazoline ectoparasiticide, sarolaner, was identified during a lead optimization program for an orally-active compound with efficacy against fleas and ticks on dogs. The aim of the discovery program was to identify a novel isoxazoline specifically for use in companion animals, beginning with de novo synthesis in the Zoetis research laboratories. The sarolaner molecule has unique structural features important for its potency and pharmacokinetic (PK) properties, including spiroazetidine and sulfone moieties...
May 30, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
Shikha Kumari, Chandra Bhushan Mishra, Manisha Tiwari
BACKGROUND: Earlier, we have identified a number of piperazine derivatives having good anticonvulsant activity in vivo and as a part of our ongoing search for potent anticonvulsant agent, we herein describes the synthesis of an aryl piperazine derivative "1-[4-(4-benzo[1,3]dioxol-5-ylmethyl-piperazin-1-yl)-phenyl]-3-phenyl-urea" (BPPU). The anticonvulsant and antidepressant activity of BPPU was checked in various in vivo models. METHODS: Anticonvulsant activity was assessed in maximal electroshock test (MES) and subcutaneous pentylenetetrazole (scPTZ) induced seizure tests...
April 2016: Pharmacological Reports: PR
Luciano Ribeiro Pinto Jr, Lia Rita Azeredo Bittencourt, Erika Cristine Treptow, Luciano Rotella Braga, Sergio Tufik
OBJECTIVE: To determine the therapeutic effects of two selective GABA-A agonists, zopiclone and eszopiclone, in the treatment of insomnia. METHODS: This study comprised a phase III, single-center, randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, parallel-group, non-inferiority trial. Patients were randomized to receive zopiclone 7.5 mg or eszopiclone 3 mg, both orally, for four weeks. In total, 199 patients were evaluated during two visits and then followed for at least six weeks...
January 2016: Clinics
Sharanbasappa Durg, Veeresh P Veerapur, B S Thippeswamy, Syed Mansoor Ahamed
BACKGROUND: Śilājatu (Shilajit; SJ) is claimed in traditional Indian medical practice to be useful in the treatment of nervous disorders, epilepsy and as antistress. AIM: To investigate whether SJ possesses antiepileptic and antipsychotic activities in rodents. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Isonicotinyl hydrazine (INH), pentylenetetrazole (PTZ), apomorphine, phenytoin, diazepam, haloperidol and other chemicals of analytical grade were procured from standard companies...
October 2015: Ancient Science of Life
Hadiza Altine Adamu, Mustapha Umar Imam, Der-Jiun Ooi, Norhaizan Mohd Esa, Rozita Rosli, Maznah Ismail
BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests perinatal environments influence the risk of developing insulin resistance. OBJECTIVE: The present study was aimed at determining the effects of intrauterine exposure to germinated brown rice (GBR) and GBR-derived gamma (γ) aminobutyric acid (GABA) extract on epigenetically mediated high fat diet-induced insulin resistance. DESIGN: Pregnant Sprague Dawley rats were fed high-fat diet (HFD), HFD+GBR, or HFD+GABA throughout pregnancy until 4 weeks postdelivery...
2016: Food & Nutrition Research
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